US1395046A - Automatic circuit-controlling apparatus - Google Patents

Automatic circuit-controlling apparatus Download PDF

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US1395046A
US1395046A US36330820A US1395046A US 1395046 A US1395046 A US 1395046A US 36330820 A US36330820 A US 36330820A US 1395046 A US1395046 A US 1395046A
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circuit
loop
terminals
device
dielectric resistance
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Laurence M Klauber
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San Diego Cons Gas & Electric
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L. M KLAUBER. AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT CONTROLLING APPARATUS.

APPLICATION FILED MAR- 4. I920.-

Patented Oct. 25, 1921.

2 SHEETS$HEET I.

1 I INSULATION I I v L. M. KLAUBER.

AuT0MAT|c CIRCUIT CONTROLLING APPARATUS.

APPLlCATlON FILED MAR- 4,-1920. v 1,395,046, Patented Oct. 25, 1921.

2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

, bination of parts UNITED sTATEs LAURENCE M. KLAUBER,

SAN DIEGO CONSOLIDATED OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOR OF rATENT OFFICE.

ON E-HALF TO GAS & ELECTRIC COMPANY, OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFOR NIA, A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA.-

AUTOMA'IIC CIRCUIT-CON TROLLIN G APPARATUS.

Application filed March 4, 1920. Serial No.

To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, LAURENCE M. KLAU- BER, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city of San Diego county of San Diego, and State of California, have invented new and useful Improvements in Automatic Circuit-Controlling Apparatus, of which the following is a'specification.

This invention relates to automatic circuit controlling apparatus and the general object of the invention is to eliminate dangers which are incidental to the operation of such circuits, particularly series electric light circuits; according to my invention I provide simple apparatus whichis placed in the circuit, operating so that if the circuit becomes broken, the break in the circuit is automatically cut out of the regular circuit. That is so say, the line wires leading to and from the broken point are short-circuited. It has been one of my objects to accomplish this result by very simple means without entailing the use of many mechanical parts; I also'provide a circuit arranged in sections or circuit-loops which are protected in such a way that if a break in any loop occurs, this loop will be immediately short-circuited, cut-out or disconnected from the circuit, which then passes The apparatus includes simplelmeans for renewing the destructible parts of the apparatus and for testing been cut out in the manner suggested to ascertain the condition of the line in the cutout circuit loop.

Further objects of the invention will appear hereinafter.

he invention consists in the general comor in the features. of said parts hereinafter described, all of which contribute to produce an eificient automatic circuit controlling apparatus. A preferred embodiment of my invention will be particularly described in the following specification, while the bro'ad scope of my invention will be pointed out in the appended claims.

In the drawing, 1 I

Figure l is a side elevation of the mechanical part of the apparatus indicating the manner in which it will protect a simple circuit; the circuit is supposed to be intact;

Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but showing the condition of the apparatus after Specification of Letters Patent.

through the other loops,

a circuit which has Patented Oct. 25, 1921. 363,308.

it has operated to protect the circuit when a break has occurred;

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view indicating a circuit arrangement having a plurality of protected sections or circuit loops, one of which is represented as having been cutout from the regular or main circuit;

Fig. 4: is a diagram indicating a circuit arrangement where the circuit consists entirely of protected sections or loops;

F ig. 5 is a diagrammatic View illustrating the use of the apparatus for protecting a loop and a transformer feeding said loop, the apparatus being placed on the primary sideof the transformer: Y

Fig. 6 is'a view similar to Fig. 5 with a slightly modified wiring arrangement, the apparatus being placed on the secondary sideof the transformer;

F 1g. 7 is a longitudinal section through a dielectric resistance device or cut-out which cooperates with the contact device to maintain the normal circuitfthrough the protected loop, but which cooperates with the contact device to enable it to effect the cutt ng out and disconnection" of a broken or defective circuit-loop;

-Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 but showing a slightly modified form of the dielectric resistance;

Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 8, showing still another form of the dielectric resistance;,

Fig. 10 is a side elevation illustrating the operation. of the apparatus in replacing the cutout and incidentally testing to ascertain the condition of the circuit-loop:

Fig. 11 is a side elevation of the device which I may employ for this purpose; and

F 1g. 12 is an elevation of another side of the tool shown in Fig. 11.

