US1203555A - Metal alloy. - Google Patents

Metal alloy. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1203555A
US1203555A US86707614A US1914867076A US1203555A US 1203555 A US1203555 A US 1203555A US 86707614 A US86707614 A US 86707614A US 1914867076 A US1914867076 A US 1914867076A US 1203555 A US1203555 A US 1203555A
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United States
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alloy
nickel
chromium
metals
copper
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US86707614A
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Theodore B Brix
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AMERICAN ALLOYS Co
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AMERICAN ALLOYS Co
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Priority to US86707614A priority Critical patent/US1203555A/en
Priority to US5606A priority patent/US1203180A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/055Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 20% but less than 30%

Definitions

  • My invention relates to alloys.
  • the alloy which is the subject matter of my invention has several highly valuable orm of the alloy is made by reducing to 9.
  • an alloy comprising predominantlynickel or cobalt, the nickel or cobalt content; being say not less than about 55% by weight, and one or more metals of the chromium group, such as chromium or chromium and tungsten or chromium and titanium, between18 and 35%, with silicon not over 10%, which have been melted'with one or more metals such as copper and manganese, to give fluidity to the alloy and render it homogeneous, has very valuable characteristics.
  • the preferred form of the alloy by actual test has been found to stand a very high degree of heatabout 3000 Fah., and to be.
  • the preferred form of'the alloy contains no a nickel, chromium, copper, silicon, tungsten,
  • the nickel and chromium are the main ingredi- GIltS'WhlGh, with the tungsten and the use of boron or titanium in the manufacture of the I give the metal its high melting point, which may be varied by varying the proportions of tungsten and boron. Increase in the proportion of tungsten with the use of boron as a flux increases the melting oint of the alloy.
  • the silicon and chromium are the most important constituents giving the acidresisting quality to the alloy. Silicon and.
  • tungsten give the alloy its property of hardness.
  • the alloy is ductile and malleable.
  • the temperature at which the alloy is poured regulates to a marked extent its ductility and malleabilitv; and that the proportions of the nickel and chromium also nickel and a reduction :of chromium increases the malleability and ductility, and vice verse.
  • the nickel or cobalt content should be between 55 and by weight, chromium between 10 and 25% by weight, copper not over 6% by weight, aluminum not over 4% by weight, tungsten or titanium not over 8% by weight, silicon not over 10% by weight, manganese not over 6% by weight, and titanium or boron when used as a flux with manganese, not over 5% by weight; and the combined nickel and chromium content or cobalt-chromium content should not exceed by weight.
  • the alloy made from nickel 61%, chromium 20%, copper 5%, aluminum 3%, tungsten 4%, silicon 4% and manganese-titanium (-3 manganese) 3%,pro-
  • the compound in the electric furnace is brought to the melting point, and just before it is melted so as to assist in melting it, a small percentage -for example, about 5% of the nickel is added, and the whole thoroughly melted.
  • the balance of the nickel, the copper and the silicon are placed in another furnace such, for example, as a gas furnace, the temperature of which is approximately 2800 Fan, and melted. While the compound in the gas furnace is being brought to the melting point, the aluminum is gradually added in small quantities. The addition of the aluminum in this manner acts effectively as a re- 11c ducing agent on the other metals in the furnace, combining with the oxids, and, I believe, more particularly with the oXids of the copper to assist in reducing the same.
  • the contents of the gas furnace are emptied into the electric furnace and the whole stirred, whereupon the manganese and titanium or manganese and boron are added to the whole and stirred, the heat being kept 120 up until the entire mixture is thoroughly melted, the time for which I find in practice to consume about five minutes from the time the manganese was added.
  • the different contents are all used in the metallic form.
  • the manganese and titanium or manganese and boron act as a flux assisting in melting the alloy, these metals being de-oxidizing ent as impurities in one or moreof the constituents, and thus aids in reducing these metals'and purifying the alloy,
  • the manganese not only acts as a.
  • the alloy may be made into knives or surgical instruments, and has been found to take andfhold a sharp edge.
  • the alloy can be used in laboratory and other uses where receptacles or other articles are required having acid-resisting qualities and capable of. standing high temperatures.
  • chromium grou such as chromium from 75 to 90%, sai
  • metals i such as copper and manganese
  • a metal alloy containing one or more metals of the nickel group such as nickel from 55 to 80%, one or more metals of the chromium group such as chromium not over and in addition tungstemand one or more metals which Will aid in melting the constituents, such as copper.
  • mosses tungsten said constituents having been alloyed by the use'of one or more metals such I as copper, to assist in melting the same and render the alloy homogeneous.
  • a metal alloy containing nickel from to one or more metals of the chromiumgroup such as chromium from 12 to 25%, and in addition tungsten not over 10%, and one or more metals which Will aid in melting the constituents, such as copper.

