US1471318A - Expressive-touch action for organs and the like instruments - Google Patents

Expressive-touch action for organs and the like instruments Download PDF

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US1471318A
US1471318A US493090A US49309021A US1471318A US 1471318 A US1471318 A US 1471318A US 493090 A US493090 A US 493090A US 49309021 A US49309021 A US 49309021A US 1471318 A US1471318 A US 1471318A
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lever
key
contact
hammer
pivoted
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US493090A
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Compton John Haywood
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Compton John Haywood
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10BORGANS, HARMONIUMS OR SIMILAR WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOWING APPARATUS
    • G10B1/00General design of organs, harmoniums or similar wind musical instruments with associated blowing apparatus
    • G10B1/02General design of organs, harmoniums or similar wind musical instruments with associated blowing apparatus of organs, i.e. pipe organs
    • G10B1/04General design of organs, harmoniums or similar wind musical instruments with associated blowing apparatus of organs, i.e. pipe organs with electric action

Description

v v r .1. H COMPTON 1 'EJKBRESSIVI'I', TOUCH ACTION FOR ORGANS AND THE LIKE; INSTRUMENTS Filed mg. 17 1921 1 a sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 16,1923. 1,471,318

J. H. COMPTON BXPRESSIVE TOUCH ACTION FOR ORGANS AND THE LIKE INSTRUMENTS Filed 8- 17. 1921 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Oct. 16 1923. 1,471,318

J. H. COMPTON.

BXPRESSIVE 'rouca ACTION FOR one/ms AND THE} LIKE INSTRUMENTS Filed Au 17. 1921 v a Sheets-Sheet 5 Fic.5.

Patented Get. 16, 1923.

UNITED STATESPATENT OFFICE.

JOHN HAYWOOD COMPTON, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.

EXPRESSIVE IOUCH ACTION FOR ORGANS THE LIKE INSTRUMENTS.

Application flied August 17, 1921. Serial No. 493,090.

enmnn mm m rnovrsrons on THE Aer or MARCH 3, 1921. E1 srn. n, 1313.

. June 18, 1920), of which the followingis a s ecification. 1

he object of this invention is to P ovide a new and improved mechanism for organs and the like instruments whereby the num- 1 her or selection of pipes or other'sound producing, means operated by any key shall be determined by the force with which the key is struck by the finger of the performer, thus furnishing the organ with a key-board expression comparable with that of the pianoforte. Various devices with this object have'been proposed wherein hammers actuated by the keys in the manner of a pianoforte operate directly on the pallet or pallet connections of the soundin device. The present invention however as reference especially to electric orelectropneumatic actions.

' In one known mechanism intended for use with actions of this nature the key is jointed at one end to a weighted lever adapted to make contact with one or more contact plates and close one or more electric circuits according to the force with which the key is struck the varying effect being dependent upon the extent to which the inertia of the weighted lever extends a spring that normally supports it.

In another known type of mechanism for 4 the same purpose the varying effect depends again upon a weighted contact-making lever connected to the key but in this case upon the momentum of the lever, and the extent to which the key throw it out of its normal position- I to one method, I use a hammer (operated by means of a train of mechanism in the manner of a piano key action, or by other suitable My invention provides a greatly increased means) whichwhen the key is depressed diby closing one or more electric circuits, each of which is operatively connected with a sound produclng means in the organ.

In one form of mechanism suitable for use in an electro-pneumatic organ, a manualkey when depressed operates the normal mechanism of the or an in known manner. ()nthe free end of t e key is carried suitable means for actuating a pivoted hammer lever, which is tilted when the key is depressed. The hammer lever is normally held up by the action of a spring on the end of the lever remote from the hammer head.

If the keyis depressed gently, the hammer head cannot be brought down beyond a definite position, as any depression of the key beyond a certain point merely releases the hammer. If the key be more forcibly struck, the momentum of the hammer head will carry it lower, and it will then displace the contact carrying lever, pivoted below it,

more or less in proportion to the force of the blow. The contact lever is pivoted, to move in the same vertical plane as thehampiece which is adapted to make electrical contact successively with a number of wires, each of which is connected wlth an electroof this contact lever the proportionate number of electrical circuits will be closed, and a corresponding number of note sounding means will be put in operation. The total volume of sound produced will therefore vary more or less as the force with which the key is struck.

