US1359040A - Automatic musical instrument - Google Patents

Automatic musical instrument Download PDF

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US1359040A
US1359040A US25178418A US1359040A US 1359040 A US1359040 A US 1359040A US 25178418 A US25178418 A US 25178418A US 1359040 A US1359040 A US 1359040A
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expression
valve
dynamics
perforations
bellows
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Dickinson Joseph Hunter
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AEOLIAN CO
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AEOLIAN CO
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10FAUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard

Description

J. H. DICKINSON.

AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.

APPLICATION FILED AUG-28. IQIBI 1,359,040, Patented Nov. 16, 1920.

2 SHEETS-SHEET l.

F'iyz.

L H. DICKINSON.

AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.

APPLICATION mm AUG.28, 1918.

1 59,040, Patented Nov. 16, 1920.

2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

JOSEPH HUNTER DICKINSON, OF LARCHMONT, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO THE AEOLIAN COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF CONNECTICUT.

AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.

Specification of Letters Patent. Patented NOV. 16, 1920.

Application filed August 28, 1918. Serial No. 251,784.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, J osnrn HUNTER DICK INSON, citizen of the United States, residing at Larchmont, New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Automatic Musical Instruments, of which the following is a specification.

My'present invention relates to means in automatic pianos and like instruments which automatically render the dynamics of the composition from expression perforations in the music-sheet,and comprises the improvement that said means is controllable at the will of the operator so that it will render the dynamics as before, up to but not beyond a limit which is less than the maximum degree of loudness producible from said expression perforations. This ability to limit the maximum loudness of tone is a feature which it is desirable to use under various conditions and situations. The specific embodiment of m improvements as shown herein permits t e operator to apply and remove the limiting device at any time before or during the rendition without any possible injury to the other mechanism. 7

In the drawings, which illustrate only one of the specific embodiments my invention may take, although the one I prefer at this time,-Figure 1 is a side-elevation of the dynamics-expression mechanism of a reproducing-piano with my maximum-dynamics limiting improvements applied thereto; said view also showing diagrammatically the music-sheet, tracker-bar and connections; Fig. 2 is the same except that the limiting device is shown in its inactive position; Fig. 3 is a horizontal section partly in plan on the line 3--3 in either Fig. 1 or 4; and Fig. 4 is a vertical section partly in elevation on the line 44 in Fig. 3 looking in the direction of the arrows.

I will now describe the illustrated specific embodiment of my invention :-1 is a rigidwalled box having its bottom 2 hinged thereto at 3, said bottom being united by flexible sides 4 to the box 1 so that the whole forms a bellows; in fact forms a so-called expressionor regulating-bellows as will hereinafter appear. 5 is a pipe connecting as usual the player-action of the automatic piano with the interior of the regulatingbellows. 6 is a block secured in the position shown in Figs. 3 and 4:, inside the box 1. 7 1s a port in the front face of this block connected by the angular passage 8 in the block 6, with a tubular-connection 9 which latter in turn is connected with the usual exhauster or air tension producing apparatus or source. The valve 10 controls the aforesaid port 7 in the block 6. The heel of this valve plvots on a pin 11 of the arm 12 secured to. the rock-shaft 13, said shaft having a bearing 14 on the rear-wall of the box 1, across which latter it extends and thence through bearing 15 to the outside where the arm 16 is secured to said shaft.

The toe of this valve 10 is connected by a link 17 with the movable-board 2 of the bellows. 20 is a spiral tension-spring connecting the movable-board of the regulatingbellows with the fixed arm 21. 18 is a washer and 19 a leaf-spring on the pin 11, the ends of said spring bearing against the valve 10 to keep its working-face seated against the face of the block 6.

The arm 16 is connected by a link 22 with the so-called accordion-bellows 23. This consists of a plurality of separate bellows, a, b,

c, d, secured together in a stack, one on top of another. The bottom 24 of the stack is secured to a fixed support. 25 are independent, tubular connections with the respective compartments a, b, 0 and d of the accordionbellows. These connections or nipples 25 are in turn operatively connected with their respective ducts in the tracker-bar 27 (Fig. 1) by means of tubing 29 and valve-boxes 30 in the well-known manner in this art. The tension-spiral spring 26 (Fig. 2) pulling on the arm 16 and link 22 keeps the accordion-bellows normally expanded. When the dynamics expression-perforations in the music-sheet open the aforesaid trackerducts, the related compartment or compartments of the accordion-bellows is or are collapsed. These compartments have different extents of collapse, d being the largest, decreasing to the smallest a; and further they can be collapsed from the expression-perforations 28 in the music-sheet 28 either singly, or in any combination or all together. As is well-known in the art, this makes it posposition shown.

