US1551771A - Stringed musical instrument - Google Patents

Stringed musical instrument Download PDF

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US1551771A
US1551771A US634459A US63445923A US1551771A US 1551771 A US1551771 A US 1551771A US 634459 A US634459 A US 634459A US 63445923 A US63445923 A US 63445923A US 1551771 A US1551771 A US 1551771A
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strings
bridge
treble
harmonic
group
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US634459A
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Frederick O Pease
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Frederick O Pease
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10CPIANOS, HARPSICHORDS, SPINETS OR SIMILAR STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH ONE OR MORE KEYBOARDS
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/04Frames; Bridges; Bars
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10CPIANOS, HARPSICHORDS, SPINETS OR SIMILAR STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH ONE OR MORE KEYBOARDS
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/26Pedals or pedal mechanisms; Manually operated sound modification means

Description

Sept. 1, 1925. 1,551,771
F. 0. PEASE STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25. 1925 3 sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. 1, 1925.
1,551,771- F. o. PEASE -STR-IRGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed A 'ru 25. 1925 3 Sheets-$12001} 2 *3 {w W v Sept. 1, 1925.
F. o. PEASE 155L771 STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25. 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Sept. 1, 1925.
UNITED STATES FREDERICK O. PEASE, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
Application filed April 25, 1923. Serial- No. 684,459.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, FREDERICK O. PEASE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Stringed Musical In struments, of which the following is a speciiication.
This invention relates, generally, to stringed musical instruments, but while it has particularly relation to pianos of vari ous types, such as grand, upright, and player piano types, and is shown in the accompanying drawing in connection with an upright piano, and will hereinafter be so described and explained, yet I desire it to be understood that certain features of the invention are applicable for use in connection with other instruments having fixed strings tuned in scales, chromatics, chords, or tunes, such as zithers, dulcimers, auto harps and analogous instruments, without a departure from the spirit of the invention.
One of the objects of the invention is to furnish a musical instrument which by reason of the utilization of my improvements, shall possess high tonal qualities and shall be simple, durable, and inexpensive in construction, with its parts so made, arranged and operable with respect to one another as to be positive and dependable in action.
Another object of the invention is to provide means in a musical instrument whereby certain musical effects, such as exceptional tonal values, sweetness and flexibility of expression, and ease of execution can be produced, without requirlng any change 1n technique, but by simply employing the pedals of the instrument to control or operate certain elements of the invention, or as predetermined by the perforated record in player pianos.
Another and important object of the invention is to provide means for greatly improving the tonal quality of the higher or last two octaves over that of instruments heretofore and at present in general use.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be disclosed in the following description and explanation, which will be more readily understood when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which is illustrated an embodiment of the invention, it being understood that modifications and changes may be resorted to W thout departure, from the invention,
so long as they fall within the scope of the appended claims forming a part hereof.
In the accompanying drawings,
Fig. 1 is a face view of the metallic frame or plate and the sounding board of an upright piano ofabout the ordinary construetion showing enough of the strings of the instrument mounted thereon for illustration and showing my improvements arranged in substantially the positions they will occupy when in practical use on a piano.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of a modified fragment of like parts shown in Fig. 1, with the higher or last two octaves of the treble strings omitted.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 33 of Fig. 2 looking in the direction indicated by the arrows. V I
Fig. 4 is an enlarged face View of the section of the treble strings constituting the higher or last two octaves with my ime proved third partial harmonicbridge therefor, disposed in about the position it will occupy when employed in conjunction with the strings of said section; In this view many of the strings have been the clearness of illustration; and
Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 4 looking in the direction indicated by the arrows.
Like numeralsof reference refer to corresponding parts throughout the different views of the drawings. p j
1 Referring now more particularly to F g. 1 of the drawing, the reference numeral 7 designates as a whole the metal plate or omitted for j frame of an upright piano, which frame or plate may be of the ordinary or any well known construction and has mounted in the usual manner on one of its faces a sounding board 8 of the well known construction.
Mounted along the opposite face of the metal frame or plate 7 from that on which the sounding board 8 is disposed and in the usual manner, are the bass strings indicated by the numeral 9 and a section or group of the treble strings indicated by the numeral 10, the group of strings 9 or bass strings diagonally overlying the group 10 of the treble strings at a sufiicient distance to permit of the location and operation of. U
a second partial harmonic bridge for said group 10 or section of the treble strings. This bridge consists of an elongated strip 11 of any suitable material but usually of Wood and a series of springs 2 each of shaft 22 is turned.
described for the base strings. harmonic bridge for the group 10 of treble .provided with a crank '15 and is iournaled 10 near said crank in a post 16 secured to the front face of the sounding board.
