US1631787A - Building-wall construction - Google Patents

Building-wall construction Download PDF

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US1631787A
US1631787A US136742A US13674226A US1631787A US 1631787 A US1631787 A US 1631787A US 136742 A US136742 A US 136742A US 13674226 A US13674226 A US 13674226A US 1631787 A US1631787 A US 1631787A
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slabs
studs
reinforcement
spacers
secured
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George L Bennett
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George L Bennett
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ

Description

Patented June 7, 1927.
narran srATss GEORGE L. BENNETT, OF CLEVELAND HEIGHTS, OHIO.
BUILDING-WALL oonsrnncrioiv.
Application filed. September My invention relates to a building Wall construction, and more. particularly to one which, by reason of the construction and relation of different parts entering` thereinto, is especiallyadapted for light Work.
Vfhile a reductionin the 'labor' cost of Wall constructions is an important desideratuin and is one object of the invention, I have provided a Wall construction possessing great rigidity throughout, Which Will have highly desirable Weather and lireproof properties.
kA Wall construction embodying my invention is substantially solid and is not subject to deterioration as a result of varying temperatures or Weather conditions or from shrinkage of the material entreing into the construction with a lapse of time.
Vilhile l employ metal stndding and other metal parts, such are so protected as to be immune to deterioration from moisture seep- 'ing through, or exuding from stucco or plaster composition forming the vouter or weather face of the wall. rllhe body of the wall construction is formed mainly of material in slab form having heat insulating and Waterproof properties, which not only all'ords protection for metallic portions of the Wall, as above referred to, but Which is an important factor-in maintaining the desired temperature conditions i Within 'a buildingthrough the avoidance of excessive heat conduction. through the Wall in either direction. rlhe body of the Wall in addi- 'tion to having theV heat insulating, lire, and
Waterproof properties above refcrred'to, affords a rigid backing permitting an effective Working of the stucco forming theouter surface or the plaster forming the inner surface of the Wall, 'When applying such materials thereto. The contour of the slabs forming this body, and the manner of connecting them to the studding isfsuch as to not only permit the'mounting of theslabs With the expenditure of little lab-or, but to permit the use of reinforcing meshing for the stucco or plaster' lWalls so seciired to the sthdding as to provide 'an adeqiiate support for the material of the facingsand make the likelihood of the separation of tliese facings from vthe Wall body negligible.`
ln a Wall constructiony embodying niv invention, there'are substantially no crache or 21, 1926. Serial No. 136,742.
crevices for the secreting of dust, dirt or vermin, thus affording a highly sanitary W ll construction in addition to thevarious other properties referred to. 'i
.Alinished Wall Construction embodying my invention is characterized by the presence of continuous stucco or plaster surfaces npon' the opposite sides thereof, all'metal portions entering'into the construction being concealed by the body and facings of the Walh y VStandard 'channel studding may be used in assembling vof the Wall construction', the slabs forming the body of the Wall being Vso shaped as to co-operate therewith, means being yprovided to prevent any` material movement of these slabsv in relation toA the studding. The Avarious metallic portions of the structure may be readily assembled in the 'shop to simplify and cheapen the cost of erection of the Wall. l
The invention consists primarily Vin a building Wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially nonfinla'mmable, lnon-absorbent, pre-,formed slabs mounted between and secured infr-elation toadjacent studs, metal reinforcement atV one side of said slabs, means s'ecuredto said studs supporting said metal reinforceinentfand spacing itV from saidl studs 'and said slabs, a ystucco facing upon saidy slabs and about said reinforcement, a ymetal reinforcement at the otherface of said'slabs,
means secured to said' 'studs'supporting said reinforcement and spacing it from said studs` and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon sai-d slabs and about vsaidflast named reinforcement; andvin such [other novel vfeatures ofv construction and combination vof parts, as are hereinafter set forth and described kand more particularly pointed out inthe claims hereto appende Referring to the'drawings,
Fig".V l is a'view of a fragmentary section ofa Wall constructiony embodying my invention brokenr upon'fdiifeie'nt vertical planes to` disclosev the constructiony thereof;
2 is va section on 'the 'line' 2-2 of 1; i Fig. 3 is a fragmentary portion of reinforcement and ay fastener` and spacer used lWitha thick surfacing Vsuch as stucco;
' Figi-eis a similar viewof reinforcement and a spacer and fastener used with a thin surfacingl such as plaster; and
Fig. 5 is a plan view of Fie. 4;.
