US1252878A - Drum. - Google Patents

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Publication number
US1252878A
US1252878A US5016215A US5016215A US1252878A US 1252878 A US1252878 A US 1252878A US 5016215 A US5016215 A US 5016215A US 5016215 A US5016215 A US 5016215A US 1252878 A US1252878 A US 1252878A
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head
shell
hoop
drum
tension
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US5016215A
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Harry A Bower
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Harry A Bower
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D13/00Percussion musical instruments; Details or accessories
    • G10D13/02Drums; Tambourines with drumheads
    • G10D13/023Tuning devices; Hoops; Lugs

Description

H. A. BOWER.

DRUM. APPLICATION FILED SEPT-11,1915. I 1,252,878. Patented Jan. 8,1918. 2 SHEETSSHBET 1- (L W L i \L 7L .H. A. BOWER.

DRUM.

APPLICATION FILED SEPT. H. 1915.

Patented Jan. 8, 1918.

2 SHEETS-SHEET 2- V fit/e76 0 Jar? zfiocoer 2% 7 7ce y UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

HARRY A. BOWER, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.

DRUM.

Application filed September 11, 1915.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, HARRY A. Bownn, of Boston, in the county of Suflolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Drums, of which the following is a specification.

This invention has relation to drums, and has for its object to provide certain improvements therein by which numerous and important advantages may be obtained.

From the aspect of mechanical construction one of the objects of the invention is to secure a construction in which the usual tension hoop is omitted, and a single hoop employed to perform the functions of the said tension hoop and the usual skin hoop, thereby reducing the number of parts, and securing a simpler and more durable construction than has heretofore been possible.

Referring to said drawings:

Figure 1 represents in side elevation a snare drum Fig.2represents a plan view of the drum with the snare head uppermost;

Fig. 3 represents a section through a portion of the drum, to show the snare bed;

Fig. 4 represents a section, on a different vertical plane through a portion of the barrel, the cushion, the hoop and the head;

Fig. 5 illustrates a side view and shows the formation of the snare bed;

Figs. 6 and 7 respectively represent sections taken on vertical planes which are at right angles to each other, to show the curvature of the snare head along the line of the snares.

Fig. 8 is a detail view of one of the snare clamping plates.

The invention is shown as embodied in a snare drum, but it will be recognized that many of the features thereof may be embodied in kettle drums (or tympani) or side or bass drums.

The body or barrel 10 as shown is cylindrical and consists of an endless tube or shell of metal, which may be constructed of compressed fiber of leatheroid fiber suitably treated, vulcanized or otherwise treated fiber board or the like. At each end it is rolled outwardly to provide a relatively wide convex annular surface 11, and for strengthening purpose the roll is preferably continued, to cause the extremity 12 of the shell to rest against the exterior of thebody thereof, and thus form an endless hollow bead substantially circular or else elliptical in Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Jan. 8, 1918.

Serial No. 50,162.

cross section, as indicated as a whole at 13. So far as I am aware I am the first to have provided an outwardly and backwardly bent or formed flange or bead upon the end of the barrel, thereby giving to the head which rests thereon an effective vibratory area greater than the inner diameter of the shell. For kettle drums, the properly shaped shell is provided with but one tubular flange or lip, whereas snare or side drums are preferably provided therewith at both ends.

The upper or batter head is indicated at 14, and the lower or snare head at 15. These two heads are formed of the usual skin or membrane, and they are permanently secured upon combined tension and skin hoops 16, 17, respectively. Said hoops are preferably formed of some stiff material such as metal tubing, the ends of which are joined or united to provide endless bands which are circular in cross section. For example, I may employ small size iron or steel gas pipe for the purpose. The inside diameter of each hoop is preferably greater than the greatest outside diameter of the shell, 2". 0., the bead or rolled flange 13. The marginal portion of each head is tucked orwrapped and cemented about the hoop, there being preferably more than one convolution, the extreme margin being overlapped by a portion of a superimposed portion of the head. In the case of the upper hoop the marginal portion extends outwardly under it and is tucked upwardly around the hoop, then inwardly over and downwardly, then under the hoop and then upwardly again, the directions being reversed in the case of the lower hoop and head. When the two heads are located on the barrel and the hoops are drawn toward each other, the tension on the heads tends to wrap their convolutions more tightly against the hoops and bind them more securely thereon. This I regard as a highly desirable feature of a drum embodying my invention. Of course the tucking is accomplished when the heads are damp and in temper. From the foregoing it will be readily perceived that the hoops l6 and 17 each perform the functions of the skin hoop and tension hoop usually arranged in pairs in drum construction.

For binding the heads against the ends of the barrel or shell, I may employ any suitable form of tension rods or equivalent devices, preferably engaged directly with the hoops. I have shown a convenient form of tension rod, which is adjustable as to length. It consists of an intermediate female internally threaded member 19, into which extend the externally and oppositely threaded ends of two hooks 20. These tension rods are ar ranged around the exterior of the barrel or shell, and their hooked ends take inwardly over and engage the combined skin and tension hoops. By extending or contracting the rods the tension of the inemln'anes or heads across the shell may be varied as desired.

