US1582158A - Method of and apparatus for making sheet ice - Google Patents

Method of and apparatus for making sheet ice Download PDF

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US1582158A
US1582158A US69222124A US1582158A US 1582158 A US1582158 A US 1582158A US 69222124 A US69222124 A US 69222124A US 1582158 A US1582158 A US 1582158A
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ice
drum
sheet
water
sheets
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George L Bennett
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George L Bennett
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25CPRODUCING, WORKING OR HANDLING ICE
    • F25C1/00Producing ice
    • F25C1/12Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs
    • F25C1/14Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs to form thin sheets which are removed by scraping or wedging, e.g. in the form of flakes
    • F25C1/142Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs to form thin sheets which are removed by scraping or wedging, e.g. in the form of flakes from the outer walls of cooled bodies

Description

April 27 1926.l l G. L. BENNETT METHOD oF AND APPARATUS FOR'MAKING SHEET ICE Filed Feb. 12. 1924 n/lll Illa lill/lill l l l l GOOG.u

mvg/vuren gli?) )ZM Arron/ver Patented Apr. 27, 1926. p

GEORGE L. BENNETT, OF CLEVELAND HEIGHTS, OHIO.

METHD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SEET ICE.

Application led February 12, 1924. Serial No. 692,221.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that 1,' GEORGE L. BENNETT, a citizen of the United States, residing at Cleveland Heights, inthe county of Cuyahoga and State of Ohio, haveI invented certain n'ew and useful Improvements in the Methodof and Apparatus for Making Sheet' Ice, of which the following is a specification, reference panying drawings, which form a part thereof.

My invention relates to a method and apparatus for making sheet ice and more particularly to a method and apparatus .for this purpose, utilizing a slowly rotating drum immersed in water to be frozen and having a refrigerating medium circulating through the drum for the .purpose of causing the formation of lce upon the perimeter of the drum.

The method and apparatus of my invention is particularly adapted for the production of sheets of ice to be broken into small pieces for use for various purposes where it is now required to break large cakes of ice into small pieces.

The production of the sheet ice and its handling, in the manner which will be hereinafter described, has the marked advantage that the time required to produce such sheets for a given bulk of broken ice is relatively much shorter than would be required in the formation of cake ice and its subsequent breakage into pieces of the desiredsize, thus introducing a large factor of economy in the production of the ice.

Furthermore, the method and apparatus of my invention is continuous in its operation and while the method requires the melt- ,ing oflone surface of the ice to facilitate its separation from the drum, the sheet of ice thus separated is subsequently subjected to a freezing temperature so as to dry the sheet before it is broken into small Ipieces andt'hus minimize likelihood of the amalga-l mation of the broken pieces before they have been finally delivered to the point of consumption.V

Furthermore, by the method and apparatus of my invention, a plurality of similar sheets of ice may be simultaneously produced and the separate sheets thus formed may be bonded together during the drying stage of the method, thus permitting the production of a composite homogeneous sheet which `will form larger pieces -of being had therein to the accom-` broken ice, and expedition in the production of said ice as a result of avoiding' the necessity of accumulating ice of the desired maximum thickness upon a single drum.

The invention consists primarily in a method for making sheet ice, consisting in continuously forming a layer of ice in circular form by immersing and slowly rotatf ing cylindrical body in water, while circulating a r'efrigerating medium within said body, stripping the layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, and thereafter passing this sheet through a refrigerator chamber to complete the congealing operation; and in such other novel steps and practices, and in the novel features of construction and combination of parts of the apparatus used for the practice of said method, all as hereinafter set forth and described, and more particularly pointed out in the claims hereto appended.

Referring to the drawings,

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section illustrating the method of my invention and the apparatus used for the practice of same; and

Fig. 2 is a transverse section through one of the units shown in Fig. 1, but upon a larger scale.

Like letters refer to like parts in both of said views.

In the practice of the method or art of` my invention, I employ a cylindrical closed body Ior drum, the lower portion of which is submerged in the water of which the ice is to be formed, said water being distilled or otherwise conditioned in the usual manner ,to secure the desired purity of the product. This drum is slowly rotated and has a refrigerating'medium in continuous circulation therethrough, so asl to cause the Water adjacent the perimeter of the cylinder or Adrum to lcongeal and adhere thereto. Formation of ice at the ends of this cylinder or drum kis prevented, so as to limit the accumulation of the ice to upon the perimeter thereof. The ice will form with considerable rapidity upon the drum, and the speed of rotation of the drum may be controlled so as to afford a time interval, during which ice is being formed, commensurate with that required to produce ice of the desired thickness.

