US1361109A - Internal-combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal-combustion engine Download PDF

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US1361109A
US1361109A US22283918A US1361109A US 1361109 A US1361109 A US 1361109A US 22283918 A US22283918 A US 22283918A US 1361109 A US1361109 A US 1361109A
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cylinder
valve
exhaust
piston
stroke
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Gregory J Spohrer
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Gregory J Spohrer
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L9/00Valve-gear or valve arrangements actuated non-mechanically
    • F01L9/02Valve-gear or valve arrangements actuated non-mechanically by fluid means, e.g. hydraulic

Description

G.J.SPOHRER. y INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. I6, I9I8.

Patented Dec. 7, 11920.

2 SHEETS-SHEET I.

G. J. SPOHRER.-

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 16. I9I8.

1,861, W9; Patented Dec. 7, 1924 2 SHEETSSHEET 2- ra g GREGORY J. SPOHRER, OF EAST ORANGE, NEW JERSEY.

INTERNAL-GOMBUSTIQN ENGINE.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Dec. 7, mt.

Application filed March 16, 1918. Serial No. 222,839.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that 1, GREGORY J. SPOHRER, a citizen of the United States, residing at East Orange, in the county of Essex, State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvementsin Internal-Combustion Engines;.and I dohereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact descriptionof the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.

This invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to certain improvements in the contruction and operation of the valves of such an engine.

-The distinguishingcharacteristic of the invention consists in the use of gases derived from the cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine in actuating or controlling the actuation of the valves, particularly the exhaust valves. The stem of each exhaust valve may be secured to a piston movable in a cylinder to which a gas under pressure is admitted to force the exhaust valve to the open position. In this way the construction of the engine may be greatly simplified and its operation made much more smooth, particularly in that the provision of a cam shaft,'cams, and push rods for opening the exhaust valves is made unnecessary.

In any four-cycleinternal combustion engine having four or more cylinders, there is always at least one cylinder in which com-- pression is taking place at the time when it is desirable to open the exhaust valve of another cylinder. The increased pressure produced by the compression stroke in one cylinder may be employed for opening the exhaust valve of another cylinder and the connections from the several cylinders to the exhaust valves of other cylinders may readily be made such that each exhaust valve will be connected at the time when it should be opened to a cylinder in which compression is taking place. i

In a four-cylinder engine, for instance, the exhaust valve of each cylinder should be opened when the piston of that cylinder nears the end of its power stroke. At that time the piston of the cylinder in which an explosion is to occur next in order is nearing .the completion of'its compression stroke and the contents of the cylinder are under a high degreeof compression: Therefore, that cylinder in which compression is taking place may be connected to the devices for opening the exhaust valve of the first cyl "inder, the areas of the parts subjected to the pressure within the cylinder whose'exhaust valve is to be opened and the pressure of the gas used for opening that valve being so proportloned that the opening movement of the valve will occur at the appropriate time in the downward movement of the piston. After the exhaust valve has been opened near the end of the power stroke of a piston, it

should remain open throughout the remainder of the power stroke and the next succeeding stroke which would be the exhaust stroke, and it might even remain open during a small fractional portion of the next stroke, that is, a small fractional portion pf theinlet strokeat the beginnin thereof. When the valve has been opene bythe compression pressure in another cylinder, it will he held open by that pressure until the end of the compression stroke, wheii combustion takes .place in that cylinder, resulting in the cfeation of an even higher pressure and this pressure would serve to maintain the-exhaust valve in its open position. The valve would therefore remain open until the exhaust valve in the actuating cylinder was opened, whereupon the decrease of the pressure in the actuating cylinder to substantially atmospheric pressure would permit the actuated exhaust valve to be closed by its spring. In this way, .not only is the provision of a cam mechanism for opening the exhaust valve rendered un-' four-cylinder engine may be employed, the

engine being preferably treated as two fourcylinder engines.