Loosely connected to the crank 15 is an operating rod17 which extends downwardly through a guide 18 on the block or post 16,
and from thence to one of the pedals of the instrument, not shown, to which it may be suitably connected. The bridge member or strip 11 .isdisposcd diagonally across the treble strings of the section 10 as is clearly shown in Figs. land 2 of the drawings, and has mounted diagonally on the lower surface thereof a series of spaced leather pads 19 which are so arranged as to contact separately and simultaneously with the three strings or strands comprising each of the notes or strings of the treble section 10 and at right angles thereto.
Located diagonally across the group 9 of the bass strings is a second partial harmonic bridge for the bass strings, which consists of a straightbar or member 20 of wood or other suitable material, which has on its rear surface a leather pad 21 which is preferably of a continuous strip, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 2 of the drawings. The bar or member is supported on a rock shaft 22 of similar construction to that of the first described bridge by means :of springs 12 which are secured at one of their ends to the front surface of the bar 20 and at their other ends to the rock shaft 22 so as to actuate the bar 20 when the rock This shaft is vjournaled at one of its ends in the post 14- and near its other end on a part23 of the post 16. The shaft 2.2.is provided at its last named end with a crank 2 1- which is loosely connected to an arm 25 extended from the operating rod 17 so that in the increment of said rod the first harmonicbridge for the said group of treble strings and the first harmonic bridge for the bass strings will be simultaneously operated.
Locatedacross the group of bass strings between the last described first harmonic bridge and the lower ends of said strings, is a second harmonic bridge for the bass strings, which is designated as a whole by the reference numeral 28 and is of the same construction as the harmonic bridge above The first strings is indicated as a whole by the reference numeral 26 and the first harmonic bridge for the bass strings is indicated as a whole by the numeral 27. The rock shaft of the bridge 28 is journaled in posts 30 and 31 located on the sounding board at each side of-the group of bass strings, and this bridge is operated by means of a rod or connection'32 connected to one of the pedals of the instrument.
'The reference numeral 29 designates as a whole the second harmonic bridge for the group 10 of treble strings and is of substantially the same construction as that of the bridge 26, except that the bar or member which carries the leather pad on its rear surface may have a different shape from the strip 11 of the bridge 26 as-is shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, in which View it will be observed that the bridge 29 is located in its general direction diagonally across the group 10 of the treble strings. The rock shaft 341- of the bridge 2.) is journaled at one of its ends on the post 16 and at its other end on a post mounted on the sounding board near the lowest toned string of said treble group. The rock shaft 3% has at its last named end, a crank 36 to which is loosely connected one end of a rod 37 the other end of which is suitably connected to one of the pedals of the instrumentin such a way thatthe shaft 3 1 can be rocked so as to bring the bridge .29 into or out of contact ith the said group of treble strings.
lit will be observed by reference to Fig. 1 that the strings of the group 10 rest on a supporting rib on the sounding board and that this rib is extended under a group 10 of the treble strings, which last named group produce the higher or last two octaves.
In the construction of pianos heretofore and now in general use, the group of strings producing the higher or last two octaves are 'i'ery short, as is well known, and would, if used,ter1ninate at their lower ends just below the dotted line position of the rib 38 shown in Figs. 1 and 1 of the drawings. An important object of my invention is the elin: ation of these short strings comprising tne group 1O of treble str rs, and substituting therefor strings of much greater length and further in regulating the tuning of said elongated strings and applying thereto for constant contact therewith, what I will term a constantly contacting second harmonic bridge, which is designated as a wholeby the reference nuu'ieral 39, see Figs. 1, 1 and 5 of the drawings.
