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US1638485A US1638485DA US1638485A US 1638485 A US1638485 A US 1638485A US 1638485D A US1638485D A US 1638485DA US 1638485 A US1638485 A US 1638485A
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    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard


Aug. 9 1927. 1,638,485
A. P. GUSTAFSON PNsum VALVE CONTROLLING MECH su FOR L INSTRUMENTS AND THE E Filed May 29. 1925 MU A llnv for. AdQLphP. ustofson byMWRW Attys.
Patented Aug. 9, 1927.
This invention relates to improvements in pneumatic valve controlling mechanisms for musical instruments and the like and the principal object thereof is to provide a simplified, more durable and more sensitive mechanism for controlling the pneumatic which actuates the music-producingmechanism.
More specifically the invention relates to a novel valve-actuating pouch for use in pneumatic controlling mechanisms for musical instruments and the like.
In usual types of pneumatically operated controlling devices for musical instruments, such as piano players and organ players and various other devices, pneumatics, usually in the form of bellows, are employed to actuate the pickers which in turnactuate the n'iusic-producing mechanism. The a'ctuation of the pneumatics or bellows is pro} duced by changing the air pressure within the pneumatics' and this: is controlled by ;a valve or valves which act alternately to admit air to the bellows or to subject the bellows tothe action of a partial vacuum. These valves are ordinarily arranged in valve chambers, one of the walls of which is in the form of a socalled pouch fboard having a series of countersinks over 'whic'h a diaphragm of flexible material, fusu all'y sheepskin, is loosely-stretched; The' v'alv e stem rests either directlyQor,indirectlyfupbn this diaphragm and the .valve,is. actuated by the admission of air. to the countersink beneath the diaphragm through -'s ui"t able ducts which are connected byfie'xibltribes with ports in a tracker-barover which; a tightly drawn perforated sheet is moved;.-'
Various dcfectshave been found in the valve-actuating mechanism of; this type. The countersinks in usual.pouclr-bo'ardsfare arranged in rows orin staggered rela tion and are in close proxirhitylto each other, the distance between the adjacentje dges. ofthese countersinks being, approxirnately threesixteenths of an inch atthe nearest point. The natural porosity of the wood frequently permits leakage from: one countersink to another as the chambers of thesevcountersinks are usually subjected to partial vacuum This, of course, interferes with the proper operation of the controlling means. The peripheries of the diapliragms are either secured to the flatface of the tracker-bar or in very narrow. countersinks Application filed May 29, 1925." Serial No. 33,643.
about the edges thereof and in either instance are likely to become detached in one or more places by reason of absorption of moisture and by virtue of the shrinking'and expansion of the wood of the pouch board. The diaphragms themselves, which are usually made of sheepskin, are subject to expansion and contraction with variations in moisture of the atmosphere and when applied. most carefully are likely to contract or expand greater in one direction than another. Consequently their action upon the valve stems isuneven and in many instances are at an angle to the axis, thus necessitating a flexible joint between the valve stem and valve in order; to insure "proper seating bf the valve. i
Themanufacture of pouch boards requires expensive machinery and accurate work- 'inanship and the securing 0f the diaphragms ,to' ,the @pou smears; necessitates highly skilledlabor1" One of the objects' of the present inven tion isito' provide avalve-actuating pouch which will avoidall .of these obJections. This is accomplished' by providing a valveaQtuating'pgfuch whichfis self-containing and which l-when defiated issiibstantially fiat and which when inflated will alw'ays'act indirect al'inement with the axis of the valve, which can be readily manufactured and'which can be easilyassembled upon the'pouchboard without specially} skilled labor. By. reason of the p'resentfinyehtionthe valve-actuating pouches can be applied directly to a pouch board presenting a fiat face thus avoiding-the neeessityg'of countersinkin'g and also enabling the' use of thinner pouch boards than heretofore constructed because of the elimination of the thickness required for the countersinks and' for the ductslead fing to such countersinks. w
A further object of the invention is to provide a valve-actuating pouch. which will have a greater range of movement than the diaphragms of usual pouch boards, thus ini creasing the sensitiveness and activity of 'the pneumatic con-trolling mechanism.
