US146695A - Improvement in underground telegraph-lines - Google Patents

Improvement in underground telegraph-lines Download PDF


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US146695A US146695DA US146695A US 146695 A US146695 A US 146695A US 146695D A US146695D A US 146695DA US 146695 A US146695 A US 146695A
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    • H02G9/00Installations of electric cables or lines in or on the ground or water
    • H02G9/10Installations of electric cables or lines in or on the ground or water in cable chambers, e.g. in manhole, in handhole




UndergroundTelegraph Lines. N0. 146,695, I Patented]an.20,1874.

fizz/anion iii 1mm Mohawk 3 Sheets-Sheet .2.

W. MACKINTOSH. Underground [elegraph Lines.

Patentedlan. 20

3 sheetssheet 3.

W. MACKINTU SH. Underground Telegraph Lines.

Patented Jan. 20, 1874.




Specification forming part of Letters Patent No.146,695, dated January 20,187 appficaiion iilul February 27, 1873.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, WILLIAM Miionin'rosn, of the city and county of New York, in the State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in the Construction of Underground-Telegraph Lineires, and method of laying the same, of which the following is a specification:

My invention relates to telegraph-line wires arranged under ground, and in which said linewires are inclosed within a trunk; and the improvements which. I have made in the coir struction and method of carrying out this system will be hereinafter described in connection with the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, and in which Figure 1, Sheet 1, represents an elevation of a section or portion of a trunk telegraph line way in connection with an underground vault, and showing the wires as being laid from said vault. Fig. 2, Sheet 1, represents a vertical longitudinal section of the same, showing a section of the system of wires laid, and the method of laying another section. Fig. 3, Sheet 2, represents a similar section, showing the wires connected within the vault. Fig. 4, Sheet 2, represents a horizontal section of the same. Fig. 5, Sheet 2, represents a similar section of one end of the trunk on an enlarged scale. Fig. 6, Sheet 1, represents a transverse section of the trunk, showing the arrangement of the separate insulating-bars for the wires. 7, same sheet, represents a view, in perspective, of two of the insulating grooved bars detached from the trunk. Fig. 8, same sheet, represents a view showing the trunk diverted to pass over a gas or water pipe. Fig. 9 represents a section of the work ing-vault, showing the enteringguide insulatiugplate in elevation; and. Fig. 10, a view showing the tower of the vault at the city limits, where the lines join the telegraph-poles.

The trunk A for receiving the wires a is embedded in a trench a suitable depth beneath the surface, either in the street or sidewalk, when used in cities. It is made in sections of any suitable lengths, and of any material adapted for the pin-pose; but I prefer glazed stone or earthenware tubing. These sections are connected together by lap-joints, so as to admit of their being taken apart and put together for the purpose of repairing the trunk, if broken, or the wires themselves, without interfering with the workin g of the wires, or with any other section of the trunk; and, for this purpose, the sections are made to break joints with the cover, and to be secured together by clamps B at the ends of each section, and also at the ends of each cover and the middle of each section, so that the trunk will be self-sustaining should it become necessary to dig out the street crossing the trunk in lay ing sewers, gas or water pipes. This is very important in cities, in avoiding many difliculties which might occur in opening streets and replacing sections which may, from other causes, become broken. The binding-clamps B are of staple form, applied to the trunk with its upper ends joined by a horizontal plate, 0, and keyed by keys d, so as to allow the clamps B to be taken off at any section and easily replaced. The covers of each. section are tongued on their under sides, so as to dovetail in the adjacent cover; or they may be left square,

and the clamp-plates cemented over the joints to make the trunk tight. At any proper in.- tervals along this underground trunk, 1 arrange a vault, C, built also beneath the sun face of the ground, to be entered by a trapdoor, (J, from above, or from an arched passage-way from the collar of adjoining buildings. Through the vertical walls of. this vault the opposite ends of the trunk A pass, and terminate in flaring or bell-mouthed projecting ends D. This vault is designed as a workingchamber, from which the wires to are laid through the trunks from one vault to the other; also, as a means for testing the wires in the trunk between the vaults, for the purpose of locatin g trouble on the wires also, when a wire is found to -be defective, to allow such defective wire to be drawn through the trunk, pulling after it a perfect wire to replace the defective one, without digging up the street or removing the sections.

The vaults may be built of any suitable ma terial and form, having suflicient size to afford working capacity, and to receive reels E, Figs. 1 and 2, from which the wires are laid from vault to vault, the method of effecting which will. be hereinafter described.

