US1494499A - Heating apparatus - Google Patents

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US1494499A
US1494499A US332904A US33290419A US1494499A US 1494499 A US1494499 A US 1494499A US 332904 A US332904 A US 332904A US 33290419 A US33290419 A US 33290419A US 1494499 A US1494499 A US 1494499A
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burner
element
combustion
incandescing
air
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US332904A
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Henry W O'dowd
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WILLIAM M CRANE Co
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WILLIAM M CRANE Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24COTHER DOMESTIC STOVES OR RANGES; DETAILS OF DOMESTIC STOVES OR RANGES, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F24C3/00Stoves and ranges for gaseous fuels
    • F24C3/04Stoves and ranges for gaseous fuels with heat produced wholly or partly by a radiant body, e.g. by a perforated plate
    • F24C3/042Stoves

Description

May 2o, 1924. 1,494,499

H. W. ODOWD HEATING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 24 1919 III/lll ATTORNEY Patented May ?0 1924. r

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

HENRY W. O"DOWD, F JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR T0 WILLIAM M. CRANE COMPANY, A CORPORATION 0F NEW YORK. A'

HEATING APPARATUS.

Application led October 24, 1919i. Serial No. 332,904.

To a-ZZ whom t may concern. v

Be it known that I, HENRY W. ODoWD, a citizen of the United States, residing at Jersey City, county of Hudson, and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Heating Apparatus, of which the following is a Specification.

The invention relates to heating apparatus and more particularly to incandescent elements, and has for an object to provide an incandescing element so constituted and operated as to enable it promptly to assume, and thereafter constantly maintain, an eX- ternal glow of uniform brilliancy throughout its entire surface, and which in the meantime will radiate currents of heat of commensurate intensity.

Further, the invention aims to produce an element of the kind referred .to, coacting with a burner of the Bunsentype and eX teriorly open conduits in confining and covering with combustion-supporting air the flame burning interiorly of theV element,

thereby insuring an uninterrupted blaze and the most economical use of the fuel, that is, to the extent of extracting from it practically. all the ignitiblc matter that can be utilized. 1

Another object is the provision of means wherewith to prevent the darting out of flames at either the bottom or top of the incandescent element, to wit, at the points where ignition takes. place and the products of combustion escape, respectively, by properly controlling the initial admixt'ure of air with, and subsequent supply thereof to, the fuel consumed within the said element.

A further object is the establishment through the apparatus of open air passages, which shall operate together with differen# tial apertures inthe sides and top of the incandescing element, to convey thereinto a continuous supply of atmospheric air, in varied quantities and densities, such as will not only bring about the complete burning of the fuel, but also eliminate the deleterious or ill-smelling vapors emitted thereby, and leave nothing as final combustion products to eject other than inert matter, and hot air waves accumulating at the point of discharge.

A still further object is the production of differentially acting inlets and outlets for the incandescing element so proportioned relatively to one another that they will promote and sustain combustion in the manner stated and at the same time afford a selfregulating discharge for the products, that is, a means of egress therefor sufficiently restricted to retard their exit without the use of a deflector, until the combustion shall have been fully effected, and ye't free and unobstructed enough to prevent weakening of the flame or causing the products to escape imperfectly consumed. Yet another object is so to construct and arrange an incandescing element that it shall be subjected to a natural cooling medium` at the base, as well as around the manifold or other form'of fuel-supplying device, thus dispensing with artificial means heretofore employed to intercept downwardly radiating heat and avoid superheating the floor or primary support upon Which the apparatus may be made to stand. l

An additional object is to devise an apparatus of the character described in such a manner as to gain the benefits thereof by the simplest possible means, and render the apparatus lightand portable, though possessed of all necessary strength and durability.

Other objects and advantages of the ini vention will in part be obvious and in part be more fully brought out in the detailed description hereinafter contained. v

With the aforesaid objects in view, the invention consistsin the novel construction, combinations, and arrangement of parts of the-improved heating apparatus herein described and represented in its preferred embodiment by the annexed drawing, wherein like details are designated by the saine reference numerals throughout the several figures.

In the said drawing, Fig. 1 is a verticall central section of a gas-stoveI showing an incandescent element constructed -and arranged in accordance with the invention;

Fig. 2 is a partly broken horizontal section, taken on the line marked II in Fig. 1, looking in a downward direction, as indisupplied catd by the arrow leadingv from this line; an

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation, showing part of a gas-stove embodying certain features of modled construction.