In a six-cylinder engine, the conditions are not so favorable to utilization of the invention in the simple form applicable to four-cylinder engines for the reason that the compression stroke in one cylinder is not coincident with the power stroke in another cylinder. It has been proposed heretofore to actuate the exhaust valve of an internal combustion engine by the pressure exlsting in the cylinder near the end of the power stroke, as by providing a port in the cylinder wall opened by the piston near the end of its downward movement on the power stroke to admit thepressure then existing in the cylinder to an auxiliary piston foriopening the exhaust valve, means being provided for holding the exhaust valve open for an approup the air or gas which was in the cylinder and alternate expansion and compression thereof. In adapting my invention for use in connection with six-cylinder engines, I prefer to make use of this old expedient and to combine therewith connections whereby the compression pressure in each cylinder is made effective to open the inlet valve of another cylinder in event ofa failure of the exhaust valve of that other cylinder to be opened by the pressure existing within the cylinder,when the port above referred to is open near the end of the powenstroke.

My invention also involves certain improvements in the construction of the inlet valves of an internal combustion engine, particularly those of the type in which the inlet valve is opened by suction. This involves the provision of a piston connected to the inlet valve and moving within an auxiliary cylinder which is connected to the main cylinder. In this way the suction which opens the inlet valve at the beginning of the inlet stroke, and the compression which closes it at the beginning of the compression stroke, are made effective upon a greatly increased area so that the movements of the inlet valve are effected much more quickly and may be ofgreater magnitude.

These and other features of the invention will be better understood by reference to the following description in connection with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate embodiments of the invention. In these drawings, Figure 1 is| a central section through the cylinder of an engine constructed in accordance with the invention; Fig. 2 is a view corresponding to Fig. 1 and illustrating a modification of the exhaust valve construction; Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of a four-cylinder engine showing the cylinders in section; Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 and illustrating a six-cylinder engine; Fig: 5 is a diagram of the operation of the four-cylinder engine shown in Fig. 3; and Fig. 6 is a similar view with respect to the six-cylinder engine of Fig. 4.

Referring to these drawings, 6" indicates a cylinder of the usual or any suitable construction provided with a water jacket 7 and having a piston 8 reciprocating therein. The piston is connected to a crank shaft by a connecting rod 9 in the sual manner. The inlet passage is shown at 10 controlled by a valve 11 and the exhaust passage is shown at 12controlled by a valve 13. The stems of these two valves have small auxiliary pistons 14 and 15 secured to their upper ends and adapted to reciprocate in small auxiliary cylinders 16 and 17 respectively. The inlet valve is provided. with a spring 18 coiled about its stem and acting on the valve to force it to its closed position in which it is shown in Fig. 1. The cap which closes the end of the cylinder 16 is provided with a connection to atmosphere, as shown at 19. From below the piston 1a of the inlet valve a connection is made from the interior of the auxiliary cylinder 16 to the interior of the main cylinder 6. Such a connection is shown at 20. y

When the piston 8 starts downwardly on its inlet stroke, it rarefies the air or gas within the cylinder 6'somewhat and the suction is exerted not only upon the face of the valve 11 but also upon the lower. face of the piston 14, and by reason of the greatly increased area upon which .this suction is efiective, the valve is moved quickly to its open position against the tension of its spring 18. Also, when the piston 8 begins its next upward stroke, that is, the compression stroke, the intial compression of the gases within the cylinder is eflective on the face of valve 11 and also upon the under side of the piston 14. This pressure, addedto the force exerted by the spring 18, moves the inlet valve quickly to the closdposition. The cap which closes the upper end of the auxiliarycylinder 17 for the exhaust valve is provided with an opening in which the end of a pipe 21 is secured, the pipe being in communication with the space. within the cylinder 17 above the piston 15. Fig. 3 shows, diagrammatically, a four-cylinder four-cycle engine provided with exhaust valves 'of the construction above described in connection with Fig. 1. The two pistons in the two outside cylinders are shown at the upper limits of their reciprocatory movement and two pistons of the inside cylinders are shown at the lower limits of their movement, this being the relation which exists when the usual type of crank shaft for a four-cylinder engine is employed. The firing order of the cylinders will be assumed to be 1, 3, 4, 2, that being a usual firing order for a four-cylinder four-cycle internal combustion e ine. Assuming that the piston of cylinder 0. 1 is at the'beginning of its power stroke, the piston of cylinder No. 3 is at the beginning of its compression pipe 21 to the auxiliary cylinder 17 of the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1. Similarly,

the piston of cylinder No. 4 makes its compression stroke when the piston of cylinder.