Like letters refer to like parts throughout the several views.
ln a wall construction embodying the invention, I use metal studding a, preferably using, for econoi'nys sake, channelled metal. The channels of the different studs are all presented .in the same direction, thus facilitating the mounting` of the slabs forming the body of the wall in relation to these studs and to each other.
rlhe studs a may be of any desired weight or material, but preferably are of formed, sheet metal stock.
Vldounted between adjacent studs are previously formed slabs composed mainly of a hardened plastic composition containing or compose-d of materials having low heat conductivity. This material is also non-inflammable and non-absorbent or nearly so, so as to embody in the body of the wall, niaterial which will not only check the transmission of heat to yor from a building, but which will, in large measure, prot-ect the metal of the studding from moisture which has a deteriorating effect thereupon. 4
One face of each slab h is rabbeted at opposite ends thereof, at c and d, not only to facilitate the fitting of one end of the slab, that adjacent the rabbet c, within the channel of a stud a, but to offset one face of the slab in relation to the studding and afford clearance adjacent each stud for the fas teners used in mounting reinforcing meshing in relation to the studding and spaced away therefrom. The rabbet c is of greater length than the rabbet d, because the latter has merely a sliding lit in relation to the under side of the channelled stud and is not required to extend within the channel as is the case with the portion of the slab adjacent the rabbet c.
The outwardly presented face of each slab in the wall construction is protected by a surfacing of waterproof material e which may take the form of asphaltum or other composition, or of waterproofedpaper.
The fitting of the reduced end of the slab vwithin the channel of a stud a prevents substantial movement of this end of the slab inwardly or outwardly of the wall, but to check a tendency of the other end of the slab to move inwardly of the wall, outward movement thereof being rest-rained by means which will be hereinafter described, I. provide a plurality of spring ratchet teeth f secured to the bottom of the channelled studs at spaced distances in any desired manner, as by welding methods, which teeth are adapted to co-operate with a socket or sockets g formed in the material of the slab 7) at the end thereof adjacent the rabbet d.
Each slab is provided `with a rabbet c of substantially the thickness of the metal of the studs, and at the end of the slab adjacent the rabbet 0.
The rabbets c and (Z are of Aa depth to project well beyond the outer side flanges of the studs a, thus leaving channels formed by contiguous vertical tiers of slabs at and upon opposite sides of each of the studs a. These channels are formed largely for the purpose of permitting the utilization of spacers L secured in any desired manner, as by spot welding, to the side flange of each channel and at predetermined spaced dis tances from each other. These spacers i project well beyond the face of the slabs b and serve as supports for a stiff wire mesh reinforcement z' for a stucco or other plaster facing the mesh z' being imbedded in the stucco and being spaced well away from the waterproofed surface e of the slab. By this arrangement the slab b forms iirm backing against which the stucco may be tiowelled or otherwise worked, thus ensuring great sta-V bility in this surface, particularly as steel studding is not subjected to such shrinkage or warping as would in time tend tol disrupt this stucco finish.
To facilitate the mounting of the wire mesh, I make the spacers and fasteners with a reduced head i, having parallel down-V wardly directed oblique openings 7a2 therethrough adapted to receive a staple h3. T his staple straddles a wire of the mesh, and
it is driven to place is so deformed by the walls of the openings 7a2 as to firmly lock the staple in relation to the wire and to the spacers.
The spacers /L in addition to rigidly supporting the wire reinforcement '12, are also utilized to secure in position filler blocks 7c of cork composition or other suitable waterproof, substantially non-inflammable material, the dimensions of which are such as to fill the channels formed by the rabbets c and d of the slabs in adjacent wall sections. These blocks may be of any desired length, and have openings for receiving the spacers, cut or molded therein in order to simplify the erection of a wall by reducing the labor required on the construe tion job. The blocks 7c are held in position by means of metal washers h4 about the reduced end It of thespacers, the staples /i by engagement with this washer forcing it down upon the filler block, and incidentally fclinching the staples to ensure lgreater permanency in the attachment of the mesh reiii- .Y
forcement by such staples.