Referring in detail to the drawings, there is shown therein a stove comprising a casing 11 of suitable shape within whichis arranged the incandescent element and which is preferably set on end upon a base 12, providedwith legs 13, that are reinforced by upwardly-extending ribs 14. The lower end of thecasing may beitted over and around an angular flange 15, of the base, and securely bolted thereto, as at 16, on one or more sides.

Centrally within the lower part of the casing aforesaid is mounted a burner for tluid fuel, such as gas and air mixed. This burner includes a hemispherical receiver 19, with the fuel from an external mixlng chamber 20, through acurved conduit 21, and covered by a disk 22, having a number of restricted openings 23. The gas is supplied -to the chamber through a supply tu e or pipe (not shown) having a tap 24, and the air is entrained therewith as indicated by the arrow at 25, through intake openings provided in the face of the chamber, exteriorly of the base 12.

An open mount-ing is preferably provided for the said burner, the same consisting of a divided pedestal 28, made integral with the bowl or semi-globular portion of the receiver 19. Such a pedestal may assume various forms, though as represented in Figs. 1 and 2 it may be composed simply of a pair of opposed supports extending obliquely downward from the sides of the receiverbowl, and bolted as at 29, to corresponding upper sections of the angular tiange 15 of the base 12. Thus, the receiver is secured 'to the base and braced from opposite sides thereof independently of the casing 11. The base, it will be noted, affords a similarly1 rigid and concentric means of attachment to the casing, through the lower portion of the same flange with its fastening 16, and consequently the burner is well and permanently centered therein. Their respective connections with the base serve to maintain the casing and burner at a fixed interval apart, and ordinarily to prevent displacement of one relatively to the other by offering adaquate resistance to shocks and thrusts to which they may be subjected. Incidentally, a su port on the base also is obtained for the con uit 21 and mixing chamber 20, the former being held suspended in-a substantially vertical plane, and the latter projecting outwardly from a suitable recess at one side of the base.

Combined with the above described burner is an incandescing element designed to romote and perfect' the combustion of the 'el therein. In the embodiment of the invention exemplified in Figs. 1 and 2, this element is given the shape of a round-ended cone 30, comprising three parts characterized byv differential apertures 31, 32 and 33, the functions whereof will presently be explained. The severalV parts are preferably formed integral with one another, but will be separately referred to herein as the base, the mantle, and the crown of the cone, respectively.

The cone 30 is approximately ofthe same. width at the base as the receiver 19 of' the burner, which enables itto be united integrally with the latter, as shown, or to form Such a connection therebetween as will leave no intervening space intermediate of the cone and burner as heretofore. One advantage resulting from this new mode vof construction is that the hermetic closure, joint, or connection effected between the burner and the incandescing element thereon prevents injection of external air beneath the fiame, such as would induce blow-outs or otherwise interfere with the ignition and combustion.

In this form of construction, illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, the perforated disk 22 is placed intermediate of the upper portion of the burner and lower portion of the conel above, thereby constituting 'the medium through which the gas and primary air mixed pass up from the receiver 19 into the incandescing element 30. The parts here named are preferably cast together so as to make a sno'le article, which is conveniently done by placing a punched disk between sand cores designed to produce the oppositely-located burner-bowl and perforated cone in one casting.

The combustion-supporting or secondary air is drawn from the atmosphere and supplied in ample volumes to the flames principally through the lower endl of the casing 11, within which the incandescing element 30 stands upon an open mounting, as before described. This air enters the base portion of the element 30 through its lowermost series of apertures, which as shown are made larger in size than the Haine ports 23 of the burner-disk 22, so that the proper amount of external or secondary air can be added to the'internal or primary air already mixed with the gas, and a thorough combustion of the fuel thereby secured.

The said base portion of the cone is preferably provided with two series of the relatively large apertures 31, arranged circular- 1y therearound. As shown, one series is circumjacent to the disk 22, having the smaller perforations 23, and the second series lies concentrically therewith in 'ahigher plane. The apertures may be alternately disposed in the two series. The arrows in the lower half ofFig. 1 indicate the manner in which ously mentioned mantle of the incandescing element, to wit, that part-thereof which is intermediate of the points Where the flame originates and the products of combustion escape, respectively. These latter-named n apertures 32 are smaller in size, and constitute vents or outlets in the sides of the cone 30, in the sense that they afford open Ways for the currents of heat or energy radiating therefrom. It will be understood that the height of this mantle and therefore of the cone as a whole may vary,d,epending upon the length of flame desired and the effect to be produced. The size of the flame, of course, is determined by the dimensions of the burner, and is proportionate to the. quantity and pressure of the gaseous fuel consumed.

