US1232108A - Internal-combustion engine. - Google Patents

Internal-combustion engine. Download PDF

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US1232108A
US1232108A US4030515A US4030515A US1232108A US 1232108 A US1232108 A US 1232108A US 4030515 A US4030515 A US 4030515A US 4030515 A US4030515 A US 4030515A US 1232108 A US1232108 A US 1232108A
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valve
cylinder
piston
stroke
stem
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US4030515A
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Frederick L H Sims
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Frederick L H Sims
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L1/00Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear
    • F01L1/46Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in preceding subgroups
    • F01L1/462Valve return spring arrangements
    • F01L1/465Pneumatic arrangements

Description

/ wssawa F. L. H. SMS. v INTERNAL COMSUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JUL) 16; 1915.
Eatented July 3, 1917.
2 SHEETSSHEET I.
F. L. H. SIMS.
. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. 1,2132108 APPLICATION FILED JULY 1a. 1915. I Patented July 3,1917,
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
WIZ'NESFES. I [MFA/TUE. I
rmrrnp STATES PATENT OFFICE.
.pnnnnnroxn Hfjsms, or rononro, ONTARIO, CANADA.
lurnnnnL-comnos'rron ENGINE.
1,232,108. srwifiwtiqfiofLetteYsPatent P atented July 3, 1917. i i Application filed July 16,
To all whom it may concern:
v Be it known that I, FREDERICK L. H. SIMS, of the city of Toronto, in the county of York, Provinceof Ontario, Canada, a subject of the King of Great Britain, have invented certa n new and useful Improve ments in ,InternaLCombustion Engines, of
' which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to internal combustionmotors'operating on a four-stroke cycle. In such motors it has been usual heretofore to employ puppet, rotary or sleeve valves operated from the crank shaft to control t e inlet and exhaust valves, and my Object is to devise a construction which will entirely eliminate the valve operating parts positively of the ordinary motor.
tially as hereinafter and: illustrated in I attain my object by means of a construction which utilizes the varying condi tions in the cylinder, as to pressure, to actu ate the valves at the proper times, substanspeoifically described the accompanying drawi ngs'iuawhich Figure 1 is a longitudinal section through I the 'c'ylinder'of a motor constructed in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 a cross section of the same along the, line w b in Fig. 1;.
Fig. 3 a View similar .to Fig. 1 showing a modified construction- Fig. at an enlarged longitudinal section of give the combustion thefuel pump shownin' Fig. 3;
Figs-5 and 6 are diagrammatical views shouing different positions of the valves at different parts of the cycle.
Referring particularly to Fig; I, 1 is the cylinder of ordinary construction with a piston 3, and exhaust port 4 leading outof the top of the combustion beef ordinary type, but is preferably provided with a concave hemispherical top to chamber as nearly as possible an ideal shape. The exhaustport 4 has an inwardly facing .valve seat formed around it in the head of the combustion chamber, and against this seats-the annular exhaust valve 5. This exhaust valve is provided with thehollow h stem 6 which forms an inlet for air or for a combustible mixture.
The stem is closely fitted in an opening in the bottomofthe second cylinder 7 formed in alinement with the motor cylinder and I provided with the removable head 8 in- 1915. Serial No. 40,305.
which thehollow stem 6 is guided. At the outer side of the head is formed a chamber 9, with which communicates the intake pipe 10, which, in the form of engine shown in Fig.1, will be led to a suitable carburetor. In the second cylinder 7 moves the piston 11 secured to the valve stem 6. The space below the of one or more ports 12 with the atmosphere. This opening is located above/the bottom of the cylinder so that when the piston descends below the level ot the port it acts on an elastic air cushion which prevents further movement without causing a jar. Above the piston "11, the cylinder, by means of one or inore municates with 7 ports 14. communicating viththe interior of the motor cylinder 1. These ports are so located and the piston 3 so proportioned that the port will be uncovered by the piston when the latter is at the end of its upward stroke and also when it is at the end of its downward stroke. The result of this construction is that at the end of the explosion stroke of the motor communication is opened between the two cylinders so that the full pressure of the exhaust isexerted against the piston ll to open the exhaust valve 5. The opening is almost instantaneous, as the area of the pispiston communicates by means,
passageways 13, comton 11 is made very much larger than that of the exhaust valve '5, which also, of course,
is exposed to the suitably proportioning the port or ports 12, and particularly by giving them a lead as shown particularly in Fig. 1 the exhaust valve may be caused to open at any 'desired point earlier than the end of the explosion stroke of the motor as good practice demands. Various means may be provided for closingtheexhaust valve at the end of the exhaust stroke. In Fig. 1 I show bent fingers secured to the piston head adapted to engage the underside of the valve.