No. 3 makes its power stroke, and therefore the upper end of cylinder No. 4 is similarly connected by a pipe 22 to the auxiliary cylinder for the exhaust valve of the cylinder N o. 3. Also, cylinder No. 2 is connected by a pipe 23 to the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 4 and cylinder No. 1 is com nected by a pipe 24-to the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 2. v

The relative size of. each exhaust valve and the upper surface of its actuating piston 15 and also thepressure exerted by the spring 25 which forces the exhaust valve toward its seat, must be proportioned accurately in order to effect the opening and closing of the exhaust valve at the proper-times. It will be appreciated that while the piston of cylinder No. 1 is moving downward on its power stroke, the pressure WlthlIl the cylinder is decreasing steadily and also while the piston in cylinder No. 3is moving upward on its compression stroke,'the pressure upon that c linder is steadily increasing. The first 0 these pressures is efl'ected upwardlyon the face of the exhaust valve upon cylinder No. 1, and the second of these pressures is effected downwardly on the p1ston 15 of the exhaust valve cylinder No. 1. With the areas of the parts 13 and 15 and the force exerted by the spring 25 properly proportioned. with relation to these pressures, the exhaust valve 13 will be moved to its open position at the 'proper instant in the downward movement of the piston in cylinder No. 1 on its power stroke, that is,

when the piston in cylinder No. 1 has reached the desired point in its downward movement. The exhaust valve will be held open thereafter by the increasing pressure in cylinder No. 3. Then, when explosion takes place in cylinder No. .3, the pressure in that cylinder will be further increased and this increased pressure will continue to maintain the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 in its open position. Then the piston of cylinder No. 3 moves downward on its )ower stroke while the piston of cylinder 0. 1 moves upward on its exhaust stroke, the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 remaining open, until finally the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 3 is opened, resulting in such a decrease of pressure upon the upper face of the auxiliary piston 15 of the exhaust valve of cylinder'No. 1 that that valve is closed by' its spring 25. Similar action takes place in each of the other cylinders on opening and closing the exhaust valve of that cylinder.

The action above described may be followed more accurately in connection with F ig.'5, wherein the action taking place in the four cylinders is represented by concentric circles, each circle corresponding to the' four-cycle operation in a cylinder and representing two complete'revolutions of the engine shaft. The heavy quadrant of each circle, indicated by the letter P on the circle of cylinder No. 1, represents the power stroke of the corresponding cylinder, and the shaded quadrant of each circle, represented by the letter C on the circle of cylinder No.

3, represents the compression stroke in that cylinder. As indicated by the arrow in this figure each power stroke of a cylinder follows the compression stroke of that cylinder is concurrent with the power stroke in another cylinder. Thus, the compression stroke in the cylinder No. 3 is concurrent with the power stroke in cylinder No. 1. The pipe connections for making the compression pressure in one cylinder effective to openthe exhaust valve of another cylinder at the proper time must therefore be from cylinder No. 3 tov cylinder No. 1, as indicated by the line 21 on Fig. 6, from cylinder No. 4 to cylinder No. 3, as indicated by the line 22, from cylinder No. 2 to cylinder No. 4, as indicated by the line 23, and from cylin-'- der No. 1 to cylinder No. 2, as indicated by the line 24. By reference to Fig. 5, it will be seen that as above described, the compression in cylinder No. 3 is increasing during the power stroke in cylinderv No. 1, and will operate through the connection 21 to open the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 toward the end of the power stroke in cylinder No. 1. Following this compression stroke in cylinder N0. 3, the power stroke takes place in that cylinder, as indicated at P on Fig. 5, and the pressure of the gases in cylinder No. 3 during this power stroke will be effective through the connection 2] to hold the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 open during the exhaust stroke of cylinder No. 1,

