US1527109A - Railway safe-running device - Google Patents

Railway safe-running device Download PDF

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US1527109A
US1527109A US761042A US1913761042A US1527109A US 1527109 A US1527109 A US 1527109A US 761042 A US761042 A US 761042A US 1913761042 A US1913761042 A US 1913761042A US 1527109 A US1527109 A US 1527109A
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contact
train
track
armature
wire
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Angus Arthur Reginald
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Angus Arthur Reginald
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L3/00Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal
    • B61L3/02Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control
    • B61L3/08Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control controlling electrically
    • B61L3/10Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control controlling electrically using current passing between devices along the route and devices on the vehicle train
    • B61L3/106Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control controlling electrically using current passing between devices along the route and devices on the vehicle train with mechanically controlled electrical switch on the vehicle

Description

A. R. ANGUS RAILWAY SAFE, RUNNING DEVICE Filed April 14, 1915 5 Sheets-Sheet l WITNESSES 1 I'NVENTOR 9/45? 2 g ARAneus 1,527,109 A. R. ANGUS RAILWAY SAFE RUNNING DEVICE F'iledApril 14, 1915 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 TW S S INVENTOR AIR meus 0 K yaw Jaw Feb. 17. 1925.
a. ANGU-E 5 SheetsSheet A. R. ANGUS RAILWAY SAFE RUNNING DEVICE 1915 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 14 ONN WAHL DNVENTOR AR. AFN- Feb. 17. 1925.
1,527,109 A. R ANGUS RAILWAY SAFE RUNNING DEVICE Filed April 14, 1915 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 cwsan -0PEN DOWN WITTNESSEs Patented Feb. 17, 1925.
UNITED STATES ARTHUR REGINALD ANGUS, OF PALL MALL, LONDON, ENGLAND.
RAILWAY SAFE-RUNNING DEVICE.
Application filed April 14, 1913. Serial No. 761,042.
(GRANTED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT OF MARCH 3, 1921, 41 STAT. L., 1313.)
To all whom it may comer Be it known that I, ARTHUR REGINALD ANGUS, a subject of the King of Great Britain, and a resident of the Royal Automobile Club, Pall Mall, S. W. 1, in the county of London, England, solicitor, have invented a certain new and useful invention entitled Improvements in or Relating to Railway Safe-Running Devices, of which the following is a specification.
This invention is intended to form one of a series devised by the same inventor for the protection of trains against collision one with another by means of devices, arranged partly on the train and partly on or about or adjacent to the railway tracks and having for object, inter alia, the elimination of certain dangers arising from the personal equation, that is, from human weakness or fallibility and comprises the various features hereinafter set forth in the claiming clauses hereof.
In the examples of apparatus according to this invention hereinafter described there are placed on or about or adjacent to the railway tracks suitable track contacts comprising a top contacting surface composed of some suitable electrically conductive material and mounted on some suitable nonconductive material such as wood or the like. These track contacts are of two kinds which may be referred to as warning and stop contacts respectively and are such that when the contact shoe or similar device carried on a locomotive or train comes into contact therewith it is displaced. The stopping contacts eflfect a greater displacement of the shoe than the warning contacts. The contacts have their ends suitably ramped to enable interaction with the contact shoe on a train to be efiected without shock or jar. Connected with these track contacts are suitable polarized switching instruments or the like preferably placed in a signal box or the like which are adapted to be operated in the manner hereinafter described by a. train entering a block section in such a manner as to prevent another train from entering the section while upon leaving the section the switching instruments are set in such a position as to allow another train to enter the section.
The railway tracks are divided into suitable sections or blocks certain sections preferably intersecting or overlapping (hereinafter called intersecting) other sections each section being provided with contacts so that a train may operate upon instruments relating to the section so as to close or open either end of a section from the same track contact or so as to open or close both ends of a section at the same time. The closing or opening of a section may be effected by suitable relays.
In order to enable trains running on up or down journeys to differently affect the same switching instruments from the same track contacts the reversing lever or the like on the locomotive for reversing the direction of running of the locomotive is connected by suitable levers, rods, links, or the like with a suitable generator pole changing device on the train so that when the locomotive is running say on the down journey the positive pole of the generator will be connected to the contacting device on the train and upon contact thereby with a track contact current from the generator will flow therethrough, the return being efiected either through the wheels and frame of the locomotive or train or through a return contact ing device on the train (corresponding contacts being used in this case on or about or adjacent to the railway tracks) and when the train is running in the opposite direction on the same track the negative pole of the said generator will be connected to the said contacting device and upon contact thereby with the said track contact current will flow in the reverse direction through the track contact.
When a locomotive or train changes its direction of running by means of a turn table, triangle, loop, or the like a commutator switch or the like must be operated by the driver or the like so as to change the connections or circuits on the locomotive or train in a manner corresponding to the reverse direction of running, and means for ensuring that the driver shall move his commutator switch are therefore provided according to this invention.
The invention is illustrated by the accompanying drawings which represent by way of example apparatus in accordance therewith.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view, of the apparatus used on a locomotive or train.
Figs 2 and 3 show two different methods of arranging and interconnecting the track contacts and polarized switching instruments relating to one section of the railway track.
Figs. 4: and 4 show the arrangement of the track apparatus for intersecting sections.
Fig. 5 shows a modified method of arranging and interconnecting the track contacts and switching instruments relating to a section whereby by the use of quick acting clectromagne'ts a sing'leline wire connecfi'ng the two instruments of a'se'ction is enabled to be employed forop'era-ting either one or the other of the instruments.
Fig. 6 shows anar-rangement by which it is automatically ensured that a driver on leaving a: turntable, loop, triangle, or the like shall correctly set the train apparatus tor the reversed direction ot'run-nin'g.
A suitable contacting device comprising a shoe 10 (Fig. 1) isattached toend insulated from any suitable part of a locomo- 'tive, brarkevan,v or other suitable vehicle. The shoe 10 is adaptedto be given difl'erent displacements by contact with track cont-acts such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (Figs. 2, l etci) placed on or about or above the railway tracks and when not in contact with a track contact is returned to its lowest or normal position by gravity and by a spring 7 although it may be returned to its normal position by one ormore springs only or by gravity only. Attached to and insulated from the contact shoe l d isa iesi l'ien-t bridging coi'itac't member 8, comprising fingers adapted to bridge when the shoe is in its outmost contact'position (hereinafter referred to as its'lowest positio-n) the contact plates 9, 11, 12 so as to completethe circuits oi the generator 14 by wire 1 5 contacts 16 and 17 wire 18 "contact plate 9 bridging member 8' and thence by (a) contact plate 11, wire 19, coil of solenoid 20, contacts 31 (it bridged by handle 30) and wire 21 back to the generator thereby energizing solenoid 20 and holding closed the valve controlling means either for ShllE-tlllgdfi the motive power of the locomotive or for applying the brakes on the train or both; and by 6) contact plate 12 wire-'23 coils of solenoid 2i and magnet 29contact-s 31 (if bridged by the lever 30)-a-nd wire 21 back to -tl'ie 'generator i i, thereby energizing the solenoid 24 and keeping closed the valve 25 so as to prevent the danger whistle 26 from being blown and also energizing the magnet '29 and attracting its armature so as to maintain the miniature visual signal 28 in the clear or off position.
lVhen the shoe 10 comes into contact with a warning contact such as l or 6 (Figs. 2 a'iid3) it is displaced to such a-nextent that one of the bridging contact fh'r'gers passes oil' the cont-act plate 12 thereby breaking there tar as the bridging contact member 8 is concerned the connection between the contacts 9 and 12, and so opening the circuit relating to the solenoid 24 and magnet 29 so that it the said circuit is not otherwise maintained the plunger of the solenoid 24 is forced out by whatever pressure may be acting on the valve 25 and the danger whistle 26 is blown and the miniature signal 28 is also raised into the on or danger position.