The crown of the incandescing element may be said to consist of the apertured or perforated round end of the cone 30, and forms a partial closure therefor, which nevertheless is sufliciently open to afford a direct escape for the products of combustion. The partially closed end caps the flame, and

' by checking the ascent thereof it operates to conserve and concentrate the heat within the cone.

A free escape is afforded to the products of combustion through the said apertures 33, in the upper sides and top of the cone, al-

4though they are retarded by the unperfoi-ated parts of the crown long enough to insure effective combustion of the gaseous fuel. The apertures 33 constitute vents for f the incandescing element 30, and taken together with the outlets 32 for the radiant heat they have a larger volumetric capacity than the conjoined flame-ports 23 and airinlets 31. In fact, the combined area of the apertures 32 and 33 is advisedly made greater than the combined area of both the flameports and air-inlets, figured as to volumetric capacity in cubic feet of gas and air. A full and timely clearance of the products of combustion is thus afforded, which precludes congestion interiorly of the incandescing ele ment and insures a well-regulated flow of the gas and air, whereby the combustion is concentrated wholly within the combustion chamber and the ignition of the fuel caused to take place at the burner proper, and not at' the air-intake and vent-holes of the incandescing element, as characteristic of certam pr1or construct1ons.

The incandescing element is centrally po sitioned'and isolated Within the casingor Jacket, by spacing it therefrom on every side, substantially as shown, so that a 'clear passageway will be formed all around theA element from the burner underneath to the raised top above. Y

The vimperforate portion prevents the external air from entering the casing perpendicularly to the side of the cone at the point of ignition of the fuel. As hereinbefore described, the external air is drawn up into the casing principally through the base 12` so that it reaches and flows by the .point of ignition on lines parallel to the cones direction, with no eddies or incoming lateral currents to disturb its normal course.

Further, this arrangement of par-ts precludes an excessive reflection of heat in a downwar direction, and consequently no anti-radiating or heat-intercepting contrivance is needed as in other apparatus to proect the floor or primary support under the aset The raised top 36 is preferably left imperforate. It extends entirely across the upper end of the casing 11, from which it is spaced to provide the exit 38, before mentioned. With its outwardly-extending and depending flange 39, the top 36 forms a hood over the casing and the exit thereof, which serves to delay the outflow of the products of combustion from the casing until the Whole ignitible matter has been practically burned out of the same. This hood is designed to replace the internal def-lectors or baille plates formerly employed, and which were defective in that they prematurely stopped the ascending combustion products and caused them to spread to the sides of` the casing before the exit was reached, thereby crowding out all of the external air at the very place where it would be of greatest benefit.

The modified form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 3 comprises the same parts of a gas-stove as have already been described, excepting that a slight variation eX- ists in the manner in which the several parts are shaped and assembled. The changes affect principally the structural details of the baseupon which the casing is mounted, the burner thereto connected, and, the incandescing element combined with the burner.

No change is made in the casing 11 pertaining to the modified construction, and therefore only so much of it has been shown in 3 as will indicate that it includes perforations 41, in its upper part, and an imperforate portion at the lower end, which rests upon a base 12". The latter has a centrally apertured surface a, of wider area than the flange 15 in the form of the invention previously described, and around this surface is a vertically disposed flange 15", within which the. casing is fitted endwise.

A burner 22, with a cup-shaped or bulbeus receiving chamber 19, is placed in the center of the saidsurface 15, so as to be seated in the. aperture therein. This burner and the surface bearing the saine, it. will he noted, form a complete closure for the lower end of the casing 11. As a cons equence, there is less agitation of the air 1n the casing, although the -perforatmns 41 and the exit above provide sufficient circulation of the external air passing therethrough.

In the modification the incandescing element, consisting also of a closed cone of hollow formation, designated by the reference character 30, is not made integral with the burner, but the base thereof is spreadout 1nstead and brought to bear upon a perlpheral flange 19", around the receiver 19a. However, a tight joint is effected between thls flange and the cones base, so that the combined burner and incandescing element can still be considered as a heat producing and intensifying unit. The cone 3()a is provided with the differential apertures 31, 32, 33, before alluded to, for the purposes set forth. A third series of the lower apertures for the secondary air is preferably employed, 1n view of the stoppage effected by closing the passagethrough the base 12a.

It will be observed that a plurality of` heat producing andintensifying units, of the nature herein disclosed, may well be placed together in one apparatus, in alinement or otherwise. Theunits in that case may have each an independent supply of mixed gas and air, or else they may be jointly supplied with the gaseous fuel from a single source, as preferred.

