US1604388A - Rotary drill - Google Patents

Rotary drill Download PDF


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US1604388A US75837724A US1604388A US 1604388 A US1604388 A US 1604388A US 75837724 A US75837724 A US 75837724A US 1604388 A US1604388 A US 1604388A
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Albert W Calvin
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Albert W Calvin
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    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • E21B10/32Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools
    • E21B10/34Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools of roller-cutter type


A. W. CALWN ROTARY DRILL 1924 l 4 Sheetswhet l Filed Dec.

A. W.' CALVIN ROTARY DRILL Filed Deo. 27, 1924 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 ,./yA m m jim. M V ,y w lL Patented @et 26, 192,6.




Application led December pipe and through openings in the bit at a point near the bot-tom ot' the hole. This mud is circulated by high pressure pumps situated on a derrick floor, the mud flowing from the bit int-o the hole being drilled and upward to the surface. Mud so circulated serves to carry upwardly with it cuttings from the bit; it serves to wash the surface beingy cut, thereby increasing the efliciency of the bit, and it also serves to mud up the Walls of the hole and prevent caveins. There are various types of bits used in this system, my invention relating particularly toa reamingr dise bit. 'It is customary f practice, as a hole is drilled, to extend a reaxner thereinto for the purpose ot reaniing the hole to a proper size for the reception of a well casing. It is solnetin'iesthe practice to carry the casing while the well is being drilled. In other words, the casing is advanced downward into the hole as the drilling;l proceeds. ln this case it'is necessary to employ a drill which will pass through a drill pipe. Therefore, the hole drilled will not be of suilicient size to permit an advancing of the well casing. For this reason it is necessary to roam the hole either by a separate underreaming tool, or by use of rearning elements which form a part of the bit. y

llt is an object of my invention to rovide a bit having expanding roaming elements which are adapted to ream a hole to proper size as it is being;r drilled. I provide my invention in the form of a body carrying boring cutters and reaming cutters, the boring cutters cutting `the hole, and the reaming cutters reaming the hole to proper size.

lt is another object of my invention to a7. 1924. serial No. maar?.

the boring members of the bitv engage 'with the bottom of the hole, these reaming eutters are automaticallymoved into expanded position, in which position they ream the hole to a size which will permit 'the ad vancing of the Well easing?.

It is a further object of my invention to provide in a bit ofthis character, a novel i arrangement for expanding the reaming cutters. I accomplish this by supporting the boring cutters andthe reaming cutters on insert members which are carried by the body of the bit, these insert members being1 movable relative to said body. 'Vibenthe boring cutters engage the bottom oitl the hole, a relative movement between the insert-members and the body is incurred. Means is provided for automatically movingl the reaming cutters laterally into expanded position when said relative movement eecurs.

It is also an object of my invention izo-provide a bit of the character mentioned which may be readily assembled and disassembled. The bit is of such a Ycliaraeter that it may be disassembled by removing certain pins, Whirh is easily accomplished. The remov ing of these pins allows the itaeile removal of the reaming cutters, the insert members and the boring cutters.4

.It is also an object of my invention to provide a bit of this character which is very rugged in construption. My bit employs but few parts which may be made quite` large, and are therefore very strong.

It is a still further object of my invention to providea bit of this eharaeter in which the component body of the bit. v

Itis another object, of my invention to provide a dise bit having vthe above elueidated features.

Other objects and advantages o' my inA vention Will be made evident hereinafter.

-Referring to the two sheets oi drawings which are for illustrative purposes o nlytw Fig. l is an elevational vierir through, a dise hit embodying the features of my iuvention.

Fig. 2 is a View taken at right angles to Fig'. l as indicated by the arrow .il et Fig. l.

Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken subaL aatially ori-the line 3-3 of Fig. l..

Fig. 4 is a cross section taken tiiraugh boring members of the bit, tliis'vievv' beings; i,taaen Isubstantially on the line er.

parts are protected by the.

