US1523689A - Coding and decoding machine - Google Patents

Coding and decoding machine Download PDF

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US1523689A
US1523689A US658158A US65815823A US1523689A US 1523689 A US1523689 A US 1523689A US 658158 A US658158 A US 658158A US 65815823 A US65815823 A US 65815823A US 1523689 A US1523689 A US 1523689A
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key
keys
code
sign
changing
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Hole Sidney
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Hole Sidney
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCIPHERING OR DECIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text
    • G09C3/02Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text with auxiliary keys or keyboards acting on the original keys or keyboards

Description

Jan. 20. 1925. 1,523,689
s. HOLE CODING AND DECODING MACHINE Filed Aug. 1a. 1923 s Sheets-Shee t 1 L'ZV um Him *I ,1
Jan.20,1925. 1,523,689
r s. HOLE CODING AND DECODING MACHINE Filed Aug. 18, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 wlm mum mm Jan. 20. 1925. 1,523,689
$- HOLE CODING AND DECODING MACHINE .Filed Aug. 1a, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 "gun NEE
llll luln I Patented Jan. 20, 1925;
um'reo STATES srn'nny HOLE, or ALBOURNE, ENGLAND.
CODING AND DECODING MACHINE.
Application filed August 18, 1923. Serial N0. 658,158:
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, SIDNEY HOLE, a subject of the King of England, residing at Albourne, Hassocks, Sussex, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Coding and Decoding Machines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to coding and decoding machines of the type wherein one set of sign-keys is operatively connected to a second set of sign-keysconstituting writing keys through a code-changing device comprising two members whereof one is moveable in relation to the other and which has transmission points, one for each key, and operative means is provided passipg through the said members by way of said transmission points and connecting the keys in pairs, one of one set to one of the other set, and 20 the saidtransmission points of one member are arranged all to register simultaneously with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission-point of the one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, with the result that the pairs of keys will be changed, i. e. individual keys in one set will now co-operate' with different keys in the other set.
Heretofore the code-changing device has provided two opposite series of transmissionpoints between which a member moved having two other opposed series of transmission-points, the transmission-points 0f this second member being irregularly cross-connected so that that point directly opposite another was not connected to the one it was opposite but to some other point. This central member therefore constituted the means for giving an initial setting-up of a code in that a key of one set would thereby be made to operatea key which was not apparently the corresponding key in the other set, and further codechanging was effected by stepping the one member relatively to the other. To change this initial setting-up of the code required the substitution of another member provided with the necesparatusis worked electrically the samemem- 'ber could be rc-W1red,either of which operasariy; cross-connections; or where the aptions however would absorb an undesira'blo amount of time.
The object of the present invention is to provide a form of code changing device whereby the amount of time necessary for setting-up where a change is required may be greatly reduced. 7
According to the present invention coding or de-coding apparatus of the type described is characterised by the operative connections between one setof keys and one member providing the transmission-points being of a flexible character, such as rubber tubes, and provided with engaging means, such as plugs, adapted to be instantly-engaged each faces of the plates and afford a hold for the engaging-means-of the connections with the keys on the outer faces. One of the plates or discs 'is conveniently made stationary and the other arranged to move or rotate upon it.
Preferably, pneumatic means is employed for operating that set of keys which is not manually operated; such means comprising "I-lXGS controlled by the manually-operated keys, tubes extending from these valves to one series of transmission-points on one of the members of the code-changing device, fluid-operated pistons connected one toeach of the keys of the other set, and tubes extending from the cylinders of these pistons to the other set of transmission-points, the aforesaid valves being arranged to control the action of the working-fluid in such manner that when any one valve is opened by the manual depression of one key a key of the other set will be operated by the fluid.
Both sets of keys may be arranged to impress signs upon a paper sheet or other receiver, in which case each set of keys is provided with self-operating means, one connection only extends from each key to the code-changing device, and changin -0ver means is provided so that either set 0 keys can at will becorne the manually-operated set and the other set the responsivelyoperated set.
Two standard typewriters may be employed having the keys of one operatively connected to the keys of the other through the code-changing device; such an arrangement avoids unnecessary expense in providing special means for recording the operations of the keys and thus considerably reduces the cost of producing a machine in which either of the two sets of keys can be used at evill for coding or decoding. 1
In the accompanying drawings which il lustrate one method of carrying out this invention Figure 1 shows diagrammatically the general arrangement of the machine;
Figure 2 is a side elevation of the codechanging device on a. larger scale than that of Figure l;
Figure 3 is a central vertical section through the code-changing device on the line 3-3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is. a side elevation of one of the designation plates used in the machine;
Figure 5 is a front elevation showing the arrangement of the valve-boxes whereby one set of keys is operated from another;
Figure 6 is a plan of the parts shownin Figure 5, and
Figure 7 is a vertical section through the parts shown in Figure 5 on the line 77 of that figure.
Like reference letters indicate like parts throughout the drawings.
The machine shown in the drawings comprises two standard typewriters A and B respectively, which are provided with the usual keys A B whereby typewritten matter can be executed.
