US1588248A - Antistatic system - Google Patents

Antistatic system Download PDF

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US1588248A
US1588248A US625473A US62547323A US1588248A US 1588248 A US1588248 A US 1588248A US 625473 A US625473 A US 625473A US 62547323 A US62547323 A US 62547323A US 1588248 A US1588248 A US 1588248A
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circuit
current
contact
band
frequency
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David G Mccaa
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ELECTRIC APPARATUS CO
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ELECTRIC APPARATUS CO
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03HIMPEDANCE NETWORKS, e.g. RESONANT CIRCUITS; RESONATORS
    • H03H9/00Networks comprising electromechanical or electro-acoustic devices; Electromechanical resonators
    • H03H9/46Filters

Description

June 8 1926. 1,588,248 Di G. M cAA ANTISTATIC SYSTEM Filed March 16. 192s 2 Sheets-Sheet '1 INVENTOR. Y q W Q4. M Mas Q 2 ATTORNEY.
D. G. MOCAA ANTISTATIC SYSTEM Filed March 16, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .m BY mwm 15/2 ATTORNEY.
Patented June 8, 1926.
UNITED STATES 1,588,248 PATENT OFFICE.
A DAVID G. IOCAA, F LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOB TO THE ELECTRIC AP- I PABATUS 00., OF PABKESBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF PENNSYL- AN TISTATIG SYSTEM.
I Application filed larch 16, 1928. Serial No. 625,473.
My invention relates to signaling systems, and more particularly to such systems as radio telegraph and other systems in which it is desirable to eliminate or reduce the effects of static, strays, electrical atmospheric disturbances, or other disturbing electrical effects.
My invention resides in a method of andof stronger current for producing the ultimate signal or effect, with high degree of selectivity and without the blurring or"in-- distinctness otherwise resulting from static, atmosphcrics, undesired signals, and like effects.
In its principal and fundamental aspects, my present invention is the same as that disclosed in my prior application Serial No. 557,911, filed May 2, 1922.
In accordance with my invention, a fluctuating or alternating current of definite period or frequency represents or is caused to represent the received signals, and causes vibration of a mechanical element, as a band, stringer the like, preferably having a natural period corresponding with the frequency of the fluctuating or alternating current, the vibrating element controlling a local current of any suitable magnitude by co action with a yielding contact structure.
My invention resides in the method and apparatus hereinafter described and claimed.
For an illustration of some of the various forms my apparatus may take, and for an understandin of my method, reference is to be had to t e accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a radio telegraphic receiving system embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is 'a view, in side elevation, of a band structure and co-acting'elements utilizable in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 3 is an elevational view of the yield- .50 ing contact structure and associated parts.
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of a modified form of yielding contact structure.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary side elevational -view of a modified form of vibrating element and yielding contact structure.
Fig. 6 is a side elevational view of a modified structure comprising a vibrating member and yielding contact structure, both controlled by the signal-representing curren Y Referring to Fig. 1, A represents an antenna or any equivalent structure for absorbing from a natural medium, or from a conductor system, high or radio frequency'energy representing a signal transmitted from 65 a distant station. The antenna is connected to ground or counter-capacityEthrough the varlable inductance L and primary P of an oscillation transformer. vVariation of the inductance L and primary P, or either, serves to tune the antenna path to the high or radio frequency energy; tuning may be facilitated, if suitable-0r desirable, by a variable condenser C connected in parallel, as indicated, for, relatively long waves, and in series with the antenna for short waves.
Coupled to the primary P is the secondary S of the oscillation transformer, across whose terminals is connected the tuning condenser C, whereby the circuit S, C may be attuned to the radio frequency received. The received energy may be applied to any suitable detector, as a crystal or other detector, and preferably, as indicated, to a thermionic detector V, as of the audion type. comprising the anode a, cathode or filament f and grid or control electrode g, the filament being supplied with current from any suitable source, as battery I), through adjustable resistance r. In the circuit of the grid 9 may be included the usual condenser C shunted by a high leak resistance 1*.
In the anode or plate circuit is the relatively higher otential battery B and the primary P 0 an audio frequency transformer whose secondary is S, which may be bridged by the condenser G for tuning the circuit S, C to the frequency of the audio frequency com onent of the current in the anode circuit 0 the tube V.