'tio-n shown in the drawings so that feines in the bushing; [i8 align with ence openings f?. and thesiide Slots .tno shotts /10 nre then insertedthrongh "ige 52, through the slide .icreoi il 'mi wsii 5341-. The inserts 25 nre diy into the 'position i gs so there the 9 niny be in. oiled to retain the eyiindricni hote 16. pie. is pince, the ye retained in `position 'fine Y t y entrsnce open* ettore. it is impossible tor the more from proper position.-

1 when engagement oi. the hit ere .in tutti in 1. ,ming discs L ere nt in, riormroriting po fs being-.r such o Het the bit the bit is e oringg dises in ""ottorn ofthe hote, et between theI bort' ni the hoie r npwetrdiy reis inserte moving into end thereof, t oi? the open ovine; ports thereof moving E. 'by the dotted iines n this iretetive :movement h n inserts 25 end the body renin. dises Dit' nre moved trom reinto sided. positions, the expand shown by the dotted 't sind 'hy 'tuti iines in Fig. 6. expended by renson ot :i

Z' are mi inovenient the shafts et() which is t iiisiod in the :toiiowing manner.

espezisi reference to 0. it is evi- 'ist the siide siots f1.1 -permit reiatire ent between the shetts i-Ovnnd theV in. o. isterei dir ction nt gies t the moyeinent inserts. l hen the inserts noted npoisrdiy une shn'fts 40 ere 'i ng'wre-.rdty therewith. The shzitts 4.0 Wnrdiy ninst :riso inove in the ie o )positc direction,

l in disc in :turning nene.

ione'ation ot the cern siots thereby ncconnjjiiishin'gar the'n'iovingr ot vthese 25. and tne centred wait 24e, siniiier to the manner in which the thrust is teken in crise oi the boring; discs 30. y

nWhen the boring discs 3G are removed vfrom engagement with. the bottom. ot the hote,

the weight ot these discs 36, the discs 47 and.

the inserts Q5 move the teeming' discs to their retracted positions, and oonsequentiy the bit may be readiiy removed from the 'weit throng-ii the Weil casing. However, were there soine interference to resist the movement of these parts into retracted position, en engagement between the perioheries of the roaming dise et? and the iower end oi? the weil casing` Wonid move these ports to retracted position.

Rotary mnd is suppiied-to the teaming; dises 17 through passages 62 provided in the body 11, and rotary nnid is supplied to the'boring; discs through passages 63 provided inthe body 11 as clearly shown in Fiss. 1 and 2 of the drawings.

Referring to Figs. 7 to 12,-fineiusive, anr

tenofnhir o eninfs 1.0i und lower rectanfruinrv.

openings are formed in the body 100, which openings are separated bv e bridge portion 106. thebody being simiiur in .construction with the irst described modification oit my intention.

Disposed in the ol'iening 109. is en insert 10'?. The insert 107 comprises a contrai portion 108 troni which there extends npwnrdiy theretron'l sn upper contrai ieg 109 end upper onteriegs 110. Extending` down- Wnrdiy from the central portion 108 is :i central tower .lei 112 and outer lower ieg's 113. The upper legs 109 and 110 are spaced apart es shown, so :is to'provide spaces 116 in which roaming' discs 117 ere placed, and

the iower ielgrs 112 :1nd 113 have spaces 119 therebetween in which boring discs 120 are arranged. The insert 107 is retained in 'thel opening; 102 by n key 1211 this key being; eenred in the body 100 and extending;

ti rough eionsjeted siot 122 formed inV i 11, and the right hand cavity 125 is aligned therevithgzind'the left hand opening 124 and the left hand cavity 125 are eccentric with respect to the center line A-Abut are ofset to the opposite side of the line lAMA from which the right. hand opening and cavity 124 are oiiset. Pins 127 are arranged to extend into the openings 124 and the cavities 125, these ins carrying boring discs 120, there being iushings 128 and Wear plates 129 provided to receive wear. It is obvious that by offsetting the pins in this manner, the discs nre likewise oisetso that the oppostie edges thereof engage the wall of the hole. The boring discs and pins 127 are installed before the insert 107 has been entirely inserted into the conoentrio' opening 102. The pins 127 are extended through the openings 124, the bushings 128 and into the cavities 125 from the outside.

As clearly shown in Fig. 10, elongated openings 131 are provided in the outer upper legs and elongated cavities 132 are provided in the central legr109, these openings and cavities being offset in the saine manner as the openings and cavities in the lower legs of the insert 107. The openings 131 and cavities 132 are elongated in a direction at right angles to the axis ol the bit. The shafts 136 extend through the openings 131 through the spaces 116 and into the elongated cavities 132. The roaming discs 117 arerotatahly carried on these shafts 136 in the spaces 116, there being bushings 137 and wear plates 13S to receive the wear. The outer ends of the shafts 136 extend into cam slots 139 formed in the body 110. Thesecam slots 139 as clearly shown in Figs. 7 and 12 ure arranged so that their elongations are directed diagonally With respect to the axis of the bit. The opposite cani slots 139 are' extended upwardly in different directions. From an inspection of Figs. 9 and 10, it. is seen that the cam slots 139 are cut entirely through the body 100 and that plates 141 are Welded to the body 100 in such a manner as to close the outer-edge of these slots. Entrance openings 142 are provided in the plates 141 near the lower ends of the cam slots 139. Small openings 143.51m provided near the upper ends of the cam slots 139 to allow for' the cleaning ofmud from the slots 139. The shafts 136 and the reaming discs 117 are installed es follows:

