US1153980A - Kiln. - Google PatentsKiln. Download PDF
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- US1153980A US1153980A US80436713A US1913804367A US1153980A US 1153980 A US1153980 A US 1153980A US 80436713 A US80436713 A US 80436713A US 1913804367 A US1913804367 A US 1913804367A US 1153980 A US1153980 A US 1153980A
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- 206010022000 Influenza Diseases 0.000 description 34
- 239000011449 brick Substances 0.000 description 10
- 238000005192 partition Methods 0.000 description 7
- 239000000446 fuel Substances 0.000 description 5
- 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 3
- 238000010304 firing Methods 0.000 description 3
- 238000004140 cleaning Methods 0.000 description 2
- 239000002184 metal Substances 0.000 description 2
- 230000001105 regulatory Effects 0.000 description 2
- 239000004927 clay Substances 0.000 description 1
- 229910052570 clay Inorganic materials 0.000 description 1
- 238000002485 combustion reaction Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000009826 distribution Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000010438 heat treatment Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000007689 inspection Methods 0.000 description 1
- 239000011819 refractory material Substances 0.000 description 1
- 238000004904 shortening Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000010792 warming Methods 0.000 description 1
- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F27—FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
- F27B—FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
- F27B13/00—Furnaces with both stationary charge and progression of heating, e.g. of ring type, of type in which segmental kiln moves over stationary charge
- F27B13/06—Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to furnaces of this type
APPLICATION FILED DEC-3, I913.
1,153,980. Patented Sept. 21, 1915.
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APPLICATION FILED DEC-3| 1913.
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, APPLICATION FILED DEC. 3, 1913. 1,153,980. PatentedSept. 21, 1915.
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIQE.
ANTON VOGT, OF BAGINE, WISCONSIN, ASS IGNOR TOE. C. TEOKTONIUS MANUFACTUR- ING 00., OF RACINE, WISCONSIN, A CORPORATION OF WISCONSIN.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 21, 1915.
Application filed December 3, 1913. Serial No. 804,367.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ANToN Voc'r, a citizen of the United States, residing at Racine, in the county of Racine and State of Wisconsin, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Kilns, of which the following is a specification, reference beinghad to the accompanying drawing, forming a part thereof.
This invention relates more particularly to round, up and down draft kilns for burning brick, tile and other articles'made of clay. Its main objects are to evenly distribute the heat throughout the kiln and to insure uniform burning of the ware in all parts of the kiln, adjacent to the wall and between the bags as well as in the center; to reduce the time of water-smoking; to prevent crushing and distorting the ware in the lower courses, and to avoid whitewash and efiloresence of the ware,thereby increasing the quantity and improving the quality of the finished product; to reduce the time required for firing and economize fuel; and generally to improve the construction and operation of kilns of this class, by creating a live draft from the start of the fires, thereby expelling the moisture more rapidly.
It consists in the construction, arrangement and combination of parts as hereinafter particularly described and pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawing like char acters designate the sameparts in the several figures.
. Figure l is a vertical central sectionon the line 11, Figs. 2 and 4, of a kiln embodying the invention; Fig. 2 is a horizontal section of the kiln, a portion ofthe open work floor being-removed to disclose the 7 construction of the underlying .fiues; Fig. 3
is a vertical section on the line 33, Fig. 2, showing an auxiliary furnace for heating the stack or chimney and creating a strong draft therein from the time the fires are started; Fig. t is a central vertical section of the kiln on the line H, Figs. 1 and 2; and Fig. 5 is a vertical section on the line 5-5, Fig. 2, through one of'athe furnace or fire holes, and interior vertical'fiues located at intervals around the kiln.
The kiln comprises a substantially circular walla, surmounted by an, arched crown b, constructed of brick, the wall a; being surrounded and reinforced by metal bands 0.
On one side of the kiln the wall a is formed with a doorway d, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, for charging the kiln and removing the burned product therefrom. It is also formed at intervals, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, with fire openings or furnaces e, and with interior flues known as bags, extending upwardly therefrom and opening at their upper ends into the upper part of the kiln. These fire openings or furnaces are provided, as shown in Fig. 5, with inwardly and downwardly inclined fuel supports 9, each consisting of a metal frame and an imperforate lining of refractory material such as fire brick. The inclined fuel supports 9 rest loosely on cross bars spanning the fire openings and-are removable to facilitate cleaning or repairing the furnaces as well as the fuel supports themselves. The bottom of the openings 6 and the lines f, forming the fire chambers and ash pits, are paved or provided with a layer of fire brick.