When the shoe 10 comes in contact with a stop contact such 2, 3, l, or 5 (Figs. 2 and 3) it is displaced to a greater extent that when displaced by a warning contact so that the bridgin contacts are also raised clear of the contact plates 9 and 11-, thereby l'ireakiiig the circuit of the solenoid 20 so that if the said circuit is not otherwise maintained the plunger ot' the solenoid 20 is forced out by whateter pressure may be acting on the valve 22 and the lever 30 (used for re -ila'c-ing the ph-nrger) is moved so that the circuits of the generator 14-. and the coils of solenoids 20 and 24, and magnet 29 are broken at the contacts 31.
It is intended that the opening of the valve 22 which is normally held closed by the pit-Inger ot' the solenoid '20 should allow the admission of fluid :pressure such as of steam airagas or the like ten suitable cyl in der the piston of which is adapted to shut oil the motive power of the locomotive :aiml should also allow or cause the operation of means for applying the brakes on thetr ain. Either the shutting oli of thelnot'ive powc r the application of the brakes or both may be used for stopping the train. I
It the commutator switch W0 anrl tlrc reve rslngirgear switch it are in the positions shown in l that isto say, in the positions for-the down jOlH'1'16y--\Vll61-1 the shoe 10 comes into contactwith either a warning or a stepping t'rack' cont-act which has been rendered electrically conductive in the manner hereina i'ter explained cn-rreiit will flow 'lrmn the generator 32 on the locomotive by wire 33 coils of magnet-3t wi re arm 36 and contact '37 of the commutator switch 100 wire e'l2-ari-n 493 and -(."ontact- 44 of the reversi nggear switch ll (which is adapted to be moved by the movement or the reversing lever ot the locomotive) wire 48 shoe 10 the track contact and thence through -an external or track circuit back by the rails to the frame of the locomotive wire 49 contact +16 and arm ot the reversing gear switch wire contact 39 and a rm 38 otf the commutator switch and wire Til to the gen- 'er-ator i It t-hecon-ditions 'ot thecirruits and apparatus ccmnected thereto are normal the current which flows will be of a predeterl-nin'ed norm al Valll'G and will cause-the coils of the magnet Btto attract the armature 52 against gravity and the spring 53 so as to and contact contact with the insulated contacts and at the same time to break with contact 56.
By a current of predetermined normal value is meant one which can energize the magnet .34 sufliciently to enable it to attract its armature 52 (so as to contact with the contacts 5% and *but not sulliciently to enable it to raise the armature 52 to such an extent as to break contact between the contacts 16Fand 17 by lifting the pivoted lever 70 against gravity and a. spring 71.
Contact of the armature with the contacts 5d and provides paths in substitution for those broken at contact plates 9, 11 and 12, through branch wire 5?, armature 52, contacts 54 and 55, and wires 58 and 59 respectively, to the coils of solenoid 20 and solenoid 24 and magnet 29 so that warning and stopping operations on the train are restrained. At the same time the circuit of the coil 01 solenoid (50, which is normally completed from generator 14: by wire 15 contacts l6 and 17 wire 18 branch wire 57 armature contact 56 wire (31 coils (S0 and wire 21. is broken at the Contact 516 thus deenergizing the solenoid 60 and allowing its plunger to be forced out by whatever pressure may be acting on the valve 62 so that the line clear whistle 63 is blown.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that the apparatus on the locomotive comprises two generators l-l and 32 (though if desired a common generator may be used) an electromagnet 34 adapted when normally energized to complete substitutional circuits through the normally energized restraining coils 2%, 29 and 20 and at the same time to break the circuit oi the coil of the solenoid 60; a commutator switch 100; am a reversing gear switch ll .vhich is adapted to be operated by the movement oi the re versiug gear of the locomotive and which, when in the position shown in Fig. lthat is to say for the down journey and when the commutator switch is also in the position shown, connects the positive pole of the generator 32 through the electromaguct l to the shoe 10 and the negative pole of the generator 32 to the frame of the locomotive and so to the rails.
When the reversing gear switch is moved over for the locomotive to run on the up journey the connections of the poles of the generator 32 to the shoe 10 and to the frame of the locomotive are reversed-that is to say the shoe 10 is connected to the negative pole of the generator and the trame of the locomotive to the positive pole of the generator through the electromagnet and at the same time a resistance 64 is inserteo into the circuit.
The commutator switch 100 which must be operated when the locomotive is turned round on a turntable, triangle, orthe like performs functions similar to those of the reversing gear switch :l-that is to say reverses the connections of the generator 32 to the shoe l0 and to the frame of the locomotive and at the same time inserts a resistance 65 into the circuit.
l l hen the cinnmutator switch 100 and the reversing gear switch ll are both moved over i rom the positions shown in Fig. l the locomotive apparatus will be set for running in the same direction as when in their present posithaw-that is to sa tor the down journoy-but in this case both of the resistances (i-Zi: and (which are equal) would be in the circuit in series when there should be no resistance at all in t i: circuit. For this reason insulated slmrt-circuiting plates are plated on the arms 0;? those two ches which when both the switches are over short circuit the resistances 64 and 65 by contact with suitable contacts (i6, 67, 6S and 69.
It will thus be seen that a locomotive running on the down journey will always have its contact shoe 10 connected to the positive pole of the generator and also that there will be no resistance such as 64; or 65 in series but that tor the up journey the shoe 10 will always be connected to the negative pole of the generator and one or other of the resistances 64land 65 will always be connected in series.
lVhen a current exceeding the predetermined normal value jtlows through the coils of the electromagnet the armature 52 is attracted with sui'licient force against the insulated contacts 54. and 55 to lift the arm against: gravity and the spring 71, so as to break contact between the contacts 16 and 17 so that the paths to the coils of 60, 24, 29 and 20 are broken and both whistles 63 and 26 are blown, the miniature signal 28 raised to the on or danger position and the motive power shut oil or brakes applied or both.
At the two ends ot a section (Fig. 2) are placed warning contacts 1 and 6 respectively followed by two step contacts 2, 3 and 5, l, respectively. At the two ends of the sec tion there are also polarized switching instruments X and Y, the armatures 73 and 74 of which make contact with contacts 75, 76 and T7, T8, respectively, when in what may be termed the open position, and with contacts 79 and 80 respectively when in the closed position. These armatures are each adapted to remain in the open or closed position, as the case may be, when moved into such position by the flow of current through their respective magnet coils. Each armature 73 and 74: also carries insulated contact plates 81 and 82 respectively adapted to contact with contacts 83 and 8-11; when the armatures are in the closed position. There are also resistances 85, 86, 87, 88, and 89, 90, 91, 92, connected as shown. In the leads of track contacts 2 and 5 are included quick acting polarized relays 251 and 261, the armatures 253 and 263 of which always maintain contact with the contacts 25 1 and 26 1 except only when the current flows through their coils in a particular direction. In this case they are caused to come into contact with contacts 255 and 265 and to leave contacts 25% and 264, spring contact devices being provided such that contact with the contacts 255 and 265 will be made before the contact is broken with contacts 254 and 26 1 respectivelyf When the line is clear and a train running on the down journey comes into contact with track contact 1, the switches X and Y being in their closed positions, the circuit comprising the generator 32 and shoe 1O hereinbefore described is completed through track contact 1, wire 72 contact 83 insulated contact 81, wire 93, and a path through resistance 89, wire 91, coil 95 of the polarized switching instrument Y in parallel with a path through resistance 91, contact- 80, and armature T l, to earth and thence by wire 99 to the rails and the frame of the locomotive and so back to the generator 32 as hereinbcfore described. The direction of how of the current through the coil 95 is such that the armature T l is moved into the open position thereby breaking the parallel path through resistance 91 at contact and completing a path parallel to that through the coil 95 through resistance 94') wire 102 contact 78 and armature 74: to earth. The values of the resistances S9 and are so chosen with relation to the resistance of the coil that their combined values when arranged in this manner allow currentof the predetermined normal value to flow from the generator 3 through the clectromagnet 34 which accordingly attracts its armature so as to complete the substitutional circuits of the coils 2 1., 29 and 20 and thereby to restrain the warning and stopping operations and to allow the line clear whistle 63 to be blown.
The current which flows until the armature T4 has moved into contact with contact T8 is not of predetermined normal value, but it does not affect the warning apparatus on the train because the ramped end of the track contact 1 is of such length that the shoe 10 is not fully raised thereby until the armature 7 1 has moved into con tact with contact 78. A similar explanation will apply throughout the following description wherever the circumstances are similar.
