US1344911A - Breech-action for firearms - Google Patents

Breech-action for firearms Download PDF

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US1344911A
US1344911A US1659915A US1344911A US 1344911 A US1344911 A US 1344911A US 1659915 A US1659915 A US 1659915A US 1344911 A US1344911 A US 1344911A
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breech
locking
piece
breech block
nut
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Lewis Isaac Newton
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Lewis Isaac Newton
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A17/00Safety arrangements, e.g. safeties
    • F41A17/64Firing-pin safeties, i.e. means for preventing movement of slidably- mounted strikers
    • F41A17/66Firing-pin safeties, i.e. means for preventing movement of slidably- mounted strikers automatically operated, i.e. operated by breech opening or closing movement
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/14Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively
    • F41A3/16Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks
    • F41A3/26Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks semi-automatically or automatically operated, e.g. having a slidable bolt-carrier and a rotatable bolt

Description

I. N. LEWIS. A

BREECH ACTION FOR FIREARMS. APPucATxpu FILED MAR. 24. m5.

1,344,91 1 Patented e 29, 1920.

, Fig.1).

" IN 'TOR WITNESSES Swa /gym BY fi wflwv AT TURN EY UNITED STATES PATIENT OFFICE.

ISAAC NEWTON LEWIS, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.

BREECH-ACTION FUR FIREARMS.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented June 29, 1920.

Application filed March 24, 1915. Serial No. 16,599.

To all "whon'z. 712! m fly concern:

Be it known that 1, Isaac Nnw'roN LEWIS, a citizen of the United States of America, residing at 5 Adelphi Terrace, Strand, London, \V. 1., England. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Breech Actions for Firearms, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to breech actions for auton'iatic and semi-antomatic firearms, and the object of the present invention is to pro- 'idc an improved breech action by which the breech may be opened and closed rapidly with a minimum of jar and shock and cruise qncnt wear of the moving parts.

The breech block of automatic lire-arms and especially those of the gas operated type, is very commonly locked in firing position by having a partial rotary movement imparted to it by means ol the gas piston or other breech opening device. Now. it is clear that the time in which the unlocking operation may take place is very short and consequently the sudden overcoming of the inertia of a comparatively heavy breech block ontails a great strain on the operating parts and also exerts a restraining influence on the rapidity of lire.

The object of the present invention is to so ronstruct the breech mechanism that the main portion of the lJI'GQffl'l block does not have to be turned to effect the locking and unlocking operations which are effected by a relatively small and ligl'it locking piece capable of rotation relatively to the main portion of the breech block. The locking piece is so designed that it may have its weight and hence its inertia, reduced to a minimum without in any way sacrificing the necessary strength and reliability.

I preferably employ in connection with the improved breech block, a firing pin which is so arranged that its striking end cannot reach the cartridge cap until the breech block is properly locked in position.

Referring now to the accompanying drawings which show a. convenient embodiment of my improved breech mechanism applied to a small arm of the gas operated type:

Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional View of the breech portion of the rifle, showing the breech block in closed position;

Fig. 2 is a side View of the breech block with its locking nut removed.

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional View of the breech block taken on the line 3-3 of hi g. el this view also showing the extractor [11 position;

Fig. at is an end View of the breech block;

Fig. 5 is a view or the breech block nut showing the inner end thereof and the lugs winch engage with those on the breech block proper;

Fig. 6 is a side view of the nut;

Fig. 7 is a. view of the outer end of the said nut.

Fig. 8 is a section thereof taken on the iine S-8 o'l Fig. 7.

Fig. 9 is a plan view on an enlarged scale of the cam piece which is carried upon the gas operated piston rod.

Fig. 10 is a sectional View thereof taken on the line lU-1U of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is a section on an enlarged scale on the line 1l-ll of Fig. l through the receiver casing in. body piece. the magazine and all removable parts being omitted, while Fig. 12 is a similar view taken on the line li Jl2 of Fig. l. In the drawings, a is the barrel, 1) the wooden barrel support or casing, and c is the body piece in which the breech block is adapted to reciprocate and which is proi ided with grooves ll to receive lugs 10 on the breech block nut as hereafter more fully described.