The dotted lines in Fig. l show the heel of the valve in its lowest position brought about by the collapse of all the compartments of the accordion-bellows due to all four of the ducts 2? in the tracker-bar being opened by expressionperforations in the music-sheet. Between these extreme positions of the heel of the valve, there will be many intermediate positions dependent only upon the num er of different combinations possible in the expression-perforations 28 It is well understood in the art, that a regulating-bellows when in action constantly tends to collapse until its valve closes the passage through the bellows or substantially so. Thus in Fig. l, when the heel of the valve is in the uppermost position, the regulating-bellows will automatically collapse until the valve approximates the full line position with the port nearly or quite closed. Also the movable-board 2 of the bellows will approximate the full line position in Fig. t. Also the spring 20 will be only slightly tensioned thereby. All of which means that the pneumatic-tension. maintained in the playing-action by the enhaust rs via the regulating-bellows will also be slight a d all notes will sound pianissimo when the heel of the valve is in said assumed uppermost position.

The reverse is true when the heel of the valve is in its lowest or dotted position in Fig. l because then in order to close the valve, the movable-board 2 of the regulating-bellows must move all the way up to the dotted position designated 2, putting the spring 20 to its maximum stretch and tension. To do this rec es marimum airtension in the re -bcllow. and accordingly this same degree of air-tension transmitted and maintained by said bellows in the player-action so that all notes t '1 played will sound maximum loud. Intermediate adjustments of the heel of the valve by th accordion-bellows and music-sheet as aforesaid result in putting the spring 20 under correspondingly intermediate degrees of tension; and in varying the dynamics of the playing accordingly.

By the foregoing, the whole range of dynamics including the entire upper limit, will be rendered. But not infrequently it is desired to render the composition without the maxin'uun dynamics in spite of the fact that the expression-perforations in the music-sheet call for it. This I accomplish by means as follows :31-32 are a pair of toggle-arms, 32 being pivoted at 33 to the loworend of a stationary metal strip which above is screwed to the side of the box 1. The upper-end of the toggle-arm 31 is bent over to form a foot When the toggle is straightened as in Fig. 1, the foot 35 is in.

the path of the arm 10 and prevents itfrom descending to its lowermost positions, which in turn prevents the heel of the regulatingbellows valve 10 from being carried beyond a moderately loud playingposition. In other words, the maximum loud passages will now be subdued to moderately loudbut all the dynamics will still be rendered automatically from the music-sheet.

Fig. 2 shows the toggle broken, thereby carrying the foot or stop 35 out of the way of the arm 16 even when in its extreme, lowest position. In other words, the foot is now out of operation and the instrument plays normall that is with the full or maxi mum dynamics represented by the expression-perforations in the music.

The additional elements employed for supporting and operating the toggle are the following :-36 is an arm pivoted at one end to the face of the box 1; and pivoted at its other end to the upper toggle-arm 31. The joint of the toggle is connected by a link 37 with the lower end of a lever 38 pivoted at 39 to the box 1 and having its upper end connected by a link 40 with an operating hand-lever 4C1 pivotally supported at l2 so that its lower or handle-end swings adjacent a tablet 43 marked Xormal and Soft. It will be seen from the above description of the mechanism that when the handle is at Normal as in Fig. 2, the toggle will be broken and out of action, so that the instrument will play with the full dynamics of the expression-perforations; whereas when the handle of the lever 41 is at Soft, the toggle will be straightened into the position shown in Fig. 1, and will thereafter in the manner previously explained, automatically eliminate the maximum-loud playing effects.

The advantages of using a toggle-joint in this particular adaptation comprise the following z-lVhen the toggle is straightened as in Fig. 1, the striking of the arm 16 against it does not tend to throw the parts out of position, and no additional locking means is required to keep them in said position. Further the toggle can be operated during playing without fouling any of the other parts. Thus even while the arm 16 is in its extreme lowest position with the instrument playing maximum loud, the toggle can be straightened without injuring or binding any part because its foot 35 will merely push up under the end of the arm 16 lifting it into the position at which it is stopped by said foot.