may be made of anyspecial steel .or other anaterial which retains its hardness even when highly heated.
In Fig. 3 I show the piston directly contacting with the under side of an exhaust These fingers valve. a construction which is quite feasible with low speed engines. a
The stem of the exhaust valve being utilized for the admhsion of air or combustible mixture, the .inlet valve 16 is arranged constem (3 of the exhaust valve. The upper end of the stem 19 of the inlet valve is made tubular to fit over and slide on this guide rod. The downward movement of the inlet valve is limited by means of the pin and slot connection 20 formed between the hollow part of the stem 19 and the guide rod. The inlet valve thus tends to open whenever there is a partial vacuum within the engine cylinder, but does not tend to close during the compression and exhaust strokes of the engine.
In order to close it at or about the beginning of the compression andexhaust strokes, various means may be employed. In Fig. 1, I show a light disk 21 secured to a hub 22 slidable freely on the lower part of the stem 19. Its upward movement is,
however, limited by the shoulder 23 on the lower end of the tubular portion of the stem. Each time the piston 3 starts its up ward stroke it tends to force part of the contents of the cylinder back through the hollow stem 6. This current of air lifts the float 21 until it lies within the hollow stem with its hub engaging the shoulder 23. The pressure of the gaseous contents of the cylinder then forces the float up the hollow stem as a piston within a cylinder, promptly closing the inlet valve. The closure is thus slightly delayed until after the piston commences its upward stroke, which accords with good practice.
As the inlet valve tends to remain seated when the exhaust valve is closed at the end of the exhaust stroke, means must be provided to hold it open until a condition of vacuum exists in the cylinder. which, of course, occurs at the beginning of the charging stroke. A latch 24 is provided for this purpose pivoted on the spider 18 and adapted. when the inlet valve is in its lower position. to engage the upper end of the valve stem 19. The tail 25 on this latch projects into a slot 26.formed in an'upward extension of the hollow stem 6. When the exhaust valve is open, the upper end of the slot engages the tail and rocks the latch to the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1. Just as the exhaust valve closes. the lower end of the slot engages the tail and rocks the latch to release the inlet valve, leaving it free" to be-closed during the compression stroke.
The operationof the engine constructed as described will'now be readily understood.
During the explosion strok of both valves are closed. Just before the end of the explosion stroke the piston uncovers the port 1- allowing pressure in the cylinder to pass up the passage 13 and act on the piston 11, thus quickly opening the ex- 7o haust valve. The inlet valve, of course, travels down with theexhaust valve but remains seated. At the end ofthe exhaust stroke the fingers 15 engage with and close the exhaust valve. The inlet valve, however, stays where it is, being locked by the latch 2i while the exhaust valve retreats. The inlet valve remains open during the suction stroke. At the beginning of the compression stroke, the inlet valve is closed 30 in the manner hereinbefore described. At the end of the compression stroke ignition is effected preferably by means of a spark plug in the usual manner, and the explosion stroke duly takes place. 5
In Fig. 3 I show a modified construction suitable for an engine operating on the Diesel principle. The general construction remains the same in principle and arrangement. but an automatic pump is applied for the purpose of'iuje cting fuel at the end of the,,compression stroke. A hollow plunger 271s securedto the piston head. In this plunger fits the rods 28 secured to the. spider 18 formed on or secured to the cylinder head. This rod is bored out to form a\ passageway for the combustible fluid, an opening 29.jbeing. provided in. the side of the rod atits nape-end leading to the bore anal one or more openings 30 at its" lower en On the hollow plunger 27 is sleeved the hollow stem 31 of the inlet valve 16. \Vhen the valve is seated this stem extends up almost to the opening 29 in the rod 28.