In circuit with the secondary S are the coils or windings d, d, preferably of relatively higher impedance than the impedance of the coil S surrounding cores e, e disposed, respectively, upon the 105 opposite poles of the permanently magnetized member or permanent magnet h. Pivoted at *5, upon the bracket or su ort k, is a soft iron armature 7', with who co-acts the biasing spring m engaging with its one the soft iron endupon one side of the armature i, and secured or supported at its other end upon one of the poles n of the cores e. Carried by or supported on the armature j at its end opposite the spring m is the light rod 0, which is suitably attached to or merely presses against the band F, which may be of steel or other suitable metal, as bronze, etc.,
or which may be of any suitable non-metallic material, as celluloid, fibre, wood, formica or the like.
The band F may be of any suitable cross section or shape, and may be in the form of a ribbon or band, a wire or string of circular or other cross section, etc. .The term band is herein used generically to cover all suitable forms, including the ribbon or true band form, vibratory springs or reeds.
As indicated in Fig. 2, the band F is secured at its one end at q and is held at its other end in a clamp t having the threaded shank u, upon which is threaded the thumb nut '0, turning of which changes the tension upon the band F to vary or adjust its natural period of vibration, which is preferably made equal to the period of the current which energizes the coils d. The band F is stretched over the upper ends of the blocks or members to, forming fulcra, frets or the like for determining with nicety the effective vibration length of the band.
The circuits and structure thus far described will be recognized as corresponding with similar disclosure in my aforesaidapplication Serial No. 557,911.
In accordance with my present invention, in lieu of generating or controlling the gen eration or production of a current, as in my aforesaid application,-the band F is utilized as one'member of a vibrating or vibration relay to control an already existing local current which, under the control of the vibration relay, controls any suitable signaltranslating means, as a further non-vibrating relay, or the like.
One of the contacts of the vibration relay is indicated at m, and the co-acting contact may be the band F itself, if suitable or de sirable, or, and preferably, as indicated, the co-acting contact 12 is secured to and in electrical connection with the band F when of metal. As well understood in the art, the contacts :0 and 3 are of platinum, silver or other suitable materials. By preference both contacts m and 3 are of coin silver. The contact w is carried by a lover or pendulum a which, as more clearly indicated in Fig. 3, is provided with a pivot shaft a having conical ends bearing in similarly formed recesses in the stationary bearing blocks 72 Secured upon the member .2 is a soft iron armature 0 with which co-acts the magnet systems d and e whose poles are disposed on opposite sides of the armature. The magnet system al is energized by the coil 7 receiving current from the battery or other source of current 9 the strength of the current traversing winding f being adjustable by the variable resistance M. The magnet system 6 is.
energized by the coil 97, which is in circuit with the aforesaid source 9 contacts at and y, the winding 7' and adjustable resistance is. The winding 71 is shunted by an adjustable resistance m and the relay contacts at and y are shunted by the condenser C and resistance 1, connected in series with each other, for reducing sparkin and for preventing delay of ru ture o circuit at the contacts 02, y, as wel understood in relay practice. The winding j excites the magnet system m with which co-acts the armature 0 pivoted at p, and biased for movement away from the poles of the system n by the spring 9 The armature p carries the contact 3 which co-acts with the adjustable stationary contact 25 controlling the circuit of the signal-translating instrument T, or sounder, tape recorder or the like, the circuit being energized by the battery or source of current a Or T may represent any suitable telegraphic transmitting relay or automatically operated key, for controlling transmission of the received signals over a land line, or the structure T may control a radio transmitting apparatus.
Assuming the distant transmitting station to be transmitting signals represented by short wave trains, or trains of decadent oscillations as in spark transmitters, there will appear in the circuit of the coils d a fluctuating or alternating current whose frequency corresponds to the wave train frequency of the distant transmitting station. The wave train frequency may be anything suitable or desirable, and preferably of the order of 500 or 1000 wave trains per second. The circuit of the coil S is attuned by the condenser C to the current whose frequency corresponds with the wave train frequency of the distant transmitter. The coils d accordingly vibrate the armature j at corresponding frequency, through the member 0 vibration of the band F'at similar frequency; the band F, however, is preferably given a natural period corresponding with the Wave train frequency, and accordingly, the amplitude of vibration of the band F builds up by resonance for a series or succession of transmitted wave trains.