In carrying out my invention, I provide a series electric circuit with a section or circuit-loop carrying electric translating devices, for example, electric lights, and be tween the sides or ends of the loop I provide a dielectric resistance device or cutout which is so constructed that it will sustain the normal potential existing across the circuit-loop. I also provide means in circuit normally closed 6 connected in series.

I provide a cut-out or to provide With such an organization, if the circuitloop should become open or broken for any reason, the dielectric resistance device will then be subjected to a very much higher potential. This resistance device or cutout is so constructed that it will fail under this higher potential and its elimination au-. tomatically effects the short-circuiting of the circuit-loop; in this way, the apparatus automatically cuts out the defective loop, breaks the connection to the loop, and maintains substantially the original or regular circuit with the defective loop omitted from the circuit. '1' accomplish this effect without the use of any machinery or mechanism by employing a very simple contact device.

Apparatus embodying my invention is illustrated in Fig. 1, in which 1 represents an insulating support carrying terminals or fixed contacts 2 and 2 which are connected to a circuit loop 3. Bet-ween these terminals dielectric resistance device, which, when it is in position, maintains the circuitclosed through the loop 3. Any suitable simple means may be employed for this purpose. However, Iprefer able part or means preferably in the form of two movable contacts P and 1 which are mounted on the insulating support 1 and which tend, by their resiliency, to come together (see Fig. 2). These movable contacts. 4 and 44 are connected respectively with the circuit wires 5 and 5". 'The circuit 3 may include electric translating devices of any kind, for example, electric lamps Between the terminals I provide a dielectric resistance device or cut-out which cooperates with the contact device 4 so as to hold the circuit closed through the circuit-loop 3. In

2 and 2 J the present instance, this dielectic resistance device is formed of a member or tube, the

ends of which engage the resilient contacts 1 and P and hold the same apart, at the same time holding the contact 4 in'engagement with the terminal 2 and the contact 1' in engagement with the terminal 2". This device is preferably of the type referred to be causelthis type of dielectric resistance device has considerable length and therefore enables the terminals 2 and 2 to be placed a suflicient distance apartto insure that'they will sustain (without arcing), the normal potentialexisting between the two terminals, and furthermore, this type of resistance. de-' vice is admirably adapted for making variations in its details of construction to vary the potential under which the resistance will breakdown. This property enables the dielectric resistance device to be readily altered or adapted to all kinds of peculiar service conditions. In other words, the dielectric resistance device can be adapted to cooperate with a loop circuit having various transa contact device 4, having a movsmall number lating devices, for example, a

and

of lamps or a great number of lamps, of high or low voltage.

In Figs. 7 to 9, I illustrate different forms of this type of cut-out; in Fig. 7 8 represents a tube of insulating material, such as glass, the ends of which are closed by plugs 9 of paraffin, ozite or similar material, the interior of the tube forming a chamber carrying an explosive substance, such as gun-powder 10. The ends of the tubes are provided with terminal wires or pins 11 which project beyond theplugs 9 so as to lie in engagement with the contacts 1 and 4:". The adjacent ends of the contact wires or pins 11 are formed into hooks 12 connected by a short loop 13 of thread or similar non-conductive material. If a number of these dielectric resistance devices are constructed in this way, and if the loops 13 are of the same diameter, the resistance devices will break down very uniformly at about the same potential. However, when subjected to a higher potential than that which should exist in the circuit-loop for which they are designed, the. current will jump between the hooks 12 and ignite the gun-powder thereby exploding the same and destroying the tube and cut-out When this occurs the contact device 1 closes thecircuit; inthe present instance, the two contacts 4 and 4 merely come together by their own resilience as in Fig. 2, thereby short circuiting the loop and breaking the electrical connection to it. This operation of the device is so rapid that if a part of the circuit-loop 3 becomes broken so that a depending wire 14 falls toward the'ground'15, the loop will actually be cut out and disconnected before the wire touches the ground. This fact gives my improvement real value as a safety device to prevent an accident to 'passersby in case-an electric light wire becomes broken and falls into a street or roadway. It also prevents accidents such as sometimes occur from a broken-wire charging a pool of water lying in a roadway.