The flaring terminus D of each end of the trunk. within the vault is for the purpose of spreading the wires (1 farther apart as they enter, and also within the vault, to afford room for working on the ends of the wires lirst, to join them within the vault by the bimling-screws 0, Figs. 3 and 4; second, to allow the wires to be readily opened for testing purposes; and, third, to afford room directly within the mouth of the trunk for the location and arrangement of tightening-screws F for the separate wires, and to enable the operator to pass his hand between the wires to enter the tighteningserews through an insulating guide-plate, G, to be hereafter described, and to effect which the flaring mouth 1) is pro vided with suitable openingsf within the vault.

\Vithin the trunk the wires are arranged and supported upon insulating cross-divisions 9, preferably situated at one end of each trunksection, and, in practice from fifteen to twenty feet apart, more or less, as occasion may reuire. For instance, should it be necessaryto deflect the trunk to pass over a gas or water pipe which may be in the line of the trunk, the apex and base of such bend or angle must have these division-supports, as shown in Fig. 8 of the drawings. e

The cross-divisions 9 may be of glass or any insulating material, and they are made in sep arate and distinct bars, one side of each having grooves or perforations h to receive and hold the wires. These holdingbars g are arranged one above the other, and the wire strands are therefore placed between them in separate series or layers, the perforated side of one bar being adjacent to the solid side of the next bar, and in this way separate and hold the different layers of wires distinct, the several layers being inserted each at a time, commencing from the bottom of the trunk, and the insulators laid one upon the other, the distinguishing feature and advantage of which are that each bar 1 is made ren'iovable, so that an entire section, or number of sections, of the trunk can be removed with its insulating divisiorebars, and replaced when required without disturbing or interfering with the wires. These separate divisionholding bars are secured in place within the trunk by tonguesi and grooves j in the ends of the bars g and on the inner sides of the trunk A, so that they need no fastening, but can he slid in and out to their places one upon the other.

It will be observed that the ends )1, Fig. 7, of each groove or perforation 11, in the insulating holding-bars (1 for the wires, are made tlaring for the purpose of allowing the wires to be drawn through the bars without catching or tearing the rubber or coating from the wire when such wire is used.

The flaring or projecting mouth I) of the trunk, within the vault O, is provided with an insulating entering guide-plate, G, having as many perforations or holes as there are wires within the trunk. This plate I prefer to make of an iron frame or lattice-work, with bulls-eye glasses 7;, Fig. 9. in which the perforations are made to receive pieces of hard rubber tubing to form seats for and hold solid screw-stems F, into the opposite ends of which the ends of the line-wires are secured in any suitable manner. The object of these screw-stems to tighten the wires within the trunks between the vaults, and thus keep them at regular distances apart, which I effect by means of screw-nuts I, Fig. 5, on the outer ends of the screw-stems, arranged to bear against the face of the insulating-plate G within the vault. The screw-stems F are from twelve to eighteen inches long, in order to afford a proper tension through the trunk, and give. ample adjusting length to compensate for any slack of the wires. This insulating-plate Gr may be secured in any suitable manner in its seat, but I prefer to fit it within grooves formed in the end of the trunk.

In laying the trunk, it will, of necessity, be made to conform to the surface of the street, and will therefore be, more orless, a departure from a level or horizontal line. This will produce bends or depressions in the trunk which might catch and hold water from leaks in the trunk. To drain the latter, therefore, I arrange at such low points of grade a pipe, II, connecting with the bot-tom of the trunk and leading to the street-sewer I, the said pipe to have a bend or stench-trap in it to form a seal to said pipe, and thus preventfoul air and insects from passing into the trunk. In addition to this drain-pipe II, I ventilate the trunk by means of a pipe, J, leading from the trunk beneath the sidewalk to connect with the chimneys of high houses, so as to produce a draft of air through the trunk, and this ventilation, in connection with the drain-pipe II, will keep the trunk perfectly dry.

The main trunk maybe provided with branch trunk K, leading into stations or telegraphotlices at desirable points between the vaults, into which the line-wires may be. diverted or branched off to suitable connections, as shown in Fig. I of the drawings, the trunk'iior that purpose being provided with suitable diverging or angle insulating-bars 1..

One of the chief features of my invention is involved in the method of laying the line-wires in the trunk, and of removing and replacing defective wires. This is carried out in the following manner: A section of the trunk having been completed, the wires to be laid in the trunk are upon reels or spools E, placed upon portable framework in the vault, being arranged so that any suitable number of spools can be used at the same time. The wire from the spools, each from its proper spool, is then led into and through the insulating enteringplate G and through the first division of the insulating-bars g, which is arranged near the insulating-plate in the vault, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. When all the wires are thus entered within the trunk, their ends are then connected to a draw-head, M, by which all the wires are drawn from the reels as fast as each section of the trunk is completed, the insulating divisionbars being placed in their proper positions at the same time within the trunk to receive the wires. In this way all the wires are laid at once as the work progresses of laying the trunk, so as to avoid opening the street for any great distance at a time. This operation is carried on between vaults.