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Metallurgy (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Manufacture And Refinement Of Metals (AREA)

Description

E s'ratrns rnEononE n; nnrx, or .nnwmx, unw JEnsnY, .assrenon, BY mEsNE ass renmnn'rs, 'ro AMERICAN ALLOYS comrm, 0E NEWARK, NEW, JERSEY, A conrona'rron or To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THEODORE B. Bmx, a
citizen of the United States, and a resident of Newark, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Metal Alloys, of
- facturmg even the preferred form of alloy,
which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to alloys.
The alloy which is the subject matter of my invention has several highly valuable orm of the alloy is made by reducing to 9.
characteristics, and in its preferred form'it may be designated 'as a nickel-chrome. alloy,- since the nickel-chrome content predominates. v
I have =found that an alloy comprising predominantlynickel or cobalt, the nickel or cobalt content; being say not less than about 55% by weight, and one or more metals of the chromium group, such as chromium or chromium and tungsten or chromium and titanium, between18 and 35%, with silicon not over 10%, which have been melted'with one or more metals such as copper and manganese, to give fluidity to the alloy and render it homogeneous, has very valuable characteristics.
The preferred form of the alloy by actual test has been found to stand a very high degree of heatabout 3000 Fah., and to be.
dissolved only by hot aquaregia (nitrohydrochloric acid). In its preferred form it is substantially if not entirely unafiected by other'acids, thus rendering it highly Valuable for use in making laboratory utensiie, or other articles which must withstand a high temperature or be substantiallv unaffected by ordinary acids. I have also found that the alloy is hard and capable of taking a good edge and may be made malleable, and on account of these features it is highly useful for cutlery, tools and instruments generally. The alloy in some forms is also ducaffect these characteristics; an increase of tile. 2
I will first state the ingredients of the preferred form of the alloy, giving the rela-' tive proportions of each for the preferredform of the alloy, and their functions in the alloy. I will then point out by way of exthe appended claims.
' alloy withstand hydrochloric aei found that. for some uses of the alloy, an-' other suitable metal of the tungsten group,
such as titanium, may be substituted for the i Y The preferred form of'the alloy contains no a nickel, chromium, copper, silicon, tungsten,
aluminum and manganesev (the aluminum appearing as a result of the manufacture of the alloy, as aluminum facilitates the manufacture, but it is mostly burned out and may be replaced by copper in producing or menualthough for some uses of the alloy the presence of aluminum in the alloy may prove to ve to 1t certain desirable features.) This molten mass the'following metals in the approximate proportions set forth: nickel to 70% by weight; chromium, 15 to 20% by weight copper, 5%by weight; silicon, 4% by weight; tungsten, 1 to 4% by weight;
aluminum, 2% by wei 'ht; manganesetitamum (5 manganese), 3% by weight, or man- Specification of letters Patent. Patented 6 31, 1916 Application flied. october lnwm. Serial No. 867,076.
ganese 2% by. welght, and boron 1% by weight. I have found that anallov made from these metals in substantially the proportions given has the valuable characteris tics of the alloy heretofore mentioned. The nickel and chromium are the main ingredi- GIltS'WhlGh, with the tungsten and the use of boron or titanium in the manufacture of the I give the metal its high melting point, which may be varied by varying the proportions of tungsten and boron. Increase in the proportion of tungsten with the use of boron as a flux increases the melting oint of the alloy. The silicon and chromium are the most important constituents giving the acidresisting quality to the alloy. Silicon and. tungsten give the alloy its property of hardness. When relatively small percentages of silicon and chromium'are used, the alloy as stated, is ductile and malleable. I have found that the temperature at which the alloy is poured regulates to a marked extent its ductility and malleabilitv; and that the proportions of the nickel and chromium also nickel and a reduction :of chromium increases the malleability and ductility, and vice verse. I v Y li'have found that for some uses of the alloy cobalt may be substituted for the nickel, but when such a substitution is'made the alloy is not so acid-resistin as it will not I have also tungsten ingredient ofthe preferred form of the alloy. With this substitution the alloy is homogeneous and ductile and withstands the ordinary acids, but is lacking in hardness. I have also found that inasmuch as copper and aluminum are used princi- Substitute for the aluminum substantially the same amount of copper in addition to that usually used with the aluminum. The result of such substitution seems to give no marked or difl'erent characteristic thanwhen both copper and aluminum are used, but the use of aluminum with the copper is preferable from the standpoint of manufacture, since it facilitates the melting of the metals. Some of the copper and a considerable amount of the aluminum are burned out in the manufacture of the alloy {and where the small amount of titanium is used with the manganese, very little if any titanium seems to be retained in the alloy; but where titanium is substituted for tungsten, as above stated, of course a very appreciable percentage remains in the alloy. I have also found that the respective ingredients of the contents may be varied for the purpose of changing the characteristics of the alloy in one or another particular. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the nickel or cobalt content should be between 55 and by weight, chromium between 10 and 25% by weight, copper not over 6% by weight, aluminum not over 4% by weight, tungsten or titanium not over 8% by weight, silicon not over 10% by weight, manganese not over 6% by weight, and titanium or boron when used as a flux with manganese, not over 5% by weight; and the combined nickel and chromium content or cobalt-chromium content should not exceed by weight. It will, of course, be understood, however, that rapid strides are being made in the manufacture of alloys, both in'the process of melting the constituents and in rolling or forging the alloys, and that with these improved methods of manufacture it is possible that the respective ingredients of the alloy may be further varied while retaining certain valuable characteristics thereof.
By way of illustrating the manner in which thecharacterisgtics of the alloy are affected by varying the different ingredients, I will give a few examples of the alloy in which the percentages of certain ingredients were varied. For example, the alloy made from nickel 61%, chromium 20%, copper 5%, aluminum 3%, tungsten 4%, silicon 4% and manganese-titanium (-3 manganese) 3%,pro-
duced an alloy which was veryhard, substantially resistant to all acids other than nitro-hydrochloric acid and which took a good edge and was somewhat malleable. Whereas an alloy made from nickel 72%, chromium 16%, copper 4%, aluminum 1%, silicon4% and manganese-titanium (a manganese) 3%, retains its acid-resisting property, but is very ductile and capable of being rolled and drawn into wire; and an alloy made with nickel 68%, chromium 15%, silicon 8%, copper 45%, tungsten 1%, aluminum 1%, and manganese-titanium f; manganese) 3%, has the characteristic of great hardness but is less ductile than alloy example #2. The alloy made with nickel 65%, chromium 22% silicon 4% and the rest of the ingredients as given in the last example (#3), was not as hard as the alloy #3 but was harder than the alloy #2 and had marked acid-resisting properties.
In manufacturing the alloy according to the preferred method, I place the whole of the tungsten and half of the chromium in an electric furnace, the temperature of which is approximately 2800 to 3400 Fah., and heat them until the mixture comes to a semimolten or pasty consistency, whereupon the other half of the chromium is placed in the furnace and the whole is melted. As the compound in the electric furnace is brought to the melting point, and just before it is melted so as to assist in melting it, a small percentage -for example, about 5% of the nickel is added, and the whole thoroughly melted. Simultaneously with the melting of these metals in the electric furnace, the balance of the nickel, the copper and the silicon are placed in another furnace such, for example, as a gas furnace, the temperature of which is approximately 2800 Fan, and melted. While the compound in the gas furnace is being brought to the melting point, the aluminum is gradually added in small quantities. The addition of the aluminum in this manner acts effectively as a re- 11c ducing agent on the other metals in the furnace, combining with the oxids, and, I believe, more particularly with the oXids of the copper to assist in reducing the same. When the constituents in both furnaces have 116 been melted, the contents of the gas furnace are emptied into the electric furnace and the whole stirred, whereupon the manganese and titanium or manganese and boron are added to the whole and stirred, the heat being kept 120 up until the entire mixture is thoroughly melted, the time for which I find in practice to consume about five minutes from the time the manganese was added. The different contents are all used in the metallic form. The manganese and titanium or manganese and boron act as a flux assisting in melting the alloy, these metals being de-oxidizing ent as impurities in one or moreof the constituents, and thus aids in reducing these metals'and purifying the alloy, The manganese not only acts as a. fluxand reducing agent, but as a constituent in the alloy. The boron or titanium, however, either of which may be used as a flux with the manganese, seems to completely disappear in the process of melting the alloy, since'so'far I have been unable to find any traces of them in the resulting product. Their use, however, in the manufacture of the product plays a'highly important part, since I have found that the alloy made without them is of a coarser .andless homogeneous structure.
I have also found that some of the alumi-' num is volatilized or otherwise disappears during the melting operation, although a perceptible amount'of it remains in the alloy. In melting the alloy, such fluxes as Paris green and niter, and other well known fluxes, may be made use of, to assist in re- Y ducingthe metals. I have found that an alloy made according to the above process and containing the above ingredients in substantially the proportions set forth, is soluble hot aquaregia (nitro-hydrochloric acid) and is slightly afiected by cold aquaregia, although not soluble therein, but is substantially unaifected by the ordinary acids.
The alloy may be made into knives or surgical instruments, and has been found to take andfhold a sharp edge.
