US1375038A - Machine for making leaf-springs - Google Patents

Machine for making leaf-springs Download PDF


Publication number
US1375038A US352747A US35274720A US1375038A US 1375038 A US1375038 A US 1375038A US 352747 A US352747 A US 352747A US 35274720 A US35274720 A US 35274720A US 1375038 A US1375038 A US 1375038A
United States
Prior art keywords
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Orville Theodore L R D
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Standard Steel Spring Co
Original Assignee
Standard Steel Spring Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Standard Steel Spring Co filed Critical Standard Steel Spring Co
Priority to US352747A priority Critical patent/US1375038A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US1375038A publication Critical patent/US1375038A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current




    • B21D53/00Making other particular articles
    • B21D53/88Making other particular articles other parts for vehicles, e.g. cowlings, mudguards
    • B21D53/886Making other particular articles other parts for vehicles, e.g. cowlings, mudguards leaf springs


APPLICATION FILED JAN. 20, I920. '1,3'75,G38, Pat nted Apr- 19,1921.
1,375,038, Patented Apr. 19, 1921.
Patented Apr. 19, 1921.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3- Pennsylvania,
- while the upper roll is a rs stars 'rneononn I). a- DORVILLE, or snwicirrnr, rnnivsrrvanm, ssieivon T0 serum- ARI) STEEL SPRING- TION 0E PENNSYLVANIA.
COMPANY, oroonnoronrs, PENNSYLVANIA, A. 00
Z '0 all "(17710777, it may concern Be it known that "l, THEODORE L. R. DOnviLLn, a subject of the Queen of the Netherlands, and resident ofSewickley, in the county of Allegheny and State of have invented a new and usein Machines for Making I do hereby declarethe and exact deful Improvement Leaf-Springs; and following to, be a full, clear, scription thereof,
My invention relates to the production of steel leaf springs, and it has for its object to provide a simple and effective machine for bending spring blanks by a processof cold rolling.
The machine which forms the subject of the present. invention is particularlyv designed to carry out the steps of the process 7 described and claimedin my co-pending application for Letters Patent Serial No. 352,746, filed January 20, 1920.
My machine consists, in general, of a set of three parallel and ti'iangularly arranged bending rolls, two of the rolls being of relatively small diameter, and being set closely together in a horizontal plane. The third roll is disposed above'and between the two first-named rolls, and larger diameter. The tively driven and are tudinal serrations on lower rolls are posiprovided with longitheir working faces, loosely mounted for rotation and performs .the function of a former or platen roll. Suitable means are provided for adjusting upper roll from the other rolls, and such adjustment may be effected either while the machine is at rest or during the rolling of a blank.
In making springs and parts that must undergo bending and similar fatiguing stresses, it has thought necessary to avoid any operation which 'will distort the interior structurev of the metal. Cold working methods have therefore been carefully avoided. In mak ing elliptical leaf springs, for example, the
universal practice has been to heat the spring blanks until their elasticity is destroyed, to press the blanks between formers or by forming over patterns'with tongs, and then to quench the blanks with water while thus held. When this process is operated on a large scale,- extensive furnace arrange,
is of considerably the position of. the
by moving it toward or away other mechanical hitherto been 1 Specification of Letters latent. Patented Apr. 19, 1921 Application filed January 20, 1920. Serial No. 352,747. r
ments are necessary for heating the blanks and considerable amounts of time and labor are consumed,
l have discovered the somewhat surprising fact that, although cold working strains the structure of steel and therefore produces a material which would be supposed not to withstand fatigue, a proper heat treatment will restore to the cold-worked steel: an unstrained structure which is even superior to the structure present in springs produced by ordinary hot-working methods. lhe spr ngs thus produced are more efficient than springs produced by hot-pressing methods, because the hot-pressing method in which the blank is held in its distorted position and quenched :with water produces internal defects in the steel which cannot thereafter be cured by heat treatment.
For a better understanding of my invention, reference may now be had to the accomp anying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a sideelevational view of a bending machine, constructed in accordance with my invention; Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view taken centrally through the bending rolls;
Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional View,
the section being taken substantially alongthe line 3-3, 2; Fig. t is a fragmentary side view showing the driving gears for the tween a blank and the bending rolls at the beginning of the bending operation; and Fig. 7 is 6 showing the blank at the moment when the rolling is nearly completed.
a diagrammatic view si'milarto Fig.-
Referringto'Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, the' bending machine consists of a frame 1 which supports near one of itsends a housing 2 in which aremounted two lower bending rolls 8 and l preferably having their axes in a common horizontalv plane, and an upper bending roll 5, the axis of which is disposed above and midway between the axes of the twolower rollers. The lower'rolls 3 and 4 are mounted on shafts 6 and 7, respectively, which are held in bearings that-are rigidly carried in the housings 3, roller bearings 8 being suitably provided same direction from a' 'power shaft v9 disposed below the. rolls and fil llficted to drive for both of the rolls 3 and at. The lower rolls are driven in the i 26 upon of the housing 3.
