US1172636A - Projectile. - Google Patents

Projectile. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1172636A
US1172636A US502215A US502215A US1172636A US 1172636 A US1172636 A US 1172636A US 502215 A US502215 A US 502215A US 502215 A US502215 A US 502215A US 1172636 A US1172636 A US 1172636A
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Prior art keywords
detonator
detonation
charge
burster
projectile
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US502215A
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John B Semple
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John B Semple
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Priority to US502215A priority patent/US1172636A/en
Priority claimed from GB32916A external-priority patent/GB100030A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42CAMMUNITION FUZES; ARMING OR SAFETY MEANS THEREFOR
    • F42C15/00Arming-means in fuzes; Safety means for preventing premature detonation of fuzes or charges
    • F42C15/20Arming-means in fuzes; Safety means for preventing premature detonation of fuzes or charges wherein a securing-pin or latch is removed to arm the fuze, e.g. removed from the firing-pin
    • F42C15/22Arming-means in fuzes; Safety means for preventing premature detonation of fuzes or charges wherein a securing-pin or latch is removed to arm the fuze, e.g. removed from the firing-pin using centrifugal force

Description

J. B. SEMPLE.
PROJECTILE.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.29, 1915.
mmsae I 1 Patented-Feb. 22,1916.
rural.
5i L6 4 r 6 II- *l3 5 I n :1 E3 F WITNESSES INVENTOR JOHN B. SEMPLE, SEWICKLEY, PENNSYLVANIA.
rnoJno'rILE;
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 22, 1916.
Application filed January 29, 1915. Serial No. 5,022.
To (1.6L w/wmz't may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN B. SEMPLE, re-
siding at Sewickley, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, a citizen .of the United States, have inventedor discovered certain new and useful Improvements in Projectiles, of which-improvements the following is a specification.
My invention relates to improvements in projectiles. It is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a view in longitudinal central section of the posterior end of a projectile in which my present invention is embodied; Fig. 2 is a view in cross-section of the fusestock of the projectile of Fig. 1,the plane of.
section being indicated in Fig. 1 by the line IIII; and Fig. 3 is a view in section of a locking block in detail in one specific permissible form.
In a co-pending application, Serial No. 835,131, filed April 29, 1914:, and allowed August 5, 1914, I have described and claimed a projectile including in its structure a movable meinber controlling detonation in this respect: When this movable member is in one position and the detonator explodes, detonation will not be imparted to the burster charge; but when'the movable member is in its alternate position, explosion of the detonator will result in communication of detonation to the burster charge. One specific alternativemeans of accomplishing this end is illustrated" and described in the application referred to and specifically claimed in the more limited claims of that application. That specific means includes in the structure a burster charge and a detonator charge movable the one with respectto the other from remote to adjacent position'-the objectbeing that, in case of premature explor s'ion of the detonator (which in the present state of the art consists of unstable and dangerc-us material), the burster charge will be safe from explosion; but, when once the projectile is fired from a gun, the conditions incidnt to firing and flight will bring det onator and burster charge into relative pos'itions for service; so that, when upon impact the detonator is exploded in proper and intended manner," explosionof t e .burster charge will follow in regular course.
My present invention is another specific means of accomplishing the same ends. Or, in other Words, it is another specific invention under the same generic invention noted above. My present invention, like my earlier invention referred to, employs a movable member, and thismovable member is controlled "in the'same manner as in the earlier case; but'in this case the detonator is stationary, and the movable member (instead of carrying the detonator from remote ,position to a position of operative proximity to the burster charge)- serves to control the' continuity of a path of detonation transmission, from detonator to burster charge, and in its movement to; carry a section in a train of detonation. Normally, and until theprojectile has been fired, this train is ins terrupted; as the projectile is fired froma gun and flies through the air this train is made continuous; so that, whereas before firing explosion of the detonator will be without efi'ect upon the burster charge, after the projectile'has been fired from a rifled gun the ensuing explosion of the detonator will be imparted in intended manner to the burster charge. Among the advantages of this arrangement over the specific arrangement described in detail in my earlier application, referred to, are-these: The problem how best to arrange the detonator with its adjacent safety chamber is simplified by the elimination of one factor. Again, the detonator being stationary, Whatever liability to miss fire may be inherent in the traveling detonator is avoided; premature detonation of the burster-charge is more certainly guarded against. Finally, as compared with a runway for a movable 'detonator (which must' be straight and relatively large) the detonation pathway from a stationary detonator to the burster charge may be small and (if for other reasons desirable) may be tortuous. i