The arched crown 7) is formed with a central opening 7', which is closed and sealed during the firing of the kiln, by a removable cover /r, as shown in Fig. l. A stack or chimney Z, located at one side of and a short distance from the kiln, is constructed of brick with ventilated air spaces m in its walls, as shown in Figs. 1' and 2, these spaces communicating through openings at in the outer walls of the stack or chimney with the atmosphere. As shown, the chimney may be constructed with two or more independent fiues 0, for a number of kilns.
In the base of the kiln, preferably below the normal ground level, a radial arched flue is formed, leading from the center of the kiln into the stack or chimney Z. At its inner end this flue intersects or opens into a transverse flue q, extending diametrically across the base of the furnace and communicatingat its ends with auxiliary furnaces r, asshown in Fig. 4. The furnaces r open at their outer ends into walled well holes 8. Above and parallel with the radial flue p, a-series of horizontal flues t is formed in the base of the furnace. These lines t, which are separated from .one another by imperforate brick walls, are arranged parallel with the flue p and open into the upper part of the transverse flue g, which they cross. Another series of horizontal flues u, l is formedin the base of the kiln above and parallel with the flues t by open work brick walls through which they freely communicate with one another. Between the lower series of flues t and the upper series of flues a, av false floor or brick deflecting partition c, is laid. This floor or partition is formed adjacent to the wall a of the kiln, with openings w, through which the lower and upper flues communicate with one another at their outer ends. portion above and adjacent to the flue Q, with a number of comparatively small openings :0, through which the heated products of combustion from the kiln may pass from the upper flues a in the central portion of the kiln more or less directly into the flue g.
Upon the walls between the upper flues u, is laid an open work floor 1 constructed as shown, of bricks which have recesses formed in one side thereof, and which when placed together, form vertical apertures opening into said flues. This floor y'is preferably laid at about the normal level of the ground outside the kiln, the floor flues t and to, cross flue and the main flue 10, leading from the cross flue to the stack, all being below the ground level.
Adjacent to the stack or chimney Z, the flue p is formed with a man hole 2, through which access is had thereto for inspection, cleaning and repair. This man hole is normally closed by a cover 2. A vertically sliding damper 3, next to the stack or chimney, affords means for regulating the draft through the entire kiln.
For warming the stack or chimney and starting a strong upward draft therein preparatory to firing the kiln, an auxiliary furnace 4 is connected through an opening 5 with each flue 0, near the base of the chimney, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
In'the operation of the kiln, the brick, tile or other articles to be burned having been stacked on the floor y, and the doorway (Z closed by a suitable door (not shown) and sealed, fires are lighted in the auxiliary furnaces r at the ends of the flue g and in one of the furnaces L, which opens into the chimney flue 0 with which the flue g is connected by the main or radial flue p, the damper or valve 3 being closed more or less, and the cover is removed from the opening j in the crown of the kiln. The heat gener-, ated in the furnaces 7' produces an up draft through the floor flues t and 'u and the open work floor 3 and thence through the kiln around the green ware stacked therein, the floor flues and floor and the lower courses of the ware being thus preliminarily heated,.
It is also formed in its central and efl'lorescence thereof by water-smoking. Fires are then started in the furnaces e, the opening in the crown of the kiln is closed and sealed, the outside openings into the auxiliary furnaces r and 4: areclosed, andthe damper 3 is opened. A strong down draft is thus produced through the open work floor y and the floor flues a and 2f, passing outwardly through the flues .u to the outer ends thereof, thence downwardly through the openings 10 next to the wall a, thence inwardly through the lower flues it into the top of the transverse flue g, and thence through the radial flue'p into the chimney flue 0, the heat generated .in the several furnaces e, passing upwardly therefrom throughflthe flues or bags 7 into the upper part of the kiln, being deflected down wardly by the arched roof Z), and evenly distributed throughout the kiln. The deflection of the hot currents by the false floor or partition 1) outwardly toward the wall a of the kiln, and their sinuous course through the floor flues, evenly and effectively distribute the heat, causing the Ware at the sides as well as at the center of the kiln, to be thoroughly and uniformly burned, and materially shortening the time required for burning and correspondingly reducing the consumption of fuel.