Beneath the typewriters are three or more valve-boxes C, D respectively, the valves ,in which are operatively connected with the keys as hereinafter described.
Between the two typewgiters is a code-. changing device comprising a fixed disc and a movable disc E which parts will hereinafter be described in greater detail.
Extending from the valve-boxes C are a number of tubes F, whereof only one is shown in Figure 1, one tube being allotted to the valve of each type-key, and .having connection at the end remote from thetypewriter with the plate E of the code-chang5 ing device. Similarly, the valve-boxes have a series of tubes F connecting the valves therein with the disc E of the codechanging device, and these tubes are brought opposite one another by the codehanging device so that when one of the :eys B is manually-operated a key A will be operated by pneumatic means or vice versa.
Exhaust apparatus is connected to the chamber G and thence by a conduit G and branch-conduits G G to the valve-boxes The disc E is carried from the baseboard H by a bracket E and is provided with a series of holes E arranged in a circle, each carrying a nipple E to receive one of the tubes F. Similarly, theplatc E is provided with a series oftapered holes E which are arranged to register with the holes E all the holes being equally spaced. The plate E has on its'periphery a. series of teeth E one allotted to each hole, and
these teeth are engaged by a retaining'pawl J carried on a standard J by a'pivot-pin" J The pawl has on it two fiats J J 4 respectively and a spring J 5 bears against one or other of these flats according to the posi-' tion in which the pawl lies. A spiral spring E is mounted in a recess of the disc E and tends always to rotate the disc in a direction to engage the pawl J. It thus follows that if the disc is advanced one or more teeth it will be retained in the position to which it is advanced by the pawl J, and the spacing of the teeth is such that whatever tooth is engaged by the pawl J the holes E ,'E will be in register with each other.
A series of hollow tapered plugs F are secured to the ends of the tubes F and serve as engaging-means between these tubes and the holes E in the plate E Each plug F has a flat F thereon, and on this is marked the si 11 corresponding to the sign of the key to which that tube F is allotted.
The holes E E thus constitute transmission-points which communicate with each other on the inner faces of the, plates. Also the holes afford a hold for-the engaging means, viz: the plugs F and nlpples E of the connections with thekeys on the outer 11 faces of the plates E, E
To step the disc E round, a code-changing key K is provided. This is mounted to slide vertically in-a support K and is nor-- mally retained in the raised position by a spring K which .carries a pawl K When the key is in the raised position the pawl lies against a pin K' on a fixed member, and is held back thereby against the action of its spring K so that it lies clear of the teeth E of the disc, but as the key is depressed the pawl moves towards the disc and engages the tooth which lies immediately beneath it. Continued depression of the key will then move the disc around the space equal to one tooth allowing the retainingpawl J to drop behind its next tooth, where-- upon the key K can be released and will again resume thg position shown in Figure 2.
The disc E carries a stop J which cooperates with a pinJon the pawl J. When the disc is in the zero position the stop is slightly'in advance of the pin J as shown in Figure 2, and it will travel further there.- from as the disc is advanced until the latter has completed one revolution, when the stop J 6 will be brought against the underside ofthe pin J This will lift the pawl so that it will spring back to the position shown in chain-line in Figure '2 with the flat J 3 engaged by the spring J and then as the key Krises after the last operation the disc will fly back to the zero position under the action of its'spring E, and on reaching the zero position the stop J 6 will strike the pin J 7 and bring the pawl again into engagement so that the parts resume the position shown in Figure 2. g
In order that the tubes F, F may be easily designated irrespectively of the plugs F (which moreover are only shown as ems loyed with the tubes F though they may be also used with the tubes F if desired) the tubes are passed through designationplates L. These plates are supported in carriers L so that they can be turned therein if desired, and they are provided with a series of holes through which the tubes are. threaded, each hole havingset against it the sign of the key to which that tube is allotted.
All the valve-boxes C and D are in every respect alike and therefore a part of one valve-box C need only be described in detail.
In Figures 5 and 7 part of a tvne-key B is shown, which key is connected by a link B to the rod of a piston C The piston is conveniently of graphite and slides in a cylinder or barrel C formed for it in the valve-box. The piston-rod extends beyond the cylinder so that it crosses a transverse passage C which communicates with a longitudinal passage C; This lower extension of the piston-rod has in it an annular port C which registers with the passage C when the key B is in the depressed position. A tubular hand-operated valve M is arranged to slide vertically in the valve-box and extends below the same to receive one of the tubes F. This valve M is plugged at the upper end and has a lateral port M which communicates by a passage M with the cylinder C when the valve is in the raised position shown in Figure 5. The valve can be raised and lowered by a sliding-bar M whichis slotted to receive a pin M on the lower end of the valve, and when the valve is in the lowered position its port M registers with the transverse passage C Each valve-box is made of the same length electricallydriven exhaust-pump. this it will be seen that the conduits G G as a row of keys and contains as many cylinders as there are keys, each key being connected with a piston operating in a cylinder located beneath it. The passage C runs from one end of the valve-box to the other three tubes N connected in the same manner to the conduit G Thebars l\ 3 are provided with cam-slots M which engage pins M on a fixed part of the machine and, consequently, when the bars are slid in one direction, the valves M are all raised, as shown in Figures 5 and 7, but when the bars are moved in the other direction, that is from left to right of Figure 5, they will draw all the valves M down to their'second position. i
The operationof this machine is as follows:
'lf he working-fluid emplbyed is the external air at atmospheric pressure, this being rendered operative by maintaining a partial vacuum on the container G through any convenient exhausting-means, such as an G M and N, and the longitudinal passages C and. their companion passages in the valve-boxes D will always be maintained under partial vacuum.