- is a housing 23 hand wheel. 20, the
.ing block the rolls by means of a spur gear 10 keyed to the shaft 9 and spur gears 11 and 12 meshing with the gear 10 and keyed to the shafts 6 and 7, respectively. The power shaft 9 is driven in a manner to be described in detail below. The upper roll 5 is loosely mounted. for rotation in roller bearings 15 that are supported in a block 16 which. is mounted in vertical slides within the housing 3, the purpose of this arrangement being to enable the roller 5 to be vertically adjusted in order to var Y the distance or clearance between the upper roll and the two lower rolls in order that the curvature of the blanks fed through the machine may be altered to suit requirements.
The adjustment of the vertically sliding block 16 is effected by means of a coarse adjusting screw 17 and a fine adjusting screw 18. The coarse screw 17 is formed on the lower end of a vertical shaft 19 which car ries near its upper end a hand wheel 20 and the screw 17 engages a suitable screw thread which may be formed in the sliding block 16 or as shown in Fig. 2, in a separate nut 21 that is anchored to the block as by means of a screw 22 for the purpose of cheaper replacement cost when the screw threads become worn.
Surrounding the screw shaft 19 between the screw threads 17 and the hand wheel 20 which incloses a ball thrust washer 2e for preventing the axial displacement of the shaft 19. The housing 23 is also provided with a hand lever 25 and with a downwardly extending annular portion which are formed the fine screw threads 18 .which engage corresponding screw threads formed in a steel cap 2'? bolted to the top of the housing 3. It will beevident that when the hand lever 25 remains stationary and the hand wheel 20 is turned, the rotationof the screw 17 will. cause the steel block 16 to be lowered or raised, thus providing the rough or coarse adjustment of the upper. roller. When thehand wheel 20 is prevented from rotating and the lever 25 is turned, it will also be evident that the lever 25 carr eswlth it the housing 23, m-
cluding'theiine screw threads 18, whereby the complete assembly, constituted by the vertical screw 19, with. its ball thrust, and the housing 23 will be raised or lowered carrying with it the slid- 16 and the upper roll 5.
In order toipre'vent the hand wheel 20 from rotating during the fine adjustment of the roller 5, I provide the hand wheel 20 with a-toothed quadrant 28 engaged a spring pressed plunger 29 inclosed within a tubular housing 30 carried by the cap 27 Thele'ver 25 is similarly provided with means for preventing it from rotatirigfsuch .means being best shown in Fig.5 and'consistingofa quadrant 31 carthe unit pressure on the surface,
ried by a bracket 32 and engaged with a spring-pressed plunger 33 inclosed within a housing 34: attached to the hand lever 25. Since the hand lever 25 controls the line screw threads 16, it is obvious that a relatively large angular displacement of the lever will result in a small amount of vertical adjustment of theroll 5. F or example, in one machine which I have constructed, each notch on the hand-wheel 20 corresponds to approximately .005 inches vertical displacement of the roller, whereas the total swing of the hand lever 25 through an angle of 90 will amount to a displacement of 0.025 inches, so that the total fine adjustment range is equivalent to 5 notches of the coarse adjustment, I
In order that the curvature imparted to the spring blanks may be as accurate as pos sible, it is desirable to reducethe axial distance between the two lower rolls 3 and 4: to the strictest minimum consistent with structural requirements. Otherwise the ends of the spring blanks will always be left fiat for an appreciable distance. As a result of this close arrangement of the lower rolls, the pressures upon the rolls are of considerable magnitude and result in correspondingly high pressures on the bearing surfaces. F or this reason it is desirable to make use of heavy-duty roller bearings in orderto produce a compact machine and avoid bearing 1 and lubrication difficulties.
It'will be observed that the lower rolls, together with their'respective shafts, bearings and gears are designed as a unit, which may be quickly disassembled in a body for the purpose of rapid replacement. Since. the amount of surface wear upon therollsis comparatively rapid, I provide the lower rolls with replaceable wearing surfaces consisting of sleeves 35 that are slipped over the rolls proper and are secured to the roll by means of keys 86.
The working sleeves 35, as best shown in Figs. 2, 6 and 7 are provided with longitudinal serrations which constitute. an important feature of the machine. 7 These serrations performtwo functions. First, by reducin the roller surface in contact with the blank at any one moment, they inc ease thereby squeezing off any oil or greasyfilm that may exist upon the surface of the blank, the serrations also providing the necessary channels forevacuating grit'and scale. slippage is thus obvlated and the drive upon thethe serrations engaging the end oftheblank I tends to raise it and carry it up over the top of the roll. If it were not for this action of the serrated r0114, heavy and tough the blank,
preferably formed.
points, as shown in Fig. 7, the drive'being continuously transmitted vfrom the "same points, and the curvature of the blank s thus kept accurate. v v
''The power shaft 9 which drives the lower bending rollers may 'bedriven in any suitable manner. As shown'in Figszland 5, the driving meanscompr1ses an electric motor d0 which delivers its power,
epicyclic speed reduction gear box a1 and a two-speed spur-gearbox 42, 'to a'bevel pinion e3 which meshes'with a bevel gear wheel i l-that is mounted on a countershaft 45. The counter-shaft 45. also carries a chain sprocket ar'oundwhich travels a silent chain or link belt 46 which alsopasses around an upper sprocket 47 that is secured to the power shaft 9. 1 Y