It will thus be seen that the armature 74 must contact with contact 78 to allow normal current to flow through the electromagn'et Should it, however, remain in the closed position, thereby remaining in contact with the contact 80 and maintain ing the parallel path for the current through the resistance 91 and thus providing a reduced combined resistance, a current exceeding the normal would pass through the coils of the electromagnet and a warning operation would accordingly be effected on the train. Should the armature 74 stick midway or should it for some other reason not complete the circuit of the parallel resistance 90 at the contact 78, the resultant resistance thus provided for the; current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 34 would be higher than normal because, whereas normally the path comprising the wire 94 and the coil 95 is paralleled by the path comprising the resistance 90, the contact 78, and the armature 7 1, the former path would not in this case be paralleled at all, consequently a current of less than the normal strength would pass through the coils of electromagnet 34 so that the armature 52 would not be attracted and a warning operation would accordingly be effected on the train. The armature 7 1 must thus be definitely moved into the open position to enable a train in contact with contact 1 to obtain clearance. The movement of the armature 74 into the open position also breaks at the contact 8 t the connection of the track contact'6 to the rails by wire 103 contact 84 contact 82 wire 10% etc, and of the track contact 5 to the rails by wire 260 coils 261 armature 263 contact wire 103 contact 841 etc, so that the track contacts 6 and 5 are rendered noncondnctive for a train on the up journey and a train coming into contact with them on the up journey will accordingly be warned and stopped in the manner herein described. Consequently a train on the down journey is warned if it has failed to render it impossible for a train on the up journey to enter the section at the other end.
lVhen the train comes into contact with track contact 2 on the down journey the circuit hereinbefore described and co1npris ing the generator 32 and the shoe 10 is completed through the track contact 2 wire 250 the coils of the polarized relay 251 armature 253 contact 25 1 resistance 257 wire 99 the rails and the frame of the locomotive.
The direction of current which flows through the coils 251 is such that the armature 253 is moved to contact with contact 255, thereby connecting up track contact 2 through the coils 251 to the contact 33 of the main switch X and the circuit is then the same as previously described for track contact 1. If the main switch X is closed the armature 74 of Y is maintained in the open position and the train obtains clearance but if the main switch X is not closed or the armature 7 1 is not maintained in the open position it will be warned and stopped on coming into contact with the track contact 2. Also if the armature 253 does not move but maintains contact with contact 25% normal current does not flow through the coils of electromagnet 34 on the train and the train is warned and stopped as the resistance 257 although correct for the trains on the up journey is not so for trains on the down journey.
When the train running on tle down journey comes into contact with track contact 3 current flows as before from the generator 32 to the shoe 10 track contact 3 a path through resistance 85, and the coil 97 of the polarized switching instrument X, in parallel with a path through resistance 86, contact '79, and armature 73, wire 99 to the rails and thence through the frame of the locomotive back to the generator 32 as hereinbefore described. The armature 73 is thereby moved into the open position so as to break the parallel path through resistance 86 at contact 79. and to contact with the contact '75 to form a path, parallel to that through the coil 97 through resistance 87 contact 75 and armature 73 to the rails. The values of the resistances and 87 in relation to that of the coil 97 are such that when arranged in this manner normal current flows from the generator 32 through the coils of electromagnet 34 on the train and so restrains the warning and stopping operations and allows a line clear intimation to be given as before described. It is es-- sential in order to obtain this result that the armature 73 should contact with the contact for, should it remain in the closed position contacting with contact 79 as shown in Fig. 2 the resistance 86 would be included in parallel circuit thereby lowering the combined resistance opposed to the passage of current so that current exceeding the normal value would pass through the coils of 'the electromagnet 34 on the train and so break the circuit of the generator 141- at contacts 16 and 17 and cause the blowing of "both whistles 63 and 26 the shutting off of the motive power and the application of the brakes. Moreover should the armature 73 stick midway or for some other reason not effect contact with contact 7 5 the resistance 87 would not be switched into parallel and resultant resistance thus provided for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 34 would be higher than normal, because. whereas normally the path comprising the resistance 85 and the coil 97 is pan alleled by the path comprising the resistance 87. the Contact 75, and the armature 73-, the former path would not in this case he paralleled at all: consequently a current of less than the normal strength would pass through the coils of the electromagnet 3st so that the armature 52 would not be attracted and the warning and stopping operations would be performed on the train. For the train at contact 3 to obtain clearance the armature 7 3 must therefore be moved into the open position. \Vhen it is in this position connection is broken as far as a train on the down journey is concerned at the contacts 83 and 81 between the track contacts 1 and 2 and the rails so that a train coming into contact with them will be warned and stopped as herein described. 7
It will therefore be evident that a train cannot pass into the section over the track contacts 1, 2, and 3 without placing the switches X and Y at the ends of the section into the open position and thereby rendering non-conductive as described the track contacts at each end of the section.
hen the train. continuing on the down journey, comes into contact with track contact l current tlows as before from the generator 32 to the shoe 10 and track cont-act 4 and thence by wire 105 to the coil 96 of the polarized switching instrument Y in parallel with a path through resistance 92, contact 77, and armature '74, and by wire 106 to the rail and thence to the frame of the locomotive and back to the generator 32 as previ ously described. The armature 74 is thereby moved into the closed position and normal current flows from the generator 32 through the coils of the electromagnet 34L on the train and so allows the operation of the line clear intimations and restrains the warning and stopping operations on the train.
hen the train on the down journey comes into contact with track contact 5 the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before described through the shoe 10 track contact 5, wire 260 the coils of the polarized relay 261. armature 263 contact 264 resist ance- 267 wire 106 the rails and the frame of the locomotive and allows normal current to pass through theelectromagnet 34. The direction of current through the coils 261 is such that the armature 263 maintains con nection with the contact 26st and does not contact with contact 265 thereby including the resistance 267 in. circuit. Normal current flowing the warning and stopping operations on the train are restrained and line clear intimations given.
When the train comes into contact with track contact 6 on the down journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before described through the shoe 16 track contact 6 wire 103 contacts 84, 82. wire 104, the coil 98 of the polarized switching instrument X in parallel with a path through resistance 88. contact- 76, and armature 73. to earth wire 106 the rails and thence back to the generator through the frame of the locomotive as hereinbefore described; It will be seen that unless the armature 74 has been moved to close the ro'ntacts 8e, 82, this circuit will-not be completed and the train will accordingly be warned on coming into contact with track contact 6.
The armature '73 of the instrument is thus moved to close the contacts 83 and S1 and so leaves the section clear for another train on the down ourney to enter.
When a train running in the opposite direction-that isto say on the up journey -.-comes into contact with the track contacts relating to this section the following operations will successively be performed Vhen the train comes into contact with track Contact 6 current will flow from the generator by wire 33 coils of electromagnet wire 35 arm 36 and either by way of (a) Contact 37 of the commutator switch 100 wire 4L2 arm 43 and contact 4-6 of the reversing gear switch which has been moved over for running on the up journey (the commutator switch being still in the position shown in the figure) or by way or (6) contact 39, wirefit), 'arm 45, and contact 46 (it.
the commutator switch 10:) but not the reversing gearswitch 41 has been moved) and in either case, by way of wire 49. the frame and rails wire 106 to earth coil 98 oi the polarized switchinginstrument X, wire 104 contacts 82-and 84 which are closed if the line is clear) wire 1.03 track contact 6, shoe 10 wire 48 thence by way of (a) wire 10? resistance 64 contact 47 and arm 45 ot the reversing gear switch 41 wire 50 contact 39 and arm 38 of the commutator switch 100 -(it' the reversing gear switch 41 but not the the coil 98 through the armature 73 and contact 76.