Afurtlier object of the invention is to provide a valve-actuating pouch which will act with absolute uniformity and which will not be subject to variations by reason of change in atmospheric conditions.
A further and. important object of the invention is to provide a valve-actuating pouch which will not. become loosened or displaced and this is accomplished by providing a pouch of the character above referred to in which the opposite walls of the pouch exertequal and opposite pressures upon the valve stem and asuitable almtment,'such as the pouch hoard itself. Other objects and features otthe invention will more fully appear from the following dcscriptkin and the accompanyin drawing and will be particularly pointe out in the claims. Y
A preferred embodiment of the invention is ilhustratezl i.n the accompanying drawing applied to the valve controlling mechanism for musical instruments, such as piano players or organ players, but it will henndierstood that the invention may be-incorporatedin other controlli mechanisms to which applicable wit 1111 the scope of the claims. v v
drawing: V 'Fig., l .a ItiC:1l5ECt-lOna1.ViBW through thepneumatie controllingmeehanism of a piano player or organ player fiiowing the conduit which leads to the tracker-bar brokenzawvay; w
Fig. 2,is.a -vertical 'onal view through a novel .form of pouch 021111 with the valveaetn at-ingopouehes mounted thereupon, hvo of such pouches being illustrated in. deflated and one ininflated positions; j'. Fig. 3915 an enlarged detail vie v, mainly in vertical section, on line 3%3 Fig. 1, showin,g a valve, formed-of two 'sheets'of material nuited'at their peripheraledges; c his a similarjiegvshowinga valve pooch t-he ji alls ofivvhichfl ar'e integral; 7 5 ish verticalfsectionalqieyv similar to F1g. -1.o f a usual typgoi pnerunatic colitrolling .device:,-and, Q;
Fig. 6 is afvertical sectional view of the usuali forms of pouch board and illustrating .the manner in \vhichfthe pouches are secured thereto 4 l The pneumatic controlling mechanism for musical instruments illustrated in Figs. 1 to it ineluve comprises a pneumatic or bel lows 1 which is connected by ajsuitable link 2 to the picker mechanism yhiehl actnates the playing mechani5m of .a piano or organ. The action of the pneumatic or bellows .1 is produced by the exhaustion and admission of air to the pneumatic or bellows through a conduit :3 Whiehlcads from the chamber of the pneumatic toa horizontal conduit 4 which has in its upper Wall a port 5 leading to the atmosphere and in its lower wall a port 6 leading to an exhaust chamber 7 which: is maintained in a state ofpartial vacuum by the l usual mechanism (not shown). The ports 5 and 6 in the construction illustrated are controlled by a disk valve 8 which has a stem .9, preferably cruciform in cross section, rigidly secured to it.
The opposite end of the valve stem may engage directly or indirectly a wall of the valve pouch 10. The opposite wall of the raive pouch 1O rests upon and tieirably is fixedly secured to the pouch hoard 1. v and is provided with a central port which communicates with a duct 19. which communicates with a flexible conduit. 1 leading to the tracker-bar 14 and cmmnunicaling with a port- 15 therein. The perforated music sheet. is stretched acrossthe face lti ot the trawl-zerbar and the 'body of the sheet normally seals the port 1 5. JVhen, however, the perforations in the music Sher-f register with the port 15 air is admitted and passes through the conduit 13, thence through the duct 12 in the pouch board and through the port of the valve pouch into the retro pouch. As the valve pouch located in the exhaustfc-hamber the admission of air into the valve pouch SQCVQS to inflate the 221e, thereby raising the valve stem and valve, opening thep'ort 6 and closing the opposite port? of the conduit 4 Which leads to the prieuniatic; The exhaustf'chamber is thereby connected direetlyfthrough the port 6 andcouduits at and '3 with the pneumatic and the pneumatic quickly caused to collapse by reason of the exhapstion of from its chamber :ind the atmospheric pressure upon theouter' wall of the pneumatic, 'lhis causes the slink), to actuat'e" picker mechanism vhich controls the production o'frtliefinusic either by the str'ilnng of a. note for by the actuation of mechanism jwhich'fcontiols the character or gluiali ty ofthe predated; \Vhe'n. the perforations of}; I 'jnus ic sheet; pass beyond the port'.1 5 the 'eiitrance of air into the conduit I3gis pi'e v'entd and rim-eaves per- Knitted to deflate. deflation "per- :mitted and accelera-tedfby' a -bleeder port 1'? ivhich leads from 'tl'ieexhziust chainber to the duct 13, the air in the ductbeing drawn ffhifougjlrthe' poi't lTtherehy producing a partial vacuum intl'ie duct and the "conduit 13 which 'leads'to the tracker-bar. I
The duct 17' desirably, 'is of small diameter s ut fieient 'hotvever to ermit a rapid out nottoo abrupt a de ation of the valve pouch. The partial exhaustionof the air from thediict 12 and conduit 13 also produces asuotion' action through the port .5 which aids in retaining them usic sheet in contact withthe tracker-bar.