The breech block is of peculiar character in that it is made up of two parts, a long tubular part 4, and a short tubular part 5 at the rear which I will call the nut. The nut part 5 is connected to the tubular part 4 by means of locking lugs 6 upon a spigot provided on the part 4, these lugs being arranged to engage behind corresponding lugs T in the nut part. In the example shown the looking or unlocking of the two parts 4 and 5 is elfected by a relative rotation of about one sixth of a revolution.

The part 4 of the breech block is provided with a projection -8 which is adapted to run in aslot 9 in the body piece 0 of the arm; in this way the part 4 cannot rotate but may only reciprocate in the body piece or receiver. The not part 5 is provided with lugs 10 which are adapted to run (during the reciprocation of the breech block) in grooves 11 provided in the body-piece or receiver of-the arm. When the'breech block is in closed position as in Fig. 1, however, the nut part 5 is situated in a space in the body piece or receiver of a diameter throughout as great as the depth of the grooves 11 (as shown by the dotted circle 11 in Fig. 12) so that the nut can be ro tated to bring its locking lugs in or out of register with the said rooves, in order to effect unlocking or lOClI1g oi the breech block. In the construction shown about one twelfth of a rotation of the nut is required for looking or unlocking so that the nut is not, by such action, unlocked from the part 4 of the breech block.

In order to effect the necessary rotation of the breech block nut for locking and unlocking the same the cain piece 3 is provided. This cam piece is detachably connected to a piston rod 3' by suitable looking lugs and on its under side is provided with a cam slot 13 which is adapted to can gage a simple projecting piece 14 on the breech block nut. When the brccch block is in closed position the projection 14 lies in the rear end of the cam slot, as will be understood from Fig. 1 and in this position the lugs ll) on the nut are out of register with the grooves 11 in the body piece, or in other words the breech block is locked against backward movement. Upon the cam piece moving rearwardly, either by the action of the gases on the piston rod 3 or by pulling on a handle 15 provided for the purpose, the cam slot 13 will cause the nut to rotate in a counter clockwise direction (looking toward the muzzle of the rifle) to a sufficient egtent to bring the lugs 10 into register with the grooves 11. The breech block is now unlocked and the continued rearward movement of the cam piece will carry back the entire breech block so as to open the breech.

It will be understood that the piston rod 3' is fitted with a piston at its forward end working in a suitable chamber having ac cess to the barrel in the well known manner, so that when a cartridge has been fired some of the discharge gases enter the chamber and drive back the piston. The stem of the handle 15 projects through a suitable slot in the side of the casing 0' covering the rear portion of the receiver, so that the breech may be opened by hand when de sired.

The breech block is provided with a suitable extractor 16 which fits into a recess 16' in the side of the breech block and has a. hook-like free end 16" which engages the rim of a cartridge in the well known manner. It is made from spring steel and is sprung into place with its rear edges 17 beneath the overhanging ledge 18' on the breech block, and with the button 19 engaging the aperture 20 in the breech block.

The extractor is. provided on the right hand side of the breech block locking toward the muzzle of the rifle, and as the breech block is retracted the spent cartridge case is drawn out of the chamber by the ex tractor and when clear thereof is tipped out of the body of the rifle through an opening 2H (see Fig. ll). To insure that this tip ping action shall take place a pin is provided on the inner surface of the body piece opposite the opening which pin is accommodated in a slot 22 in the breech block. hen the breech block has moved back far enough the base of the cartridge opposite the extractor is struck by the pin and the empty case is forcibly thrown through the opening 20. The location of the pin is shown at 23 in dotted lines in Fig. 3.

in order to fire the cartridges a firing pin 2'21 is employed passing through a suitable aperture in the breech block and provided in thc EPn'." oi the nut with a plate 25 the lower portion oi which is shaped to run in the slot 26 in the body piccc r so that it can not rotate, The forward side oi this plate 2? is provided with two projections 27. which, when the nut is in correctly locked position, he directly in rear of two depressions 28 in the rear side of the nut (see Fig. By these means the firing pin can. only move forward sulliciently to fire the cartridgc if the breech block is locked, otherwise the forward movement of the pin will be arrested by the engagement of the projections on the plate with the rear face of the nut. hl oreover the action of rotating the nut to unlock the breech at once draws back the end of the firing pin from the cartridge in order to keep the firing pin in place it is provided with a groove at 29 adapted to receive a split spring ring 30. This ring may be removed or placed in position when the nut is removed from the part 4 of the breech block as shown in Fig. 8, but when the parts are assembled the spigot piece on the part 4 will enter the hollow space in the nut surrounding the split ring and prevent any chance of its displacement.