The combined value of the resistance of the coil 98 and the resistance 88 as time an ranged is now less than the value of the resistance of the local circuit from track contact 6 when the armature 73 is moved into the closedposition as when operated by a train running out of this section on the down journey. For this purpose the compensating resistance (34: or is placed in the circuit whichthen consequently offers the same resistance to the passage oi the current from generator 32 when a train running on the down journey comes into contact with this track contact and completes a cii-cnit in which there is no compensating resistance 6t or 65. Current of predetermined normal value therefore flows through the coils of electromagnet a4 allowing the line clear intimations to be given and restraining the warning and stopping, op erations on the train. It is essential for this result to be obtained that the arma ure 73 should contact with the contact 76 so as to complete the circuit ofthe resistance 88 for should it not do so (as for example should the armature 73 remain in the closed position or stick midway) current of less than normal strength would flow through the coils oi electromagnet 34 and a Warning operation would consequently be etlected on the train owing to the fact that, whereas normally the coil 98 is paralleled by the path comprising the resistance 88. the contact T6, and the armature 73, the coil 98 would not in this case be paralleled at all so that the resistance thus provided for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 34- wonld be greater than the normal.
When the train comes into contact with track contact 5 on the up journey current will flow as just described from the generator through the coils of electromagnet 34 the frame of the locomotive the rails wire 106 resistance 26? contact 264 armature 263 the coils 26], wire 260 track contact 5 shoe 1O returning to the generator 32 tln'ough the compensating resistance (34 or and wire .51. The current through the coils 261 is thus reversed and causes the armature 263 to move into contact with contact 265 and thus break the connection with contact 264, The circuit from track contact 5 through the coils 261 and contact 84 is then the same as just described with reference to track contact 6 so that the armaturei i of X is maintained in the open position if the main switch Y is closed. Otherwise the train will be warned and stopped when in contact with track contact 5. h [oreover should the armature E263 remain in contact with contact 264; instead of moving to contact with contact 265 the resistance of the circuit of the picncrator 32 would be greater than normal owing to the inclusion in the circuit of the resistance 64: or 65 and current of predetermined normal value would not tlow through the coils of elcctrolnaenct 3*! so that warning and stopping; operations would he ctl'ected on thetrain.
\Vhen the train comes into contact with track contact 4 on the up journey ciu'rent will flow as described from the generator 32 through the coils of electromagnet 3st to the frame of the locomotive the rails wire 106 coil 96 oi the polarized switching instrument Y, Wire 105 to track contact 4 and shoe 1O returning to the generator 532 through the compensating resistance 64 or 65 and wire 51. The current through the coil 96 is thus reversed and the armature 7 laccordingly moved into the open position to till contact with contacts 77 and 7 8 and so to form a path parallel to that through the coil 96 through armature 74: contact 77 and resistance 92. Normal current therefore flows through the coils of electromagnet SAL and results in the giving of line clear intimations and the restraining of warning and stopping operations on the train. Should the armature 7% not contact with contact 77 and so not complete the parallel circuit of the resistance '92 (tor example should it remain in the closed position or stick half way) current of less than the predetermined normal value would flow through the coils oi elcctromagnet 2 st, and consequently warn ing and stopping'operations would be performed on the train owing to the fact that whereas normally the coil 96 is paralleled by the path comprising the armature T l, the contact 77, and the resistance 92, the coil 96 would not in this case be paralleled at all so that the resistance thus provided for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 34 would be greater than the normal.
Thus it will be seen that the train on the up journey on entering the section and passing over contacts 6, 5 and 4, is unable to proceed unless it has moved both armatures T3 and 74: to the open positions thereby rendering the track contacts at each end of the section non-conductive and thus preventing the entrance of. any other train into the section.
Continuing on the up journey the train comes into contact with track contact 3 so that current flows as before from the generator 32 to the coils of electromagnet 34: to the frame of the locomotive the rails wire 99 coil 97 of the polarized switching instrument X in parallel with a path through armature 78. contact 75, and resistance 87, resistance 85, track contact 3, shoe 1O compensating resistance 64 or 65 and back to the generator 32. The current through the coil 97 is thus reversed and the armature 73 is moved into the closed position to break the parallel path through resistance 87 at contact 75 and to contact with contact 79 thus switching the resistance 86 into parallel circuit with the coil. 97 and resistance 85, and the circuit with one or the other of the compensating resistances 64 and 65 effectually included therein offering normal resistance to the passage of current therethrough normal current flows through the electromagnet causing line-clear intimations to be given and the restraining of warning and stopping operations on the train.
It will be seen that should the armature 78 not contact with contact 79 (as for exping operations would accordingly be performed on the train owing to the fact that (a) it the armature 73 were to remain in the open position and the track portion of the circuit consequently have, as hereinbefore explained with reference to the down journey, such a resistance as to cause current of normal strength to flow through the coils of the electromagnet 3i only it' neither of the compensating resistances 64- and were effectually included in circuit, the resistance then provided for the current flowing through the coils of the electr-Jnnagnet would, on account of the ellectual inclusion in circuit of one or the other of the compensating resistances, be greater than the normal and (b) it the armature 73 were to stick midway, the coil 9? would not he paralleled at all, so that the resistance provided in this case for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 34 would also be greater than the normal.
lVhen the train comes into contact with track contact 2 on the up journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed through the electromagnet 34:, the frame of the locomotive, the rails wire 99 resistance contact an armature 253 coil of polarized-rclay 251 wire 250 track contact 2, shoe ll) and thence before described. The direction or [low of the current through the coils 253i is thus reversed and the armature 25 -3 maintains contact with contact 254;. The
res stance such that normal current flows through this circuit and the train" obtains clearance.
ll'hcn the train comes into contact with contact 1 on the up journey before passing out of the section current will flow as before tron: the generator 32 to the coils ofarmature i l, contact 78, wire 102, and resistance 9th resistance 89, wire 9;}, contacts 81 and 82-), wire 72, track contact 1, shoe 10 and compensating resistance G l or (35 back to the generator 32. The current through the coil is thus reversed and the arn'laturc 71!: is moved into the closed position to con tact with contact 80. The resistance 91 is thus switched into circuit and normal current Hows through the coils of the electroniagnet 3% thereby producing line clear intiniations and restraining warning and stopping operations on the train. It will be seen that this circuit is not completed unless the contacts 83 and 81 have been closed as should have been done by the train when in contact with track contact 3 when running on the up journey and it this circuit is not completed the train will be warned.
Moreover should the armature Tl not ettout contact withcontact St) and therefore fail to switch the resistance 91 into parallel circuit for example should it remain in the open position or should it stick midway in each case current lower in value than the predetermined normal value would flow through the coils of electroma-gnet 31 and the train would be accordingly warned, owing to the fact that (a) if the armature '71 were to remain in the open position and the track portion of the circuit consequently have, as hereinbefore explained with reference to the down journey, such a resistance as to cause current of normal strength to flow through the coils of the electromagnet 3-1 only if neither of the compensating resistances 64c and 65 were effectually included in circuit, the resistance then provided for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 31 would, on account of the effectual inclusion in circuit of one or the other of the compensating resistances, be greater than the normal and (b) if the armature 71. were to stick midway, the coil 97 would not be parallel at all, so that the resistance provided in this case for the current flowing through the coils of the electromagnet 3 1 would also be greater than the normal. From the foregoing description it will be seen that on entering a section for either direction of running a locomotive or train is unable to proceed unless it definitely places the armatures 73 and 74: in certain definite positions. The vital condition is that a train must always protect itself in frontand behind by breaking the contact at 83, 81, and at 8 1, 82-, and it will be seen from the foregoing description that on every occasion when a train ought to break contact at one of those pairs of contacts it will be either warned or stopped or both if it fail to do so.