Tl c bridge 39 consists of a bar 40 of any suitable material, which is resiliently supcorted on the sounding board 8 by means of a plurality of how springs 41 interposed between the said board .and'bar and secured to the latter, is clearly shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. By this arrangement it is Jnanifest that as the treble strings of the group 1O are stretched over the bridge 39,
the upper surface of which may be provided with padding 42 such as leather, will be constantly pressed against the strings 1O at suitable points. I
The partial tone bridges are so named for the reason the natural harmonics, commonly called partial tone or partial, are efiectively produced when said bridges are brought in contact with the strings at certain nodal points, e. g., the string vibrating its full length, produces the prime or fundamental or first partial tone; at the exact center of the length of the open strings the second partial tone harmonic will be produced; at one-third of the length of the open strings the third partial; at one-fourth of the length of the open strings the fourth partial, and so on.
In Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings the bridge 26 is shown in position for produce ing the first harmonic for the treble strings, that is, the group 10 thereof, while the bridge 27 is shown in position to produce the first harmonic for the bass strings, and the bridge 28 in position at the nodal points for the production of the second harmonic on the bass strings.
In Figs. 1 and 4 ofthe drawings, it will be seen and readily understood that if the ordinary short treble strings, terminating as before stated at their lower ends just below the supporting rib 38 were employed, the bridge 26 could be extended thereacross as indicated at the dotted line CC on Figs. 1 and 4 of the drawings, for the production of the harmonic octave on said group of short strings. By eliminating the ordinary or normal short strings and substituting therefor the much longer treble strings as shown in Figs. 1 and 4 and so arranging them by using the bridge 39 at the second harmonic nodal point of said elongated group of treble strings, the second harmonic tone will be produced instead of the second harmonic tone of the open tones of the shorter or normal strings, which as is well lmown are metallic, hard and unsatisfactory from a musical standpoint. The elongated strings comprising the group 10 with my bridge 39 in constant contact therewith, produce greatly improved tones, without any interruption to the chromatic scale of the treble series of the normal piano. To illustrate, the last or short string in, the ordinary or treble series, is about one and seven-eighths inches long, and said series of strings are lengthened gradually to the thirtieth string at D, see Fig. 1, near the inner end of the bridge 26. This thirtieth string of the ordinary or normal use, is about eight and seven-eighths inches long. As the thirtyfirst string of the treble series is a continuation of the chromatic scale downward, the strings of the group 10 are gradually lengthened. In my substitution of the much long er strings comprising the group 10 for the ordinary thirty shorter strings, and by regulating the tuning of said elongated strings and applying the bridge 39, as shown, there is produced greatly improved tones, as substitutes for the normal or usual metallic tones, there being obviously no break in the chromatic scale of the treble series of strings from the basses up to the highest tone.
As the first harmonic bridges 26 and 27 are each connected to the operating rod 17 it is manifest that said bridges will be simultaneously actuated by proper movement of said rod through the instrumentality of the pedal of the instrument so that the said bridges can be placed in contact with their respective sets of strings or held out of contact with the same. When used on a player piano, it is manifest that the record therefor can be so made as to operate the rod 17 and through it the last above named bridges. The other manually operated bridges are separately operable, as is apparent by reference to the drawings and the foregoing description relating thereto.
It will be understood that the second harmonic bridge 28 for the base strings, as well as the second harmonic bridge 29 for the group 10 of the treble strings, is independently operable through the instrumentality of the operating rods 32 and 37 by means of the pedals of the instrument or a properly designed record sheet for a player piano. The second harmonic bridge 29 is virtually a continuation of the second harmonic bridge 28, as will be readily understood by those skilled in the art to which my invention pertains.
While I have shown the first harmonic bridge 26 and the second harmonic bridge 29 as being interposed between the grou 9 of bass strings and the group 10 of treble strings, yet,'i.t will be understood that'these bridges can be located between the group 10 of thetreble strings and the sounding board by simply changing the positions of the rock shafts of said bridges on their respective supporting posts.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art, that my invention is applicable to the zither type of instruments, it being necessary only to add to the ordinary system of strings for said instrument, a further set of gut harp-strings in the space not utilized in such instruments up to the present time, and so locate them as to be in efficient relation to the said harp-strings of such instruments so that the first harmonic bridge can be applied to the base strings thereof; By
this arrangement the ordinary zither can' be converted into a harp-toned instrument, thereby affording a compound instrument having the qualities of. a combined zither and Italian harp;
From the foregoing and by reference to the drawings it will be readily understood and clearly seen that by my in'iprovements, a musical instrument is attorded in which the harmonic bridges 26, 27, 28, and 29 can be applied to the strings as and when de sired, by the performer simply operating the proper pedal or pedals, which, through their connection with the bridges, actuate the same, and that thus d sirable musical ell ects, such as exceptional tonal values, sweetness and flexibility or expression and ease of execution, without any change in technique, will be atiordcd. Furthermore, that by the employment of the greatly elongated group of treble strings producing the higher or last two octaves and the constantly contacting second harmonic bridge 39, instead ot' the shortstriugs heretofore used for producing said octaves, flute-like and more desirable tones of the natural harmonies are afforded in lieu of the harsh, wiry and unmusical high tones of said shorter strings.