In the absence of energizing current in the coils d, the contact an is in engagement with the band contact y, the pressure of the engagement depending upon the strength of current through the exciting winding f and upon the strength of current in the exciting winding 1' of the two magnet systems. In
the state of rest described, the force exerted upon the armature c by the magnet system d preferably slightly preponderates over forcing the force exerted on the armature by the magnet system 6 and accordingly the two contacts a: and 3 remain in engagement with each other, thereby maintaining the circuit of the windings i and j closed. The winding 9' being thus simultaneously energized, attracts the armature 0 against the stop '0 holding the circuit of the translating device T open in opposition to springg.
However, when the band F vibrates under the control of the received signals, it periodically approaches and recedes from the contact at, and in attaining a predetermined magnitude of vibration under the influence of the currents traversing the coil d, causes deflection of the yielding contact system, pendulum or lever z in counter-clockwise direction about its pivot (1 causing the armature 0 to approach the magnet system c and to depart from the magnet system d with the result that the magnet system 6 has now in effect obtained control. of the armature 0 holding the contact a: at some distance to the right of its normal position indicated in Fig. 1. The natural period of vibration of the pendulum system a, c is long or great as compared with the period of vibration of the band F, and therefore the conta'ct a: does not return and promptly follow the band F, and such return of the contact 00 toward the band F, or any tendency to follow the band F, is retarded or reduced by the magnet system 6 When the band is vibrating as aforesaid, with the pendulum system, .2, 0 deflected from its nor- I mal position as described, the contact 1 periodically engages and separates from the contact 02, thereby periodically interrupting the circuits of the windings i and 7' the number of contacts or engagements between y and a: per unit of time corresponding with the frequency of the current traversing the coils d. The time constant of the circuit including the winding 7' is great; that is, the ratio of inductance to resistance is high, whereby the current for each engagement of contact 3 with contact :1: cannot, before the next separation of contact y from contact aybuild up a magnitude suflicient to cause attraction of the armature 0 Accordingly, while the member F is vibrating, the armature o is not attracted, and the circuit of. the instrument T remains closed. However,- when vibration of the member F ceases and the parts re-assume their position indicated in Fig, 1, the armature o is attracted and holds the circuit of the instrument T open.
The effect, therefore, of the periodic engagement and separation of-the contacts y and a: is to convert, as regards the circuit of the winding 9', a current of constant magnitude into a succession of current impulses of relatively far smaller amplitude, with \the result, as aforesaid, that the armature 0 is not attracted.
As aforesaid, the circuit of the winding 2' is periodically interrupted when the band F is vibrating, with the result that the magnetic field of the magnet system 6 periodically collapses, allowing the magnet system al to exert relatively greater force upon the armature 0 thereby biasing the contact w toward the left or normal position, as indicated in Fig. 1.
The system a, 0 is made light, that is, of small mass and inertia, and of such small mass or inertia that lacking the magnetic controls al and 6 the vibration of .the band F would cause the contact m to move a relatively great distance, I and a distance generally too great for operative purposes.
It will therefore be understood that the pendular system 2, 0 while of small inertia or mass, nevertheless has a natural period which is long compared with the period enby tuning the coil S and condenser C to the frequency of the wavetrains and therefore the frequency of the band F, electrodynamic braking of the band F is effected, whereby immediately the wave trains cease, the energy stored in the band F causes vibration of the armature which, because of the permanent magnet h, then induces in the circuit of the coils d a current of like frequency, and the production and dissipation of this current quickly dampens the band F, the damping effect being accentuated by the fact that the current is delivered to the tuned circuit 8, C
Assuming that the distant transmitting apparatus emits continuous waves or sus-. tained oscillations, each wave train may be broken up at the receiving apparatus, as well understood in the art, by a so-called tikker, chopper or equivalent, in which case the circuit S and C and the band F will be attuned to the frequency occasioned by thetikker, chopper or equivalent.
Or when the transmitting station emits that of the incoming energy. As indicated,
the source H may be inductively related to the grid circuit of the'audion, as .by the oscillation transformer D. In this case, the circuit 5, C and the band F are attuned to the beat frequency, as for example, of the order of 500 or 1000 per second.
