US1345045A - High-speed steel and process of forming and forging the same - Google Patents

High-speed steel and process of forming and forging the same Download PDF

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Publication number
US1345045A
US1345045A US11522116A US1345045A US 1345045 A US1345045 A US 1345045A US 11522116 A US11522116 A US 11522116A US 1345045 A US1345045 A US 1345045A
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forging
speed steel
temperature
blank
forming
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James P Waters
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FORGE PRODUCTS Corp
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FORGE PRODUCTS CORP
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K5/00Making tools or tool parts, e.g. pliers
    • B21K5/12Making tools or tool parts, e.g. pliers other cutting tools
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12229Intermediate article [e.g., blank, etc.]

Description

l. P. WATERS.

HIGH SPEED STEEL AND PROCESS OF FORMING AND FORGING THE SAME.

APPLICATION FILED AUG- 16, 1916.

1, 345,045, Patented June 29, 1920.

\tllllllllmlllllllllllh awueutoz 35% WW Maw 1 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

JAMES P. WATERS, OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNOR, -BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO FORGE PRODUCTS CORPORATION, OF ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, A. CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.

HIGH-SPEED STEEL AND PROCESS OF FORMING AND FORGING THE SAME.

Specification of Letters Patent. Patented J 11119 29, 1920,

Application filed August 16, 1916.' Serial No. 115,221.

To all whom it may concern: 1

Be it known that I, JAMEs P. \VA'rERs, a citizen of theUnited States of America, residin at Detroit, in the county of Wayne and btate of Michigan, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in High- Speed Steel and Processes of Forming and Forging the Same, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings.

The invention relates to the manufacture of tools and other articles from what is known in the art as high speed steel, meaning by this term metal having tungsten, vanadium and chromium, or other ingredients having similar properties. They better qualities of high speed steel may contain up to say, 17%jto 19% tungsten; 3%% to ti chromium; to 1%% of the vanadium; and say'%% to 52% of carbon. In

the present state of-the art steels of this character are usually heat treated at temperatures above 2000 F., both in the original forging of the stock from ingots and in the subsequent tempering- The metal at this temperature is not, however, capable of being worked or fashioned in the same manner as an ordinary carbon steel, and all attempts at drop forging or otherwise refashioning the metal have resulted in failure. This is for the reason that the metal is lacking in density and at the temperature described it will inevitably fracture under the operation of a die ordrop hammer.

-I have discovered that high speed steels may be'succ'essfully forged by limiting the temperature to 2000", F. or under, and I have further discovered that metal fash.

ioned in this manner is improved in quality, having greater homogeneity, density and tensile strength. Still another advantage is that the metal so fashioned may be successfully'tempered within a greater range of temperature variation than has been heretofore possible.

My invention is applicable to the manufacture of any articles from high speed steel, but I shall specifically describe the process of forming a milling cutter, as shown in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is an elevation of a cut-off section of stock before the forging operation; Figs. 2 and 3 are respectively a plan view and a side elevation after the prelimisevered section is then heated to the temperature of approximately 1900 F. and is refashioned by hammering, pressing or other mechanical means, as shown in Fi 's. 2 and 'After this blanking operation t e metal is again re-heated, preferably to a temperature of approximately 1800 F. and

is fashioned to its final form as shown in Fig. 4, by-drop forging or otherwise.- If

the cutting-oif of the blank from the stockis by a hot process,the temperature should l1); (lessF than 2000. F., preferably about As a result of the several operations and successive heating and working of the metal, it is changed in its physical character, be-

' coming more homogeneous and of increased density and tensile strength. Theessential feature of the process is the limiting of the temperature to less than 2000 F., preferably about 1900 F. and, as specifically described, the final re-fashioning is at still lower temperature, say 1800 F. Ofcourse, the precise temperatures named can never'be exactly obtained in practice and some variations are permissible to suit different conditions and qualities of the steel.

,Tools or other articles which are fashioned in the manner described are greatly improved in strength and durability, and furthermore are more easily tempered, which operation may be successfully performed within a range of temperature variation from 2100 F. to 2300 F. for the quenching heat, and from 380 F. to 1100 for the drawing heat, these limits being'more extended than has heretofore been feasible.

After the final re-fashioning operation, the metal is preferably annealed, and if determediate the several steps in the process.