\Vhile I have, in the foregoing description and explanation, set forth that the group of elongated strings comprises the treble strings required to produce the lasttwo octaves, yet I desire it to be understood that said group may include more than enough of the treble strings to produce the last two octaves without a departure from the invention.
Having thus fully described my inven tion, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1.. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination with the strings thereof, of a bridge extended across a plurality of the treble strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonics,'1neans to actuate said bridge into and out of contact with said plurality of treble strings, a plurality of treble strings other than the first named plurality of said strings for producing the higher or last two octaves being of lengths greatly in excess of the strings heretofore employed for producing the last two octaves, and a bridge extended across said elongated strings in contact therewith. at points to produce the second harmonic tones.
2. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination with the strings thereof, of a bridge extended across a plurality of the treble strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonics, a bridge extended across the bass strings of the instrument for contact therewith'at points to produce first harmonics, means to simultaneously actuate said bridges into and out of contact with their respective strings, a plurality of treble strings other than the first named plurality of said strings for producing the higher or last two octaves being of lengths greatly in excess of the strings heretofore employed for producing the last two octaves, and a ln'idge extended across said elongated strings in contact therewith at points to produce second harmonic tones.
3. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination with the strings thereof, oi a bridge extended across a plurality of the treble stringr s 01''? the instrumentat points to produce first harmonics, zlnotlltl bridge extended across said plurality of treble strings at points to produc second. harmonic tones, i e-ans to actuate said bridges into and out contact with said plurality of treble strings, a plurality oi treble strings other than. the first named plurality oi strings for producing the higher or last two octaves being of lengths greatly in excess ot the strings heretofore employed for producing the last two octaves, and a bridge extended across said elongated strings in contact therewith at points to produce second lnu'inonic tones.
t. In a stringed musical. instrument, the ccnhination. with the strings thereof, of a br e extended across a plurality of the treble strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonic tones. another bridge e ded across said plurality of treble strings at points to produce second harmonic tone, means to actuate said bridges into out of contact with said plurality of treble strings, a bridge extended across the bass strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonic tones, means to actuate the last named bridge into and out of contact with said bass strings, a plurality of treliile strings other than the first named plurality of said strings for producing the higher or last two octaves being of lei'igths greatly in excess of the strings heretofore employed For producing the last two octaves. and a bridge extended across said elongated strings in contact therewith at points toproduce second harmonic tones.
5, In a stringed musical instrument, the combination with the strings thereo'fi oi a bridge extended across a plurality ot the treble strings of the instrun'icnt at. points to produc first harmonics, another bridge extended across said plurality of? treble strings at points to produce second harmonic tones, means to actuate said bridges into and out of contact with said plurality of treble strings, a bridge extended across the bass strings of the instrun'ient at points to pro duce first harmonic tones, another bridge extended across the bass strings of the instrument and adapted "for contact therewith at points to produce second harmonic tones, 111621118110 actuate each of the last named lJlfldQfGS into and out of contact with the said bass strings.
6. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination with the strings thereof, of a bridge extended across a plurality of the treble strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonic tones, another bridge extended across said plurality of treble strings at points to produce second harmonic tones, means to actuate said bridges into and out of contact with said plurality of treble strings, a bridge extended across the bass strings of the instrument at points to produce first harmonic tones, another bridge eX- tended across the bass strings of the instrument at points to produce second harmonic tones, means to actuate each of the last named bridges into and out of contact with the said bass strings, a plurality of treble strings other than the first named plurality of said strings being of lengths FREDERICK O. PEASE.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20130205968A1 (en) * 2012-02-09 2013-08-15 Edward J. McMorrow Fully tempered duplex scale

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20130205968A1 (en) * 2012-02-09 2013-08-15 Edward J. McMorrow Fully tempered duplex scale
US9117421B2 (en) * 2012-02-09 2015-08-25 Edward J. McMorrow Fully tempered duplex scale

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