The filler blocks 7c are of a thickness to come substantially flush with the waterproofed face of the slabs i), thus ensuring` a substantially continuous flat vbackingV against which the stucco or other surface dressingmay be worked. These blocks will also'serve as an effective'barrier against the transmission lof lill heat and moijsturefrom the' stucco yfacing to the steel studding, thus li'mitingthe possibility of theconduction of h'ea't, to' the spacn ers 7i and elin'iinatin'g practically all possibility of Water from the stucco or other surface dressing reaching the steel studding. The lacing 7' of stucco or other similar plaster material' being the outer face dressing of the Wall willy have considerable thickness, and the mesh t' 4will be fairly heavy, the thicknessof thisdressing admit-ting of the use of heajvy Wire mesh and the spacing of it Well away from the body of the vvalll` rlhe inner surface vfinish m of the Wall,
i however, will be an ordinary plaster finish,
mujch thinner than the stucco facing, and will not admit of the use of the heavy Wire mesh reinforcement used forthe stucco iinizh. Furthermore, it ispossiblfe to place the inner finish directly against the `steel studding, since this plaster will dryv ont readily and is not subjected to inclement Weather nfith a resultant 4possibility of the absorption of moistinfean'd its transmission vto the body of the Wall and to the steel' studding, as can occur with the dressing y'.
.The ,surfacing m has imbedded therein metal lathing n or other Isuitable metal' reinforcement supported from the various studs o and spaced therefrom and from the body slabs o, by spacers 0 similar in construction to the reduced heads hf of the spacers and fasteners ZL, and having lcorresponding oblique parallel openings if' Yc,o'-operating Withstaples'o passing through themetal lathing or other reinforcement and engaging same.
Some of the spacers 0 are permanently secured by spot Welding or other methods to the inner vertical flanges of the studs a, the ends of the staples as they pass through the openings /L2 engaging. this flange and being clinched as a result of this engagement.
lilith a light reinforcement, however, it will oe-found necessary to provide intermediate the studding, spacers andattachments forthe reinforcement, these spacers, however, being attached directly, vby means of the staples, to the body slabs which the staples vill readily penetrate, the opposite points of each staple being directed at .diverging angles to each other, so as to hold the spacers sufficiently firmly.
rThe slabs b and the s tudding a'will, as in the case of the surfacing j, provide a rigid backing against whichl the plastersurfacing m may be troivelled or otherwise Worlted and thus permita desireddensity of. this facing, and the desired packing of same'between the metal lathingor other reinforce'- ment andthe slabs 1D, and ensure great stability in this surface.' i
After the placing of the studding in a building, and When the progress of the construction Work has advanced sufficiently' of ,the Y of ,the avail-ls, lthe position of the slab permits, they will readily fall uponthe sills or stringere or upon other slabs. Each slab maybe Yquickly placed in position, and when once' in position Willbe firmly held by theside'iianges of one stud, and bythe springaatchetsf carried by the adjacent stud, These slabs maybe very i quickly placed in `position without the aid ofrement orot'her plaster,r
The Waterproofing vsurface inay be applied to they slab during its fabrication or may be applied thereto' after installation.
It Will be noted that`4 the `spacers hand n arenot. so positioned astro interfere yin any Way with thelpo'sitioning of the slabs, andthat Wheneach slab i's inlposition,- tl e youter face thereof, thatin which the rabbets c and d, are formed, Will' bepresented-out- Ward'ly ofthe ivall and Will project Well beyondthe studs a.V
When adjacent coin1-9lete titers of slabs have been. install ed, the filler blocks 7a are mounted upon ,the various spacers 7L upon each stud a, thus fillingv the space formed by thechannel forming rabbets c of one tier of e slabs Vand the co-oiierating channel. forniing rabbets fl of the adjacenttier. Then all ofthe blocks are in' position froinwall toy ceiling upon any stud a', the outer si'd'e flange ofthe studs .will be completely covered bythe lillerblocls r, and thus be pro-- tected from ythe nish of stucco or othery material, other portions of the studs be ing protectedv from such finish 7' .by the blocks 7c. In fact,.the only patli for the transmission of heat or-mois'tu're through the Wall will be formed by the spacers h, the dimensionsof which are so small as to result inno objectionable" amount of either heat, colder moisture reaching the studding. or passingy to o`r fronithe building.`
lVhen the filler blocks 7c are in position, the. Washers 7L* are placed over the spacers 7L, and'I the wire mesh rei' nforcem'entv 'i brought in position with relation to said spacers and Wherelstaples 71,3 may be passed over some portion of the Wire meshl andinto the openings h2. The A.driving of these staples will' hold the washers h4, andE the blocks 7c therethrough in aE manner to revent movement of the blocks k, and Wil atlnf) the same time, firmly fasten the wire mesh in relation to the spacers and the body b. The rigidity of the Wire mesh z' is such that spa-eers 7L secured only to the studding are required, the regularity in the formation of such wire mesh permitting the spacers to be Welded or otherwise secured to the studding` in the shop.