Referring now to Fig. 4, the application of the invention to a six-cylinder engine will be described. Each cylinder is provided with an exhaust valve and an auxiliary cylinder and piston in the manner above described. In addition, each cylinder 1s provided with a port in its side wall which is uncovered by the downward movement of the piston and thisport is connected by a pipe 26 to the space in the auxiliary cylinder 17 above the piston 15 ,therein. Considering this provision alone, the down ward movement of the piston on its power stroke would finally open communication from the interior of the cylinder to the pipe 26 and the pressure then existing within-.the cylinder would be exerted through the connection 26 upon the upperface of the auxiliary piston 15 to open the exhaust valve. This, with suitable provision for holding the exhaust valve open for the appropriate time might be effective to cause proper opera- .tion of the exhaust valve except in case of a misfire within the cylinder. If the gases in the cylinder were not exploded, the piss ton would move downward without the development of the usual high pressure within the cylinder so that when the connection to pipe 26 was opened, there would be no prescylinder effective to open the exhaust valve at any time when that valve is not openedby pressure exerted through the passage 26, as for instance, in event of a failure to ignite the gas within the'cylinder. This is accomplished by the provls'ion of connections from one cylinder to the exhaust valve actuating device of another cylinder, similar to that above described in connection with Figs. 3 and 5.' In Fig. 4, the firing order is assumed to be cylinders Nos. 1, 5, 3, 6, 2, 4, this being the usual firing order employed with six-cylinder engines. Therefore, the top of cylinder No. 3 is connected to the exhaust valve lzctuating device of cylinder No. 1 by ajpassage 27 Cylinder No. 6 is connected to cylinder No. 5 b a passa e 28. Cylinder No. 2 is connecte to cylin er No. 3 by a passage 29. Cyllnder No. 4 is connected to cylinder No. 6 by a passsage 30. Clyinder No. 1 is connected to cylinder No. 2 by a passage 31, and cylinder No. 5 is connected to cylinder No. 4 by a passage 32. Each of these several passages s.

provided with a check valve, as indicated in cylinder No. 1.

at 33, to prevent backward flow of the gases therethrough, and also each of the passages 26 --is provided with a check valve 34 for a similar purpose. a

Fig. 6 is a diagram similar to Fig. 5 of the action taking place in the several cylinders.v The power stroke in cylinder No. 1 is indicated by the letter F. During the last two-thirds of this power stroke the piston in cylinder No. 3 is moving on its compression stroke, as indicated at C. Therefore a connection is made from the top of cylinder No. 3 to the exhaust valve actuating cylinder of cylinder No. 1, as indicated at 27,- and the parts of the exhaust valve of cylinder No; 1 affected by thepressures existing in cylinders Nos. 1- and 3, are so proportioned as to open the exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 near the end of its power stroke, that is, shortly before the piston of cylinder No. 3 has completed two-thirds of its compression stroke. The valve having been opened thus, it is held open by the increasing pressure of the dompression in cylinder No. 3 and by the higher pressure existing thereafter during the power stroke P in cylinder No. 3 corresponding to the exhaust stroke valve Near the end of the power stroke P in cylinder No. 3, the exhaust valve of that cylinder is opened by the compression pressure in cylinder No. 2 exerted through the connection 29. The decrease in the pressure in cylinder No. 3, occasioned by the opening. of its exhaust valve, causes a correspondlng decrease in the-pressure exerted through connection 27 in the top of the auxiliary c linder of cylinder No. 1, and permits the ex aust valve of cylinder No. 1 to be moved to its closed position by its actuating spring 25.

In anyinternal combustion engine of the four-cycle type, it is desirable to 0 en the exhaust valve a substantial time be ore the piston reaches the end of its downward movement. As the piston nears the end of its downward movement, the pressure-of the expanding gases upon the piston becomes less effective in causing notation of the engine shaft; in fact, the torque produced durmg this portion of the power stroke may be so small as to make it desirable to discontinue the production of power so far as concerns this cylinder a substantial period before the piston reaches the, end of its downward movement so, as to enlarge the period during which the exhaust valve is open,

'thereby making the exhaust of the products of combustion more complete and aiding the represented by 60 of rotation of the engine "shaft prior to the end of the downward 1 on its exhaust stroke and the closing of the exhaust valve .of cylinder No. 1 might take place at this point and be occasioned by the opening of the exhaust valve in cylinder No;

As a matter of fact, the closing of the exhaust valveincylinder No. 1 may be made to occur slightly beyond the completion ofthe'upward-movement of the piston of cylin-' der N0; 1 on'its exhaust stroke, that is, during thefirst portion of the inlet stroke in cylinder No. 1 indicated at I on Fig. 6.. This provision is not-uncommon in internal com-'- bustion engines and it will be appreciated that the closure of the exhaust valve in cylinder No.1 may be made to occur at this point as a ,.result of the opening of the exhaust valve'of cylinder No. 3, and the reduction of pressure in cylinder No. 3'and connection 27 incident thereto.