The distribution of heat in the kiln may be adjusted for diflerent kinds of ware and for varying conditions, by closingmore or less of the openings win the central portion of the false floor or partition 12, so as to permit more or less of the hot currents or the heat to-pass directly into the cross flue Q adjacent to the center of the kiln, instead of through the openings wnext to the wall a. The draft through, and hence the heat in the entire kiln is easily controlled and'regulated by the adjustment of the single flue damper 3. Y
Various changes in minor details struction and arrangement of parts may be made without materially affecting the operation of the kiln and without departing from the principle and scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.
of con- 1. A kiln comprising a'substantially cir A cular wall, surmounted by an arched top and provided at intervals with fire openings and interior flues extending upwardly from said openings, a stack,a main radial flue leading from the center of the kiln to the stack, a cross flue intersecting the inner end of the main flue, and extending thei efrom to the circular wall on opposite sides thereof, a lower series of fines above and parallel with the main flue having imperforate side walls and opening into the top of the cross fine, a false floor laid over said series of fines, an upper series of fines above the false floor parallel with the lower flues with which they communicate at their outer ends through openings in the false floor next to the circular wall of the kiln, and an openwork floor laid over the upper series of flues and having its openings distributed throughout its entire area and communicating with the several flues next below it.
2. A kiln comprising a substantially circular wall surmounted by an arched top and provided at intervals with furnaces or fire openings and interior flues extending upwardly therefrom and opening into the upper part of the kiln, a stack at one side of the kiln, a radial flue leading from the central part of the kiln into the stack, a transverse flue extending diametrically across the kiln from side to side thereof and opening into the radial flue at its inner end, a lower series of fines having imperforate side walls extending across the kiln above and parallel with said radial flue and opening into the top of said transverse flue, an upper series of fines extending across the kiln above and parallel with those of the lower series and having open-work side walls through which they communicate with one another, a false floor or partition between said lower and upper series of flues having openings through which the upper flnes communicate with lower flues at their ends next to the wall of the kiln, and an open-work floor over the upper series of fines having its openings distributed throughout its entire area and communicating with the several flues next below it.
8. A kiln comprising a circular wall surmounted by an arched crown and provided at intervals with furnaces or fire openings and interior flues leading upwardly therefrom into the upper part of the kiln, a stack at one side of the kiln, a radialflue leading from the central part of the kiln into the stack, a transverse flue extending entirely across the kiln and communicating with the inner end of the radial flue, a lower series of flues extending across the kiln above and parallel with said radial flue and opening into the top of said transverse flue, an upper series of fines extending across the kiln above and parallel with those of the lower series, and having perforated side walls through which they communicate with one another, a false floor or partition between said lower and upper series of fines formed with openings through which they communicate with one another at their outer ends and adjacent to said transverse flue, and an openwork floor over the upper series of fines having its openings distributed throughout its entire area and communicating with the several flues below it.
4. A kiln comprising a circular wall surmounted by an arched crown and provided at intervals with furnaces and interior flues leading upwardly therefrom into the upper part of the kiln, a stack at one side of the kiln, a radial flue leading into said stack, a
cross flue intersecting the radial flue at its" inner end and provided at its outer ends with auxiliary furnaces, a lower series of flues above and parallel with the radial flue and opening into the upper part of the transverse flue, an upper series of fines par-,
allel withsaid radial fine, a partition between the upper and lower series of fines formed with openings through which they communicate With one another at their outer ends, and an openwork floor over the upper series of fines.
5. A kiln comprising a wall surmounted by an arched crown and provided at intervals with fire openings and interior flues leading upwardly from said openings into the upper part of the kiln, a stack located at one side of the kiln, a radial flue leading from the central part of the kiln through its base into the stack, a transverse flue opening into the inner end of the radial flue and provided at the ends with furnaces, floor flues arranged above and parallel with the radial fine and leading into the upper part of the transverse fine, an open-work floor over'said floor flues, and an auxiliary furnace opening into the lower part of the stack.
In, wltness whereof I hereto aflix my slgnature 1n presence of two witnesses.
CHRISTIAN JoHNsoN, DAISY FRANCIS.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. G.
Priority Applications (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US80436713A US1153980A (en)||1913-12-03||1913-12-03||Kiln.|
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US80436713A US1153980A (en)||1913-12-03||1913-12-03||Kiln.|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US1153980A true US1153980A (en)||1915-09-21|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US80436713A Expired - Lifetime US1153980A (en)||1913-12-03||1913-12-03||Kiln.|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US1153980A (en)|
- 1913-12-03 US US80436713A patent/US1153980A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
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