' The resent invention comprise n vel form of inflatable valve-actuating pouch having oppositely disposed flexible wall sections with a freely movable. periphery, the wall sections .upon inflation of the pouch heing'adapted to exert oppositel directed forces upon the valve andthe a cement and also comprisesvarions simplifi-i tirzr" of the pneumatic controlling apparatus Wilwl mar he made by reason of the cmployn'ient of this united at their edges or periphery.
novel valveactuating pouch. Numerous ad vantages are also attained by the use of the novel valve pouch forming part of the invention as will hereinafter more fully appear. I
The valve-actuating pouch ofthe present invention comprises oppositely disposed walls 18 and 19 sections of which, preferably the central sections, act respectively upon the valve stem 9 and upon a suitable abutment such as the pouch board 11. The walls of the pouch desirably comprise two sheets of suitable flexible material. which preferably are of circular form and are However, the valve pouch may be made of a single sheet of flexible material constructed or formed in any suitable manner. The valveactuating pouch desirably is made of finely woven fabric imperviously I coated or impreguated with rubber or a rubber composition and the peripheral edge portions of the sheets desirably are vulcanized together. Other suitable materials, however," may be used. such as rubber. Zephyr-skin, gut, or
any other suitableflexible and "impervious material. j
A. valve-actuating pouch comprising two sheets of material as above described is illustrated in Fig." 2, "whi'le" a valve-actuating pouch formed in a singleintegral' piece is illustrated in Fig. 4 partially'in section. The valve pouch thus constructed, whether formed in juxtaposed sheets or integrally, when deflated is substantially'flatas illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2,"a'nd when 'infia-ted is of oblate form substantially a s-illustrated in the central portion of Fig. 2.
In the use of the fval ve'fpou'ch'the lower wall 19, which is provided with a central port 20, may bearrangedto rest'iipon or may be connected directly to the tracker bar 11 so that the'port 2O will'communic ate with the duct 12inthe,'pouch"'boardwhich leads to the conduit communicatingwith the tracker-bar. Desirably lioweve'rifa base21 of relatively rigid materiahand preferably oi narrow annular fornris'secured to the wall 19 of.thevalveactuating pouch and surrounds the port 20. This base desirably is. glued or cc1nented"fir mly to the pouch board. The opposite wall 18 of the pouch may engage the end of the'valve stem 9. but desirably a plate 22 preferably of relatively rigid material, such as fibre board, is inter posed between the wall 18 of the valve pouch and the end of the valve stern. This plate may be secured either to tl'ie valve pouch or the valve stem, but preferably is secured to the. wall 18 of the valve pouch.