The ice thus formed upon the perimeter CII leaves the water, Where it will have attained this maximum thickness.

After the portion of the drum and the ice thereon leaves the Water in which it is immersed, the ice is stripped from the perimeter of the drum and passed to the point where it will be subjected to a temperature below the freezing point of the iwater, the th-in sheet of ice having sufficient fiexibility to permit it to be thus led in a continuous sheet and passed through this low temperature zone. This will have the effect of coinpleting the freezing operation, and effectively drying the sheet so that it may thereafter be broken up, there being no subsequent tendency of the pieces to adhere together in a manner to interfere with the desired looseness in the bulk of ice.`

Since the surface of the ice formed directly against the metal of the cylinder or drum will tend to adhere in considerable tenacity to this surface, it is desired to subject the drum to a temperature sutliciently high to break this bond at a point substantially coincident with that at which the sheet -is stripped from the drum.- Hence, as a sheet of ice passes to the final low temperature zone, there will be a thin film of Water upon one surface thereof, due to the melting of the ice for breaking the bond, and possibly a thin film of uncongealed Water upon the other surface thereof. The presence of these thinfilms makes the final treatment in the low temperature Zone desirable, if not absolutely essential.

If it be desired to produce ice of a greater thickness than that which is secured by the above steps, I form two or more separate sheets of ice in the manner above described, and bring these sheets together in the final low temperature stage, so that the freezing of the thin films of ice incidental to the drying of the sheets, will have the effect of bonding these tvvo sheets into a single composite homogeneous strip of relatively greater thickness than either of the sheets forming the same. In fact, any desired number of such sheets may be thus collated or superimposed one upon the other and bonded together.

The apparatus WhichfI preferably employ in the practice of the above described method, mcludes a tank a adapted to receive the distilled or otherwise puried Water to be used in the making of the ice. This water is preferably maintained at a temperature approximately at, or slightly above, the freezing point of the Water.

Mounted in relation to said tank a, so as to cause the lower portion thereof to be immersed in the Water Within the tank, is a drumor drums b' of metal of a thickness which -Will readily take 'up the 'heat from the Water and transmit -it to a 'refrigerating medium Within the drum or drums. In this from the water at the ends of the tank to cause the formation and accumulation of icc thereon.

The drum b, which is cylindrical in form,

is rotatably mounted upon a hollew shaft c communicating with the interior of the drum through ports e. Said shaft has an extension e2 leading to the intake of a compressor now shown in the drawings.

Passing through this hollow shaft is a supply pipe f through which refrigerating medium, in liquid form, is delivered to Within the lower part of the drum.

By this construction a constant circulation of ammonia or other refrigerating agent is maintained in the lower portion of the drum, which agent as it is volatilized or boiled out as a result of the absorption of heat units from the water being congealed, passes from Within the drum through the hollow shaft e to the compressor, or other devices for reconditioning these vapors to permit their continued use in the apparatus.

The hollow shaft e is provided with a vapor tight partition g limitinor the fioiv of the vapor to one direction, an at the same time, affording space for the introduction of a melting medium acting upon the drum, at a point to facilitate the stripping of the sheet of ice therefrom.

The shaft e is stationary and carries a transverse partition h Within the drum,`

which partition is made of insulating material and has a close sliding fit within the drum and with the insulation d site ends thereof. This partition z prevents the vapors from the refrigerating medium entering the upper part ofthe drum, and permits the application of heat adjacent the surface of the drum above the partition at the point Where the ice is to be stripped therefrom. This heat'is furnishedthrough the coils z' by means of the direct and return pipes '-z'2 passing through the hollow sha ft e, at one side of the partition g therein. To limit the application of heat to adjacent the point Where the ice is. to be stripped, I provide the. partition about these coils. *1in this manner I get a localized action of the ieat.