In order tocontrol the extent of the displacement of the contact lever under the hammer blow I may use a spring friction device comprising a spring shaped to the arc of a circle and bearing on the free end of the contact making lever and capable of being accurately adjusted in position upon a fixed support, or I may mount the friction springs of all the contact levers upon a common shaft capable of being rocked at will to vary the displacement of mer lever and carries on its side a contact the contact lever by a-given hammer blow, or to hold the contact lever in a given position after displacement.

Suitable means are provided for raising the contact lever at will after depression (and without raising the key) without however bringing it out 01' contact with all the circuits, but only so as to reduce the volume of sound.

Instead of the hammer operating the contact lever by striking "it directly it may op erate it through a pneumatic device coriprising a pallet adapted to be depr ed by the hammer and admit compressed air in quantity varying with the blow of the hammer to a wind motor which moves the contact carrying element into contact with one or more contact wires as before. An exhaust pallet, normally open, is closed on depression of the key and can he kept closed when required to give a sostenuto eiiect and prevent the motor deflating. Means are provided for increasing or reducing the supply of compressed air if desired after a key has been depressed and so increasing or reducing the volume of sound.

All the movingparts are preferably of light construction and thus the initial attack and repetition may be perfectly adjusted and the key touch will be lig am. a able. 'lVi'th each contact lever may be asso ciatcd a considerable number of contact wires and thus a very large range of expression is possible.

The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 is a sectional side elevation of a complete expressive touch mechanism for one key.

Fig. 2 is a similar view of the hammer actuating means but in the position it occupies when the manual key is fully depressed.

Fig. 3 is a view of an alternative form of the spring device for controlling the extent of movement of the lever carrying the contact plate.

Fig. e is a view of a pneumatic device suitable for use in conjunction with the new hammer action.

Figure 5 is a detail perspective view showing how the varying contact is formed.

Referring to Fig. 1 a is the usual manual key maintained in itsnormal position by aspring Z) and adapted when depressed to 0p erate any suitable note sounding mechanism not shown. At the rear end of key a is an Lshaped jack (Z pivoted at e in known manner and held with its lower end against stop and so disposed as to engage with one of its ends beneath a projection f on the hammer butt 9.

When the key a is depressed jack (Z is lifted together with hammer butt 9 so that the hammer head It is moved in a downward direction.

The parts are so adjusted that when the key (I, is depressed past a certain point the Ii ck (X will escape past the projection f on hammer butt g in a similar manner to the corresponding parts of a piano action, thus allowing the parts to assume the relative positions shown in Fig. 2 where the jack escaped and moved to the right against the spiral spring Reverting to Fig. l is a lever pivoted at itand carrying a contact plate 1 adapted to engage successively the contact wires: mun. m etc, when the rear end of the lever j is epresscd by the stroke of the hammer iead a. The contact vircs m, m. etc, and he electric circuit connectors are suitably oined to the elcctro-pneumati note soundng member P in the organ as shown in Fig. 1. V

The extent of depression of the lever j and con'sequentl} the number oi contact wires engaged, will vary with the force of the blow.

it is a movable bar operated by pedal or other suitable means. adapted to move up wards and to move lever towards its normal position and conscquentl to diminish the volume or" sound either gradually or suddenly while the key is kept in the dcprcscsd position. 0 is a stud attached to the key a. its oflice being to restore lever y to its normal position when the key is released.

g is a spring mounted on a fixed support 02 which by friction against the end. of lever will govern the extent of its downward travel. An alternative arrangement for this purpose is shown in Fig. 3 in which spring g is attached to a shaft r (common to all the springs (1) adapted to be rotated by means of a pedal or other suitable device whereby the pressure of the springs 0 upon 'The hammer actuating mechanism is as above described but the hammer head it instead of directly striking the contact lever strikes a stud 8 operatively connected with a pallet t in a chamber 6 containing compressed air which pallet is normally held by a spring 11. in a position closing the air channel o.

\Vhen stud s is struck by the hammer head it compressed air is admitted by the momentary displacement of pallet t to the channel o and motor w contained in chamber 7 of the key.

when raised by suitablemeans closes all the and the amount of airso admitted will'vary with the force of the hammer blow.

j is the contact lever attached to the mo tor w and carrying-contact plate Z. Lever j is normally held in the position shown by a spring in. On air entering channel 1/ and motor w lever j is depressed and electrical contacts are made to a greater or less number according to the amount of air admitted by pallet t and the consequent inflation of motor co. a

3 is an exhaust pallet from motor 10, normally raised, but lowered by the'deprmsion 2 is a sostenuto rail which exhaust pallets 1/ thus "preventing the immediate exhausting of the motors to even when their respective keys are released.