In order to insure closure of the exhaust valve of each cylinder when the piston of that cylinder reaches the end of its upward movement on'the exhaust stroke, I may em-w loy the construction illustrated in Fig. 2. Ilere the stem of the exhaust valve 13 has an axial opening to receive the stem of an auxiliary valve having a head 35 lyin below the exhaust valve 13. The stem 0 this auxiliary valve is secured at its upper end to a valve 36 which is normally pressed by a light spring 37 down upon the upper face of the piston 15 and covers a passage 39 leading through the piston 15. Belowthe piston 15 the cylinder 17 is provided with a passage 38 leading to the atmosphere.v When.

the plston 8 moves upward op itsexhaust stroke, its face engages the auxiliary valve head 35 and moves the valve stem, together with the valve 36, upward against the tension of spring 37 sulhcient to allow the escape'of the gas within the cylinder 17 through the passage 39 through the valve 15 and to atmosphere through the passage 38. By thus relieving the pressure above the piston '15, the exhaust valve 13 may be moved to.

its seat by its s ring 25. The stem to which the head 35 an valve 36 are secured may be extended and tapered at its end so that when the valve is raised by the iston, the end of the stem closes the end of t e pipe 21 extending through the cap of the cylinder 17.

I claim:

ii In a four-cycle'internal combustion englue, the combination of a plurality ofcylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, an auxiliary cylinder on each cylinder, a piston in each auxiliary cylinder connected to the corresponding exhaust valve, a spring'acting on the piston for normally holding the exeach cylinder, means haust valve in closed position, and a conduit through which gas pressure from another cylinder may be transmitted to the' piston of each auxiliary cylinder to overcome the effect of the spring and open the exhaust valve.

2. In an internal combustion engine, a plufality of cylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, means for actuating the valve of each cylinder by'the effect of pressure in 'thatpylinder, and means for insuring the 'openin'g'of each valve. in the event of misfire der to the said means of that cylinder for operating the exhaust valve, and a connection to the said means of each cylinder from another cylinder of the engine; substantially as described.

5. Ina four'cycle internal combustion engine, the combination of a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust .valve for each cylinder, means for operating each-exhaust valve by gas pressure, a connection from each cylinder to the said means of that cylinder for operating the exhaust valve, and-a connection to the said means of each cylinder of the engine from the cylinder of the engine in which compression takes place during the power stroke .in the cylinder corresponding to the said means; substantially as described.

6. In 'afour-cyc'le internal combustion engine, a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust valvei'or each cylinder, means for opening the exhaust valve of each cylinder by gas pressure derived from that cylinder near the end of the power stroke within the cylinder, and means for insuring opening of the exhaust valve of each cylinder in event of the misfire; substantially as described.

7. In afour-cycle internal combustion engine, the combination of a plurality of cyliniders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder,

' 8. In a four-cycle internal combustion en'- gine, the combination of a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder,"

means for opening each exhaust valve by gas pressure, a passage through which gas pressure is supplied to the said means of each cylinder from another cylinder of the engine, a piston in each cylinder, means for closing the exhaust valve of each cylinder actuated by the movement of the piston of v that cylinder; substantially as described.

9. In a four-cycle internal combustion engine, the combination of a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, a piston in each cylinder, an auxiliary cylinder on each cylinder, a piston in each auxiliary cylinder connected tothe correspondcylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, a piston in each cylinder, an auxiliary I cylinder on each cylinder, a piston in each auxiliary cylinder connected to the corresponding exhaust valve, a passage'through which gas pressure may be supplied to one side of the piston of the auxiliary cylinder of each cylinder of the engine from another through which gas pressure may also be supplied to the same side of the piston of each auxiliary cylinder from the cylinder on which the auxiliary cylinder is mounted.

11; In a four-cycle internal combustion engine, the combination of a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, means for opening each exhaust valve by gas pressure, a passage through which gaspressure is supplied to the said means of each cylinder from another cylinder of the engine, a piston in each cylinder, and means under the control of the piston in each cylinder for relieving gas pressure on the exhaust valve opening means of the same cylinder to permit the exhaust valve to close. 12. In a four-cycle internal combustion engine, the combination of a plurality of cylinders, an exhaust valve for each cylinder, an auxiliary cylinder on each cylinder,

a piston in each auxiliary cylinder connected tolthe exhaust valve of the same cylinder, and having an effective area substantially greater than the effective area of the exhaust valve, a spring acting on each piston for normally holding the exhaust valve connected thereto in closed position, and a conduit through which gas pressure from another cylinder of the engine may be transmitted to the piston of each auxiliary cylinder to overcome the effect of the spring and open the corresponding exhaust valve.