By forming a number of loopsin a circuit to be protected, in the manner described above, I can protect the circuit in such a way that if a break occurs inany loop, that loop will be automatically short-circuited and disconnected. In Fig.- 31 have'illustrated a simple circuit arrangement of this character in which Gr represents a generator supplying current to a circuit 16; in this circuit I have indicated a plurality of circuit-loops 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21, the ends of each loop being attached to terminals. For example, the loop 17 has its ends attached to terminals 17 a and 17*. Similarly the circuit-loop 18 has its ends attached to terminals 18 and 18"; Cooperating with terminals 18 and 18 I provide a contact device whichimay include two movable contacts 19 and19" which arenormally held in contact with the terminals 18 and 18 by means of a destructible dielectric resistance device 18 such as that described. If the circuitloop 17 should become open or broken at any point, such as the point 21, then the dielectric resistance device such as 18 would blow or explode, thereby permitting the contacts 22 of the contact device corresponding to that loop to come together. These contact devices are connected together by conductors 23 in the circuit. That is to say, the contact devices of the loops are connected in series. If any loop becomes open, the corresponding dielectric resistance device will blow or explode and short-circuit the defective loo 3.

In practice, t e dielectric resistance device, ofcourse, is designed or constructed to adapt it specially to peculiar circuit conditions; for example, in a circuit containing 100 lamps, each lamp requiring a potential of 50 volts, the total voltage across the circuit, with all the lamps in operation, would be 5,000 volts. If the loop or branch to be protected contains 20 lamps, the voltage across the terminals of this loop would be 1,000 volts. It is then essential that whatever form of rupturable cut-out or dielectric resistance device he used, it should have a breakdown dielectric resistance somewhat in excess of 1,000 volts and less than 5,000 volts. In practice, I have found that with the type of resistance device shown in Fig. 7, if the thread 13 is about of an inch long, the cutout will break down at approximately 5,500 volts. With a loop of about of an inch in length the device will break down at about 3,300 volts. Lower voltages, of course, require smaller loops. here the break down voltage has to be so low that it becomes inconvenient to tie so short a loop as would be required, I provide other means for varying the dielectric resistance between the terminal pins of the cut-out. For example, in Fig. 8, I illustrate a form of cut-out in which the two terminal pins or wires 24 are looped together, insulation between the loops 25 of the wire being provided, by means of a coating 20 of enamel, varnish, cotton, or cotton impregnated with enamel or varnish. Vvhenavoltage sufiicient to break down two layers of this insulation is impressed across the terminals, a puncture will occur at the loops 25 of the two wires, producing a small spark which will ignite the powder. This type of cutout or dielectric resistance may be employed successfully to produce cut0uts which will operate to fail or blow at a voltage from 500 volts up. Fig. 9 shows another variation of this general type of cut-out in which the pins or wires 27 are first covered with an v insulation 28, such as layers of varnish, and then twisted together for a considerable distance.

In Fig. 4, I illustrate a circuit composed entirely of circuit-loops 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33 the ends of each loop being connected by my controlling apparatus such as illustrated in Fig. 1, and designated by the number 3% in this figure.

It is not necessary that the circuit con,- trolling apparatus such as illustrated in Fig. 1 should be directly connected into the circuit-loop; for example, I may use a circuit arrangement such as shown in Fig. 5 in which the loop 35 is protected by a transformer 36, the primary of which is connected to fixed terminals 37 corresponding to the terminals 2 and 2 of Fig. 1. Vith these terminals a contact device cooperates, includinga dielectric resistance device such as that described. This figure illustrates the contacts 38 in engagement with each other as though the cut-out had blown or failed. The contacts 38 are connected respectively to the line wires 89.