An alternative method of arranging and interconnecting the track contacts relating to a section with the polarized switching in struments relating thereto is illustrated by Fig. 3 the distinguishing feature of the arrangements being that resistances 109, 110, 111 and 112 are placed in series with the coils 98, 97, 96 and 95 and are adapted to he entir ly short-circuited for certain definite pos 110118 of the armatures 73 and 741. The coils 9S, 9?, 96, 95 of the polarized switching instruments are shown permanently shunted bv resistances 113, 114, 115
and 116 but if desired those shunts may be omitted.
lVith this modified arrangement when the line is clear and a train running on the down journey comes into contact with track contact 1, the circuit of the generator 32 is completed to the shoe 10 as before de scribed thence by track contact 1, wire 72, contacts 83 and 81, wire 93 to the coil 95 (shunted by the resistance 116) of the polarized switching instrument Y, and thence by a path through wire 236, contact 117, and armature 71, in parallel with resistance 112 to earth, thence by wire 99 to the rails and by the frame of the locomotive back to the generator 32 as hereinbefore described. The armature 7 1 is moved into the open position to break the parallel path through contact 117 and to contact with contacts 77 and 78, and completes a path parallel to that through the coil 95 and resistances 116 and 112, through resistance 13, contact '77, and armature 7 1 toearth. The combined value of these resistances and of the coil 95 as thus arranged allows current of the predetermined normal value to flow from the generator 32 through the electromagnet 34 which attracts its armature 52 and so completes the substitutional circuits of the coils 21, 29 and 20 thus restraining the warning and stopping operations and allowing the line clear whistle 6,3 to be blown. It is evident that unless the armature 74 completes the circuit of the resistance 13 through contact 77, current of normal value will not 'liow through the coils of electromagnet 34 with corresponding results on the locomotive. The armature 741 must therefore be moved into the open position for the train to obtain clearance so as to break contact between the contacts 84 and 82 and render the track contacts 6 and 5 non-conductive.
l/Vhen the train comes into contact with track contact 2 on the down journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before described through the shoe 10, track contact 2, wire 250, the coil of the polarized relay 251, armature 253, contact 254, resistance 257, wire'99, the rails, and the frame of the locomotive.
Thedirection of current through the coils 251 is such that the armature 253 is moved to contact with contact 255, thereby connecting up track contact 2 through the coils 251 to the contact 83 of the main switch X and the circuit is then the same as previously described with reference to track contact 1.
If the main switch X is closed the armature 74 of switch Y is maintained in the open position and the train obtains clearance but if not it is warned and stopped when in contact with track contact 2. Also if the armature 253 is not moved but main tains contact with contact 254: normal cur rent does not flow through the coils of electromagnet 34 and the train is warned and stopped since the resistance 257 is correct for the up journey but is not so for the down journey.
When the train running on the down journey comes into contact with track contact 3 current flows as before from the generator 32 to the shoe 1O thence by wire 235 to the coil 97 of the polarized switching instrument X shunted by the resistance 114, a
path through wire 123, contact 79, and armature 73, in parallel with resistance 110 wire 99 to the rails and by the frame of the locomotive back to the generator 32 as hereinbefore described. The armature 73 is moved into the open position to break the pa "and path through contact 79 and to contact with contacts 75 and 76 thus completing the circuit of the resistance 118 through contact 76 and armature 73 and paralleling it with the coil 97 and the resistances 114 and 110 so that current of normal value flows from the generator 32 through the coils of electromagnet 3 1 thus operating the line clear intimations and restraining the warning and stopping operations. Moreover it is evident that the armature 73 must contact with the contact 76 to complete the circuit of resistance 118 in order to obtain this desired result for otherwise current of predetermined normal value will not flow through the coils of electromagnet 34 and warning and stopping operations will be effected on the train. The armature 73 must therefore be moved into the open position for the train to obtain clearance so as to break contact between contacts 83 and 81 of switch X and render the track contact 1 non-conductive and the track contact 2 nonconductive for following trains.
It is thus evident that the trains cannot pass into the section over the track contacts 1, 2 and 3 Without opening the contacts 83, S1, 84, 82 at each end of the section and thereby rendering the track contacts at each end non-conductive as hereinbefore described.
When the train continuing on the down journey comes into contact with track contact 4 current flows as before from the generator 32 to the shoe 10 and track contact 4, thence by wire 105 to the coil 96 of the polarized switching instrument Y, shunted by resistance 115, a path through wire 122, contact 78, and armature 74, in parallel with resistance 111, wire 106 to the rails and by the fame of the locomotive back to the generat 1 r 32 as previously described. The armature 741 is moved into the closed position thus breaking the parallel path through contact 78 and completing the circuit of the resistance 119 by wire 120 contact 80, and armature 74, so that current of normal value flows from the generator 32 through the coils of electromagnet 34 thus operating the line clear intimations and restraining the warning and stopping operations on the train.
It is evident that normal current will not flow through the coils of electromagnet 34: unless the armature 74 is in the closed posi tion and completes the circuit of the resistance 119.
hen the train comes into contact with track contact 5, the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before described through the shoe 10 track contact 5, wire 260, the coils of the polarized relay 261, armature 263, contact 264, resistance 267, wire 106, the rails, and the frame of the locomotive so that normal current passes through the electromagnet The direction of current through the coils 261 is such that the armature 263 maintains connection with the contact 264 and does not contact with contact 265. The warning and stopping operations on the train are accordingly restrained and line clear intimations given.
hen the train comes into contact with track contact 6 on the down journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before through the shoe 10 track contact 6, wire 103 contacts 84 and 82, wire 104 to the coil 98 of the polarized switching instrument X shunted by resistance 113, resistance 109 to earth wire 106 to the rails and back by the frame of the locomotive to the generator 32 as hereinbefore described. It will be seen that unless the armature- 71. has been moved on contact with track contact 4, to close the contacts Set and 82 of switch Y, this circuit will not be completed and the train will not obtain clearance. The armature 73 is moved to close contacts 82 and 81 of switch X thereby rendering the track contacts 1 and 2 conductive and leaving the section clear for another train to enter. \Vhen in this position the armature 7 3 contacts with contacts 237 and 79 and so completes the circuit of the resistance 121 and allows current of normal value to flow from the generator 32 through the coils of the electromagnet 34. It is evident that the armature 73 must complete the circuit of resistance 121 to obtain this desired result and if it does not do so an abnormal current flows through the coils of electromagnet 3 1 with corresponding results on the train.
When a train is running in the opposite direction-that is to say, on the up journey -the operation of the apparatus is reversed in a manner similar to that previously described with reference to Fig. 2 for the up journey the normal resistances of the circuits for line clear being arranged to be less than the normal track resistances for the down journey by the value of each compensating train resistance 64 and 65.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that on entering a section for either direction of running, a train is unable to proceed unless it places the armatures 73 and 74 in certain definite positions. It is vital that the train should be unable to proceed unless it has protected itself in front and behind by breaking the contact at the contacts 83, 81 and 82, 84:, and thus as hereinbefore described to render the track contacts at each end of the section nonconductive as hereinhefore stated.
It will be seen from Figs. 2fand3 if a train passing out of a section is inncontact with the last track contact ,6. thereof at the same time as another train entering the same section is contact with the'firsttraclrcOntact 1 thereof the: train, leaving the section will first free the section. by operating the instrument X at the entering end otthesection so as .to give the entering. train'clearance and the entering train will thenset the instrument at Yso s to block the, section and so causethetrain which; is leaving the section to receive a warning Theulast mentioned train will'thus'receiife an automatic signal thatcanother'train is following it up closely.
In Figs. 4 andsU is shown'a continuous stretch of: railway track providedsvith apparatus arranged according to this invention and comprising contiguous sections .U and V the adjacentifends of wl1ich.areyintersected by asimilar section V; Thetrack contacts and switching apparatus relatingto these sectionsvmayfor the sake of conven-x ience be mentioned as a and b for section U; c and (l forsectionlVyandre and'f for section'V, while lc and g pertain to similar intersecting sections the other ends of which are notincluded in the figure.v
The figures are intended to represent .the
method whereby the interlocking ofgsece tions is effected so thaushouldatrain on one section have satisfactorily.operated both:
the switching instruments relating ,to that section when in contact with the track contacts relating to them and subsequently for some reasonor other should "any ofj the. armatures of these sw tch ng apparatus leave thepositions in ,whichjthey have been placed thereby endangering the safety of the train it will be warned and stopped on interacting wlththe track contacts relating to another intersecting section with which the section in question is interlockedjand,
the train will thus be unable to proceed.
l urthermore these figures shon how, the
use ofiintersecting. sections a definiteflspace interval is always maintained between all' trains on the same linewhetlier running in opposite directions or in the same direction. These ends are achleved by threadingthe" line wires relating to a section throughconfacts placed on the armatnres of the polarized relays or the like relating to the intersectingsection. For example a train run-v ning on the downjourney will first-come into contact with thetrack contacts at a and should as hereindescribed place-the armature 7st at 7) in the-open position and its definite occupation of this position canbe checked either by th method of electrical balance hereinbefore described with reference to Fig.2, as is indicated in Figs and 4:, or by the method of-electrical bal-- ance describedwith reference to Fig.