Of course changes and modifications may be made in the foregoing embodiment of my invention without departing from the spirit of the invention and of the annexed claims.

What I claim is 1. In a player-piano or the like, means for controlling the dynamics of the rendition from expression-perforations in the musicsheet up to and including the maximum degree of loudness and also for so controlling the dynamics of the rendition up to a degree which is less than the maximum de' gree of loudness producible by the expression perforations, comprising player actions, a source of air tension, an expression valve controlling the air tension on the player actions, an accordion bellows whose individual compartments have different extents of collapse, said compartments being operable individually and permutatively from the expression perforations in the music sheet to operate the aforesaid valve step-bystep from a minimum to a maximum extent to vary the dynamics accordingly, and a stop having means for manually interpos ing it at the will of the operator in a position which limits said adjustment of the valve by the sheet-controlled adjustingmeans to an extent less than the maximum producible by the expression-perforations of said sheet.

2. In a player-piano or the like, means for controlling the dynamics of the rendition from expressionperforations in the music-sheet up to and including the maximum degree of loudness and also for so controlling the dynamics of the rendition up to a degree which is less than the maximum degree of loudness producible by the expression perforations, comprising player actions, a source of air tension, an expression valve controlling the air tension on the layer actions; a plurality of bellows several y operable from the expressionperforations in the music-sheet and adapted to adjust said valve step-by-step from a minimum to a maximum extent to var the dynamics accordingly; and a stop w iich is interposable to limit the aforesaid adjustment of the valve to an extent that is less than the maximum producible by the expression-perforations of said sheet.

3. In a player-piano or the like, means for controlling the from expression-perforations in the musicsheet up to and including the maximum degree of loudness and also for so controlling dynamics of the rendition the dynamics of the rendition up to a degree which is less than the maximum degree of loudness producible by the expression perforations, comprising player actions, a source of air tension, an expression valve controlling the air tension on the player actions; a series of bellows severally operable from the expression-perforations in the music-sheet and connected to said valve to operate it step-by-step from a minimum to a maximum extent to vary the dynamics accordingly, and a stop having means for manually interposing it in a position to limit the action of said tension-adjusting means to an extent which is less than the maximum producible by the expression-perforations of the music-sheet.

4. In a player-piano or the like, means for controlling the dynamics of the rendition from expression-perforations in the musicsheet up to and including the maximum degree of loudness and also for so controlling the dynamics of the rendition up to a degree which is less than the maximum degree of loudness producible by the expression perforations, comprising player actions, a source of air tension, an expression valve controlling the air tension on the player actions, a series of bellows severally operable from the expression perforations in the music sheet and connected with said valve to operate it step-by-step from a minimum to a maximum extent to vary the dynamics accordingly, a stop interposable at the will of the operator which limits said adjustment of the valve by the sheet-controlled adjusting-means to an extent less than the maximum producible by the expression-perforations of said sheet; and a toggle for bringing said stop into and out of stoppingposition, the arms of the toggle being substantially in alinement when the stop is in stopping position.

5. In a player-piano or the like, means for controlling the dynamics of the rendition from expression-perforations in the musicsheet up to and including the maximum degree of loudness and also for so controlling the dynamics of the rendition up to a degree which is less than the maximum degree of loudness producible by the expression perforations, comprising player actions, a source of air tension, an operative regulating-bellows having a valve/controlled passage therethrough connecting the air-tension source with the player-action, the valve being operatively connected with the movableboard of said bellows; means automatically operated from the expression-perforations in the music-sheet for varying the tension on the movable-board of the regulating bellows, tending to open the valve from its closed position; a stop which is interposable to limit the action of said tension-varying means to the production of a tension on said movable-hoard which is less than the maxi mum proflneihle by the expression-perforw tions ot' the music-sheet; and a toggle for bringing said stop into and out of stopping position, the arms of the toggle being substantially in alinement when the stop is in 7 position with the stopped-part acting against them.

In testimony whereof I, said JOSEPH HUN- 10 Tim DICKINSON, have signed my name to this specification, this 26 day of August 1918.

JOSEPH HUNTER DICKINSON.

US25178418 1918-08-28 1918-08-28 Automatic musical instrument Expired - Lifetime US1359040A (en)

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