Supposing, therefore, it is desired to n1au ually operate the keys B of the typewriter B and produce responsive operations of the keys A of the typewriter A, the bars M" of the valve-boxes C will be moved in such direction as to bring all the manually-operated valves M to their lower operative position, that is with the ports M in register with the lateral passages C, but the bars M of the valve-boxes D will be left in the position shown in Figures 5 and 7 so that the ports M of the'hand-operated valves M will register with the passages M of the cylinders in the valve-boxes D. It therefore follows that when a key'B is depressed the annular port C of the corresponding pistonrod will be brought to register with the passage C and, consequently, the tube F corresponding to that key will be put under partial vacuum through the port M of its valve M being thrown into communication with the longitudinal passage C through the transverse passage C This tube F is. however, operatively connected with one of the tubes F through the code-changing device E, E and therefore the cylinder in the valve-box corresponding to that tube F From III)
will be put under vacuum with the result that its piston will be forced down by atmospheric pressure, and the type-key A connected thereto will thus be responsively operated through the manual operation of the type-key B Preferably, the code-changing device E, E has an initial code set-up therein, that is to say the tube F corresponding to the key A in the B typewriter does not register with the tube F corresponding to the key A in the A typewriter, and so forth, but the tubes are arranged according to some initial code relatively to one another. The
- tubes F could be arranged, for example, in
alphabetical order and thetubes F plugged intothe holes of the plate E in av mixed order so that when the key A was struck on the B machine a key, for example N, might be struck on the A machine, and so forth.
It is desirable to vary this initial code at times and for this purpose the plugs F are of great advantage as they afford an engaging-means between the tubes and the codechanging device which can be instantly engaged with or disengaged from any one'of the transmission-points represented by the holes E in the code-changing device.
After a given number of operations of the -keys, decided upon by arrangement, the
code-changing key K is operated. This may be operated once or twice, or a varying number of times according to arrangement, so that the initial code is changed either at the end of each line or after the completion of each word, or after so many letters have been written.
From the above description it will be seen that a message can be written on the typewriter B and will appear in the ordinary form on paper put in that typewriter, but simultaneously. the same message will be coded by the machine A so that an apparently meaningless arrangement of signs appears on the paper-sheet in-that typewriter, To de-code this message the bars M of the two sets of manually-operated valves M are reversed so that the typewriter A is now the manually-operated one and the typewriter B becomes the responsively-operated one, when by starting with the initial code as originally arranged and the coding disc E,
E in the same position as it was when the coding was started (presumably at zero) and operating the code-changing device at the same intervals as it was operated when coding the message, a de-coded message will be written on the typewriter B which in every respect corresponds to the message previously written thereon when coding it.
It will be seen that by reason of being able to change the code. continuously by merely operating the key K, and also to change-,the initial code by re-arranging the plugs F an endless number of changes can be produced whichrenders de-coding by ordinary rules impossible because there need never be a sufficientnumber of letters written in an one code to afford a key to the code. It has been found in practice that the plugs F can all be removed and replaced according to any new code in five minutes or less.
Obviously, both plates E, E may rotate if desired, for example they could rotate in opposite directions being operated by tlie same or separate keys, or they could rotate in the same direction and be arranged to be operated by separate keys; also plugs similar to the plugs I. could be provided in the plate E so that these could be changed as well as those in the plate E for setting-up any initial code.
Obviously, the plates need not rotate relatively to one another, as so long as one plate moves over the other the desired changing of code can be effected, for instance, one plate could be made to slide horizontally relatively to the other and stepped by a suitably arranged key and pawl.
By providing the spring return to zero the operator does not have to consider whether he has carried the plate round one cycle or not as it will automatically return to zero at the end of the cycle and he continues to operate the key K according to the prearranged programme.
I claim 1. In a machine of, the. character described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, a second set of sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movablein relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a said set of signkeys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding .one of the other member, means interconnecting the sign-keys of one of said sets each with one of the transmission points of one of said code-changing members, and a plurality of flexible connecting members operatively connecting the sign-keys of the other set each at will with any one of the transmission points of the other of said code-changing members so as to be readily attachable to and detachable from the latter, substantially as described.