The firing pin is operated to fire the car tridges by a striker 31 extending upwardly through the slot 26 and carried upon a rod 32 which extends into a. tube 83 in the stock 34., the striker being urged forwardly by a spring 35 located behind it. The striker 31 is shown in cocked position in Fig. 1 it be ing held in this position by the sear 36. Upon pressing the trigger 37 the sear is depressed and the striker, now being free, moves forward under the action of the spring 35 until it strikes the plate 25 on the firing pin 24. When the breech block moves rearwardly in the manner already described it carries with it the striker 31, but upon the return of the breech block underthe action of the spring 35 and a spring 38 located around the piston rod 3 and operating beemma tween the piston at the forward end thereof and a stationary washer 39, the striker will be arrested by the sear 36 in the positielf shown in Fig. 1 ready for firing the next shot when the trigger is again pressed. As the details of the firing mechanism just described form no part of the present invention further description thereof is deemed unnecessary.

It is to be particularly observed that by employing a simple part on the "nut or locking piece 5, which part may be a mere projection and providing the necessary meansior rotating the locking piece, viz the cam groove 13, upon the operating part of the breech mechanism, the nut or looking piece can be made of only sufiicient dimensions to have the requisite strength and rigidity, whereas it the cam groove were to be provided in the nut the dimensions of the latter and hence its weight and inertia would be seriously increased.

Having described the invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block consisting of a main portion and a locking piece carried thereby, said main portion and locking piece having cooperating parts interlocked by a predetermined relative rotational movement of the main portion and locking piece, and movable breech opening and closing means coacting with said locking piece and adapted to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto less in extent than the aforesaid predetermined movement, said locking piece when in looking position coacting with parts on the breech chamber.

2. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block having a reduced extension at the rear end thereof, a relatively short locking piece abutting against the rear face of said block and rotatable on said ex tension, said locking piece and block having integral coacting interlocking means, and movable breech openingand closing means co-acting with said locking piece to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto, to cause the same to engage with and disengage from locking parts on the breech chamber.

3. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block consisting of a main portion and a locking piece carried thereby and provided with a projection, said main port-ion and locking piece having cooperating parts interlocked by a predetermined relative rotational movement of the main portion and locking piece, and movable breech opening and closing means provided with cam means co-acting with the projec tion on the locking piece to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto less in extent than the aforesaid predetermined movement, said locking piece when in looking position co-acting with parts on the breech chamber.

4. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block having a reduced extension at the rear end thereof, a relatively short locking piece abutting against the rear face of said block and rotatable on said extension and provided with a projection, said locking piece and block having integral angularly spaced co-acting interlocking means, and movable breech opening and closing means provided with cam means co-acting with the projection on the locking piece to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto, to cause the same to engage with and disengage from locking parts on the breech chamber.

5. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block having a reduced extension at the rear end thereof, a relatively short locking piece abutting against the rear face of said block and rotatable on said extension, said extension and look ing piece having cooperating parts interlocked by a predetermined relative rotation of the locking piece and main portion, and movable breech opening and closing means co-acting with said locking piece to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto less in extent than said predetermined movement, to cause the same to en gage with and disengage from locking parts on the breech chamber.

6. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block consisting of a main portion and a relatively short locking piece carried thereby and rotatable thereon and provided with a radial projection, said locking piece and block having integral align-- larly spaced co-acting interlocking means, a gas operated piston, and a member directly connected to the rear end of said piston. said member having cam means directly coacting with the projection on the locking piece to effect rotational locking and unlocking movements of said locking piece relatively to locking parts on the breech cham her.