The channel of the stud engaging one end of the slabs Z), and the ratchet teeth and blocks Ze engaging the other end of said slabs will hold said slabs against any material movement from pressure at either face of the slab. Hence when 'the Wire mesh c' has once been secured to the stud` ding by means of the fasteners 7L, the plasterer may thoroughly Work the stucco or other plastic composition so as to force it through the wire meshing firmly against the Waterproofed face e of the slab o and against the blocks 1, which may or may Vnot have Waterproof facing, as desired, these slabs being ordinarily of composition cork which is sufficiently impervious to moisture With-- out such a facing.
A thoroughly Worked stucco surfacing' or finish upon said slabs and about said Wire VVreinforcement 71, has great durability. It
will also be noted that the reii'iforcement is surmorted from the steel studding, so as to relieve the slabs of stains from the weight of this stucco.
The metal lathing or other reinforcement a is then mounted upon the studding a and upon the various slabs intermediate adjacent studs by means of the spacers 0 and the wall plaster applied to such lathing or reinforcen'ient, the rigidity of the body of the Wall facilitating the thorough working of this plaster, thus increasing its durability. The major portion of the load of this plaster surface will be supported from vthe studs c, the intermediate spacers and fasteners o affording additional support for the'lathing,A however, and minimizing likelihood of the cracking of the plaster as a result of the sagging of the lathing intermediate the studs. The surfacing m constitutes the Wall of a room, and is not subject to the same Weather conditions as the stucco j, and consequently with the absence of warping, shrinkage. or displacement of the studs rc, this plaster m will hold firmly. Since there Will be no material transmission of moisture to the slabs Z) from the facing y', the wall facing` m Will not suffer from frequent wetting and drying.
Both surfaces jand m will have a continuous uninterrupted Vouter face, no metal portions of the Wall structure being exposed through such surfaces.
It is not my intention to limit the invention to the details of construction herein shown and described, it being apparent that .such may be varied without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.V
Having described the invention, What I claim as new and desire to have protected by Letters Patent, is y l. A building wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-inflanimable, non-absorbent, pre-formed slabs mounted between and secured in relation to adjacent studs, metal reinforcement at one side of said slabs, means secured to said studs supporting said metal reinforcement and rrp-icing it from said studs and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, a metal reinforcement at lthe other face of said slabs, means secured to said studs supporting` said reinforcement and spacing it fronrsaid studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and about said last named reinforcement. y Y
2. A building wall construction embodying thereinv spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-infianimable, non-absorbent, pre-formedV slabs mounted between and secured in relation to adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one face thereof channel forming rabbets, the portion of the block between said rabbets being spaced beyond said studs, combined fasteners and spacersl secured to said studs respectively and eX- tending beyond a face of said slabs, filler blocks of substantially non-iniiammable,
non-absorbent material occupying the ehan-i nels formed by saidv rabbets and secured in position by means of said fasteners and spacers, metal reinforcement supported by said fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, a metal reinforcement at the otherV face of said slabs, means secured to said studs supporting said reinforcement Vand spacing it from said studs and said slabs` and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and about said last named reinforcement.
8. A building Wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed, channelled metal studs, `substantially non-inflammable, nonabsorbent, pre-formed slabs, mounted between adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one face thereof, channel forming rabhets whereby one end of said slabs may be fitted Within the channel of a stud, Vand the portion of the block between said .rabbets is spaced beyond said studs, combined fasteners and spacers secured to said studs respectively and extending beyond a face of saidslabs, filler blocks of substantially non-inflammable, non-absorbent material occupying the channels formed by said rabbets Vand secured in position by means of said fasteners and spacers,rmetal reinforcement supported by said fasteners Leende?- and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and saidv slabs, a plaster rfacirlig' upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, a metal reinforcementI ait-the other face of said slabs, means secured to said lstuds supporting said reinforcement and spacing it .from said studs and said slabs, anda plaster surfacing upon said ,slabs and about said last named reinfoicenxent. y
el A building wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed, channelled instal studs` substantially non-inflz'iminable, nonabsorbent, pre-formed slabs, mounted, between adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one face thereof, channel forming rabbets whereby one end of said slabs may be fitted within the ,channel ofl a stud, and the portionlof the block between said rabbets is spaced beyond saidzstuds, spring ratchets upon the bottom of each stud, onel endkof each slab having al socket therein vadapted to be engaged by said spring ratchets, combined fasteners and spacers secured to, said studs respectively and extending beyond a face of said slabs, filler blocks of substantially non-inflammable, non-absorbent material occupying the channels foi'ined by said rabbets and secured in position by means of said fasteners and spacers, metal reinforcement supported by said fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, a u'letal reinforcement at the other face of said slabs, means secured to said studs supporting said reinforcement and spacing it from said studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and about said last named reinforcement.