The insert 107 is extended into the openi cost of forming lubrication lissagcs `position. When this drill is lowers-cr ing 102 to the extent that the olonne.' a slots 131 align with the entrance upenn 142. The discs 117 are then olaccd lieti the upper legs 109 and 110i* that the op 1 ings 1n the bushings 137 align with the and cavities 131 and 132. lhe sluitare then inserted through the en openings 142 so as to extend thro-rH openings 131, the bushings 137 the cavities 132. lhe insert moved upwardly into its lower in the 'cylindrical opening 102 and d e curing key 121 is then installed, this securing key extending through the slot 122. After the key 121 is positioned, it ,is imp sible for the insert 107 to drop low erung.: for the yshafts 136 to align with the en openings 142; therefore, these opening be retained in place by the plates When the boring discs end the remning s' discs 117 are installed as shown, they p iject through the lower opening 119 und he upper rectangular openings 11d, respon tively.

The principle ol' cmstront-ion in this d bit is very similar 'x ccnwruction the first described mod my vention. The important chan construction are, first, that the in ber is made integral instead o c in two members.' This ,practice tends provide a more sturdy drill. ufu'her ference in construction is that the www* walls are formed integral with the i instead of being a separate part or the body. This also tends towurr By cutting the coin slots 12h, through the body of the well 100 n 1 covering the outer' edges ot thc-sc sl a plate. it is possible to cheaper the n2 facturing cost of the drill.

Lubrication for the teeming' the boring discs is supplied throne 150. The passages ure dri central point at the extreme ni the piu 101 diagonally downwardly se they con'imunicate with the outer inw f the drill as indicated at 152. Cnannc the body 100. The plates 111 have 153 which close the outer portions oit slots 152, thereby providing :1.- closed sage. These'plntes 111 are sccurml in preferably by Welding. lu this menne greatly reduced. lt is evident that il un intricate task to drill a hole thro a narrow Wall such :is is provided by lower portion ot the body 100` it l. much simpler. cheaper :md quicker to i :t slot from the outer lucc of the body 1' to then close the slot by e plate l1 l.

As shown in full linesI in Figs. 'Z inclusive, the drill is in a non-oi the Well and the boriiig discs 120 come in contact with the botton1"of the hole, the

pressure thereagainst moves the insert 107 upwardly in the opening102 relative to the body 100, this 5mm/ement? being permitted due-to the .lact thatthe slot 122 is Wider 'than the securingA Hpin... 1t21. I'This relative movement between the''iiisert and the body shaits must 'follow the-direction of the elon` gration oi? the cam slots 139. This moves the shafts 136 irom the position shown m full lines in ligs. 7 to 11 into a position show/n' by the full. lines in' Fig. 12. It will be seen that the pins move upwardly and out- .vardly.

position into expanded position, this expanded position.' being shown in Flg. 12, and also being shown by dotted lines 156 oi Fig. 10 and dotted lines `157 of Fig. 7. ,he complete operation o both types of bits are analogous.

lirom the loregoing description, 1t will he seen that my invention provides a disc bit which is very rugged in construction. I1employ a minimum ont' parts-Which are made of suiiicient size to withstand a maximum of strain. The smaller parts of the bit are well protected by the body, the peripheral partsy oi the discs 36 and 17 being the only parts which are directly exposed by the body The Wearing parts of the bit are readily replaced due to the ease Withwhich the parts #may be disassembled and. assembled.

ft bit of mylinventionns adaptbdior use in driiiingeither When a casing isbemg caror when a casing lis no' eing carried. will bore the hole `andiream it to a sise to receive, a casing. By making l@zinnig disc i7 expansible it is possible to us bit when a Well casing is carried 't ci? fact that When t e reamin c in retracted position, they wi y through the Well casing. f I Iowever, when they are in expaded pos'ltlon, they will renin the hole toa su cient size to permit the advancing of the casing.

