US155638A - Improvement in nut-machines - Google Patents

Improvement in nut-machines Download PDF


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US155638A US155638DA US155638A US 155638 A US155638 A US 155638A US 155638D A US155638D A US 155638DA US 155638 A US155638 A US 155638A
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    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/64Making machine elements nuts


4 Sheets--Sh'eet 2.
Nut- M'achinas. No .l55,638.,
Patented Oct. 6, 1874.
4 W r m NJ EEEES v WJ wwz jiizz I UNITED-"STATES.
Specification formingpart of Letters Patent No. 155,638, dated October 6, 1874 application filed August 31, 1874.
To all whom it may concern: 7
Beit known that W6,WILLIAM GnARLEs, of Ghartiers township, county of Allegheny, State of Pennsylvania, and MATHEW Mo- KAIN, of Pittsburg, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Nut-Machines; and we do hereby declare the followin g to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof,'reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, in which- Figure 1 is a plan view of our improved nutmachine. Fig.2 is a longitudinal vertical seetion of the same; Figs. 3 and 4, transverse vertical sectionson the line a: :19, looking in opposite directions. Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 illustrate different forms of punchesmodified' for the production of different polygonal nuts and Fig. 11 is a side view of the T-head and die-box,showing the opcration of the wedgearms and swages.-
Like letters'of reference indicate like parts in each.
Our invention relates to method and apparatus for making nuts ordinarily known as hot-pressed nuts, the nut being cut from a heated bar of iron, and-compressed in a nutbox between swages or dies, and the eye of the nut formed by a suitable punch.
' Heretofore in making nuts the punching or piece ofmetal removed. from the eye of the nut by the rounded punch has necessarilybeen a solid piece of iron as long or longer than the thickness of the nut, which is a great waste of material, as the punching is useless, except as scrap-iron. It has been sought to overcome this loss by the use of two rounded blunt punches, which, after the nutblank is inclosediu the nut-box, and is under pressure between thev dies, have been introduced from opposite faces of the nut, so as nearly to meet in the center, forcing the excess of ironinto the body of the nut, of course increasing the thickness of the nut; but as the lateral expansion of the nut is retained by the nut-box, in order to-accommodate the expansion it has been necessary to support .the upper die by a spring, whichdoes not sufficiently sustain the nut under the thrust of the lower die, and resultsin the production of nuts of unequal and uncertain thickness.
We will now proceed to describe our apparatus, referring to Sheet 4 for the different forms of swaging-dies that maybe used therewith.
The swaging-die of the nut-machine, as shown at Fig. 3 and Fig. 5, Sheet 2,. is one in which the contained angle is about one hundred and twenty degrees, and is used in forming hexagonal nuts, forming two sides of a single nut, and the sides of two other nuts-one to either side of the single nutat one stroke when a double tool is used, the bar being simultaneously nicked along the dotted line shown in Fig. 5, which gives a form approaching the hexagon, or sufficiently near to enable it to be forced into a die-box of that shape. ,The swages are used in connection with a nut-box, corresponding. in form, and punches for compressing and punching the blank; and the swages may be made to operate immediately before, and in juxtaposition to, the nut-box, or may be in line therewith, so that the operations of forming the polygon and passing the same to the nutbox and punches are successive operations.
. If preferred, the cutters employed may be each a single tool corresponding to one-half of the tool 3 Fig. 5, as shown, divided by dotted lines, and they may be made to approach each other from opposite sides for a limited distance only.
If apentagon is to be formed by the use of the cutting or swaging tools the upper and lower tool of the pair willvary in form, the contained angle of one' being greater (one hundred and eight degrees) than the contained angle of the other (thirty-six degrees,) so that when the points of the two are caused to nearly approach in the blank the pentagon "to divide the nuts. of the nut-box,'and h the right-hand piece, this latter being provided with a stop, 10 against which the blank abuts as it is fed fornut are formed at the same time by the swages 0,- but such a construction is not deemed desirable.