Contrary to the recognized tenets of drum construction, I locate between the batter head and the convex supporting surface of the shell, an annular cushion 21 of suitable material. This cushion may be made of any suitable material such as felt or other fibrous substances, though for general purposes I prefer a layer of soft rubber, concave-convex in cross section to fit upon the convex surface at the end of the barrel. With convenience, a piece of soft rubber tubing of proper diameter may be split longitudinally in halves, and each half used as the cushion, since its concave-convexity causes it to lit snugly upon the annular supporting surface of the bead. The cushion between the leather head and the sl. ell. is practically continuous, its ends being brought together. Between the snare head and the shell is placed a cushion 22 similar in nature to cushion 21, but said cushion is not continuous, being preferably formed of two sections or se ments of equal length, the ends of which are separated a short distance, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, to form a snare bed 23. The head rests upon the head between the ends of the cushion, and at other points rests upon the cushion, with the result that the head forms a slight convex curve between the snare beds thus formed, as shown in Fig. 7, wl ereas on a line at right angles thereto the head is in a straight line tangential to the convex surface of the cushion. Any suitable form of snares may be employed and they may be secured in place by any suitable means. The snares, as shown, are helical wires. Their ends are attached to holders which are plates bent to a,- proximate V-shape in cross section. (See Fig. Flexible tethers, such cords 26. are attached to the holders by means of hooked portions passed through suitable openings in said holders, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 6. The tethers extend between the snare head and ears 27 of clamping plates 27 and are clamped by the conjoint action of the plates and the snare beds 23. For this purpose two of the tension hooks 20 are seated upon the plates 27 so that these two hooks have a tether-clamping function in addition to their head-tightening function, The tethers extend beyond the hoop 17 and can be grasped and pulled radially away from the center of the drum to tighten the snares provided the clamping plates are not too tightly set up at the time of such pulling. To throw the snares out of engagement with the head, I employ a hooked lever 28, the hooked end of which engages one of the angle plates 25 (see Fig. and is located in the angle formed in said plate, so as to rock upon the edge 29 of the plate 27. The free end of said lever 28 has a U- shape spring clip 30, to straddle and engage a tension rod. Vhen positioned as illustrated in Fig. 1, the hooked end of lever 28, fulcrums against the edge 29, of the plate 27, and forces the plate 25 downwardly, to hold the snares away from the head. In Fig. 3 the snares are in operative normal position, the plates :27 keeping the tethers pressed against the head so that the snares are caused. to bear along their entire lengths on the convex surface of the head, above described.

Tt will be quite apparent thatinstead of utilizing tubular hoops which are circular in cross section, they may be solid and subs-ztantially elliptical, it being desirable that they shall be rigid and capable of retaining shape and that they shall have curved or rounded upper and lower surfaces for the engagement of the skin or membrane. In addition to serving the function of both skin and tension hoops, they serve the added function of preventing any breakage 0r distortion of the shell. The two heads are interchangeable, and by carrying a spare assembled head and hoop, the musician may easily replace a broken head. The spare head occupies but litle space and may easily be packed in a case with the drum. By employing an outer bead, or outwardly rolled rim or flange, as herein described, not only is the shell strengthened as has been described, but the curved or rounded surfaces formed thereby prevent the breaking of the membrane and decrease the friction caused by straining the head over the shell. Preferably the difference between the inside diameter of the hoop and the outside diameter of the bead or rim is substantial, i. 0., sutticient to prevent the membrane from being clamped tightly between them, and to prevent the friction which would be caused thereby when the hoop is beingadjusted.

Further, since the hoops do not contact with the shell, they do not interfere with or destroy the vibration of the shell. It will be observed that, inasmuch as the hoops encircle the shell, and are practically located between the ends thereof, there are no projecting flanges to interfere with the proper manipulation of the sticks. Experts are aware that it is highly desirable for the player to be able to ring his hands close to the plane of the head to secure certain effects, and that my construction meets this requirement in a way that has never heretofore been proposed. A drum constructed as herein described is of great strength and resonance, even when made relatively shallow or in small sizes. For example, my drum, when, say twelve inches in diameter and six inches in depth, can be employed in orchestras or bands varying from two or three to fifty or more instruments.

Inasmuch as the drum, and particularly the snare drum, has become an important adjunct or feature of an orchestra or band, it is obvious that it should be capable of meeting the requirements of skilled musicians. By the construction which I have herein illustrated and described, it will be seen that my drum possesses this capability, together with a fine tone and freedom from hard head tones. This is rendered possible by the employment of the combined tension and skin hoops and their location as described.

The cushion reduces the shock of playing or stick stroke, and acts as an insulator to prevent the conduction of moisture from the shell to the head. Moreover, by employing an interrupted cushion to form the snare bed, I am able to avoid cutting away or recessing the shell, this of itself being a feature of marked importance.