7. Breech mechanism for firearms, comprising a breech block, a relatively short locking piece of substantially the same diam eter as said breech block and abutting against the rear face of said block, cooperating parts integral with said block and looking piece for connecting the locking piece to the block to move axially therewith, and movable breech opening and closing means co-acting with said locking piece to impart rotational locking and unlocking movements thereto to cause the same to engage with and disengage from locking parts on the breech chamber.

8. Breech mechanism for fixed barrel automatic and semiautomatic firearms, comprising a movable breech opening device operated by a gas impulse from the muzzle end, a breech block consisting of a main portion and a relatively small and light nut or locking piece capable of rotation relatively to the main portion of the breech block and carried on its rear end, means carried upon said movable breech opening device for ro-" tating said nut or locking piece, locking and unlocking of the breech block being effected by a rotational movement of the nut or locking piece alone, and a firing pin in the breech block, the lirinp pin and the nut or locking piece of the breech block having cooperating projections and recesses whereby the firing pin can only move forward to fire a cartridge when the nut or locking; piece is in properly locked condition.

9. Breech mechanism for anti'in'iatic and seiniailtomatic firearms. comprising a movable breech openimc derive and a brccrh block consisting of a mainportion and a relatively small and light nut or locking; piece capable of rotation relatively to the main portion of the breech blocl; and carried at the rear end thereof, said breech block parts having rotationally engaging parts remaining in engagement after rotational disengagement of the locking piece from the breech and disengagcable from one another by a further relative rotation.

10. Breech mechanism for fixed barrel automatic and semi-automatic firearms, comprising a movable breech opening device operated by a gas impulse from the mosaic end and a breech block consisting of a main portion and a relatively small and light not or locking piece capable of rotation rein-- tively to the main portion of the breech block, and to the fixed breech chamber, said parts cooperating to effect locking and unlocking of the breech block by a rotational movement of the nut or looking piece alone by means carried upon the said movable breech opening device, and a firing pin in the breech block located in relation to the said nut or locking piece by a device held in place by assembly with the breech block parts.

11. A breech block for a firearm, comprising a main portion and a locking piece rotatably carried thereby, said main portion and locking piece having coopij-rating parts interlocked by a prcdctermincd relative angular movement of the main portion and locking piece less than a complete rotation but greater in extent than the rotational locking and unlocking; movements oi. said locking piece, and said locking piece .having means for cooperating, with operating means.

12. A breech block for a firearm, comprisingg a main portion and a relatively short locking piece of substantially the same di amctcr as said main portion abutting against the rear face thereof and rotatable relatively thereto, said main portion and locking, piece having angularly spared co operating parts integral therewith or connecting the locking piccc to the main portion by a relative axial movement and a relative roiiitire movement to in erlock said parts.

13. A breech block for a firearm, comprising a main portion having: a reduced extension at the rear end thereof and a rela tively short locking piece abutting against the rear face of said main portion and rotataliile on said extension, said locking piece and extension having integral angularly spaced co-actinp, interlocking means interlocked by relative rotative movement of greater extent than the locking and unlockinn movements of said locking piece, and said locking piece having means for cooperating with operating 'means.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.

ISAAC NEWTON LEWIS.

W itnesses J. CUTLER, P. A. OUTHWARTE.

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346982A (en) * 1964-10-29 1967-10-17 Rheinmetall Gmbh Bolt assembly for semi-automatic firearms
US4141276A (en) * 1977-08-01 1979-02-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Locking and firing mechanism for rotating-cam actuated weapons
WO1989003969A1 (en) * 1985-02-04 1989-05-05 Redeye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun
US4926739A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-05-22 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun operating handle
US4947730A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-08-14 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Firing mechanism for polymer weapon apparatus

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346982A (en) * 1964-10-29 1967-10-17 Rheinmetall Gmbh Bolt assembly for semi-automatic firearms
US4141276A (en) * 1977-08-01 1979-02-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Locking and firing mechanism for rotating-cam actuated weapons
WO1989003969A1 (en) * 1985-02-04 1989-05-05 Redeye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun
US4926739A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-05-22 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun operating handle
US4947730A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-08-14 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Firing mechanism for polymer weapon apparatus

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