The two-speed gear box a2 is provided in order that the operator may vary the speed of the bending rolls to increase production, the lower speed being usedfor bending short plates, while the high speed is more economical when bending long plates. The change-speed mechanism is controlled by a hand lever 48 provided with a notched quadrant 4.9 and bolted to 'the'side of the frame 1.
It is important that'the blanks be fed straight to the bending rolls, as otherwise warping may occur and the blocks may jam against the sides of the. housing. In order to properly guide the blanks, I provide movable jaws 50, Fig. 5, which are actuated by means of a right and left hand screw. 51 controlled by a small hand wheel 52 provided with a suitable stop device 53. The guides 50 provide for positively centering V which not only insures proper bending of the plate itself, but also equalizes the pressureon the roller bearings. Also, as the bending rollers wear, it is evident that the lower roller surfaces will not be 'of uniform diameter throughout their length, and it is not desirable to have one side" of the blank ride over a larger diameter than the other side. This would be possible if the blank should be fed into the machine otherwise than centrally with respect to the rolls. p 4
The upper roll 5, the surface of which is of chilled steel, is made as large as possible in order to increase the available wearing surface and produce a longer life before replacement becomes necessary. The large radius of curvature also has a tendency to allow the blank to wrap itself smoothly around the surface of the roll, thus avoiding the liability of kinks which would impair the quality] of the product. 7 r
In the operation of themachine which I bending rolls; p I desiredto provide blanks with a' compound 170 during the operation of rolling each blank,-
through an Y in triangular form.
ever, not been applied to the manufacture of have shown and described, theblanks are fed through the guides 50, and between the If, as is'oftenthefcase, it is curvature, ,the upper roll" is moved vertically this vertical adj ust ment being produced by turning the hand lever 25: or the'hand wheel 20 in accordance with the change in curvature that is desired." This'adjustment of the upper roll during the rolling operation may be" performed eithermanually or auto matically, as desired.
The blanks which carrying out my process are composedof steel havingban elastic limit ofbetwe'en 10,000 pounds and 90,000 pounds per square inch, though, as in the caseiof alloy-steel blanks, the initial elastic. limit may rise as high as 120,000j"poundsper square} inch. After the blanks are rolled "they are heated in a suitable tempering furnace to a temperature suitably between 1l80 F. and 1600 F. and are then quenched in oil. This process results in a final elastic limit of the finished product varying between 180,000
poundsand 200,000 pounds.
I prefer to employ have been provided in which the bending is effected by means of threev rollers arranged This method has, howsprings, because of the prevailing belief, indicatedabove, that rolling or other cold working cannot be used to produce a spring which is to be subjected to fatiguing stresses. While the machine which I have herein shown and'described embodies the construction which I prefer at present to employ, it is obvious that various changes in the construction and arrangement of its parts may be made without' departing from my invention. I therefore desire that my in vention be understood to include all such changes and adaptations asfall Within. the
scope of the appended clalms.
What I claim is:
1. A machine for bending leaf springs and the like comprisingthree paralleland triangularly arranged bending rolls, a slid able block for rotatably supporting one of the said rolls, a shaft in screw-threaded supporting engagement with the 'said block,
.means for supporting the said shaft from "screw threads of a different pitch from the screw threads on the said shaft and means for independently turning either the said shaft or the said shaft-support, whereby the said block andthe said roll may be given either a rough adjustment or a fine adjustment toward or away from the other two rolls; 7 I I 2. A machine for bending leaf springs and the like comprising a frame, three parallel and triangularly arranged bending between the two first-named rolls, a block for rotatably supporting the said upper roll, vertical ways in the said frame for guiding rolls carried by the said frame, two of the said rolls being horizontally side by side and the third roll being disposed above and the said block, a vertical shaft having a screw-threaded end in supporting engagement with thesaid block, means forsupporting the said vertical shaftin the said frame by means of screw threads of smaller pitch than the screw threads on" the said shaft, means for independently turning either the said shaft or the said shaft support, whereby the'said block and the said roll may be given either a rough vertical adjustment or a fine vertical adjustment,
and means for severally locking the said turning means. v
3. A machine for bending leaf springs and thelike comprising a frame',an adjustable. bending roll carried by the said frame 7 screw threads of smaller pitch than the screw threads upon the said shaft, a hand wheel secured to the upper end of the said shaft, a handle extending laterally from the said housing, and means for releasably locking the said hand wheel and the said handle in position.
In testimony whereof, I the said THEO- DORE L. R. DORVILLE, have'hereunto setmyv hand.
US352747A 1920-01-20 1920-01-20 Machine for making leaf-springs Expired - Lifetime US1375038A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US352747A US1375038A (en) 1920-01-20 1920-01-20 Machine for making leaf-springs