Carried by the spider 18 is a part 32 forming a pump cylinder in which the hol-- low plunger 27 and the hollow sleeve 31 fit closely and in which they are slidable. A tube 33 is connected with this head and surrounds the hollowstem 31 forming a space outside the hollow stem through which oil may be led for lubricating purposes. The lower end of this tube is closed with a cap 34 closely fitting the valve stem. Holes 35 are formed through the valve stem near its lower end through' which oil may pass to lubricate the coiitlicting 'surfaces of the hollow stem and thehollow plunger. These holes 35 are preferably formed below a colim- 36 formed on the iollow stem which serves as a check to limit the downward movement of the-inlet valve in opening. This collar also serves as ,a, plunger which tends to force oil through the holes 35 when the inlet valve descends. w
A pipe 37 leads from the space within the tube 133 to any, suitable lubricating system for themotor.- The fuel supplv is=led by .means ofthe pipe 38 to an inlet port 39 formed in the part 32. A port 40 is formed in the hollow stem 31 which registers with the port 39 when the inlet and exhaust valves are closed. A by-pass 41 is provided in the part 32 communicating with the port 39.v This is controlledby the needle .valve 42 screwed through. the part 32.
The operation of the pump is as follows: When the exhaust stroke takes place, the exhaust valve is, of-course, open and the inlet valve, though seated, is lowered from its normal position. The port 40 is therefore drawn down out of alinement with the port 39. The inner side of the by-pass, it will be noted, is open against the side of the hollow stem 31. When this stem is down there is, therefore, free communication between the space Within the part 32 and the pipe 38 supplying the fuel. As the hollow .plunger rises during the exhaust stroke,
, any fuel that may have, been pumped in tank on the up stroke.
on the down stroke is expelled again to the During the suction stroke, the exhaust valve is closed, having been seated by the-contact of the piston 3 at the end of the exhaust stroke, but the inlet valve is open having been drawn down by its frictional engagement with the hollow plunger 27. v I
During the compression stroke the inlet valve is closed by its frictional engagement with the plunger 27, and as the exhaust valve is in the position shown in Fig. 3 the port 40 is in communication with the port 39 and the side of the by-pass 41 is closed by the hollow stem 31. The only communication between the by-pass' and the interior of the part 32 is therefore under and around the end of the needle valve, which may be adjusted to accurately regulate the slip and therefore thequantity of fuel pumped.
Until the upper end of the hollow plunger 27 passes the port 40, any fuel drawn in on its down strokeis returned through nipped off by the withdrawing of the the pipe 38 to the supply tank. After the end of the plunger passes the port 39, the quantity of fuel nipped ofi' by the plunger is forced through the hole 29 into t bore of the rod 28. As the bore is always full of fuel despite the high pressure in the cylinder, (see below), the forcing of the fuel upper end of the plunger 27 through itsbore forces a similar quantity through the opening 30 at its lower end. This occurs just at the time when the piston has reached its highest position, at which time thy'holes 30 are open to the slots 43 in the plunger 27. The fuel thus injected ignites in the charge of air due to the heat of high compression and the explosion stroke occurs. The downward movement of the piston thus closes the openings 30 by the slots 43 from alinement therewith, and the fuel in the bore of the ,65 red 28 is held there as previously stated.
Positive injection of the liquid fuel is thus obtained at the end of every other upward stroke of the piston, whichis the necessary condition in a fourstroke cycle motor.
Numerous variations of the construction are possible all retaining the fundamental idea of the opening the utilization of the pressure remaining in the cylinder at the end of the ex losion stroke, and the provision of means w ereby the inlet valve is left open, or after closing is again opened atwthe beginnin of the suction stroke to be again close by any suitable means operative within the cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke.
In Fig. 3 it will be noted that the space beneath the piston 11 is open byports 45 to the interior of the stem 6 of the exhaust valve. This is equivalent to theopenings 12 to the air illustrated in Fig. l.