'ihe novel ieature ci ex 'ending the reaming discs by Contact ci' tie boring disc 36 with the bottom of the hole isdistinctive. Willsbe seen that l eliminate any spring releasing and other mechanism which might get out of order. rihe inherent tendency is ior the bit remain in retracted osltion, that is, the Weightoi 'the parte ten to hold This movement of the shafts 136' moves the reaming discs 117 fromretracteddii combination of: a. body; inserts carried by said body, said inserts being secured to said body so as to be relatively movable with respect to said body; boring discs carried by said inserts, said boring discs moving said inserts relative to said body when said discs` engage a surface; reaming discs; and shafts supporting said roaming discs, said shafts.

extending through slide slots in said inserts and into cam slots in said body, said shafts being movable by said cam slots in such a manner as to move said reaming discs fiom retracted into expanded position when said inserts are moved.

2. In a drill bit of the class described, the combination of: a body, said body `having a cylindrical hole and u per and lower openn ings; inserts positione lin said cylindrical hole; means for securing said inserts in said cylindrical hole relatively movable to said body; boring discs carried between said. inserts, said boring discs extending through said lower openings and moving said in serts when said boring discs engage a sunvn face; roaming discs extending through said upper openi gs; and shafts supporting said teaming disc said shafts extending through slots in said`r inserts and extending into cam slots formed in said. body, said shafts being moved by said cam slots 1n a manner to'move said roaming discs from retracted into enpanded position.

l3.jln a drill bit of the class described, 'the o'mbination of: a body, said body including a cylindrical hole, u per openings, lower openings and a centra Wall positioned. in said upper openings; inserts placed in said cylindrical hole, sald inserts being relatively spaced; a pin for securing said inserts to said body so as to permit an axial relative 4movement between said inserts and said body; boring discs, said boring discs en tending through said loWei` openings between said inserts; a supporting member, said supporting member comprising a central web arranged between said boring discs,-

and pins extending from said central web, said pins extending into journal openings in said inserts, thus supporting said supporting member and said pins carrying said boring discs; reaming discs extending through said upper slots between said inserts and on either side of said central Wall; and shafts 4carried by said inserts for carrying said roaming discs.

4. In a drill bit of the` class described, the combination of: a body, said body in-I cluding a cylindrlcal hole, upper openings,

said central web into openings in seid in. sette; ooinx'g discs, seid born ieee be; fr

carried on eind pine between seni inserte en extending Ainough seid lower openings, Solo boring dises moving said inseits releve to said body; roaming dises. said ieeiningg discs extending thiouffh lseid upper openinge .and being arranged between said dnseis anni to each side of seid centi-a1 Weil; and siiets for' supporting said foaming discs. said shafts extending hough slide sots omiefi in seid ineeijs into com slots formed in sind body and engaging" seid, eenrel well, seif shafts: beine moved lzitereiy in sind eiiie sos'bkv sani eem siete wien seid inserts are moved rek-tive 'to said body.

5. A drill bi :is denec' in claim in which Suid bodv imeinseii'on openings joiningwvh said @ein slots Pof peimiting the instnetion of seid shafts.

6. n. e dfli bit of the Claes described., the eoinbinaiion of: a body, said body heving a longitudinal Cavity 1thereini *there being upper openings and lower openings from seid cavity 'io 'die ousiiie of seid es; zeeming dises extending through seici. upper openings between said ineeits sind on opposite sides of seid centra Weil.; and shafts earied by said inserts for ceri-ying seid i'eannng discs, said inserts oen ing longitudinally diepaeeeble feletive to Selci. body by said boring discs upon the lat- 'er oonectinp; the bottoni of e hole, sind in which dispiace/ment the last mentioned ehe-Ets engage co-operating eem surfaces upon seni inserts and Seid body, this engngernen'. causing seid. realising discs o be extended for ejieetei cutting radius.

drill bi deined in daim 6 iny which said body is provided with insertion openings from the exterior tbereof'lfolf per'-A nnting @he insteasion o seid teaming disc l V 2in testimoni' whereof, T have iieennto eet im; 'he-nd et Los Angel lh of @ecembezu e ALBERT W'. 'CALV s. A* Californie. hie-

US1604388A 1924-12-27 1924-12-27 Rotary drill Expired - Lifetime US1604388A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2929610A (en) * 1954-12-27 1960-03-22 Shell Oil Co Drilling
US5295735A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-03-22 Cobbs David C Rock saw
US6131676A (en) * 1997-10-06 2000-10-17 Excavation Engineering Associates, Inc. Small disc cutter, and drill bits, cutterheads, and tunnel boring machines employing such rolling disc cutters

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2929610A (en) * 1954-12-27 1960-03-22 Shell Oil Co Drilling
US5295735A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-03-22 Cobbs David C Rock saw
US6131676A (en) * 1997-10-06 2000-10-17 Excavation Engineering Associates, Inc. Small disc cutter, and drill bits, cutterheads, and tunnel boring machines employing such rolling disc cutters

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