2. In a machine of the character described, the combination with aset of character-producing sign-keys, a second set of sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, a code-changlng device comprising two code-changing members I whereof one is movable in"'relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a said set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is steppedone space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, tubes operatively. connecting the sign-keys of one of said sets each with one of the transmission points of one of said code-changing members, and a plurality of rubber tubes operatively connecting the sign-keys of the other set each at will with any one of the transmission points of the other of said code-changing members so as to be readily attachable to and detachable from the latter, substantially as described.
3. In a machine -of the character described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, a second set of sign-keys which is aduplicate of the first set, a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission.
points, one for each key of a set of signkeys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced'that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, means interconnecting the sign-keys of one of said sets each with one of the transmission points of one of said codechanging members, a plurality of engaging means, one for each transmission point ofthe other of sald code-changmgmembers, adaptrd to be engaged each with, and disengaged from any one of the transmission points in that member, and a plurality of flexible connecting members operatively connecting the sign-keys of the other set each with one said engaging means; substantially'as described.
-:1 In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of" character-producing sign-keys, a second set of sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said membershave each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a setof sign- .Ikeys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relativelyto the other each transmission )oint of oneimember will be advanced to tie preceding one of the other. member, means interconnectin the sign-keys of one of said sets each wit one of the transmission points of one of said code-changing members, a plurality of plugs,
one for each transmission point in the form of a hole, in the other of said code-changing members, which plugs are readily placeable into and removable from any one of the transmission'holes in that member, and a plurality of flexible connecting members operatively connecting the sign-keys of the other set each with one of said plugs, sub-- stantially as described.
5. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set'of character-producing sign-keys, a second .set' of character producing sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, of only one codechanging device comprising two codechanging members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set-of sign-keys, which" oints of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member is advanced to the preceding one of the other member, two sets of' automatic key-operating devices, one device for each key in set thereof each with one .of the trans- I mission points of one of said code-changing members, and the second of said groups of connectin members connects the key-operating devlces of the second set thereof each with one of the transmission points of the second code-changing member, and two sets of change-over mechanisms, one set associ ated with each set of key-operating devi es, and each set so arranged as in one position to render its associated key-operating devices inoperative, and to make the key-operating devices of the other set of keys controllable by a manual operation of the keys associated with the first set of change-over mechanism, and in another position to render its associated key-operating devices controllable by manua-Lpperation of the keys associated with the second set of change-over mechanism, substantially as described,
6. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a set of character-producing sign-keys, a secondset of character-producin sign-keys which is a duplicate of the v rst set, only' one codechanging device comprising two codechanging members whereof one is movable in relation to t c other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one spaced relatively to the other each transmission point of one member is advanced to the preceding one of the other member; two sets of automatic key-operating devices, one device for each key in each set of keys, for actuating the sign= keys for producing characters a pluralityof power-supply means, at least one allotted to each set of key-operating devices; controlling means comprising only one set of connecting members arranged in two groups associated each with a set of sign-keys, one member allotted to each key-operating device, one of which groups of connecting members connects the key-operating devices of one set thereof each with one of the transmission points of one of said-codechanging members, and the second of said groups of connecting members connects the key-operating devices of the second set thereof each with one of the transmission points of the second code-changing member, and two sets of key-operated switch mechanisms, each mechanism being associated with one of said sets of key-operating devices, and each mechanism being adapted, when its allotted key is depressed, to oper atively connect one of said power supply means to one of said connecting members; and two change-over switch mechanisms, associated each with one of said sets of keyoperat-ing devices, and each operated independently of the sign-keys for rendering the said key-operated switch mechanisms inoperative, which change-over switch mechanlsms are arranged each operatively to connect a connecting member with a respective key-operating device, substantially as described.
7. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, and a second set of character-producing sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, of only one codechanging device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one
for each key of'a set of sign-keys, which oints'of one member are arranged to reg ister with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped'one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member is advanced to the preceding one of the other member, two sets of automatic pneumatic key-operating -devices, one device for each key, for actuating the sign-keys for producing characters; pneumatic controlling means for controlling the self-operation of the devices of one set from the devices'of the second set, and those of the second set from those of the first set, which controlling means comprise only one set of connecting members in the form of tubes arranged in two groups associated each with a set of sign-keys, one tube allotted to .each key-operating device, one of which groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of one set thereof readily detachably each with one of the transmission points of one of said code-changing members, and the other of said groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of the second set thereof readily detachably each with one of the transmission points ofthe second code-changing member; and two sets of change-over mechanisms, one set associated with each set of key-operating devices, and each set so arranged as, in one position to render its associated key-operating 'devices inoperative, and to make the keyoperating devices of the other set of keys controllable by a manual operation of the keys associated with the first set of change over mechanism, and in" another position to renden its associated key-operating devices controllable by manual operation of'the keys associated with the second set of changeover mechanism,substantially as described.
8. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a set of character-producing sign-keys, a second set of character-producing sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, only one code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points in the form of ports, each having a hollow plug, one plug for each. keyof a set of sign-keys, which v ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of onen1ember is advanced to the preceding one of the other member; two sets of automatic pneumatic key-operating devices; one device for each key, for actuating the sign-keys for producing characters, a plurality of power ducts, at least one allotted to each set of, key-operating devices; controlling means comprising only one set of tubes arranged in two groups associated each with a set of sign-keys, one tube allote'd' to each keyoperating device, one of which groups of tubesreadily detachably connects the keyoperating devices of one set thereof each with one of the said plugs of one of said code-changing members, and the second group-connects the key-operating devices of the second set thereof each with one of the plugs of .the secondcode changing member,
and two sets of key-operating switch mechanisms, each mechanism being associated with one of said sets of key-operating devices, each mechanism being adapted, when its allotted key is depressed, to operatively connect one of saidpower ducts to one "of said tubes; and two change-over switch mechanisms, associated each with one of said sets of key-operating devices, and each operated independently of the sign-keys, for rendering the said key-operated switch mechanisms inoperative, which change-over switch mechanisms are arranged each operatively to connect a connecting member with a respective key operating device, substantially as described.
9. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, and a second set of character-producing sign-keys which is a duplicate ofthe first set, of only one codechanging device comprising two code-changing members in the form of plates arranged face to face, whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said plates having each a plurality of transmission points in the form v of ports, one for each key of a set of signkeys, which ports of one plate are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one plate is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of one plate is advanced to the preceding one of the other plate; two sets of automatic pneumat c key-operating devices, one.
device for each key, for actuating the signkeys for producing characters; pneumatic controlling means for controlling the selfoperation of the devices of either set from the devices of the other set, which controlling means comprise only one set of connecting members in the form of tubes arranged in two groups associated each with a set of sign-keys, one. tube allotted to each key-operating device, one of which groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of one set thereof each with one of the ports of one of said plates, and the second of said groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of the second set thereof each with one of the ports of the second plate; and two sets of change-over mechanisms,one set associated with each set of key-operating devices, and each set so arranged as, in one position to render its associated key-operating devices inoperative, and to make thekey-operating devices of the otheriset of keys controllable by a manual operat on of the keys associated with the first set of change-over mechanism, and in another posit on to render its associated keyoperating devices controllable-by manual operationof the, keys associated with the second set of change-over.mechanism, substantially as de-- scribed. i r -lO. In a machine of the character decribed, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, and a second set of character-producing sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, of only one codechanging device comprising two code-changing members in the form of plates arranged face to face, whereof one is rotatable over the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points in the form of ports, one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of one member is advanced to the preceding one of the other member; two sets of automatic pneumatic key-operating devices, one device for each key, for actuating the signkeys for producing characters; pneumatic controlling means for controlling the selfoperation of the said devices of either set from the devices of the other set, which controlling means comprise only one set of connecting members in the form of tubes arranged, in only two groups associated each with a set of sign keys, one tube allotted to each key-operating device, one of which groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of one set thereof each with one of the ports of one of said code-changing members, and the second of said groups of tubes connects the key-operating devices of the second set thereof each with one of the ports of the second codechanging member; and two sets of'changeover mechanisms, one set associated with each set of key'operating devices, and each set so arranged as, in one position to render its associated key-operating device inoperative, and to make the key-operating devices of the other set of keys controllable by a manual operation of the keys associated with the first set of change-over mechanism. and in anothei. position to render its associated key-operating devices controllable by manual operation of the keys associated with the second set of change-over mechanism, substantially as described.
11. In a machine'of the character do scribed, the combination of a set of manually-operable sign-keys, and l a set of character-producing sign-keys which is .a duplicate of the first set; a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is'movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality'of transmission points one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; pneumatic means connecting the two sets of keys together by way of the said codechanging device, said pneumatic means comprising; valves controlled by the manually operable keys, one valve for each key; a set of tubes extending one from each valve to the transmission points of one of said code changing members; cylinders allotted one to each character-producing key; pistons, one in each cylinder, connected each to a character-producing key; a second set of tubes extending one from each cylinder to the transmission points of the other of said code-changing members; and means for establishing a difference of pressure at the two sides of said pistons, connected to said first set of tubes by way of said valves, whereby when any one valve is opened by the depression of one manually-operable key, a character-producing key will 'be operated by the fluid pressure acting on its allotted piston, substantially as described.
12. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of manually-operable sign-keys, and a set of character-producing sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, of a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a lurality of transmission points in the of holes, one-for each key of a set of signkeys, which holes of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each hole of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; pneumatic means connecting the two sets of keys'together by way of the said codechanging device, said pneumatic means com prising valves controlled by the manuallyoperable keys, one valve for each key, a set of tubes extending one from each valve to the holes of one of said code-changing members, cylinders allotted oneto each charac ter-producing key, pistons, one in each cylinder, connected each to a characterproducin key, a second set of tubes extending one om each cylinder to the holes of the other of said code-changing members, and tubularplugging means, detachably inserted one in each code-changing member, connected each to one of said tubes; and means for establishing a difference of pres-- sure at the two sides of said pistons, connected to said first set of tubes by way of said valves, whereby when any one valveis opened by the depression of one manuallyoperable key, -a character-producing key will be operated by the fluid pressure acting on its allotted piston, substantially as described.