Detonation is a phenomenon which certain substances exhibit, of exploding, under proper conditions, with extraordinary intensity. A mass of black powder explodes progressively. The chemical changes advance fromthe point at which the impulse is applied to the remote portions of the mass; and, thoughthis progression is'a very rapid one, it is still a clearly discernible progression. When a mass of picric acid,
by way of comparison, is detonated, the
chemical breaking down and rearrangement of elements (which presumably -must be progessive also) advanceswith Such swift:
ness throughout the mass that the whole body seemsto have been resolv'ed'instanta'neously; the progressionis .so rapid that it cannot be detected. Furthermore, detonation of such 'a substance as picric acid is a phenomenon of enormously greater power and'intensity than the; explosion of a like quantity of black powder. Substances so characterized are in common speech classed as high explosives; their. distinguishing characteristic is their ability to detonate.
some substances capable of detonation are, under all ordinary conditions, quite'inert and harmless; so true is this that certain of them were long'known-to the useful arts because of other properties and characteristics, while their explosive nature remained quite undiscovered. The substances of which I am speaking may be handled with safety; no ordinary shock explodes them; they are combustible; some of them may on ignition be exploded in alowpower 'explosionan explosion of second magnitude-but none of them can be exploded in an explosion of first magnitude- 2'. e. detonated-on ignition. The flash of a percussion cap, such as is ordinarily used to fire the burster charge of an explosive projectile, has no power upon them to effect. detonation. They can be detonated only by certain other high explosivesand the num- -ber available is smallwhich possess this peculiarity: they detonate on ignition. Fulminate of mercury is such a substance; lead nitrid is another. These substances are not practicable as material for the burster.
charges of projectiles; they are too sensitive; the danger incident to handling them in large quantities forbids. But though not.
available as burster-charge material, these substances become serviceable 1n the manufacture of explosive projectiles, because of their peculiar property mentioned; their use is indeed indispensable in producing practically operative explosive projectiles charged with such a material as tetra-nitro-analin, for example. That material 'is not responsive to the*fiash of .a percussion cap; or, at least, it cannot be detonated,.asa charge of black powder is expl'oded, by the flash-of a percussion cap. By introducing into the make-upof'a projectilea body of such material as fulminate of mercury and by placing it in intermediate'position,where it will he subjected to the flash of a percussion cap In this tinuous.
properly fired and where it is in detonationiiimpar'ti'ng relation to the burster charge proper; a high-explosive shell may be produced. The intermediate charge of fuhninate need not be, and for obvious reasons will not be, large. hen then means are provided which normally prevent the transmission of the impulse of detonation from the charge of fulminate to "the burster charge (so that in case of premature and accidental detonation of the sensitive fulminate the burster charge will not be detonated) but .means which allow such transmission when theproper time has come, it is manifest that a practical high-explosive shell has been produced.
Various expedients have been adopted to keep the fulminate charge (commonly called the detonator charge or detonator) and the burster charge normally separate and to bring them into detonation-imparting relation at the proper time. These prior expedients, so far as I am aware, have involved the provision of a movable detonatoi which may advance in'a runway from a remote and relatively harmless position to a position where, on firing, it will impart detonation to the burster charge. And of course, in such an arrangement, provision is made for the proper control of the detonator in its movement.
' Now my present invention, while in one aspect it stands related as I have said as speciesto genus to an earlier invention involving a movable detonator. in another aspect is characterized by this: It does not require that (letonator and burster charge be relatively movable. It consists, essen' tially. in arranging detonatorand burster charge at a suitable interval, in providing a pathway for detonation transmission from.