Sh'ouldit not do,;this, when in "contact with the trackcontacts 1 and-2 at a it would be warned and stopped: It being assumed that Y thisoperation has been performed sat isfactorily and that the train-dies obtained clearance overtrackicontactsl and 2m: (1 it Will on continuing its :down journey come into. contactwith the track contacts at is andc and i when in'contact Withthe contacts land 2 *at e a circuit will normally becoinpleted' as follows-from the generator32*on the locomotive through the coils ot, the.;-electromagnet St to the shoe 10- as previouslydescribed; thencewhen'the shoe l isin-contactwitlr track contact l etc directly to the wire 72 or-\whentheshoe 10 is;in contact-withtrack contact 2*at-e indirectly. (as hereinbefore described with reference to Fig/2) to the-wire 72; thence by wire 72," contact 833*contact 81=to-main line wire 93-threadedthrough contact 125 at; b and insulated "'contact'126; coil 95 of the polarized relay at f to earth and/thence by wire -99-at-e through the rails and the frame of the locomotive back to :the genera tor 32.
It will thusbe seen that it the armature Mat-b is in the open position (as it should be) so that its insulated-plate 126-contacts with contact 125 th required circuit will be completed and 'thetrain will obtain clearance on'contacts-l and 2 ate. But should for any reason the armature 74 at b not that' when the train is in contact with either.
of the trackicontacts and 6 at b itwill complete the circuitot the generator-32 through the coils of electromagnet 34 shoe l0 traclccontact 5 or -6 whichever be in contact withtheshoelO, thence to the wine103 indirectly in the case of track contact =5 (as hereinbefore described with reference to Fig. 2) ordirectly in the case of track contact 6, thence byvway otthe wire 103,'the contact 84, and theinsulated plate 82 to the main line wire-104 threadedthrough contacts 127-and "l28coil-98to earth ate and by wire 106 211; 6 through the rails'and the frame ofthe' locomotive back to the generator 32 but will not do so unless the armature 73 ate has remained in' the open position. Orr-entering section \V and coming into contact with track contacts 1 and 2st 0 a circuit is completed through the locomotives apparatus as before described. thence whcn-the shoe in contact with rack contact 1 at a directly to the wire 72- or when the shoe 10 is in contact with track contact 2 at c indirectly (as hereinbefore described with reference to Fig. 2) to the wire '72, thence by the wire 72, the contacts 83 and 81 line wire 93 to contact 125 at f contact 126 wire 93 to the coil of the polarized relay at d to earth wire 99 at c th rails and back by the frame of the 1000- motive to the generator 32. If the armature 7 4 at is in the open position as it should be after the train has made contact with track contacts 1 and 2 at c this circuit is completed and the armature 74 at (Z is moved into the open position. But should, for any reason the armature 74 at f not be in the open position this circuit would not be completed and the train would bewarned and stopped on track contacts 1 and 2 at 0.
Similar operations take place at f, g and d and therefore do not need further description.
It will thus be seen that the sections are mutually interlocked inasmuch as the train is warned and stopped should the results of the functions it has performed on one section not be maintained when it comes into contact with the track contacts relating to an intersecting section.
The method of maintaining a definite space interval between any two trains will also be seen from Figs, 4 and 4. For example if two trains are travelling in opposite directions on the same line the one on the down journey on coming into contact with track contacts 1 and 2 of section U at a will render the track contacts 5 and 6 at Z) non-conductive by moving armature 74 at b to the open position. The other train travel ling on the up ourney and interacting with track contacts 6 and 5 of section V f will render the track contacts 1 and 2 at 6 nonconductive by moving the armature 7 3 at c to the open position. The down train will therefore be warned and stopped on coming into contact with track contacts 1 and 2 at e and the up train on coming into contact with track contacts 6 and 5 at b and these respective stopping contacts 2 at e and 5 at b and all corresponding similar contacts are placed a distance apart equal to double the maximum braking distance plus a percentage, so that not only is a following train brought to rest before it can collide with a train in front but trains travelling in opposite directions are brought to a standstill before colliding with one. another.
Fig. 5 shows another modification of this invention in which quick-acting electromagnets 214 and 215 are used for the purpose of cutting out one of the polarized relays X or Y while operating the remaining one.
A train equipped with apparatus such as shown in Fig. 1 and running on the down journey first comes into contact with track contact 1 and the circuit of the generator 32 is completed through track contact 1 wire 216 contacts 83 and 81. wire 217 coils of magnet 214 (thereby attracting the armature 218 and breaking at contact 219 the circuit of the coil 97 of the polarized relay X) wire 220 branch wire 221 armature 222 contact 223 wire 224 the coil 96 of the polarized relay Y to earth wire 99 the rails and the frame of the locomotive. The armature 74 is thus moved into the open position thereby breaking at contact 84 the circuit of the track contacts 5 and 6.
On coming into contact with track contact 2 on the down journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed as before described through the shoe 10 track contact 2 Wire 250 the coils of the polarized relay 251 armature 253 contact 254 resistance 257 wire 99 the rails and the frame of the locomotive. The direction of current through the coils 251 is such that the armature 253 is moved to contact with contact 255 thereby connecting up track contact 2 through the coils 251 to the contact 83 of the main switch X and the circuit is then the same as previously described with reference to track contact 1.
Should the main switch X be closed the armature 74 would thus be maintained in the open position and the train would obtain clearance otherwise it would be warned and stopped on effecting contact with track contact 2. Also should the armature 253 not move but maintain contact with contact 254 normal current would not flow through the coils of the electro-magnet 34 and the train would be warned and stopped since the resistance 257 is correct for the up journey but not for the down journey.
On coming into contact with track contact 3 on the down journey the circuit of the generator 32 is completed through the wire 225 the coil 98 of the polarized relay X wire 99 the rails and the frame of the locomotive thus causing the armature 7 3 to be moved into the open position and thereby breaking at contact 83 the circuit of the track contacts 1 and 2. The correct placing of the armatures 73 and 74 must be checked by either of the methods shown in Figs. 2 and 3 or by an equivalent arrangement.
The train has now passed completely within the section and has protected itself from collisions both in the front and in the rear by opening the. switches 84, 82 and 83, 81 respectively.
Continuing on the down journey so as to leave the section the train comes into contact with track contact 4 and completes the circuit of the generator 32 by track contact 4 wire 226 the coil 95 of the polarized relay Y wire 106 the rails and the frame of the locomotive, thus causing the armature 7 4. to
be moved into the closed'position' so as. to complete thecircuit of thetrack contacts and 6' at contacts82, 841
When the train comes into: contact with traclccontact 5 the circuihof tlre gcner 3:2 is completed as before described through the shoe 10 track contact 5 wire 260;.the -coils of the polarized relay26l armaturefliiii contact'264 resistance 26? wire=106thei-rails and the frameef the locomotive 'lhedirection o1t=cnrrentthroughthe: coils-261 is such that the-armature 26-3 main-tainsconnectionwith the contact .264; and does not contact: with contact 265 so that normal current passes through the electromagnetfid and the warningand stopping operations oir the train are thus restrained and line-clear intimations given.