In Fig. 1 I show alead tothe port 14' at its underside as well as at its upper side. This enables the pressure in the cylinder 7 to be relieved as early as maybe necessary to reduce the fomegacessaryin closing the exhaust valve. 7 V r From the above description it will be seen that'an engine may be constructed according to the principle adapted for the use of any liquid fuel and which entirely elimiof the exhaust valve by nates all the complication of cam shaft,
cams, gearing and compressors for the spraying of fuel.
hat I claim as my invention is:
1. In an internal combustion motor operating on a four stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder; the piston; a freely movable exhaust valve; a piston connected with the exhaust valve of greater area than the valve piston moves and a passageway leading from the interi Qf saidE econd cylinder behindthe piston to the interior of the motor cylinder, controlled ton and opened to t' interior of the motor cylinder substantialy at the end of the downward stroke of the motor piston, said passageway also being is ust at the end of it upward stroke.
2. In an internal combustion motor oper- 3. In an internal combustion. motor opera second cylinder in which said by the motor pis-- opened to the atmos- .phere bythe motor piston when the lattr ating on a four-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder having an exhaust port in the end of its combustion chamber; a freely movable annular puppet exhaust valve controlling said opening and provided with a hollow stem forming an air inlet;
an inlet puppet valve controlling the opening in said stem; means operable by the pressure of the gases within the cylinder to open the exhaust valve at the endof the explosion stroke of the motor; and positive means for engaging and seating said valve at the end of each exhaust stroke of the to open the exhaust valve substantially at the end of the explosion stroke .of the motor; and positive means for engaging and seating said valve substantially at the end of each exhaust stroke of the motor.
In an internal combustion motor operating on a four-stroke cycle, the-combination of the cylinder; the piston; a freely movable exhaust valve of the puppet type opening within the cylinder; a hollow stem for said valve forming an air inlet; means operable by the pressure of the gases within the cylinder to open the exhaust valve at the end of the explosion stroke ofthe motor; and positive means for engagin and seating said valve at the end of eac i exhaust stroke of the motor.
6. In an internal combustion motor operating on a four-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder having anexhaust port in the end of its combustion chamber provided with an inwardly facing valve seat; an annular puppet exhaust valve controlling said opening and provided with ahollow stem forming an air inlet and. provided with an inwardly facing valve seat; an inlet puppet valve controlling the opening in said stem; means operable by the pressure of the gases within the cylinder to open the exhaust valve at the end of the explosion stroke of the motor: a rod connected -to' the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a frictional fit whereby the rod will open and close the -valve while slid-able through the samefand means limiting the opening of the -1nlrt valve.
7. In an internal combustion motor operating on a four-strokecycle. the combination of the cylinder having an exlr. ust port an inwardly facing valve seat; an inlet puppet valve controlling the opening in said stem; means operable by the pressure of the gases within the cylinder to open the exhaust valve at the end of the explosion stroke of the motor; a rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a frictional fit whereby the rod will open and close the valve while slidable through the same; means limiting the opening of the inlet valve; and a fuel pump of which said rod forms the plunger.
8. In an internal combustion motor operating on a four-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder; the piston; an inlet valve of the puppet type; a. rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a frictional lit whereby the rod will open and close the valve while slidable through the same; means limiting the opening of the inlet valve; and a fuel pump of which said rod forms the plunger.
9. In an internal combustion motor operating on a four-stroke cycle, the combina tion of the cylinder; the piston; an inlet valve of the puppet type; a hollow rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a frictional fit whereby the rod will open and close the valve while slidable through the same; means limiting the opening of the inlet valve; a ho]- low stem for said valve in which said rod operates as a plunger; a pump cylinder in which the upper end of the valve stem reciprocatcs; a hollow fuel discharge rod secured to the end of the pump cylinder fitting 'hollow discharge rod registers when the piston is at the end of its upward stroke and below the inlet valve, the pump cylinder having a fuel port formed in one side and the hollow stem of the inlet valve a similar port which registers with the aforesaid port when the inlet valve is closed.