2 and 4 and 3 and 5 are valves and regulating screws therefor whereby the volume of sound'may be increased or'decreased the lever j will be further depressed and the number of electrical contacts and conse uently the volume of sound increased.

en it is desired to decrease the volume of sound valve 4 is opened and compressed air allowed to escape from motor w by channel o even though the key is not released and the pallet y is still closed.

Instead of using a hammer member h I may arrange the movable contact carrying member 7' so that it is moved directly by the inner end of the manual key; in this case also the contact member 7' will be displaced to a greater or less extent according I key to be struck by said hammer and form a varying contact with said control mechanism, depending upon the rapidity with which the key mechanism moved before the release of said hammer.

2. A musical instrument having sound producing means, an operating key mechanismpa control for said sound producing means, a hammer supported independently of said key mechanism but having engage ment therewith, a movable member upon release of said hammer from said key to be struck by said hammer and form a varying contact with said control mechanism, .de-

which the operating mechanism moved be fore the release of said hammer.

.4. In a musical instrument having sound producing means, the combination with'a key mechanism, a plurality of electric controls associated with said sound producing means, a trip hammer engaging said key mechanism and adapted upon release therefrom to strike said lever and bring the latter into varying contact with said sound producing means. A

5. A musical instrument having in combination a key mechanism, a support having a hammer pivot-ally secured thereto, said hammer normally engaging said key mechanism, a lever pivoted to said support beneath said hammer, said lever provided at one end with a contact plate, a fixed support below said lever, a plurality of contact members extending through said fixed support to form a varying contact with said contact plate when the lever is struck by said hammer. V

6. A musical instrument having in combination a key mechanism, a support having a hammer pivotally secured thereto, said hammer normally engaging said key mechanism, a lever pivoted to said support beneath said hammer, said lever provided at one end with a contact plate, a fixed support below said lever, a plurality of contact members extending through said fixed support to form a varying contact with said contact plate when the lever is struck by said hammer, and means projecting from said fixed support for regulating the downward movement of said lever.

7. A musical instrument having in combination a key mechanism, a support having a hammer pivotally secured thereto, said hammer releasably engaging said key mechanism, a lever pivoted to said support beone end with a contact plate, a fixed support below said lever, a plurality of contact port to form a varying contact with said contact plate when the lever is struck by said hammer, springs in said fixed support to limit the downward movement of said lever and means between said lever and said fixed support for returning the lever to its normal position,

8. A musical instrument of the class described having in combination a support, a hammer pivot-ally secured to the top of said support, a lever pivoted to the bottom of said support having a contact plate at the end thereof. a fixed support below said lever provided with a plurality of contactmembers, to bebrought into varying contact with said contact plate when the lever is struck by said hammer,

9. A musical instrument having in combination a key, a jack pivoted to said key, a support having a hammer pivotally secured thereto. said hammer normally engagingsaid jack, a lever pivoted to said support and provided at. one end with a contact plate, a fixed support below said lever having a plurality of contact members, and means upon depression of said key for tripping said jack and actuating said hammer for forming a varying contact between the contact plate and the contact member for the purpose specified.

10. A musical instrument having in com bination a key, a pivoted member positioned to be turned about its pivot by the depression of the key, with varying rapidity according to the rapidity with which the key is depressed, a plurality of fixed contacts, a movable contact member positioned to be struck by the pivoted member when the latter is turned about its pivot, and to be moved by the stroke of the pivoted member to an extent varying according to the rapidity of that stroke and make contact with a varying number of the fixed contacts according to the rapidity of the stroke of the pivoted member.

JOHN HAYWOOD COMPTON.

US493090A 1921-08-17 1921-08-17 Expressive-touch action for organs and the like instruments Expired - Lifetime US1471318A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3138053A (en) * 1960-07-06 1964-06-23 Albert R Rienstra Control system for pipe organs
US3160051A (en) * 1961-04-10 1964-12-08 Guenther Roman Pipe organ action

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3138053A (en) * 1960-07-06 1964-06-23 Albert R Rienstra Control system for pipe organs
US3160051A (en) * 1961-04-10 1964-12-08 Guenther Roman Pipe organ action

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