5. A building wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-inflammable, non-absorbent, pre-formed slabs mounted between and secured in rela-y said studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and about said last named reinforcement.
G. A building wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-inflammable, non-absorbent, pre-formed slabs mounted between and secured in relation to adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one face thereof channel forming rabbets, the portion of the block between said rabbets being spaced beyond said studs, "combinedy fasteners and spacers secured to said studs respectively and, extending beyond a face yof said slabs, filler blocks of substantially non-inflammable,
non-absorbent material occupyingthe cliannels formed by said rabbets and secured.` in position *byV means of said` fasteners` and spacers,pmetal reinforcement supported! said fasti-mersl aiijdqspacers in spaced relation to said studs andsaid slabs', 'a plaster facingvupon said 'slabs and about said reinforcement,` a facing of waterproofV material between said*y plaster facing and` the conupon said slabs and about said last namedv reinforcement.y y A X 7'. A building lwall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-inflammable, vnon-absorbent, pre-formed slabs iiiounted between andseciirediii rela,- tioii to' adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one face thereof channel forming rabbets, the portion of the block between said rabbets being spaced beyond said studs, combined fasteners and spacers secured to said studs respectively and extending beyond a face of said slabs, filler blocks of substantially non-inflammable, non-absorbent material occupying the channels formed by said rabbets and secured in position'by means of said fasteners and spacers, metal reinforcement supported by said fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, combined fasteners and spacers secured to the other side of said studs respectively and to the slabs intermediate said'y studs, a metal reinforcement supported by said combined fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and said studs and about said last named reinforcement.
8. A building wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed, chaiinelled metal studs, substantially non-inflammable, nonabsorbent, pre-forined slabs, mounted between adjacentstuds, and having at the oppositeedges of one face thereof, channel forming rabbets whereby one end of said slabs may be fitted within the channel of a stud, andr the portion of the block between said rabbets is spaced beyond said studs, spring ratchets upon the bottom of each stud, one end of each slab having a socket therein adapted to be engaged by said spring ratchets, combined fasteners and spacers secured to said studs respectively and extending beyond a face of said slabs, filler blocks of substantially non-infiammable, non-absorbent material occupying the channels formed by said rabbets and secured in position by means of said fasteners and spacers, metal reinforcement supported by said fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to saidstuds and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, combined fasteners and spacers secured tothe other side of said studs respectively and to the slabs intermediate said studs, a metal reinforcement supported by said combined fasteners and spacers m spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and said studs and about said last named reinforcement.
9. A building,l Wall construction embodying therein spaced, fixed studs, substantially non-infiammable, non-absorbent, pre-formed slabs mounted between and secured in relation to adjacent studs, and having at the opposite edges of one f ce thereof channel forming rabbets the portion of the block between said rabbets being spaced beyond said studs, combined fasteners and spacers secured to said studs respectively, each of said combined fasteners and spacers including therein a reduced end having parallel, oppositely, obliquely extending openings therein` a metallic Washer, and a staple adapted to pass through said openin'gsand abut against said Washer, whereby said staples will be spread and clinched when driven within said reduced portion, ller blocks of substantially n-on-intiammable, non-absorbent material occupyingl the channels formed by said rabbets and secured in position by means of said fasteners and spacers, metal reinforcement supported by said fasteners and spacers in spaced relation to said studs and said slabs, a plaster facing upon said slabs and about said reinforcement, a metal reinforcement at the other face of said slabs, means secured to said studs supporting said reinforcement. and spacing,` it from said studs and said slabs, and a plaster surfacing upon said slabs and about said last named reinforcement.
ln Witness whereof l have hereunto affixed my signature this 7th day of September, 1926.
` GEORGE L. BENNETT.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4655023A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-04-07 Yung Fernand P Spacer for construction use
US4748785A (en) * 1987-02-02 1988-06-07 Wheeler Charles F Support member for reinforcing steel
US20140144094A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2014-05-29 Matthieu Perrier Method and a system for fastening an object to a facade

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4655023A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-04-07 Yung Fernand P Spacer for construction use
US4748785A (en) * 1987-02-02 1988-06-07 Wheeler Charles F Support member for reinforcing steel
US20140144094A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2014-05-29 Matthieu Perrier Method and a system for fastening an object to a facade
US9719250B2 (en) * 2011-07-21 2017-08-01 Societe De Prospection Et D'inventions Techniques—Spit Method and a system for fastening an object to a facade

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