the nickel group such as nickel, I do not The alloy can be used in laboratory and other uses where receptacles or other articles are required having acid-resisting qualities and capable of. standing high temperatures.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art, after understanding my invention, that modifications and substitutions of equivalents may be made in the alloy without departing from the spirit or scope of my invention, and that my invention is not to be limited to any particular inethod of making the alloy, and I aim in the appended claims to cover all modifications, substitutions and chan es within the scope of my invention.
ere in the specification and claims I use the expression one or more metals of wish to be understood as meaning any other metals of this group than nickel orcobalt. They are the only two metals, as far as I now know, that have suliiciently like characteristics to render them suitable for the main constituent of the alloy according to my lac pression, I wish to be understood as meaning nickel. to the exclusion of cobalt; also, where 1 use the expression, in the appended claims, non-ferrous metal alloy, I mean an alloy containing substantially no iron; that is, no iron in substantial amounts, such as would change the characteristic of the alloy,
and where in the appended claims I refer to.
the percentages of the different ingredients,
'I wish to be understood as meaning per- ,metals of the nickel group such as nickel not under 55%, one or more metals of the chromium group such as chromium not over 30%, and one or more metals thatvwill act on the contents of the alloy to assist in melting the same and to render the alloy homogeneous, such as copper and manganese.
2. A non-ferrous metal alloy containing one or more metals of the nickel group such as nickel from 60 to 80%, one or more metals of the chromium group such as chromium over 10% and less than 25%, said constituents having been alloyed by the use of one or more metals such as copper and manganese, to assist in melting the same and render the alloy homogeneous.
.3. A non-ferrous metal alloy containing one or more metals of the nickel group such as nickel not under v60%, one or more metals of the chromium group such as chromium over 10% and less than 25%, and in addition tungsten, said constituents having been alloyed by the use of one or more metals such as copper and manganese, to assist in melting the same and render the alloy homo geneous. i
4. A non-ferrous 'metal alloy containing one or more metals of the nickel group such as nickel from 60 to one or more 1' metals of the chromium group such as chromium from 1 5 to 22%, said constituents having been alloyed bythe use of one or more metals such as copper-and manganese,
'- ing the same .I'and render the alloy homogeneous.
6. A metal alloycontaining one armors metals of the nickel group such as nickel,
together, with one or moremetals of the chromium grou such as chromium from 75 to 90%, sai
constituents having been alloyed by the use of one or more metals i such as copper and manganese, to-assist in melting the same and render the alloy homogeneous.
7. A metal alloy containing nickel together with chromium from 75*to 90%, and tungsten, and one or more metals which will aid in melting the constituents, such as copper.
8. A metal alloy containing one or more metals of the nickel group such as nickel from 55 to 80%, one or more metals of the chromium group such as chromium not over and in addition tungstemand one or more metals which Will aid in melting the constituents, such as copper.
9. A metal alloycontaining nickel not under chromium not over 30%, and
mosses tungsten, said constituents having been alloyed by the use'of one or more metals such I as copper, to assist in melting the same and render the alloy homogeneous.
10. A metal alloy containing nickel from to one or more metals of the chromiumgroup such as chromium from 12 to 25%, and in addition tungsten not over 10%, and one or more metals which Will aid in melting the constituents, such as copper.
In testimony whereof, I have signed my two subscribing Witnesses.
THEODORE B, BRIX. Witnesses O'r'ro A..ST1EFEL, DAVID HAHN.
' name to this specification, in the presence of v
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2509801A (en) * 1945-12-19 1950-05-30 Ford Motor Canada Nickel-cobalt heat-resisting alloy
US2509800A (en) * 1945-12-19 1950-05-30 Ford Motor Canada Nickel-cobalt heat-resisting alloy
US2521273A (en) * 1948-04-15 1950-09-05 Union Carbide & Carbon Corp Nickel base alloy
US2744009A (en) * 1951-07-30 1956-05-01 Crucible Steel Co America Ni-cr hard facing alloys
US2821474A (en) * 1954-04-09 1958-01-28 Lunkenheimer Co Hard ductile alloy
US2946678A (en) * 1956-09-28 1960-07-26 Wall Colmonoy Corp Metallic composition
US3028235A (en) * 1958-12-29 1962-04-03 Gen Electric Cobalt base brazing alloy

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2509801A (en) * 1945-12-19 1950-05-30 Ford Motor Canada Nickel-cobalt heat-resisting alloy
US2509800A (en) * 1945-12-19 1950-05-30 Ford Motor Canada Nickel-cobalt heat-resisting alloy
US2521273A (en) * 1948-04-15 1950-09-05 Union Carbide & Carbon Corp Nickel base alloy
US2744009A (en) * 1951-07-30 1956-05-01 Crucible Steel Co America Ni-cr hard facing alloys
US2821474A (en) * 1954-04-09 1958-01-28 Lunkenheimer Co Hard ductile alloy
US2946678A (en) * 1956-09-28 1960-07-26 Wall Colmonoy Corp Metallic composition
US3028235A (en) * 1958-12-29 1962-04-03 Gen Electric Cobalt base brazing alloy

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