If it is desirable that the tool be made to operate in a line parallel to the axis of the- -namely: The use of revolving toothed cutters,
made similar to the teeth of a cog-wheel, ex-
cepting that the edges have a bevel sidewise and on one edge somewhat similar to the cutting-tool shown in Fig. 10, so that they will pass through the metal of the blank and cut their way into the iron with little, if any, waste.
We will now proceed to describe our machine as embodying our improvements, referring to Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 11 of the drawing,
in which A represents the bed or frame, which may be of any suitable form, to support the operative parts B, the cam-yoke, provided with T-heads G. This cam-yoke may have two T-hea-ds, similarly constructed, so that when desirable, from wear or otherwise, the yoke may be reversed. The T-heads of the cam-yoke move upon guides O of the frame A. b is a cam for operating theT-heads, and is attached to the shaft 13, which is also provided with side cams, operating a pair of; cross-heads, D, one on each side of thecamyoke, moving in the brackets D. Secured in the face of the T-head (J are the lower dies E, having plain faces and central channels for the passage of the eye-pointed conical punches. In the drawing, these dies are illustrated as hexagonal, but of course correspond in shape with the nut to be formed. F represents a nicking-knife, on each side of which is a blunt punch, f, which nicks and partially punches the bar in the formation of the blank at the same time that it is subjected to the. swaging-tools, which give it its general form. Attached to the T-heads are the wedge-arms G, for operating the swages. H is the diebox, within which is secured thenut-box H.
The die-box is rigidly secured to the main frame, and recessed for the reception of the pressed, whether a hexagon, pentagon, or 00- tagon, the pieces of which the box is composed "being the same, the general form of course yarying. In the drawing, h represents the dividing or center piece, having beveled edges h is the left-hand piece "of the nut-boxes.
in the upper die E the punch-mandrel M, which is attached to ward. This stop we give a slight bevel, so that should the blank be somewhat. larger than the nut-box the forward movement of the" lower die will force it into the box. It and k are the upper and lower pieces. The
'severahpiecesof the die-box, being properly which is that preferably used in forming the hexagonal nut adopted in illustrating this in vention.
These swages are forced into the iron bar by the wedge-arms G, attached to the T-he'adof the cam-yoke, and when released by the wedgearms the swages are retracted by the springs i,attached to the die-box. 6 represent a series of keys used in keying the separate pieces E are the upper dies, countersunk'upon their outer faces so as to form what is known as the washer on the nut, and a bevel on its four corners. These dies move forward and backward in the cavity of the nut-box, and are provided with a cylindrical aperture, through which theconically-pointed eye-punches operate in forming the eye of the nut. Immediately in rear of die-box H is the press-plate K, moving onguides k attached to the main frame. Between the press-plate and the die-box, surrounding the conically-pointed punches, are the liners 70 which are interposed between the press-plate and the rear of the upper die, so as to regulate the space according to the thickness of the iron from which the nut is being formed; these liners will accordingly vary in number and thickness. L is the press-screw, which is in the form of a sleeve, to admit of the passage of the conically-pointed punches, and works within the cross-head L attached to the main frame, being notched or formed upon its periphery like a ratchet-wheel, into which the dog L takes; This press-screw works upon the back of the press-plate K, and is screwed out or in according as more or less pressure has to be made uponthe nut within the nut-box,'which is determined by the quality or size of the iron, the press-screw being locked in position by means of the dog L. m represents the conically-pointed eye-punches, which pass centrally through the press-screw and press-plate and the hollow liners, entering the apertures They are secured within the'punch-head M. The punch-head M is connected, by the hangers or stretchers N, to
the cross-heads I), so as to be operated therefrom. The press-plate K is connected, by the hangers'N, to the T-head of the cam-yoke, and, as the lower die isadvancingto force the blank within the nut-box, the cross-heads D are receding or moving in an opposite direction,'so as to bring the eye-pointed punch forward to force the same through the nut formcharge the completed nut.
ing the eye thereof, while the nut is compressed between the upper and lower dies, the backward motion of the cam-yoke drawing with it the press-plate, and, through the medium of the liners, forcing forward the upper dies, so
as to discharge the pressed and perforated nut from the nut-box. A
of, the cutter 1* and its two blunt'punches f,
and immediately between the pair of swagingtools I; the forward motion of the T-head causes the cutter and the two punches f to enter the bar, nicking the same, and partially forming the eye of the nut; at the same time the wedge-shaped arm Gr forces the swages I together, compressing the bar to form a blank of the desired shape.