one to the other, and in supplying means for alternately and at proper tnnes mterruptlng that pathway and making it con- 'Detonation is a very different thing from the flash of a percussion cap. A flash is, essentially, a flame a body of incandescent gaswhich, proceeding from its source, may travel across Wide air spaces and through long empty ducts; detonation is a force, an impulse, a'vibration, like electricity, and is communicated through suitable bodies which are, indeed, conductors of detonation. A flash will leap through a passagev onation may be freely carried for indefinite distance, if only the material through which it is carried be proper and be substantially. continuous in extent; and ordinarily it will be true, and as I now practioe my invention it is true, that the pathway which in my projectile I provide for detonation transmission would not afford passage of the fiash of a primer cap nor transmit its effect, v
In the accompanying drawings 1 indicates a burster-charge chamber within the projectile, and 2a fuse stock for the fuse which is tov detonate the burster chargev within chamber 1. B is a booster charge, that is, a reinforcing charge, intended to receive detonation from the detonator and to impart detonation to the charge within chamber 1. This, underv existing practice,
will ordinarily consist of tri-nitro-toluene premature firing .of the detonator the gases of. explosion will fill chamber 14 but (the parts about to be described being in safety position) the explosion will have no effect upon the burster charge. It is further to beobserved that the-safety chamber 14 is a closed chamber within the fuse stock and when. the parts are assembled within the body of'the projectile. Since it is a closed chamber there can be no danger, in case of the premature firing of the detonator, of the spit-ting'out of flame and gas and of the attendant danger to life and limb of those who have to do with the handling of these articles.
'A pathway 13 for detonation transmis- SlOIl leads from the cylindrical chamber in which detonator D snugly fits to the cham-.-
ber containing the burster charge B. This pathway may be direct, ortortuous, as size and relative dimensions may require. I
Acrosspathway 13, and in'a'more or less 1 exactly radial direction (preferably exactly radial) with respect to the axis 'of rotation of the structure, extends a runway 3. In this runway is arranged a movable member 6, which under centrifugal force of the .projectile in flight tends to move to the outer end of the runway, but which is normally held at the inner end by a pair of springback centrifugally releasing bolts 1, precisely such as are described in my copending application named above. The movable member 6 ispreferably recessed to receive tion referred to.
the bolts, in the manner illustrated in the drawings, and as described in the applica- When the movable member 6. is retracted and stands in the locl rd position shown in Fig. 1, the pathway for '1 detonation transmission is interrupted, so that the explosion of detonator D (should it prematurely occur) cannot be imparted to fire the charge B; but when bolts 4- reoede,
unlocking member 6, and when member 6 slides outward finder centrifugal foroe,. a detonation pathway in its body is brought into register with the previously interrupted pathway 13, and then the continuity of the pathway is established from detonator D to buster, charge B. The portion of the path-j way which is formed 1n the body of member 6 may conveniently encircle the member 6 being in this case a filling of detonation transmitting material packed or molded into the encircling groove 12, which has this advantage: However the member 6 may turn on its own axis, registry of the portion of the pathway formed in member 6 with the portion of the pathway formed in the partition wall and indicated 13will be certain when the movable member is shifted in the manner and to the ends described.
A locking member 7 may lie within the 1n- .ner end of member 6; and, by extending the runway 3 across the center of rotation, this locking member 7 will under centrifugal force crowd against the inner end of the runway and be retracted from member 6 as that member moves outward, and then having escaped from the recess which held it, it
may so move (by special shaping, if found necessary) that it will no longer stand 'alined with the recess, but. will thereafter serve as a locking block, to prevent returnof the member 6, now moved to armed position. The locking member specifically illustrated in Fig. 3 is merely exemplary. It is so shaped (having an oblique rear surface) that when fully withdrawmfrom the member 6 it will tip and will not again be in a position to reenter the recess which formerly contained it.
The pathway for the transmission of detonation from detonator to. ,burster charge may be such as the intelligent designer may select; it must be of material suitable for detonation transmission as shown (and this is my preference) it is a narrow duct filled with high explosive (preferably tri-nitrotoluene); and, furthermore, the groove in the movable member 6 is in like mani1er filled with high explosive. 'When the duct and groove are brought to register one with the other, there is formed a continuous line for detonation transmission; The pathway for detonation transmission from detonator to burster charge consisting of a. column of such material as tri-nitrotoluene cannot be penetrated by a flash; ig-