In order more fully to disclose the differences in construction between the usual pneumatic controlling mechanisms for valves and the novel mechanism forming the subject matter of the invention av usual form of pneumatic controlling mechanism for musical instruments is illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6. In the construction illustrated in these figures the pneumatic 23, the conduit 24 with the port 25" establishing commun cation with the atmosphere; and'the port 26 communicating with the exhaust chamber 27, may be andare the same as those illustrated in Fig. 1. The valve 28, which'controls the valve ports 25 and 26, however, has a downwardly extending boss 29 which projects into the port 26 and is recessed to provide a pivotal connection with the upperv end of the valve stem 30, the lower end ofwhich rests upon a diaphragm 31 which is secured at its edges around the periphery of a countersink 32 in the upper face of the pouch board 33. The recesses 32 of the pouch board in usual constructions are of cylindrical form and the walls 34 intermediate of adja-cent 'recesses are frequently no more than from threethirty-seconds to one fourthr-inch xin .tlnckness. v i r:
The grain -=of the. -wood oftentimes is of such porosity as to permit more or lessleak: age of air from on'eicoun'tersink to the-next when the I adjacent countersinks are 1 subjected to difl'erent degrees of: air pressure. or vacuum. This, of course; results in: :im-
proper actuationi'ofis'the vaLvsm-ln ordento overcomethis 'porosityrthenface. of the Walve pouchboard is filled-rwithwshellaclor other suitablematerialzflvhiclr is expensive .b'othfin time and workmanship and: does :not. always fully obviate the leakage. w "The production-of the countensi ks in. the face of the pouch board; requiresi-theuseot expensivefi andimaccurate machinery, and skilled 1abor.'- o 'llheseaeln'ectit' nsv are avoided in the present-invention'as thezpouch-.bcard does not htl ver-tolbfhcollntelfillnk!9I1z$P6Clally treateda". f' we'i" Min Thediaphragms; *31iin -ushalmonst-ruetions are ordinarilyoi she'epskim and' zoi course,
vary ::inwthibkness'v in' accordance 3wit h.-,the 3 .1
portion of the hide from which-they -are cut. When these .diaphragms are assembled. upon the pouch'boards they are: pressed-J down-sin their centers and then cemented around the edges. is required promptly to secure. .the-
diaphragms intheir; places -and'tllie diaphragms. by reason Iof' their-:unevemthiekness inaccuracy of application,:willnot bend with uniformity When' airf'is introduced beneath H them so that their actiojnifupon the-qvalve stem is notdirectly in -tlie=line of thef axis of the valve stem, thu's requiring t-he flexible connection o'fthe valve stein, itolthe valve Careful work of a skilled workman I 7 above mentioned. x-Furthermore theinaccu- F center by reason by varying-atmospheric conditions-such as variations in humidity, and their action is also modiIiedby-the expansion and contraction of the wood due to shrinkage and warping caused by atmospheric and other conditions All of these objections are avoided in the present invention as-the flexible walls of the diaphragm can be made with absolute uniformityand by reason of the fact that one-of .said walls "nests upon or is secured to the base centrally and has free peripheral edges and since the opposite wall engages in its center the valve stem the =forces applied arealwaysfdirectly in .al-i-ncment with the axis of the valve stem; No flexible connection between the valve stem and :valve is, therefore; required.- '2 --.T:
In usual constructions such as that illustrated in-.-'Fig. .5 the'fpouch board must be of suificient'thickn'ess vto-qirovide a countersink of :suflicient Idepthto permit the :maximum movement of the -valve stemrequia cd promptly to operate the valve. In the construction: fembddying the present invention the countersinks are unnecessary/thus permitting the use of a thinner p'ouc'h lboard and -entinely olbviating the necessity of emp lo 'n ecia niachi tonpnoduc-in the The vil fied-actuating .poiiches made in accordance with'rthe present invention have a greater range of movement and much greater sensitivene'ss, this-"being permitted by the free movement of the edges of the valve pouch and because of the provision of two flexible Walls instead of'one.
-By reasonof the present invention the valve pouch can be made of materials which are unaffected by the action-of the atmosphere and absolute accuracy otcperat-ion' is thereby'insured. The valve pouches of the present invention can be more easily installed and more readily replaced when necessary than valve pouches of the old construction and improper operation and required replacement isrelatively rare. Inasmuch as the valve pouch is the heart of the action of the pneumatic controlling mechanism the greater sensitiveness and activity afforded by the present invention is very advantagenus. The present invention also permits the employment of disks of feltor fibre between the end of the valve stem and the wall of the valve pouch and thereby increases he life of the pouch. The material of which the valve pouch is constructed nlay be of much more durable substance than has heretofore been employed and the life of the pneumatic action consequently increased. The present invention permits the construction of pneumatic controlling mechanism which will occupy much smaller space than heretofore which in many instances is of great advantage in the construction and in the range of the instrument.