\Vhen the second vault is completed, the ends of the wires are secured upon their tightening-screws F, which are fastened by nuts I, as described, to the insulating-plate G. The opposite ends of the wires are then drawn to a proper tension in the first vault, cut off, and secured to the tightening-screws, as in the second vault. The screws F, at both ends, are then adjusted to give the wires the proper tautness to keep them apart through the trunk. In like manner another section of wires is drawn through the trunk from the second to the third vault and secured, the draw-head M being in each operation made the means of drawing the wires. The ends of the wires within the second vault, leading through both trunks between vaults, are then connected by means of binding-screws 0, Figs. 3 and 4, so as to form continuous wires, and which will admit of being opened within each vault for testing purposes without cutting the wires.

The arrangement of the working-vaults, and the junction of the several lines of wires therein, afford great facility for the removal and replacement of any wire which may be found to be defective. This is done by disconnecting the wire from the screw in one of the vaults, and connecting the end of another perfect wire to that of the defective wire, then pulling the defective wire through the trunk into the next vault, thus drawing the perfect wire through the trunk and its several insulating divisions, by the agency of the defective wire, after which the perfect wire is secured and connected at both ends with the screws and continuous wires, as heretofore described. In joining the ends of the defective and perfect wires, care should be taken to make the joint perfectly smooth, by filing the ends of the wires to a point previous to making the joint, and soldering the joint when made, so that it will readily pass through the insulatingbars ,g, and between the other wires without catching or tearing the coating off the wires. Should the trunk be run through vaults connected with buildings under the sidewalk or street, it can be suspended by the clamps B from the roof of the vault. The trunk being in sections, and the holding and insulating bars g also in sep eratc and independent sections, the trunk-see tions may be removed and replaced, or the wires and division-bars lifted out of the trunk to repair any damage, or for any other reason which may be found necessary to make their removal. In drawing the wires into the trunk, it is designed to have a number of spare wires in proper connection to meet future demands of an increase of business, so that it will not be required to open the trunk at any time for this purpose. The line-wires may be connected upon a switch-board within the workin g-vaults, for the purpose of cross-connecting line-wires in the vaults when necessary, the vault being easily accessible by trap-door G, and ladder N, or by entrance from adjoining cellars.

My invention. is equally applicable for through lines; but, should it be deemed best at the city-limits to connect the wires to the usual telegraph-poles, I erect a tower, 1?, about thirty feet high upon the last vault, into which the wires from the trunk lead and connect with those on the pole, thus combining the underground with the elevated-line telegraph-wires. This tower P also serves a very important and useful purpose as a ventilator for the trunk in connection with the other ventilators described. A grooved pole may be used instead of a tower. To keep the trunk and wires dry I produce a draft through it, either by forcing or sucking air through it by suitable blowers, arranged at suitable places along the line, and thus avoid all difficulty which might arise from dampness of the wires.

Having thus described my invention, I claim- I 1. The combination of the insulating guideplates G, the insulating supporting-bars g, the draw-head M, and the reels E, with the hollow trunksections, and the working-vaults 0, all constructed in laying underground -tele graph line-wires, substantially as described.

2. The drawliead M, incombinat-ion with a series of separate and distinct layers of telegraph-line wires and an insulating enteringplate, Gr, whereby all the wires are drawn and laid in the trunk simultaneously, as described.

3. In underground-telegraph line-wires, in which the trunk A is combined with working vaults 0, within which the trunk projects, the combination therewith of the entering-guide insulating-plates G for the wires, essentially as described.

4. In combination with the entering-guide insulating-plates Gr, arranged within the trunk terminus I), as described, the tension-adjusting screws F, supported by said plates, substantially as described.

The ends Def the trunk-sections within the vault, made flaring to aii'ord working room between the wires, substantially as herein described.

6. In combination with the flaring projecting ends D of the trunk-sections within the vault, the working openings f within said sections, to effect the union of the line-wires with the interior ends of the tightening-screws F, as described.

I In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 21st day of February, A. D. 1873, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.


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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2859270A (en) * 1953-08-10 1958-11-04 Mike W Nicholson Telephone and telegraph cable breather
US3087984A (en) * 1957-08-19 1963-04-30 Waranch Myer Wiring ficture and forming board

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2859270A (en) * 1953-08-10 1958-11-04 Mike W Nicholson Telephone and telegraph cable breather
US3087984A (en) * 1957-08-19 1963-04-30 Waranch Myer Wiring ficture and forming board

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