Bearing upolrt'hc drum adjacent thc'coils v' is a stripper knife ordoffe'r blade and cxtending from adjacent. said. l knife fofr blad c are spaced guides or doifer guides' m'lcading to the low temperature zone afforded by at the oppothe housing a containing the coils o through which a refrigerating medium is passed.

Intermediate the coils o are rollers p-p' adapted to assist in supporting the ice and apply pressure thereto, these rollers being arranged in pairs, the members of which are ployment of a oppositely disposed. The lower guide or dol'er guide m has an opening therethrough as shown, to permit the lower rollers 2 to engage the ice through this guide or (offer guide. v

Beyond the outlet o f` the housing forming the low temperature zone is a rotary breaker g which will break the ice into pieces as shown as they leave the low temperature zone and while the ice is firm and brittle. This manner of forming and breaking the ice will prevent the Apresence of very fine ice which quickly lbecomes slush, and as the ice is fairly dry, the broken ice may be readily handled, stored or packed without likelihood of its adhering and forming a mass which will be less efficient than a large cake of ice anddiiiicult to handle at a temperature below 32 F.

In the form of the invention illustrated, I use the drum and the various parts appurtenant thereto, in duplicate, it being understood that by a merechange in the spacing of the pairs of rollers p-p, the number of units may be increased, or merely one unit used when a thin ice sheet is desired.

However, since the time required to produce ice of varying thicknesses, varies disproportionately to .that of the thickness of ice, great econom may be effected by the emp urality of units. It is apparent that from the time any por- "ti-on of the perimeter of a drum passes the surface of the water in the tank a until the same portion of the drum leaves the water, ice will continue to be formed of progressively increasing thickness so that the thickness of the ice formed upon the drum in the tank will be of progressively increasing thickness to a point where it leaves the water.

It is also apparent that the ice formed upon the drum will have a tendency to adhere thereto with considerable tenacity so that so long as the surrounding atmosphere is maintained at a low temperature, which is common in the production of ice articially, there is always likelihood of the chipping and breaking of the ice by the stripping knife orvdotl'fer `blade unless the surface of the drum is subjected to a higher temperature before the ice meets this blade so as to break the bond between the ice and the drum suiiciently to facilitate a clean stripping of lthe ice Sheet from the drum.

It is desirable, however, to limit the area through which heat is applied to the drum, toas small a space as possible, to avoid the raising of the temperature of the ydrum to a point where wastage will result from the necessity ot again bringing it to a tempera ture sullicicntly lowv to permit the rapid formation of ice thereon.

A thin sheet of ice has sufficient flexibility to permit it to readily follow the guide plates or doli'cr guides m.- As the sheet of iceis passing through or along this guide,v both surfaces thereof will have a thin film of moisture thereon, which, however, will be congealed as the sheet passes adjacent4 the coils 0. When a plurality of sheets of ice are united to form a composite sheet of greater thickness, this film of moisture as-y sists materially in forming the desired bond between these sheets.

It will be observed that the apparatus will operate continuously while the drum is turned but very slowly. This continuous production of ice is much more economical when the production of ice in cans, or even the production of plate ice and the subsequent breaking of this ice to reduce it to pieces of the size required.

It 1s not my intention to limit the invention to the precise details of construction shown in the-accompanying drawings, it being apparent that such may be varied without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. i

Having described the invention, what claim as new and desire to have protected by Letters Patent, is

1. The herein described method of mak-- ing sheet ice consisting in continuously forming a layer of ice in curved form by immersing and slowly rotating a cylindrical body in water, while circulating a refrigerating medium within said body, stripping the layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, and thereafterl passing this sheet through a refrigerating chamber to complete the congealing operation.

Q. The herein described method of making sheet ice consisting in continuously forming a layer of ice in curved form by immersing and slowly rotating a cylindrical body in water, While circulating a refrigerating medium within said body, subjecting the layer of ice while upon said body to a temperature which will break the bond between the ice and the body upon which it is formed, to facilitate the separation of the ice therefrom, stripping the layer of ice thus formed from said body `in a'continuous sheet, and thereafterv passing this sheet through a I efriger-A each of saidbodies, stripping each layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, and thereafter passing said sheets in surface Contact one with the other through a refrigcrating chamber to complete the eongealing operation and bond said sheets together.