In testimon whereof I aflix my si nature.

dREeoRY J; sron nnn

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2442101A (en) * 1945-01-19 1948-05-25 William H G Stone Expansible chamber motor with fluid actuated cam controlled inlet and exhaust valves
US2763249A (en) * 1952-06-16 1956-09-18 Gen Motors Corp Engine gas valve operating means
US2788777A (en) * 1954-12-20 1957-04-16 Henry S Bartosiewicz Internal combustion engines
US2811958A (en) * 1955-04-18 1957-11-05 Gen Motors Corp Pressure-operated valve means for free piston engines
US3150565A (en) * 1960-06-16 1964-09-29 Dresser Operations Inc Expansion engine
US3306276A (en) * 1967-02-28 Means for reducing starting torque in pour-cycle engines
FR2568626A1 (en) * 1984-07-31 1986-02-07 Renault Mechano-hydraulic valve control method and device for internal combustion engines
US4850313A (en) * 1988-02-16 1989-07-25 Peter Gibbons Cruciform engine
EP0376836A1 (en) * 1988-12-30 1990-07-04 Institut Francais Du Petrole Device for introducing a carburetted mixture to the combustion chamber of a two-stroke engine
US4995350A (en) * 1988-10-17 1991-02-26 Kioritz Corporation 2-cycle uni-flow spark-ignition engine
WO1994016201A1 (en) * 1993-01-05 1994-07-21 Schwoed Kurt Valve control process and device for internal combustion engines
US5752477A (en) * 1996-02-12 1998-05-19 Institut Francais Du Petrole Two-stroke engine with valve motion control means
US6782861B2 (en) 2001-02-09 2004-08-31 Briggs & Stratton Corporation Vacuum release mechanism

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3306276A (en) * 1967-02-28 Means for reducing starting torque in pour-cycle engines
US2442101A (en) * 1945-01-19 1948-05-25 William H G Stone Expansible chamber motor with fluid actuated cam controlled inlet and exhaust valves
US2763249A (en) * 1952-06-16 1956-09-18 Gen Motors Corp Engine gas valve operating means
US2788777A (en) * 1954-12-20 1957-04-16 Henry S Bartosiewicz Internal combustion engines
US2811958A (en) * 1955-04-18 1957-11-05 Gen Motors Corp Pressure-operated valve means for free piston engines
US3150565A (en) * 1960-06-16 1964-09-29 Dresser Operations Inc Expansion engine
FR2568626A1 (en) * 1984-07-31 1986-02-07 Renault Mechano-hydraulic valve control method and device for internal combustion engines
US4850313A (en) * 1988-02-16 1989-07-25 Peter Gibbons Cruciform engine
US4995350A (en) * 1988-10-17 1991-02-26 Kioritz Corporation 2-cycle uni-flow spark-ignition engine
EP0376836A1 (en) * 1988-12-30 1990-07-04 Institut Francais Du Petrole Device for introducing a carburetted mixture to the combustion chamber of a two-stroke engine
FR2641336A1 (en) * 1988-12-30 1990-07-06 Inst Francais Du Petrole Device and method for introducing a fuel mixture in a chamber of a two-stroke engine
US5005537A (en) * 1988-12-30 1991-04-09 Maissant Jean Pierre Method and device for introducing a carburetted mixture under pressure in a chamber of a two-stroke engine
WO1994016201A1 (en) * 1993-01-05 1994-07-21 Schwoed Kurt Valve control process and device for internal combustion engines
US5752477A (en) * 1996-02-12 1998-05-19 Institut Francais Du Petrole Two-stroke engine with valve motion control means
US6782861B2 (en) 2001-02-09 2004-08-31 Briggs & Stratton Corporation Vacuum release mechanism
US6874457B2 (en) 2001-02-09 2005-04-05 Briggs & Stratton Corporation Vacuum release mechanism

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