When the T-head recedes, the bar is pushed forward,with its formed and partiallysevered blank, until arrested by the stop h when, at the next forward movement of the T-head, the swagesand cutters repeat the same operation, and simultaneously the blanks previously formed are severed from the bar, forced into the nut-box, and compressed between the upper and lower dies. The eye-pointed punch being at the same time forced forward, through the medium of the cross-head D and hangers or stretchers N, pierce the nut, and complete the formation of the eye, at the same time that the nut is under pressure.
When the T-head next recedes, it carries with it, by means of the hanger N, the pressplate K, which, through the medium of the liners or other suitable devices, force forward the upper or countersunk dies, causing them to move forward in the nut-box' and dis- The eye-punches may thus be made to advance so as to punch the nut while confined between the dies, or the blank may be forced by the lower die over the punches, and in either case the conically-pointed rounded punch enters the iron, and instead of forcing out a burr of the thickness of the iron remaining in that part of the blank which isto form the eye of the nut, as might be supposed, the efi'ect of the tapering point of the punch, as described, is to force a large por- \tion of this iron into the body of the nut,
thussomewhat increasing its thickness, and adding to the solidity and compactness of the iron.
If the nut-bar should not have been partially punched bythe punches f, the efl'ect of the comically-pointed eye-punch is such that about one-half of the iron that would have been punched out to form the burr is thus forced into the body of the nut, even though there be no punch in the cavity of the counter die; and if the nut-blank has been previously partially punched by the punches, as before described, the burr. is reduced to a thin thimble of iron, almost entirely saving the loss which ordinarily arises in punching the nut, which thin burr of iron is carried by the pointed punch through the central aperture of the lower die, and discharged at the rear of said die.
When the upper dies E come to a standstill, the lower dies E continue to advance sufficiently to press the nut within the nutbox between the faces of the dies and the round eye-punches,over which they have been forced by the lower dies, as already de scribed.
If it is preferred to punch the nut by the conically-pointed punches m, after thelower.
die has completed its forward motion, this may be done by arranging the cams that oparate the cross-head D but in such case sufficient allowance will have to be made in adjusting the lower die, to allow room for the swelling of the nut by forcing, into the body thereof of so much of the iron as was not removed by the comically-pointed punch, and
the nut thus formed is delivered from the machine by being forced out of the nut-box in the manner before described. 7
The plate h of the die-box may be bevelededged or double bevel edged, according as desired. If a single-beveled edge is used,
the bevel should correspond with the bevel of stop 75, so that the nut-bar, when severed,
shall have a beveled edge which will rest against the bevel of the stop.
In some cases the nicking-knife Fand blunt punches f may adhere to the bar, in which case a stripper (illustrated at P, Fig. 12) may be attached to the die-box front of the swages I.
Havingthns described our invention, we claim- 1. The combination of the swage-arms Gr, swages I, cutter F, and blunt punches f, for swaging, nicking, and partially punching two or more blanks at one operation, substantially as specified. v
2. The combination, substantially as described, of the hollow press-screw L,Vsupported in a suitable cross-head, the pressplate K, the dies E, and the eye-punches m m, substantially as and for the purpose speci fied.
3. The nut-box H, having the beveled dividing or center piece It, and the beveled stop h, in combination with the dies E, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
4. In combination with the cylindrical conically-pointed eye-punch, press-dies, and the boxes, the cutters and punches, for the purpose of previously nicking and partiallypunching the blank, substantially as specified.
In testimony whereof, we, the said WIL- LIAM CHARLES and IVIATHEW MGKAIN, have hereunto set our hands.
f F. W. BITTER, J r.,
l T. B. KERR.
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