When the train comes: intocontact with track; contact 6 on the: down journey the circuit of the; generator 32 is completed through wire-227 'thecontacts 8st and 82 .wire 228 the coilsof magnet 215 (thereby attract+ ingthe armature 222- and-breakingthe Cir cuit to the coil 96 at-contact223) wire 220 branch wire-229 armature 218 contact; 219 wire 230 the coil-970i the polarizedgrelay X to earth Wire 106111-119- railsand theframeiof the locomotive. The armature 73 is a069rd; ingly moved into the closed positiollito complete the'circuit" oftraok contacts- 1; and 2' at. contacts 83:and 81 and thesection-js-thus left clean for another: train to enter;
A train running on: theup journey; sends out curren t of the reverse polarity: through the track contacts and the various. 0138113: tions are successively performed; in the correct" order but from the contacts in the op posite order-that is to say 'on tra-ck con; tacts 6 and 5the armature73 is moved=to-.or maintained in the op en positionrespectively and on track contact 4 the armatnrefil is moved into the open position whileon leaving'the section oncontact: with track con tact 3 the armature 73- is moved into. the] closed position and on: contact; with track:
contact 1 the 1 armature 74" is moved into theclosedposition. When. a. locon'iotlve or train ch anges-its direotion of-running upon a turntable triangle loop or-the like its commutator switch. 100 must be operated by the driver so. as to:- change the connectionsof the generatorand switch the compensating" resistance 65. into 7 and out of circuit and so enablethe: lOCOlllO-w tive to operate the track apparatnsaln. theccrrect manner for thereversed journey and.
to obtain clearance if it shouldd'oro-v whenincontact with. the track contact, despitethe fact that the reversing gearswitch has not been moved. It is essential that-t-hlsoperw.
tion shouldibe done and. checked at the-turns table, triangle, loop, orthe like itself" asv otherwise the locomotive might be" able" to run somedistance on. the main line back;
mac- 9 in: the.- opposite. direction. without being oppede s; o ut mati y omp li driven to. move his-commutator switch must therei'oreabe. Provided and; such means are illustrated with-reference to a loop in Fig. 6 of the drawings.
Traclc contacts :51 and ,2; arepdacetl adjacent to- ,the; loop and connected as. shown in tl 1c figure.
Thecoils 402 and armature 407 are parts of anordinary polarizedrelay or switching instrument; placed, in. the lead; from tracl; contact 1. the armature .ofwhich is normally in suclra position astodceepits. insulated contact plate 417 inqcontaot withicontact 416 and {the coils A01 andarmature 410 are parts of apolarizedrelay placed in thelead from the track contact 2,thearmature 410 of which isnormally in such a position as.. to keep its insulated contact plate 405 in con? tact with contact 403.
Theoperation oitheapparatus is as fol lows-:-.-.
Thetrain entering the. loop on g the down journey, first effects contact with track con taotQ (which is ,a stopping. contact) and completes the circuit- 01''- the generator 32 carried on the. train. through the. coils; of e-lectroinagnet, 34. (Eig 1.) shoe. 10 track contact 2 wire 400 :the coils dOlgresistance 4.12 wire-411 contact lOfiar nature (if inthe closedposition) wire 408 the rails andhack by. the frame or the locomotive to the generator 32htl1ecircuit not including either of the; compensating resistances 64 or 65. The direction of the current through .the .coils 491 issuch as to move. theinsnlated contact/plate 405 on the armature llO-out of contact with contact 403.
The combined value. of the resistance of the; coils; 401,-and the resistance 4.1-2 issuch. that predetern'iinedg normal current flows? sothat; the train will. obtain clearance though if desired theresistance 412-11135); be i omitted: should the resistance otthe coils. 401 be sufficient.
Then the train, comes into-contact with, traclccontact 1, which. is-a, warning contact the circuit of the. generator 32; is; completed. through contact 1. wire 409,. andsthc. coils; 4 02: in parallel.- with a path through; contact plate. 417, contact L16, wire 41.5, resistance 414;, and wire 4081to therails-and the frame of; the locomotive; The direction Off tl' e cur rent through. the coils; tea-is. such'that the; armature; ,407 is 1noved.into, the open position; and breaks-contact with i the contact; 406.
Therva-lue -of;- the resistanceof. thecoils402 and theiresistance etl combined. is.- such that predetermined normal current flows so that the train will obtain clearance, though it desired the resistance--l13. may he. omitted should the resistance of the coilsAOZhesut ficient.
Having entered the loop the driver operates his commutator switch 100 and so switches into circuit the compensating resistance and reverses the connection of the generator 32 to the shoe 10. lVhen the train again comes into contact with the track contact 1 the circuit of the generator 32 is completed with the addition in the circuit of the compensating resistance 05 and through contact 1, wire 409, coils 4:02, the rails and the frame of the locomotive. The direction of the current is now such that the armature 407 is moved into the closed position in which the insulated contact plate 117 etlects contact with the contact 416 and so completes a parallel path for the current through wire 41-15, resistance 41a, wire 408, and the rails.
The resistance of the track portion of the path of the current is thus reduced to such an extent as, with the increased resistance of the train portion of the path due to the compensating resistance 65, to cause the flow of current of predetermined normal value, so that the train obtains clearance.
. Finally when the train again comes into contact with the stopping contact 2 the circuit of the generator 32 is again completed it armature 407 has been moved on contact with the track contact 1 to effect contact with contact 406 through the coils 401 and the resistance 412.
The direction of flow of current through the coils 401 however being reversed the armature 410 is moved so that its insulated contact plate 405 contacts with contact 403 thereby switching into parallel circuit the resistance 404 so as to compensate for the resistance 65 inserted in the circuit by the commutator switch 100. Current of pre determined value accordingly flows so that the train obtains clearance and is enabled to proceed.
It will be seen that if the driver omits to operate the commutator switch 100 when on the loop the armature 407 would not be moved into the closed position to contact with contact 106 by contact of the locomo tive with the track contact 1 so that the train would be stopped on coming into contact with the track contact 2.
Each of the armatures of the polarized relays hereinbefore described is adapted to vremain in the position into which it is switched when a train makes contact with a track contact, until the polarized relay in question is so traversed by current as to reverse the position of the armature.
In order to protect a train when just en tering a stretch of track provided with train protecting apparatus according to this in vention, from the possibility of its being run into by a following train it is intended that the train shall be otherwise protected as by means of interlocked signals or the like when entering on a terminal section until it has proceeded sufiiciently far along that section to be properly protected by the train protecting apparatus relating to the stretch of track in question. At a terminal. section the contacts (1, 2, 3,) at the entering end of the section are preferably followed closely by the corresponding contacts of the inter secting section in order that a train entering the svstem may as soon as possible obtain the hill protection of the system as it will as soon as it has passed over a suliicient distance beyond the entering contacts of the first intersecting section to cause a train following it to be stopped automatically by the entering contacts of the terminal section before colliding with the train that has first entered the system even it the last mentioned train be stopped after travelling over the said sutlicient distance; consequently it is advisable to extend the protection afforded, by means such. as interlocking signals, so that any train entering the stretch of track is protected thereby until it has traversed the aforesaid suflicient distance beyond the entering contacts of the first intersecting section.
The means for applying the brakes on the train consist preferably of one or more cylinders provided with one or more pistons or the like suitably connected with the lever, or the like by which the brakes on the train are applied the arrangement being such that, upon failure of the electrical restraint on the movement of a valve fluid pressure will be caused to act on the piston or pistons so that the brakes are applied on the train. Each train should be fitted with continuous automatic brakes.
The means for shutting off the motive power by which the train is driven may be arranged in a manner similar to that mentioned above for applying the brakes or, if desired, the brakes may be applied and the power of the train shut off by means of only one cylinder and piston, or the like.
Various modifications may be made in the apparatus without departing from the scope of the invention. For example wherever suitable, rails or other metallic conductors may be substituted for earth conductors and vice versa also other metallic conductors may be substituted for rails.
It will be obvious that parts of the apparatus described herein may be in some cases multiplied or omitted.
hat I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. Train-controlling apparatus comprising an electromagnetic device adapted in ac cordance with two conditions as to electrification to cause its movable part to occupy two different positions, a danger-indicating means carried by a locomotive, a directioncorresponding means carried by said loco- Elsi motive and intended to be g noved awhenzthe direction of facing andof travel of said 10- comotive is reversed,, a traffic-controlling contact on the track adapted oni contact therewith of said locomotive facing and traveling in one direction to enable said directioil-corresponding--n1eans when in one posit-ionsito causes-aid electromagnetic devicetobe in one of said conditions as: to electrification and adapted on contactvtherewith of saidlocomotive facing and traveling in-the opposite directionito enable said direc tion-corresponding means when in'the other position to cause said electromagneticidevice to be in the other of said conditions. as to electrification, means adapted vto reverse the direction oit'ifaoing ofzsai'd locomotive, and means adapted to cause the operation ofsaid danger-indicating-means OllzSftlCl locomotive if, after the reversal of the facing of:said locomotive;- thedirection of running of-i-said locomotive is reversed-without a corresponding-movement of said adirection-correspond- "trig-means.