10. In an internal combustion motor oper- I I n I atmg on a tour-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder; the piston; an inlet valve of the p ippet type; a hollow rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve-is sleeved with a frictional tit whereby the rod will open and close the valve \vhile slidable through the'same; means limiting-the opening oi the inlet; valve: :1 hollo'vv stem for sai \alve in p'hich said rod operates as a plunger; a pump cylinder in which the upwith which the lower opening of the hollow discharge rod registers when the piston is at the end of its upward stroke and below the inlet valve, the pump cylinder having a fuel port formed in one side and the hollow stem of the inlet valve a similar port which registers with the aforesaid port when the inlet valve is closed, a b v-pass groove being formed in the inside of the cylinder wall extending up to the position the end of the stem of the inlet valve reaches when the valve is closed; and a needle valve controlling the opening at the upperend of the groove.
11. In an internal combustion motor operating an a four-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder; the piston; an inlet valve of the puppet type; a hollow rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a. frictional fit whereby the rod will open and close the valve while slidable through the same; means limiting the opening of the inlet valve; a hollow stem for said valve in which said rod operates as a plunger;'a pump cvlinder in which the upper end of the valve stem reciprocates; a hollow fuel discharge rod secured to the end of the pump cylinder fitting into the hollow plunger rod, said discharge rod having a lateral opening adjacent each end, the upper opening communicating with the interior of the pump cylinder, a slot being formed in the side of the hollow plunger with which the lower opening of'the hollow discharge rod registers when the piston is at the end of its upward stroke and below the inlet valve, the pump cylinder having a ,fuel port formed in one side and the hollow stem of the inletvalve a similar port which registers with the aforesaid port when the inlet valve is closed, a by-pass groove being formed in the inside of the cylinder wall extending up to the position the end of the stemof the inlet valve reaches when the valve is closed; a needle valve controlling the opening at the upper end of the groove; an oil jacket through which the valve stem slides; and an external collar l'ormed on the valve stem within the jacket.
12. In an. internal combustion motor operating on a four-stroke cycle, the combination of the cylinder; the piston; an inlet 6 valve of the puppet type; a hollow rod connected to the piston on which the inlet valve is sleeved with a frictional tit whereby the rod will open and close the valve while slidablethrough the same; means limiting 6 the opening of the inlet valve; a hollow stem for said valve in which said rod 0perates as a plunger; a pump cylinder in which the upper end of the valve stem reciprocates; a hollow l'uel discharge rod secured 7 to the end of the pump cylinder fitting into the. hollow plunger rod, said discharge rod having a lateral opening adjacent each end, the upper opening connnunicating with the interior of the pump cylinder, a slot being 7 formed in the side of the hollow plunger with which the lower opening of the hollow discharge rod registers when the piston is at the end of its upward stroke and below the inlet valve, the pump cylinder having a 3 fuel port formed in one side and the hollow stem of the inlet valve a similar port which registers with the aforesaid port when the inlet valve is closed, a by-pass groove being formed in the inside of the cylinder wall 8 extending up to the position the end of the stem of the inlet valve reaches when the valve is closed; a needle valve controlling the opening at the upper end of the groove; an oil jacket through which the valve stem 9 slides; an external collar formed on the valve stem within the jacket, holes being formed through. the valve stem below said collar to convey oil to the external surface of the plunger. 9
13. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder-provided with an exhaust port in its head; a puppet valve controlling the exhaust port; and apiston, the said piston being adapted to engage and 1 positively close said exhaust valve substantially at-the end of the exhaust stroke-of the motor.
Signed at Toronto, Canada, this of June, 1915, in the undersigned witnesses.
FREDERICK L. H. SIMS. Witnesses J. EDW. MAYBEE, E. P. HALL.
30th day presence of the two
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863429A (en) * 1955-07-29 1958-12-09 Bouteleux Rene Cylinder-head for internal combustion engine
US2988071A (en) * 1955-09-26 1961-06-13 Gen Motors Corp Concentric valve internal combustion engine
USB563780I5 (en) * 1975-03-31 1976-02-03

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863429A (en) * 1955-07-29 1958-12-09 Bouteleux Rene Cylinder-head for internal combustion engine
US2988071A (en) * 1955-09-26 1961-06-13 Gen Motors Corp Concentric valve internal combustion engine
USB563780I5 (en) * 1975-03-31 1976-02-03
US3987769A (en) * 1975-03-31 1976-10-26 General Motors Corporation Jet ignition engine with valve-carried ignition chamber

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