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US352747A US1375038A (en) 1920-01-20 1920-01-20 Machine for making leaf-springs

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US1375038A true US1375038A (en) 1921-04-19



Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US352747A Expired - Lifetime US1375038A (en) 1920-01-20 1920-01-20 Machine for making leaf-springs

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US1375038A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2706513A (en) * 1951-01-29 1955-04-19 Neil Irwin Mfg Company O Sheet metal forming device

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2706513A (en) * 1951-01-29 1955-04-19 Neil Irwin Mfg Company O Sheet metal forming device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US1375038A (en) Machine for making leaf-springs
US682671A (en) Pipe-bending machine.
US1381014A (en) Leaf-spring and process of making the same
US738428A (en) Dishing and flanging machine.
US509730A (en) Machine for forming projectiles
US1720833A (en) Machine for rolling rims and other annular objects
US737277A (en) Corrugator.
US2017374A (en) Tube rolling mill
US241424A (en) Machine for straightening and holding sheet-metal cylinders
US1541295A (en) Method of straightening metal pieces
US956780A (en) Rolling-mill for rolling car-wheels.
US2206759A (en) Cross rolling
US849764A (en) Metal-bending machine.
US1389036A (en) Sizing-machine
US323281A (en) Metal cylinders
US1327635A (en) Wheel-mill
US115149A (en) Improvement in rolls for patching railway rails
US1166814A (en) Metal-forming machine.
US2141151A (en) Roller leveler machine
US523770A (en) Apparatus for straightening beams
US882133A (en) Bending-machine.
US395400A (en) mo-cool
US495147A (en) Process of and machinery for producing metal barrel bodies
US2062459A (en) Peening machine
US98020A (en) Improved machine for making ferrules