18, In a machine of the character described, the combination of a set of manually-operable sign-keys, and a set of orm character-producing sign-keys which isa duplicate of the first set; a code-changing device comprising two code-changing mem bers whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transinission points one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one memberare arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will'be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; pneumatic means connecting the two sets of keys together by way of the said codechanging device, said pneumatic means comprising valves controlled by the manuallyoperable keys, one valve for each key, .a
.set of tubes extending one for each Valve to the transmission points of one of said codechanging members, cylinders allotted one to .each character-producing key, pistons, one in each cylinder, connected each to a character-producing key, and a second set of tubes extending one from each cylinder to the transmission points of the other of said code-changing members; a support, a
plate mounted to rotate on said support about an axis extending transversely through the plate, which plate has a plurality of perforations; one for each tube of one of said sets of tubes, through which the same are threaded, which perforations are marked each with a sign corresponding to the key to which the tube extending through it is allotted; and means for establishing a difference of pressure at the two sides of said pistons, connected to said first set of tubes by way of said valves, whereby when any one valve is opened by the depression of one manually-operable key, a characterproducing key will be operated by the fluid pressure acting on its allotted piston, substantially asdescribed.
14:. a machine of the character described, the combination of a set of character-producing sign-keys, and a second set of sign keys which is a duplicate of the first set; a code-changing device comprising two plates placed face to face whereof one 1s movable over-the other, said plates having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set of sign keys, which points of one plate are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other plate and are so spaced that when the one plate is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one plate will 'be advanced to the pre-' ceding one of the other plate; the movable plate having on its periphery teeth spaced apart to correspond to the stepping required for single-step changes of-thev transmission points, a key arranged to engage said teeth in succession and advance the movable plate the outer face thereof so as to be readily attachable to and detachable from the latter, substantially as described.
15. In a machine of the'character described, the combination of a set of character-producing sign-keys, and a second set of sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set; a code-changing device comprising two plates placed face to face whereof one is movable over the other, said plateshaving each aplurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one plate are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other plate and are so spaced that when'the one plate is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one plate will be advanced to-the preceding one of the other plate; the movaible plate having on its periphery teeth spaced apartto correspond to the stepping required for single-step changes of the transmission points, a key arranged to engage said teeth in succession and advancethe movable plate one space at a time, a spring tending to move the movable plate in a direction opposite to that in which it is advanced by the key, and a locking pawl for preventing the'return movement of the movable plate after each advance; means detachably interconnecting the sign-keys of one of said sets each with one of the transmission points of one of said plates at the outer face thereof, and a plurality of flexible connecting members so operatively connecting the sign-keys of the other set each with one of the transmission points of the other a,
plate at the outer face thereof, as to be readily attachable to and detachable fromv the latter, substantially as described.
16. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of manually-operable sign-keys, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said keys, a second set of manually-operable signkeys which is a duplicate of the first set, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated [by said second set of keys, and transmission means operatively interconnecting the two sets of keys and arranged to automatically actuate a key of one set when a key of the other set is manually depressed, said transmission means including;-
a code-changing-device comprising two codein relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other, each transmission point of one member will be adanced to the preceding one of the other member; two sets of key-actuating devices allotted one to each set of keys; two sets of power-transmission means included in said transmission means interconnecting each one of said sets of key-actuating devices with the transmission po nts of one of said codechanging members so as to be detachable from the latter, one connection only extend-- ing from each key-actuating device to.its allotted member; and two change-over devices, one allotted to each set of keys, for enabling each key of a set alternatively to control the transmission of power to, and to be controlled by the transmission of power from a key of the other set by way of said code-changing device, substantially" as described.
17. In a machine of the character described, the combination witlra set of manually-operable sign-keys, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said keys, a second set of mahually-operable sign-keys which is a. duplicate of the first set, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said second set of keys, and pneumatic transmission means operatively interconnecting the two sets of keys and arranged to automatically actuate a key of one set when a key of the other set is manually depressed, said transmission means including a code-changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a pluralit of transmission points. one for each key 0 a set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and. are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other, each transmission point of one member will be ad vanced to the preceding one of the other member, .two sets of key-actuating devices allotted one to each set of keys, each set of'key-actuating devices comprising cylinders, one for each key, a piston 1n each cyl- -inder operatively connected to its allotted.
key, each cylinder having a duct for connection to a tube,'and a fluid-supply passage leading to said duct, a valve associated with each piston for controlling the fluid-supply passage of its allotted cylinder, and each changing members whereof one is movable the transmission points of said code-changing members so as to be detachable from the latter, one tube only extending from each key-actuating device to its allotted member, and manually operable change-over devices, at least one allotted to each set of keys, for
reversing said change-over valves, substantially as described.
18. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of manually operable sign-keys, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said keys, a second set of manually operable signkeys which is a duplicate of the first set, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said'second set of keys, and pneumatic transmission means operatively inter-connecting the two sets of keys and arranged to automatically actuate a key of one set when a key'of the other set is manually depressed, said transmission means including a code-changing device'comprising two codechanging members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on the other and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively tothe other, each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, two sets of key actuating devices allotted one to each set of keys, each set of keyactuating devices comprising cylinders, one for each key, a piston in each cylinder operatively connected to its allotted key, each cylinder having a duct for connection to a tube, and a transverse fluid-supply passage leading to said duct, each piston carrying a valve for controlling the fluid-supply passage of its allotted cylinder, and each cylinder having a change-over valve for connecting said duct either to its cylinder or to said fluid-supply passage; two sets of tubes 1 connecting each one of said ducts with one of the transmission points of said codechang-ing members so as to be detachable from the latter, one tube only extending from each ke -actuating device to its allotted member, nd manually operable changeover devices, one allotted to each set of keys, for reversing said change-over valves, substantially as described. 19. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a set of manually-operable sign-keys, arranged in rows, character-producing mechanism arranged to be actuated by said keys, a second set of manually-operable sign-keys arranged in rows which is aduplicate of the first set, character-producin mechanism arranged to be actuated by sai second set of keys, and pneumatic transmission meahs operatively interconnecting the two sets of keys and arranged to automatically actuate a key of one .keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when the one memher is stepped one space relatively to the other, each transmission point ofone member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, two sets of key-actuating devices allotted one to each set of keys, each set of key-actuating devices comprising cylinders, one for each key, a piston in each cylinder operatively connected to its allotted key, each cylinder having ,5 a duct for connection to a tube, and a transverse fluidsnpply passage leading to said duct, each pision cai rying a valve for controlling the fluid-sup 'ily passage of its allotted cylinder, and each cylinder having a change-over valve for connecting said duct either to its cylinder or to said fluid-supply passage, each change-over valve being of tubular form closed at one end and having a side port and movable endwise to bring it to two operative positions, which tubular valves are arranged in rows corresponding to the rows of keys; two sets oftubes connecting each one of said duets with one of the transmission points of said code-changing member so as tobe detachable from, the latter, one tube only extending from each key-actuatin device to its allotted member, and manually-operable sliding'cam-members, one for each row of keys in each set, for actuating said changeover valves, substantially as described.
20.1n a machirie of the character described, the combination with a typewritingmachine having a set of character-producing sign-keys, asecond typewriting-machine having a set of sign-keys which is a duplicate of the first set, a code-changing device comprising only two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission points, one for each key of a said set of sign-keys, which points of one member are arranged to register with those on theother and are so spaced that when the one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each transmission point of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member, means interconnecting the sign-keys of one of said machines each with one of the transmission points of one ofvsaid code changing members, and a plurality of flexible connecting members interchangeably connecting the sign-keys of the other machine with the transmission points of the other of said 21. In a machine of the character de scribed, a code-changing device comprising only two coaxialdiscs placed face to face, whereof at least one is rotatable over the other, said discs having each aplurality of transmission points adapted for detachable connection each to a transmission member allotted to a sign-key, which points of one disc are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other disc and are so spaced that when one disc is rotated relatively to the other each transmission point ofone disc will be advanced to the preceding one of the other disc, substantially as described.
22. In a machine of the character described, a code-changing device comprising only two coaxial discs placed-face to face, whereof one is rotatable over the other, said discs having each a plurality of transmission points adapted for detachable connection each'to a transmission member allotted to a sign-key, which points of one. disc are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other disc and are so spaced that when one disc is rotated relatively tothe other each transmission point of one disc will be' advanced to the preceding one of the otl1er disc,'the movable disc having on its periphery teeth spaced apart to correspond to the stepping required for single step changes of the transmission points, a key arranged to engage said teeth insuccession and advance the movable disc one space at a time, and means for arresting the movable disc in the position to which it is advanced, substantially as described.
23. In a machine of the character described, a code-changing device comprising two coaxial discs placed face to face, whereof one is rotatable over the other, said d scs having each a plurality of transmission points for detachable connection each to a transmission member allotted to a sign-key, which points of one disc are arrangedto communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other disc and are so spaced that when one disc is rotated relatively to the other, each transmission point of one disc will be advanced to the preceding one of the other disc, the movable disc having on its periphery teeth spaced apart to correspond to the stepping required for singlestep changes of the transmission po nts, a key arranged to enga e said teeth in succession and advance t e movable disc one space at a time, a spring tending to move the movable disc in a direction opposite to that in which it is advanced by the key, and a locking pawl for preventing the return movement of the movable disc after each advance, substantially as described.