2. Train-controlling apparatus comprising anelectromagnetic device-adapted in-iaccordance with two conditions as to electrification to cause its movable partstooccupy wo diflferent positions, a danger-indicating means carried by alocomotive, a'directioncorresponding means carried by-said -locomotive and intended tobehmoved when-the direction of'facing and oi -travel ofisaid locomotive is reversed, a trafiiccontrolling contact on the track adapted on contact therewith of -said locomotive facing and traveling in one direction to enable said direction-cornesponding means when in one position to cause said electromagnetic idevice'to be in one ofisaid. conditions as to clectrification and adapted on contact therewith otsaidlocomotivefacing and traveling in the opposite direction to enable said direc- Hon-corresponding means i when in the other position to cause said: electromagnetic device to be in theother of siliClrCOIltlitiUllS as to electrification, rovers-in means 011 the track adapted tomeve-rse the.- direction o'ffacing of said locomotiva'a first checking track contact and a second checking itrack contact both -inproximity. to said reversing means and adapted to be=encountered-,successively by said locomotive iwhensaidlocomotive is approaching said reversing means, and an ielect-roresponsive device [on the 'track connected to said second checking track contact and adapted to be, when said vlocomotive makes contact -,wit-h said 1 second checking traclacontact, put into one condition as to electrification when said direction-correspondingmeans is inone position and into another condition as .to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is -in:the
other position, and adapted, when in thecondition as to electrification :so "produced when said,directionecorresponding means is in the position corresponding to the lapproaich of saidreversing: means. by said locomotive, to;cause.its movablepart to occupy a position in vwhich it is adapted to cause saidfirst checking track contact to "bring about the operation of the dangereindicating ,means on a. similarly I equipped locomotive in contact. therewith, and, when in the condition as: to electrification .so produced when said.direction-corresponding means is in the position corresponding-to the. leaving of.-said reversing nneans byithe first mentioned locomotive; to cause llSlIHOVZLblQi part toroccnpy a position in which it isnadapted to prevent-said fizrstchecking track contact from bninging about-the operation of said danger'indicating means on the first mentionedilocomotive.
3. aTrain controlling apparatus comprising on. aalocomotive a :danger-inclicatingitmeans and 1a "direction-corresponding IHHGiLIlS in tended to becaused tonoccupy one position when said locomotivefifacesaand travels in one direction and mZLIlOthBl position when I sald locomotive .faces and travels inithe. opposite d1rect1on, andon the track 'a tratfic-controlling contact adapted to .come into conta ct with :bysaid lOCOIIlOiJlVG, means connected-with said traific=controlling contact and adapted, when said v locomotive' is in contact with said trafiic-contro'lling con tact and is "facing and traveling iii-one direction and said 'direction-corresponding means. is inone of itsisaid positions,.to -cooperate with said .direction-corresponding means in "producing one traffic-controlling etl'echx and when said locomotive is incontact with said .traific-cont-rolling contact and is facing andstraveling in the oppositeidierection and said 'direction-correspon'di11g :means is in the other of its said positions, :to co-operate with said direction-corre spending; means .in producing anotheri traf- .fic-contnolling 'eil'ect, reversing uncans adapted EOiI'QVGlSQ1Itl1G-diFGCtlOn of tacing ofsaid locomotive, and means iadapted to i cause the operati on of said danger-indicat- Zing means onsaidilocoinotiveif aiit-er the re- .versal oi the: facing of said locomotive, the direction of running of saiddocomotivc is re- ;versed and said dinection corresponding uneansis not in: the'positi on corresponding to the i reversed directi on at running 4. ".l rain-controlling appmnatus compris- :ing on a locomotive aid=anger+indicating means :and a direction eorresponding means iintended toibezcaused to occupyione position :when said i locomotive faces and travels in one. direction and another position when said locomotive aifaces and tI'flVGlSillllthG op- ;posite CllllifltlOIlntlIlClgOU the tracln a traflicicontrolling contact :a dapted to come into 1 contact with by said. locomotive. means con nected with said tnaifie-cimtrolling contact,
and adapted, when said locomotive is in contact with said traflic-controlling contact and is facing and traveling in one direction and said direction-corresponding means is in one of its said positions, to co-operate with said dircction-corresponding means in producing one trafiic-controlling effect, and. when said locomotive is in contact with said tra'liic-controlling contact and is facing and traveling in the opposite direction and said direction-corresponding means is in the other o't' its said positions, to co-operate with said direction-corresponding means in producing another trafiiocontrolling efiect, reversing means adapted to reverse the direction of facing of said locomotive, a first checking track contact and a second checking track contact both in proximity to said eversing means and adapted to be encountered successively by said locomotive when said locomotive is approaching said reversing means, and an electro-responsive device connected to said second checking track ontact and adapted to be, when said locomotive makes contact with said second checking track contact, put into one condition as to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is in one of its aid positions and into another condition as to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is in the other of its said positions, and adapted, when in the condition as to electrification so produced when said direction-corresponding means is in the osition corresponding to the approach of said reversing means by said locomotive, to cause its movable part to occupy a position in which it is adapted to cause said first checking track contact to bring about the operation of the danger-indicating means on a similarly equipped locomotive in contact therewith, and, when in the condition as to electrification so produced when aid direction-corresponding means is in the position corresponding to the leaving of said reversing means by the first mentioned locomotive. to cause its movable part to occupy a position in which it is adapted to prevent said first checking track contact from bringing about the operation of said clangin-indicating means on the first mentioned locomotive.
5. l raim-controlling apparatus comprising on a locomotive a danger-indicating means adapted to operate to indicate danger except when energized by current of a predetermined strength and a direction-corresponding means intended to be caused to occupy one position when said locomotive faces and travels in one direction and another position when said locomotive faces and travels in the opposite direction, and, on the track, a traffic-controlling track contactadapted to come into contact with by said locomotive, traificcontrolling means connected with said traffic-controlling contact and adapted, when said trafiic-contro-lling means occupies a certain position and said locomotive is in contact with said trafiic-controlling contact and is facing and traveling in one direction, to co-operate with said direction-corresponding means in causing said danger-indicating means to be energized by current of said predete-rl'nined strength if said direction-corresponding means is in one of its said positions but not so to co-operate with said direction-corresp0nding means if said direction-corresponding means is in the other of its said positions reversing means adapted to reverse the direction of facing of said locomotive, a. first checking track contact and a second checking track contact both in proximity to said reversing means and adapted to be encountered successively by said locomotive when said locomotiveis approaching said reversing means, an electro-responsive device connected to said second checking track contact and adapted to be, when said locomotive makes contact with said second checking track contact, put into one condition as to electrification when said direction corresponding means is in one position and into another condition as to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is in the other postion, and adapted, when in the condi tion as to electrification so produced when said direction-corr'esponding means is in the position corresponding to the approach of said reversing means by said locomotive, to cause its movable part to occupy a position in which it is adapted to cause said first checking track contact to bring about the operation of the danger-indicating means on a similarly equipped locomotive in contact therewith, and, when in the con dition as to electrification so produced when said direction-corresponding means is in the position corresponding to the leaving of said reversing means by the first mentioned locomotive, to cause its movable part to occupy a position in which it is adapted to preventsaid first checking track contact from bringing about the operation of said danger-indicating means on the first mentioned locomotive. and an elcct-ro-responsivc device connected to said first checkingtrack contact and adapted, when the last mentioned movable part is in the last mentioned position and the first mentioned locomotive is in contactwith said first checking track contact, to be, by said direction-corresponding means, caused to be in one condition as to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is in one of its said positions and in another condition as to electrification when said direction-corresponding means is in the other of its said positions and in both cases to copperat/c
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Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3037461A (en) * 1955-10-03 1962-06-05 Leonard D Barry Railway control system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3037461A (en) * 1955-10-03 1962-06-05 Leonard D Barry Railway control system

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