As shown in Figs. 1 to 3, the blanking operation is preferably performed by upsetting the stock so as to spread the metal transversely of the grain thereof. This endwise upsetting and transverse working 9f the sired annealing steps may be introduced inmetal is an important feature of the invention and I have discovered that blanks made great strength, density high speed steel, comprising the forging or working of the metal at a temperature no higher than 2000 F. to form a rough blank, re-forging the blank at a lower temperature, and finally annealing.

3. The process of forming articles from high speed steel, comprising the heating of the stock to a temperature of less than 2000 F. and severing a section therefrom, re-heating the severed section to a temperature of less than 2000 F. and forging the same into a rough blank, and re-heating the blank to a temperature of less than 1900 F. and forging the same to its final form.

4. In a process of forming articles from high speed steel, the step of upsetting or transversel perature 0 less than 2000 F.

5. The process of fashioning articles from high speed steel, comprising the upsetting or transverse working of the metal at a temperature of less than 2000 F. to form a rough blank, and the subsequent re-fashioning of the blank in dies at a lower temperature.

6. The process of forming articles from highspeed steel, comprising the cutting of the blank from stock of lesser diameter than the finished article, heating and upsetting said blank to diminish the len h and increase the diameter thereof an 7 thereby to working the metal at a temincrease the density and homogeneity of the metal, and re-fashioning in dies to the desired form.

7. As a new product, an upset or transversely-worked blank of high-speed steel having the characteristics of increased density and greater homogeneity, as compared to a blank of the same material, otherwise produced.

8. The process of forging high speed tungsten steel of the class described, which process comprises severing from the stock a blank of the proper volume but of dimensions different from those of the finished article, refashioning and spreading the material of the blank toward the desired dimensions by hot forging at approximately 1900 F and further refashioning the blank by a reheating and another forging operation starting with a temperature substantially less than 1900 F.

9. The process of forming articles from high speed steel stock of the class described, which method comprises severing from the stock a blank of dimensions substantially differing from, those of the finished article, refashioning and spreading the material of the blank toward the desired dimensions by a hot forging operation, starting with a temperature of approximately 1900 F. and fur ther refashioning the blank by a reheating and another for 'ng operation starting with a tem erature 0 approximately 1800 F..

10. he process of forming articles from high speed steel of the class described, which consists in performing successive operations on the metal at successive heats each be 'nning at approximately 1900 F. followe by another heating and metal fashioning operation starting at a substantially lower temperature.

In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.

JAMES P. WATERS.

US11522116 1916-08-16 1916-08-16 High-speed steel and process of forming and forging the same Expired - Lifetime US1345045A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2560973A (en) * 1945-12-03 1951-07-17 Bethlchem Steel Company Method of forming turbine rotors
US2952902A (en) * 1951-05-02 1960-09-20 Omes Ltd Manufacture of turbine rotors
US3035341A (en) * 1958-03-20 1962-05-22 Gen Electric Manufacturing method for making molybdenum base alloy articles
US3248270A (en) * 1961-07-18 1966-04-26 Bethlehem Steel Corp Method of producing deep drawing steel
US4706524A (en) * 1985-05-28 1987-11-17 Urschel Laboratories, Incorporated Circular knife and method of making same
US20060090535A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 Snecma Upsetting method for working a metal slug, method for preparing a slug for a forging operation according to the method and device for implementing the method

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2560973A (en) * 1945-12-03 1951-07-17 Bethlchem Steel Company Method of forming turbine rotors
US2952902A (en) * 1951-05-02 1960-09-20 Omes Ltd Manufacture of turbine rotors
US3035341A (en) * 1958-03-20 1962-05-22 Gen Electric Manufacturing method for making molybdenum base alloy articles
US3248270A (en) * 1961-07-18 1966-04-26 Bethlehem Steel Corp Method of producing deep drawing steel
US4706524A (en) * 1985-05-28 1987-11-17 Urschel Laboratories, Incorporated Circular knife and method of making same
US20060090535A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 Snecma Upsetting method for working a metal slug, method for preparing a slug for a forging operation according to the method and device for implementing the method
US7454941B2 (en) * 2004-10-29 2008-11-25 Snecma Upsetting method for working a metal slug, method for preparing a slug for a forging operation according to the method and device for implementing the method

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