If desired, a somewhat diiferent variation of wire arrangement may be employed, (see Fig. 6), in which my apparatus 40 is wired in such a way that the contacts 41 are connected with the secondary of a transformer 12, the terminals 43 being connected with the ends of the loop 4 1.

Hy apparatus includes means for handling the cut-outs and contacts without danger when it is necessary to replace a blown cutout. I construct this means in such a way that it incidentally enables the circuit to be tested to indicate the condition of the lately defective loop. For this purposeI prefer to employ a device or tool such as that illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12, the same having a head 45 of conductive material with a wedgeshaped contact point 46, and an insulating handle 47 of wood or similar material. The end of the handle at? adjacent to the metal head 45 is formed into a head 48 which is preferably of the same width and thickness as the head 45. In this way, a head for the device is formed, composed of the two heads 45 and 48. In using the tool the conducting portion 45 would always be inserted first; thus maintaining the continuity of the main circuit. It would then be pushed inwardly, slowly, until the non-conducting portion 18 reaches the terminals. If the loop connected to terminals 50 were intact the loop would then light up. If it were not intact a small spark would be drawn across the surface of the nonconducting portion 48 as the circuit would endeavor to maintain itself from 49 to a5 and back to the other side of 49; such a spark would indicate to the lineman that the circuit-loop is intact again, indicating that the defect in the circuit-loop was simply due to a temporary open circuit. However, if a spark can be drawn from the terminals in the manner suggested, it will be evident that the circuit-loop is still open and that it will require repair when the break is 10- cated. Fig. 10 shows the tool pushed in a little beyond the sparking position.

If the loop is found to be intact, the lineman simply inserts a new dielectric resistance device or cut-out between the contacts 49 and then withdraws the tool from between the contacts.

It is understood that the embodiment of the invention described herein is only one of the many embodiments my invention may take, and I do not wish to be limited in the practice of my invention nor in my claims, to the particular embodiment set forth.

That I claim is:

1. In an automatic series circuit-controlling apparatus a circuit-loop including electric translating devices and having terminals, a dielectric resistance device located between said terminals and constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between said terminals, and means for holding the circuit closed through the circuit-loop controlled by said dielectric resistance device, said means having a movable part operating to break the connection to the circuit-loop adjacent the terminals, when said dielectric resistance device is destroyed.

2. In an automatic series circuit-controlling apparatus, line wires, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices and having terminals, a dielectric resistance device located between said terminals and constructed-to sustain the normal potential existing between the terminals, and a contact device including contacts held together by said dielectric resistance device to maintain the circuit through the circuit-loop, said dielectric resistance device being destructible by a higher potential than that normally existing across the terminals, said contact device having a movable part operating when the dielectric resistance is destroyed, to permit the contact device to short-circuit the line wires o f the circuit adjacent the terminals, and also disconnect the circuitloop.

3. Inan automatic series circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices and having terminals, a contact device connected with the line, a dielectric resistance device located between said terminals, cooperating with said contact device to maintain the normal circuit through the circuit-loop, said resistance device constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between said ter' minals and operating to break down under a potential higher than the said normal potential. andpermitting said contact device to short-circuit the line adjacent the ter-' minals and also break the connection to the circuit-loop.

4. In an automatic series circuit-control ling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices, and having terminals, a contact device including a pair oi movable contacts, a dielectric resistance device normally holding said movable contacts in engagement with the terminals to maintain the normal circuit through the circuitloop, said resistance device constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between said terminals, and operating, if the circuit-loop becomes broken, to break down under a potential higher than the said potential, said movable contacts operating to come together when said resistance device breaks down, thereby short-circuiting the line adjacent the terminals and breaking the connection to the circuit-loop from the line.