In its broader aspects, the invention is notA limited to the precise construction shown nor to any particular embodiment thereof by which it has been or may be reduced to practic e, as numerous changes can be made in the structural design and details of the several parts' without departing from the main principles of the invention, and withoutisaclrificing its chief advantages.

l claim:

1. A 'heating apparatus comprising, in combination, a single-walled, hollow, rigid, incandescing-element forming within itself wa Vcombustion chamber, and a burner located at the base of saidelement and having burner orifices opening into the combustion chamber, the said incandescing element being closed at the bottom and formed thereabove adjacent the burner orifices with inlet openings for secondary air and having outlet openings for the products of combustion, the total area of the outlet openings exceeding the combined areaof the inlet openings and the burner orifices so as to concentrate the. combustion within the combustion chamber and to maintain the bases of the burner flames at the burner orifices.

2. A heating apparatus comprising, in combination, a single-walled, hollow, rigid, reticulated, incandescing-elcment forming within itself a combustion chamber, and a burnerelocated at the base of said clement and having burner orifices opening into the combustion chamber, .the said incandescingelement being closed at ythe bottom and formed in addition to its rcticulations with inlet openings for secondary air adjacent the burner orifices and with outlet openings for thc products of combustion, the total area of the outlet openings exceeding the combined area of the inlet openings and the burner orifices, so as to concentrate the combustion Within the combustion chamber and to maintain the bases of the burner fiames at the burner orifices.

3. A heating apparatus comprising, in

openings and the burner orifices, so as to concentrate the combustion within the combustion chamber and to maintain the bases of the burner flames at the burner orifices.

4. A heating apparatus comprising, in combination, a single-walled, hollow, rigid, incandescing-element forming within itself a combustion chamber, and a burner located at the base of the incandescing-element and Y having burner orifices opening into the combustion chamber, the said incandescing-element being in the form of a closed roundended cone formed adjacent the burner orifices with inlet openings for secondary air and near the top with outlet openings for the products of combustion, the total area of the outlet openings exceeding the combined area of the inlet openings and the burner orifices, so as to concentrate the cornbustion within the combustion chamber and tomaintain the bases of the burner flames at the burner orifices.

5. A heating apparatus as defined in claim 1, and including as a further element a casing enclosing the recited parts and comprising a lower imperforate section .surrounding the burner and an upper perforated section-surrounding the incandesoingfree and unobstructed, for the purpose deelement. scribed.

6. A heating apparatus as defined in claim In testimony whereof, I have aiixed my 1, and including as a further element a persignature hereto.

I forated easing surrounding the recited parts HENRY W. ODOWD.

and having a top covering the interior cham- Witnesses: ber, the said chamber having the space be- JOSEPH H. MULFORD,

tween seid top and the incandescing-element THOMAS R. BOWDEN.

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2479042A (en) * 1943-06-09 1949-08-16 Richard I Gaines Water heater
US3132970A (en) * 1959-06-08 1964-05-12 Turner Corp Thermoelectric generator
US3187798A (en) * 1963-10-17 1965-06-08 Gen Motors Corp Radiant gas burner
US3291189A (en) * 1965-03-09 1966-12-13 Rca Corp Gas burner
US3509869A (en) * 1968-10-04 1970-05-05 Ernest L Woods Convector
FR2610393A1 (en) * 1987-01-29 1988-08-05 Carra Jean Convector having several uses
US5224542A (en) * 1990-01-24 1993-07-06 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US6443725B1 (en) * 1999-09-04 2002-09-03 Sang Nam Kim Apparatus for generating energy using cyclic combustion of brown gas

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2479042A (en) * 1943-06-09 1949-08-16 Richard I Gaines Water heater
US3132970A (en) * 1959-06-08 1964-05-12 Turner Corp Thermoelectric generator
US3187798A (en) * 1963-10-17 1965-06-08 Gen Motors Corp Radiant gas burner
US3291189A (en) * 1965-03-09 1966-12-13 Rca Corp Gas burner
US3509869A (en) * 1968-10-04 1970-05-05 Ernest L Woods Convector
FR2610393A1 (en) * 1987-01-29 1988-08-05 Carra Jean Convector having several uses
US5224542A (en) * 1990-01-24 1993-07-06 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US6443725B1 (en) * 1999-09-04 2002-09-03 Sang Nam Kim Apparatus for generating energy using cyclic combustion of brown gas

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