As indicated in Fig. 4, the pendular structure .2 may be suspended upon points 'w and may be provided with the weight m adj ustable to any suitable position with respect to the points w to impart to the system a desired natural period. In this case, the magnet systems e and d of Fig. 1 are omitted, and there will be in the circuit of the contacts 00, 3/ the winding 7' of the magnet system n only;
In Fig. 5, the contact m is secured upon a spring or reed 3 secured to the abutment 2 In this instance the contacts a: and y will control only a relay, as 1?), the circuit of whose winding j will be controlled by the relay contacts. In this instance, the natural period of the reed or spring 11 may be long or short as compared with the natural period of the band F, and in any event, need not be attuned to the same frequency as the band F.
In accordance with the modification indi cated in Fig. 6, the contact m is carried by a reed or vibratory member a, secured to the abutment b and preferably being attuned, as is also the. band F, to the frequency of the current traversing the two pairs of coils d, one pair energizing the band F and the second pair energizing or operating the reed 411?, both pairs of coils (1 receiving their current from the tuned circuit S C as in Fig. 1. The direction of winding of sense-of connections of the different pairs of coils d is such that when the band F is driven toward the left, for example, the contact m is driven toward the right. In other words, the two resonantelements F and a are driven in opposite senses. In this case again, as in the case of Figs. 1
and 5, electro-dynamic braking is effected by the generation in the coils d of current representative of the vibratory energy in the member F or members F and (1 In the examples above illustrated and described, the control of the local circuit, as that of the winding is sharp and clearly defined, because responsive only to currents of frequency corresponding with the frequency of the band F. Accordingly, the effects of atmospheric electricity, static, strays, etc., are reduced to a minimum, without blurring or uncertainty or irregularity in closure and opening of the circuit of the winding j. Similarly, Wave trains of undesired frequency are not responded to, and in the case of employment of heterodyne reception, the frequency of the current traversing the coil (5 may be chosen at will, and the, band F, Figs. 1 and 5, and band F and reed a, Fig. 6, may be correspondingly tuned.
By utilization of the method and apparatus as herein described, and more particularly by utilization of apparatus of the character indicated in Fig. 1, I have been able, when static, strays and-other atmospheric disturbances were. great, to produce a telegraphic record upon a tape, as when the instrument T was a tape recorder, whose code characters were decidedly sharp and senting current damping one of said con-.
tacts.
2. The method of receiving electrical signal energy by means of a circuit controlled by co-acting contacts normally in engagement with each other, which comprises vibrating one of the contacts under control of said current at a frequency corresponding with the frequency of said current to deflect another of said contacts and to periodically open and close said circuit, translatinginto intelligible signals the effects of the periodic opening and closure of said circuit and upon cessation of signal-representing current electro-dynamically damping one of said contacts.
3. The method of receiving electrical signal energy by meansof a circuit controlled by co-acting contacts one of which is biased toward the other, which comprises vibrating another of said contacts under control of said current at a frequency corresponding with the frequency of said current to deflect said one of said contacts and to periodically open and close said circuit, periodically varying the bias upon said one of said contacts by said periodic opening and closing of said circuit, and translating into intelligible signals the effects of the periodic opening and closure; of said circuit. 4. The method of receiving electrical signal ener by means of a circuit controlled by co-actmgcontacts, which comprises vibrating under control of said current a member having a natural eriod corresponding with the period of sald current, vibrating one of said contacts by said vibrating member to periodically open and close said circuit, translating into intelligible signals the effect of the periodic opening and closure of said circuit, and upon cessation of signalrepresenting energy damping said vibrating member.
5. The method of receiving electrical signal energy by means of a circuit controlled by co-acting contacts normally in engagement with each other, which comprises vibrating under control of said current a member having a natural period corresponding with the period of said current, vibrating one of said contacts by said vibrating member to deflect another of said contacts .to periodically open and close said circuit, translating into intelligible signals the effects of the periodic opening and closure of said circuit, upon cessation of signal-representing energy damping said vibrating member by electro-dynamically generating a current thereby, and dissipating said current in a circuit tuned to said last named current.