5. In an automatic series circuit-controlling apparatus, a lightingv circuit composed of a plurality of circuit-loops connected in series, each loop having terminals, a dielectric resistance device disposed between each pair of terminals, contacts cooperating with the dielectric resistance devices to maintain the circuit closed through the loops, each dielectric resistance device being constructed to sustain the potential normally existing between the terminals while its corresponding loop is intact but constructed to fail under the existing potential it the circuitloop becomes broken and open, thereby permitting the contacts to come together to maintain the lighting circuit and disconnect theopen loop.

6. In an automatic circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit including a plurality of circuit loops, each circuit-loop carrying 100 electric translating devices and having a pair of terminals, a dielectric resistance device located between each pair or terminals and constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between the same, and a contact105 device corresponding to each loop, including contacts held by its correspondingdielectric resistance device, so as to maintain the circuit closed through all the circuit loops, each dielectric resistance device constructed to 110 fail under the existing potential if its corresponding loop becomes'bro-ken and open, thereby permitting the contact device cor. responding to the open loop to disconnect that loop. V

7. In an automatic circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit including a circuit-loop carrying electric translating devices, a contact device including terminals, a dielectric resistance device located between the said 120 terminals and constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between the same, said contact device including movable contacts held against the terminals'by the dielectric resistance device to maintain the circuit 125 closed through the loop, said dielectric resistance device constructed to fail under the potential of the entire circuit if thevloop becomes broken and open, thereby permitting the movable contacts tobreak the con- 130 nection to the loop and come together to maintain the remainder of the circuit.

8. In a circuit-controlling apparatus, the combination of a circuit loop including electric translating devices and having terminals, a pair of movable contacts disposed between said terminals and connected with the line wires, said contacts adapted to be held against the terminals by a destructible dielectric resistance device, and a handoperated testing device having a head adapted to be thrust between the said movable contacts to hold the same against the terminals.

9. In a circuit-controlling apparatus, the combination of a circuit-loop including electric translating devices and having terminals, a pair of movable contacts disposed between said terminals and connected with the line wires, said contacts adapted to be held against the terminals by a destructible dielectric resistance device, and a handoperated testing device having a head adapted to be thrust between the said movable contacts to hold the same against the terminals, said head having a conductive portion and an insulated portion adjacent thereto, so that a short gap may be formed between the terminals and the conduct-ing portion of the head to indicate by a spark, the condition of the circuit-loop.

10. In an automatic circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices and having terminals, a contact device including movable contacts, a dielectric destructible tube normally holding said movable contacts in engagement with the terminals to maintain the normal circuit through the circuit-loop, and an explosive substance carried by said tube, the explosive substance and said tube being capable of sustainin the normal potential existing between saic terminals, but incapable of sustaining the potential developed it the circuit-loop becomes broken, the explosion of the explosive substance operating to destroy the tube and permit the movable contacts to pome together and disconnect the circuit- 11. In an automatic circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices, a contact device including a pair of movable contacts, fixed terminals, a destructible insulating member normally holding said movable contacts in engagement with the terminals to maintain the normal circuit through the circuitloop, an explosive substance, and a dielectric re sistance carried by said member capable of sustaining the normal potential existing between said terminals, but incapable of sustaining the potential developed if the circuit-loop becomes broken, thereby exploding the explosive substance and eliminating the said member to permit the movable contacts {0 come together and disconnect the circuitoop.

12. In an automatic circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electrical translating devices and having terminals, a contact device, a dielectric resistance including a destructible tube carrying an explosive substance and capable of sustaining the normal potential existing between the terminals, said tube and explosive substance being incapable of sustaining the potential developed between the terminals if the circuit-loop becomes broken, the explosion of the explosive substance operating to destroy the tube and permit the contact device to break the connection to the circuit-loop.

13. In an automatic series circuit-controlling apparatus, a circuit-loop including electric translating devices and having terminals, a dielectric resistance device located between said terminals and constructed to sustain the normal potential existing between said terminals, said dielectric resistance device being destructible by a higher potential than that normally existing across the terminals, and means controlled by the destruction of the dielectric resistance device for breaking the connection to the circuit-loop from the series circuit, and for maintaining the series circuit.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.

LAUREN OE M. KLAUBER.

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