24. In a' machine of the character described, a code-changing device comprising two coaxial discs placed face to face, Whereof one is fixed and the other is rotatable over it, said discs having each a plurality of transmission points for detachable connection each to a transmission member allotted to a sign-key, which points of one disc are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner ffit'c of the other disc and are so spaced that when one disc is rotated relatively to the other each transmission point of one disc will be advanced to the preceding one of the other disc, the movable disc having on its periphery teeth spaced apart to correspond to the stepping required for single-step changes of the transmission points, a key having a pawl arranged to engage said teeth in succession and advance" the movable disc one space at a time, a spring'tending to move the movable disc in a direction opposite to that in which it is advanced by the key, a spring-controlled retaining-pawl for engaging with said teeth and preventing the return movement of the movable disc after each advance, said retaining-pawl having two positions in which it can be held by its controlling spring, and a stop carried by the movable disc and arranged to coact with said retaining-pawlto move it into its disengaged position when the disc has completed a cycle of movement and to again coact with the same to return it to its teethengaging position -wlien the disc has returned, under the action of its spring, to its starting position, substantially as described.
25. In a machine of the character described, a code-changing device comprising two coaxial discs placed face to face, whereof one is fixed and the other is rotatable over it, said discs having each a plurality of transmission points-for detachable connection to a transmission member allotted to a sign-key, which points of one disc are arranged to communicate each with a point at the inner face of the other disc and are so spaced that when one disc is rotated relatively tothe other each transmission point of one disc will be advanced to the preced ing one of the other disc, the movable disc having on its periphery teeth spaced apart to correspond to the stepping required for single-step changes of the transmission points, a key having a pawl arranged to engage said teeth in succession and advance the movable disc one space at a time, a spring tending to, move the movable disc in a direction opposite to that in which it is advanced by the key, a Spring-controlled retaining-pawl for engaging with said teeth and preventing the return movement of the movable disc after each advance, said retaming-pawl having two positions in which it can be held by its controlling spring, a
stop on the fixed disc for coacting with the said pawl on the key and holding the same taining-pawl, .and a stop carried by the movable disc and arranged to coact with said pin to move the retaining-pawl into its disengaged position when the disc has completed one'revolution and to again coact with the pin to return the retaining-pawl to its teeth engaging position when the disc returned, under the action of its spring, to its starting position, substantially as described.
26. In a. machine of the type described, the combination with a set of characterproducing sign-keys, of a code-changing'device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission ports, one for each of said keys, which ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; a plurality of cylinders, one for each key, a plurality of pistons, onein each cylinder, operatively connected each with one of said keys, a pneumatic power-supply duct, a set inder, connected each at one end to one of i of passages, one alloted to each cylinder, connected each to said duct, a group of tubes, one for each cylinder, connected each at one end to one of said ports in one code-changing member and connected each at the other end to one of said passages, and valves associated each with one of said keys and arranged eachto control one of said passages,
substantially as described.
27. In a machine of the type described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, of a code changing device comprising two code-changing members whereof one is movable in relation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission ports, one for each of said keys, which ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one" space relatively to the other each port of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; a plurality of cylinders, one for each key, a plurality of pistons, one in each cylinder, operatively connected each with one of said keys, a pneumatic power-supply duct, a set of passages, one alloted to each cylinder, connected each to said duct, a second set'of passages, opening each into one of said cylinders, a group of tubes, one for each .cyl-
said, ports in one code-changing member, and manually-operable means connected with the other ends of said tubes, whichcomprising means are arranged to place said tubeseach stantially as described.
28. In a machine of the type described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, of a code-changing device two code-changing members whereof one ismovable in relation to the other, said members having eachaplurality of transmission points, one for each of said keys, which ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member; a plurality of cylinders, one for each key, a plurality of pistons, one in each cylinder, operatively connected each with one of said keysfir pneumatic power-supply duct, a set of passages, one allotted to each cylinder, connected each tov said duct, controlling valves constituting each an extension of one of said pistons and arranged each to control one of said passages, a second set of passages opening each into .one of said cylinders, a group of tubes, one for each cylinder, con-v nected each at one end to one of said ports in one code-changingmember, and manual- -ly operated valves, one at the other end of each of said tubes, for placing the tubes at will into communication with either of said sets of passages and closing their connection with the other of said sets, substantially as described. a I
29. In a machine of the type described, the combination with a set of character-producing sign-keys, arranged in rows, of 'a code-changing device comprising two codechan ing members, whereof one is movable in re ation to the other, said members having each a plurality of transmission ports, one for each of said keys, which ports of one member are arranged to register with those of the other and are so spaced that when one member is stepped one space relatively to the other each port of one member will be advanced to the preceding one of the other member a plurality of cylinders, one for each key, a plurality of pistons, one in each cylinder, operatively connected each ing in the form' of an endwise movable tube closed at one end and having'a lateral portfor connectioneach with a passage of both said sets of passages, which manually-operatedvalves are arran ed 1n rows corresponding to said rows of eys, andslidable cam members, one for each row of manuallyoperated valves, arranged each to operate all the valves of "one row simultaneously, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification.
SIDNEY HOLE.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958567A (en) * 1956-08-13 1960-11-01 Robotyper Corp Scoring mechanism for automobile races and the like

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958567A (en) * 1956-08-13 1960-11-01 Robotyper Corp Scoring mechanism for automobile races and the like

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