4. 'lhe herein described method of making sheet ice consisting in simultaneously and continuously forming a plurality of layers of ice in curved form by immersing and slowly rotating cylindrical bodies in water while circulating a refrigerating medium in each of said bodies, subjecting each layer of icc while upon the body upon which it is formed, to a temperature which will break the bond between the ice and the body upon which it is formed, to facilitate the separation of the ice therefrom, stripping each layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, and thereafter passing said sheets in surface contact one with the other through a refrigerating chambery to complete the congealing operation and bond J said sheets together.

The herein described method of making sheet ice consisting in simultaneously and continuously forming a plurality of layersy of ice in curved form by immersing and slowly rotating cylindrical bodies in water while circulating a refrigerating medium in each of said bodies, stripping each layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, thereafter passing said sheets in surface contact one with the other through a refrigerating chamber to complete the congealing 'operation and bond said sheets together, and applying pressure to the sheet-s of ice while in said refrigerating chamber to secure the desired intimate-contact of the contacting surfaces thereof. i

6. The herein described method of making sheet ice consisting in simultaneously and continuously forming a plurality of layers of ice in curved form by imm'ersing andr slowly rotating cylindrical bodies in water while circulating a refrigerating medium in each of said bodies, subjecting each layer f iee while upon the body upon which it is formed, to a temperature which will break the bond between the ice and the body upon which it is formed, to facilitate the separation of the ice therefrom, stripping each layer of ice thus formed from said body in a continuous sheet, thereafter passing said sheets in surface contact one with the other through a refrigerating chamber to complete the eongealing operation and bond said sheets together, and applying pressure to the sheets of ice while in said refrigerating chamber to secure the desired intimate contact of the contacting surfaces thereof.

.7. An apparatus'for making sheet ice embodymg ,therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a drum mounted 1n said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed in the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drum may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through said drum, a member adapted to bear upon said drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, a chamber, means wherebyvsaid chamber is maintained at a temperature which will eongeal moisture upon the surfaces of said sheet, and a guide supporting said sheet and extending from adjacent said member to within said chamber.

8. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a drum mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed in the water 4 tank, means whereby said drum .may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through said drum, a member adapted to bear upon said drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, a stationary heat-insulating partition adjacent the center of the drum and said member, means whereby a portion of said .drum above said partition is subjected t0 a temperature above the melting point of ice to break the bond between the ice and the drum, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon thel surfaces of said sheet, and a guide supporting said sheet and extending from iadjacent said member to within said chami 9. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a `drum mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed in the water contained in 'the tank, means whereby said drum may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through said drum, a member adapted to bear upon said drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, heat insulating means at opposite ends of said drum whereby the formation of ice is limited to the perimeter of said drum, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will eengeal moisture upon the'sur-l faces of said sheet, and a guide supporting said sheetand extending from adjacent said member to within said chamber.

10. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a drum mounted in said tank ina position to cause a portion thereof 'to be immersed in the water contained in the tank, means whereby said. drum may be slowly.rotated,'.means wherebyga refrigerating medium may befeireulate'd through said Jdrum, ialmember adapted .to bear upon said drum and strip therefrom contained in the the layer of ice formed thereon, heat insulatying means at opposite ends of said drum whereby the formation of ice is limited to the erimeterf of said drum, a stationary heat-1nsulating partition adjacent the center of the drum. and said member, means whereby a portion of said drum above said partition is subjected to a temperature above the melting point of ice to break the bond between the ice and the drum, a chamber, means whereby said chamber 1s maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of said sheet, and a guide supporting said sheet and extending from adjacent said member to within said chamber.

11. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to con tain water to be frozen, a pluralltyl of drums' mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed 1n the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drums may be slowly-rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may 4be circulated through each drum, a member adapted to bear upon each drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained 'at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of asheet of ice, and guides extending from adjacent said members respectively to within said chamber with adjacent sheets in surface contact with each other, whereby the congealingl of moisture upon the contacting surfaces of said sheets will bond said sheets together.

12. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tankadapted to contain water to be frozen, a plurality of drums mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion 'thereof to be immersed in the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drums may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through each drum, a member adapted to bear upon each drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formedl thereon, a stationary heat-insulating partition adjacent the center of each of said drums and said member operative upon that drum, means whereby a portion of each drum above said partition is subjected to a temperature above the melting point of ice between the ice and the drum, a chamber,- means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of a sheet of ice,y and guides extending from adjacent said members respectively t0 within said chamber with adjacent sheets Yin surface contact with each other, whereby the con ealing of moistureupon the contacting sur aces of said sheets will bond said sheets together.

13. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain vwater to be frozen, a plurality of drums mounted in said tank 1n a position to. cause a portion thereof to be immersed 1n the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drums may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be cir culated through each drum, each-of said drums havinp` heat insulating means at opposite ends thereof whereby the formation of ice is limited to the perimeter of the drum, a member adapted to bear upon each drum and strip therefrom the layer of ico formed thereon, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of a sheet of ice, and guides extending from adjacent said members respectively to 'congealing of moisture upon the contacting surfaces of said sheets will bond said sheets together.

14. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein al tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a plurality of drums mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof Ito be immersed in the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drums may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circul-ated through each drum, a member adapted to bear upon each drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of a sheet of ice, guides extending from adjacent said members respectively to within said chamber with adjacent sheets in surface contact with each other, whereby thecongealing of moisasV ture upon the contacting surfaces lof said sheets will bond said sheets together, and

oppositely disposed presser rollers within' 'said chamber spaced apart to permit a plurality of sheets of ice to pass therebetween and receive pressure therefrom to secure the desired contact of the sheets one with the other.

15. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a plurality of drums mounted in said Itank in a position to cause partition adjacent the center of each of sai j drums and said member operative upon that at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces ofv a sheet of ice, and guidesvextending from adjacent said members respectively to within said chamber with adjacent sheets in surface contact with each other, whereby the congealing of moisture upon the contacting surfaces of said sheets will bond said sheets together.

16. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tank adapted to contain water to be frozen, a drum mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed in the water containedv in the tank, means whereby said drum may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through said drum, a member adapted to bear upon said drum and strip therefrom the layer ofv ice formed thereon, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained eat a temperature. which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of said sheet, a guide supporting said sheet and extending from adjacent saidmember to vwithin said cham ber, and a breaker beyond said chamber adapted to break the sheet of ice as it emerges from the chamber while it is still dr l?. An apparatus for making sheet ice embodying therein a tankl adapted to contain water to be frozen, a plurality of drums mounted in said tank in a position to cause a portion thereof to be immersed in the water contained in the tank, means whereby said drums may be slowly rotated, means whereby a refrigerating medium may be circulated through each drum, each of said drums having heat insulating means at opposite ends thereof whereby the formation of ice is limited to the perimeter of the drum, a member adapted to bear upon each drum and strip therefrom the layer of ice formed thereon, a stationary heat insulating partition adjacent the center of each of said drums and said member operative upon that drum, means whereby a portion of each drum above said partition is subjected to a temperature above the melting point of ice between the ice and the drum, a chamber, means whereby said chamber is maintained at a temperature which will congeal moisture upon the surfaces of a sheet of ice, guides extending from adjacent said members respectively to within saidy chamber with adjacent sheets in surface contact with each other, whereby the congealing of moisture upon the contacting surfaces of said sheets will bond said sheets together, and a breaker beyond said chamber adapted to emerges from the break the sheet of ice as it chamber while it is still dry.

Inwitness whereof I have hereunto aiixed my signature, this 4th day of February,

GEORGE L. BENNETT.'

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2733577A (en) * 1956-02-07 Ice cube machine
US4192899A (en) * 1977-03-17 1980-03-11 Roth Eldon N Method for forming frozen meat patties
US4349575A (en) * 1980-09-15 1982-09-14 Roth Eldon N Method for freezing and forming meat patties
WO1983003463A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-10-13 Chapman, Warwick, David Rotary drum ice maker
WO2004042296A1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-05-21 Sun Hee Yun Apparatus for fabricating sea water ice

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2733577A (en) * 1956-02-07 Ice cube machine
US4192899A (en) * 1977-03-17 1980-03-11 Roth Eldon N Method for forming frozen meat patties
US4349575A (en) * 1980-09-15 1982-09-14 Roth Eldon N Method for freezing and forming meat patties
WO1983003463A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-10-13 Chapman, Warwick, David Rotary drum ice maker
WO2004042296A1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-05-21 Sun Hee Yun Apparatus for fabricating sea water ice

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