These and various other advantages of the present invention will be apparentto those skilled in the :art. The invention permits not only a large saving in expense of construction as heretofore pointed out, but also permits a largesaving in cost of materials as the cost of such materials as fine fabric coated or impregnated with rubber or rubber-composition is greatly less than the cost of leather such as sheep skins which must be of such very high quality that only onehalf of the soft skin of :1 hide can be employed and the overhead required to carry a suitable amount of material thereby reduced.
It, will be understood that the embodiment of the-invention disclosed herein is of an illustrative character and that various changes in form, material, and construction of, parts maybe made within the spirit and scope of the claims. It will also be obvious that the invention may be applied to other uses-than those specifically mentioned-herein within -the meaning and scope of the following claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new, and desired to be secured by Letters Patent, is:
a 1. An inflatable valve-actuating pouch comprising two juxtaposed substantially flat sheets of flexible rubberized material, peripherally united. a base of relatively small area secured to the central portion of one of said sheets permitting flexure of substantially the full areas-of said sheets anda port in said baseand sheet for admitting air into said pouch.
2 An inflatable valve actuatimc pouch comprising two juxtaposed substantially flat sheets of rubberized fine fabric vulcanized top-ether adjacent'theirperiphery and means tor admitting air to said pouch.
3 An inflatable valve-actuating pouch comprising two juxtaposed substantially flatshects of rubberized fine fabric vulcanized together adjacent their periphery, a base of much smaller area than said sheets Secured to the central portion of one of said sheets permitting flcxure of substantially the full areas of said sheets and a port in said base and sheet for admitting air to said pouch.
4. A pneumatic controlling mechanism for nms cril instruments comprising a pneumatic a valve chamber communicating therewith, a pouch board forming the wall of said valve chamber and havins: a duct,-a valve controllingthe flow of air into and out of said pneumatic, an inflatable valve-actuating pouch comprising two juxtaposed substantially flat sheets of rubberized fine fabric vulcanized toficther adjacent their periphery, one of said sheets having a central port communii-at ng with said duct and means for controlling the admission of .air to said duct and means securing said sheet to said pouch Fll board around said port and only in close proximity thereto.
5. A pneumatic controlling mechanism for musical instruments comprising a pneumatic, a valve chamber communicating therewith, a pouch board forming the wall of said valve chamber and having a duct, a valve controlling the flow of air into and out of said pneumatic, an inflatable valve-actuating pouch comprising two juxtaposed substantially fiat sheets of rubberized fine fabric vulcanized together adjacent their periphcry, a circular base of small area secured to the central portion of one of said sheets and to said pouch board whereby the. attached sheet will be freely flexible throughoutsubstantially its entire area, said sheet and base having aligned central ports communicating with said duct and means for controlling the admission of air to said duct.
6. A pneumatic controlling mechanism for i musical instrumentscomprising a pneumat ic, a valve-chamber and pouch board therebeneath presenting a flat surface forming the lower wall of said valve-chamber and having a duct therein leading to said valvechamber, a conduit communicating with said pneumatic having aligned ports communicating respectively with the atmosphere and said valve-chamber, a valve having means to control both of said ports and normally tending by the influence of gravity to close the port to said valve-chamber, an inflatable valve-actuating pouch formed of juxtaposed fiat sheets of rubberized fine fabric vulcanized together adjacent their peripheries located below said valve, the lower of said sheets resting upon said pouch board and having a central port communicating with said duct whereby admission of air through said duct in conjunctionwith a partial vacuum maintained in said valve chambervwill raise the valve against the action of gravity to close the port in the-conduit leading to the atmosphere, simultaneously opening the port leading to the pneumatic to actuate the latter. a s v v In testimony whereof, I have signed my "name, to this specification.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2824477A (en) * 1953-05-14 1958-02-25 Tolbert F Cheek Power pneumatic
US2943525A (en) * 1956-03-07 1960-07-05 Hardman Peck & Co Pneumatic action for player pianos

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2824477A (en) * 1953-05-14 1958-02-25 Tolbert F Cheek Power pneumatic
US2943525A (en) * 1956-03-07 1960-07-05 Hardman Peck & Co Pneumatic action for player pianos

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