nition started at one end cannot burn through. Furthermore, thin septa of metal, if interposed and dividing the column at intervals-though manifestly they would cut off any bodily advance of -fiamewould not prevent transmission of detonation.
I claim as my invention:
, 1. In an explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge of high explosive, a detonator, a path of detonation transmission extending from said detonator to said burster charge, and means for alternately interrupting and making continuous said path.
2. In an'explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge of high explosive, a detonator, a train of detonation transmission extending from said detonator to said burster charge'a section of said train being movable from a position of interruption to a position of continuity.
3. In an explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge of high explosive, a detonator, a path of detonation transmission extending from said detonator to said burster charge and normally discontinuous, a member movable in sequence on the firing of the projectile from a gun for establishing the continuity of said path, and means for preventing retrogression of saidmovable member. i w
et. In an explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge, a detonator, a path of detonation transmission leadingfrom said detonator to said burster charge, a break in said path, a. member movable in such break and responsive within the range of such movement to centrifugal force exerted upon it on the flight of the projectile from a rifled gun. a centrifugally opening, lock normally holding said movabl member at one end of the range of its movement, and a centrifugally closing lock for said movable member at the opposite end of its range.
In an explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge, a safetychamber, a detonator stationary with relation to and adjacent said safety chamber and removed at an interval from said burster charge, a path of detonation transmission leading from said detonator to said burster charge,
.said path being normally interrupted, and means for establishing the continuity of said path.
6. In an explosive pro ectile the combination of a burster charge, a closed safety.
chamber, a detonator adjacent said safety chamber-,2. path of detonation transmission normally interrupted extending from said Copies of this patent may be obtainedfor detonator to said burster charge, and means for establishing the continuity of said path.
7. In an explosive projectile the combination of a burster charge, a detonator, an ignition cap, an ignition path from said cap to said detonator, a normally interrupted path of detonation transmission from said detonator to said burster charge, and means for establishing the continuity of said path of detonation transmission.
8. A fuse stock for an explosive projectile including a substantially cylindrical body dividedaby a transverse partition wall, a detonator within a safety chamber arranged together with its ignition cap on one side of said wall, a reinforcing chargearrang ed on the opposite side of said wall, a centrifugal bolt movable in a transverse runway. in said wall, and a column of detonation-transmitting material contained in part in said Wall and in part in said bolt.
9. In a p-ro ectile'the combination with a .burster charge, a source of detonation, and a path of detonation transmission from said source to said burster charge, of a cylindrical bolt movable in a runway across said detonation transmission path said bolt being provided with an encircling path of detonation transmission.
10. In a projectile the combination with a Yburster charge, a source of detonation, and a path o-fdetonation transmission from said source to said burster charge, of a runway intersecting said detonation transmission .a larger main body and an attenuated extension, and, in combination with the burster charge so shaped, a detonator arranged at the remote end of said extension, and a make-and-break device, arranged in said ex tension of the burster charge.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
7 JOHN B. SEMPLE.
\Vitnesses:
BAYARD HI CHRISTY, FRANCIS J. TOMASSON.
five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents. Washington, D. 0.
US502215A 1914-04-29 1915-01-29 Projectile. Expired - Lifetime US1172636A (en)

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GB32916A GB100030A (en) 1914-04-29 1916-01-07 Improvements in Projectiles.

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2472821A (en) * 1940-08-03 1949-06-14 Raymond L Graumann Sensitive fuse
US2515043A (en) * 1943-05-01 1950-07-11 Us Navy Safety switch
US2516323A (en) * 1943-05-01 1950-07-25 James D Jordan Safety gate
US2961954A (en) * 1943-02-01 1960-11-29 Harry H Moore Depth charge firing mechanism

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2472821A (en) * 1940-08-03 1949-06-14 Raymond L Graumann Sensitive fuse
US2961954A (en) * 1943-02-01 1960-11-29 Harry H Moore Depth charge firing mechanism
US2515043A (en) * 1943-05-01 1950-07-11 Us Navy Safety switch
US2516323A (en) * 1943-05-01 1950-07-25 James D Jordan Safety gate

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Publication number Publication date
FR478549A (en) 1915-12-17
GB191506351A (en) 1915-12-09

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