Other advantages, incident to my inven tion and which I have not referred to, will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Having thus explained the nature of my said invention and described a way of constructing and using the same, although without attempting to set forth all the forms in which it may be made or all the modes of its use, what I claim is:

1. A drum comprising a cylindrical shell, heads stretched across the ends of the shell, combined skin and tension hoops for the respective heads, the edges of the skin form ing the head being wrapped around and attached to its hoop, and hooked tension rods engaging wrapped portions of said hoops to draw them together.

2. A drum comprising a cylindrical shell, heads stretched across the ends of said shell, combined skin and tension hoops of circular cross section and free of projections, for the respective heads, the edges of the skin forming the head being wrapped around its hoop, and hooked tension rods engaging said hoops to draw them together.

3. A drum comprising a cylindrical shell, heads stretched across the ends of said shell, combined skin and tension hoops wholly inclosed by the edges of the respective heads and free of projections, and tension rods having hooked ends engaging said hoops.

l. A drum comprising a cylindrical shell, heads stretched across the ends of the shell combined skin and tension hoops wholly inclosed by the edges of the respective heads and free of projections, and tension rods having hook ends engaging said hoops, said hoops being located in planes lying approximately l etween the ends of the shell.

5. A drum comprising a shell, a head for the shell, a combined skin and tension hoop attached to said head, and tension means engaging said hoop, the inside diameter of ness of the head being greater than the external diameter of the shell, whereby interference with vibrations of the shell is avoided.

7. A drum comprising a shell having an outwardly curved end edge, a head engaging the convexed portion of said edge, a combined skin and tension hoop to which said head is attached, the inside diameter of the hoop with the added thickness of the head being greater than the external diameter of the shell, whereby interference with vibrations of the shell is avoided.

8. A drum comprising a shell having at its end an exterior bead, which presents a convex curved surface, a head bearing on said surface, and a combined skin and tention hoop for said head, the edge of said head being wrapped around said hoop, the inside diameter of said hoop being greater than the outside diameter of the bead.

9. A drum comprising a'shell having at its end an exterior bead, or hoop of rigid material substantially circular in cross section, a head having its marginal portion extending in convolutions about the hoop, said hoop being free of projections, and hooked means engaging said hoop t0 exert tension thereon, whereby said hoop serves the function of a skin and tension hoop.

10. A drum comprising a shell having at each end a curved bead, a head at each end, a rigid combined skin and tension hoop loosely encircling each bead, and hooked tension rods engaging said hoops, and adjustable to vary the tension on said heads.

11. A drum comprising a shell consisting of fiber and having at each end an exterior bead curvilinear in cross section, a rigid metallic combined skin and tension hoop encircling each head, said hoop being free of projections, a head connected to each hoop and resting on one of said beads, and adj ustable tension devices engaging said hoops.

12. A drum comprising a shell, a head, and an annular cushion of yielding material between the end edge of the shell and the head.

13. A drum comprising a shell having a curved rim at the end, a head stretched across the rim, and an annular concavoconvex cushion interposed between said head and said rim.

lat. A drum comprising a shell, a head stretched thereacross, and yielding means between the head and the end edge of the shell for localizing the area of vibration of the head within the circle of the shell.

15. A drum comprising a shell, a head, and an annular rubber cushion interposed between the end edge of the shell and the head.

16. A snare drum comprising a shell, a head, an annular cushion between the head and the shell, and formed in separated sections, to form snare beds between the ends of the sections, and snares arranged across said head and supported by said shell in said beds.

17. A drum comprising a cylindrical shell, having on each end an outturned bead which is curvilinear in cross section, rigid hoops greater in internal diameter than the external diameter of said beads, heads having their edges wrapped around said hoops, adjustable tension rods having hooks taking over the wrapped hoops, each rod consisting of two oppositely extending hooks with threaded inner ends, and a rotatable intermediate member in threaded engagement with the inner ends of said hooks.

In testimony whereof I have aiiixed my signature.

HARRY A. BOWER.

Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents,

Washington, D. C.

US5016215A 1915-09-11 1915-09-11 Drum. Expired - Lifetime US1252878A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6172289B1 (en) 1998-01-05 2001-01-09 Universal Percussion, Inc. Drum head having auxiliary sound producing devices
DE4321745B4 (en) * 1993-06-30 2006-01-12 Wahan Cherbettchian Drum tires and drum
US20080127804A1 (en) * 2006-12-04 2008-06-05 Lashbrook Paul H Composite High Tension Drum Shell and Banjo Rim
GB2510183A (en) * 2013-01-29 2014-07-30 David Watt Drumhead for a snare drum comprising a drumskin folded around a circular support ring

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4321745B4 (en) * 1993-06-30 2006-01-12 Wahan Cherbettchian Drum tires and drum
US6172289B1 (en) 1998-01-05 2001-01-09 Universal Percussion, Inc. Drum head having auxiliary sound producing devices
US20080127804A1 (en) * 2006-12-04 2008-06-05 Lashbrook Paul H Composite High Tension Drum Shell and Banjo Rim
GB2510183A (en) * 2013-01-29 2014-07-30 David Watt Drumhead for a snare drum comprising a drumskin folded around a circular support ring

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