6. The method of receiving electrical signal energy by means of a circuit controlled by co-acting contacts one of which is biased toward the other, which comprises vibrating under control of said current a member having a natural period corresponding with the period of said current, vibrating another of said contacts by said vibrating member to deflect said one of said contacts and to periodically open and 'close said circuit, periodically var ing the bias upon said one of said contacts y said periodic opening and closing of said circuit, and trans ating into intelligible si als the efiects of the periodic opening and c osure of said circuit.
7. The method of receiving telegraphic signals represented in transmission by electro-radiant energy with reduction of the ef iects of electrical disturbances, as static, strays, atmospherics, etc., by means of a circuit controlled by co-acting contacts one of which is vibratory and another of which is capable of deflection, which comprises produoin a periodic current representative of the te egraphic signals, vibrating under control of said current a member having a natural period corresponding with the period of said current, vibrating said vibratory contact by said member and deflecting said other contact to periodically open and close said circuit, and translating into intelligible signals the efiects of the periodic opening and closure of said circuit.
8. An anti-static system for reception of radio telegraphic signals comprising means for producing a periodic current representative of the telegraphic signals, a circuit a translating instrument controlled thereb co-operating. contacts controlling said clrcuit, means for vibrating one of said contacts at a frequency corresponding with the frequency of said current to riodicall open an close said circuit, an means e fective upon cessation of signal-representing one for damping one of said contacts.
9%23 combination with a source of periodic current, of a circuit, a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, means biasing said second contact toward said vibratory contact, and means for vibrating said vibratory contact at a frequency correspondlng with the frequency of said current to periodically open and close said circuit.
10. The combination with a source of periodic current, of a circuit, a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said periodic current, of a circuit, a translating Instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, means continuously biasing said second contact toward said vibratory contact, means for vibrating said vibratory contact at a frequency corresponding with the frequency of said current to periodically open and close said circuit, and a second biasing means controlled by said contacts and periodically opposing said first named biasin means.
12. he combination with a source of periodic current, of a circuit, a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, and a member vibrated under control of said current and having a natural period corresponding with the period of said current, said vibratory contact vibrated bysaid member to periodically engage and separate from said second contact and thereby periodically open and close said circuit.
13. The combination with a source of pe-' riodic current, of a circuit, a translating mstrument controlled thereby, -a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, a member vibrated under control of said current and having anatural riod corresponding with the period of sai current, said vibratory contact vibrated b said member, and means biasing said secon con-" tact toward said vibrato contact.
14. The combination with a source of poriodic current, of a circuit, a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibrato contact and a second contact controlling sai circuit, a member vibrated under controlof said current and having a natural riod corresponding with the period of sai current, said vibratory contact vibrated by said member, and 'means continuously biasing saidvsecond contact toward said vibratory contact. I
15. The combination with a source of-periodic current, of a circuit, a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, 'a member vibrated under control of said current and having a natural riod corresponding with the 'period of sai current, said vibratory-contact vibrated by said member, means continuously biasing said second contact toward said vibratory contact, and a second biasing means controlled by said contacts.
16. The'combination with a source of periodic current, of a circuit, a translatmg instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, a member vibrated under control of said current and having a natural eriod corresponding with the period of sai current, said vibratory contact vibrated by said member, means continuously biasing said second contact toward said vibratory contact, and a second biasing means opposing said first named biasing means and con trolled by said contacts.
17. The combination with a circuit, of a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second-contact con trolling said circuit, and means for damping said vibratory contact.
18. The combination with a circuit, of a translating instrument controlled thereby,
a vibratory contact and a second contact con-' trolling said circuit, and means moving with said vibratory contact for generatlng a damping current.
19. The combination with a circuit, of a translating instrument controlled thereby, a vibratory contact and a second contact controlling said circuit, a circuit resonant to a frequency correspondin with the frequency of vibration of said vi ratory contact, and means movable with said vibratory contact for producing in said resonant circuit a damping current.
20. An anti-static system for reception of radio telegraphic signals comprising means for producing a periodic current representative of the telegraphic signals, a circuit, a telegraphic recorder controlled thereby, cooperating contacts controlling said 'clrcuit, means for vibrating one of said contacts at a frequency corresponding with the frequency of said current to periodically open and close said circuit, and means operative upon cessation of signal-representing energy for damping one of said contacts.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto afiixed my signature this 12th day of March,
DAVID G. MoCA A.
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