US1140198A - Purification of gas. - Google Patents

Purification of gas. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1140198A
US1140198A US72544412A US1912725444A US1140198A US 1140198 A US1140198 A US 1140198A US 72544412 A US72544412 A US 72544412A US 1912725444 A US1912725444 A US 1912725444A US 1140198 A US1140198 A US 1140198A
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Prior art keywords
gas
particles
tar
diaphragm
pervious
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US72544412A
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Harry Ford Smith
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Harry Ford Smith
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D45/00Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia, or centrifugal forces
    • B01D45/04Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia, or centrifugal forces by utilising inertia
    • B01D45/08Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia, or centrifugal forces by utilising inertia by impingement against baffle separators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S55/00Gas separation
    • Y10S55/25Agglomerators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S55/00Gas separation
    • Y10S55/30Exhaust treatment

Description

H. F. SMITH.
PURIF'CATION 0F GAS APPLICATION FILED OCT. 12 R912.
Patented May 18, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET I LELQQKQSO H. F. SMITH.
- PURiFICATlON OF GAS,
APPLICATION man OCT. 12, 1912.
Patented May 18, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 WWI/M660 QJW) ma -res.
Warren srarias rnirnn'r ()TFFTCE.
HARRY FORD SMITH, OF LEXINGTON, OHIO.
PURIFICATION or ens.
Application filed October 12, 1912. Serial No. 725,444.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HARRY F. SMITH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Lexington, in county of Richland and State of Ohio,. have invented certain new and use ful Improvements in the Purification of Gas, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to an improvement in the purification of gas, and the object is to pass the gas through a porous diaphragm under'suitable pressure so that the particles, such as tar, will come in contact with the diaphragm and be caused to coalesce and precipitate. It is the removal of the small particles of tar vapor or fog that constitrtes the principal diiliculty in connection with cleaning gas. These small tar particles are approximately 1/10,000 of an inch in diam-.
eter and in unclean producer gas there may exist from ten to twenty millions of these small particles per cubic inch. The particles are so small that they are carried in suspension in the gas current for an indefinite period and will separate out of the gas with great difliculty and at extremely slow rates.
Now the objects of the porous diaphragm which constitutes the active element of this invention is not to remove the tar from the gas, but to bring about such a combination and agglomeration of the extremely small tar particles that they will then be too large to be carried forward by the gas current and will be dropped out and separated from the gas very readily by gravitation or by any of the ordinary processes cmpioyed for separating suspended liquids from gas. This porous diaphragm does not act after the manner of a fiiterbecause a filter entraps and retains the particies, whereas the object of this diaphragm is to cause the coalescence of the particles contained or carried by the gas so that after the particles coalesce and are increased in size, due to the coalescence and agglomeration, they Will be carried through the porous diaphragm by the velocity of the gas passing through the diaphragm, and as the particles have now become heavier than the gas, due to their in creased size, they will drop out by gravity and separate themselves from the gas.
In the accompanying diawingsFigure 1 discloses an apparatus which may be used in carrying out this invention. although I do Specification of Letters Patent.
not wish to limit myself to the exact type of apparatus herein disclosed; Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of one of a series of planes of the porous diaphragm Fig. 3 is a diagram or chart showing a quantity of unseparated material remaining in the gas after it has passed through the porous diaphragm under different velocitiesv Referring to Fig. 1 of-the drawings, A represents the gas inlet to a gas pump B which pump can be of any description that would deliver the gas under pressure, and*C is an outlet or discharge pipe connected to the pump. The gas is delivered from the pump through the pipe C to a casing 1 and into chamber 2 of the casing. The casing 1 is provided .with two chambers 2 and 3 which are separated by a partition 4. A casing 5 is mounted upon the casing 1 and has communication therewith by ports (3 and 7 formed in the casings 1 and 5. The gas passes from the chamber 2 of the casing 1 into chamber D of the casing 5 and thence through the porous diaphragm E which is mounted in the casing The gas passing through the diaphragm passes into chamberF on the opposite side of the diaphragmand thence through the port 7 into chamber 3 of the casing 1. A separator G is connected to the casing 1 and is in communication with the chamber 3 of the ca sing 1 and from the separator G the gas is discharged through an outlet opening H.
The gas, before it is admitted to the pump B, is generally cooled, passing through a cooling chamber 8, and from the cooler the gas is admitted to the pump. In cooling gas containing tar the tar vapors are condensed in several different forms. A portion of the tar vapor is condensed directly on the surface of the cooling chamber, but a part is condensed throughout the volume of the gas in the form of a fine mist or tar fog. It is not, however, essential that the gas should be entirely cold, since good results can be obtained when the gas is fed to the apparatus at temperatures that are considerably .above the ordinary atmospheric temperature. After the gashas been cooled to cause condensation of the tarry-vapors, it is pumped by the pump B to the chamber D of the casing 5 under the proper pressure so that the gas willpass' through the diaphragm E. The diaphragm'E is made up of a series of layers of fibrous or filamentous material such as spun glass, known as glass wool, wool felt, silk, and the like. Sand,
that is, coarse, sand, and metal screens or wiring can be used when made of propersize but I prefer to use spun glass or glass stituting the screen. The small dots M represent the size of the tarparticles in the.
gas and their relative distance from one an- .The screen-or diaphragm is made up of a 7 action of chemical constituents in the gas or other. The enlarged drawing of course merely represents one plane of the screen.
series of planes. The porous diaphragm is preferably made 3- of an inch thick, al-
though the thickness of" the diaphragm un-' der some conditions will vary. The fibers of this material are sufficiently stiff and elastic to retain their shape under the pressures required and since the glass is entirely indifferent to the action of moisture or chemicals, the strength and resistance -of the porous diaphragm is not impaired through the absorption of moisture or the deleterious tar' handled. I preferably inclose the glass wool in the form of auniformly distributed sheet or layer between two fairly coarse Wire screens. In this way the glass is supported at many points so that its shape is not changed by the pressures that are brought to bear upon it. I of course do not Wish to be limited to this material or to this arrangement or construction, as it is obvious that many forms of apparatus might be em? ployed to embody this same principle.
From Fig. 2 a very good idea is given of therelative size of the material constituting the "porous diaphragm and of the tar pan" ticles that are to be removed from thegas and of the spaces between the fibers as they actually lie in the porous diaphragm. Furthermore, the openings between the fibers .are so large that a filtering action in the ordinary sense, cannot occur. words, the tar particles could easily float In other through the openings without becoming enmeshed in the fibers of the diaphragm. This drawing is magnified approximately 600 diameters or three hundred and sixty thousand times that ofthe actual materials.
phragm together with the high velocity at which the gas passes through the minute openings in the diaphragm.
7 As stated before, 'the fiber of the dia:
in thickness and having a sectional area of about one square inch for each 400 cubic reeaper hour of gas which it is desired to clean. f The area of the diaphragm must be small enough that when the gas is flowing,
The result .to be obtained by this invention istherefore dependentiipon the pervious dia diaphragm. Thegasis much more complctely purified when passing through under a difference, of pressure of five pounds than when passing through with a difference of pressure of one pound. ,The precipitation of the small tar particles is the result of their direct collision with the: fine fibrous material through which the gas is driven at high velocity. Such collision could; not' occur with any great effectiveness if the dimensions of the obstructingmaterial were large with respect to the dimensions of the tar particles. To illustrate my meaning, it has often been proposed to project smallstreams of gas against baffles, diaphragms and the like, whereby a sudden change in-the .direction of the flow of gas'is produced and Lhe tar particles thereby caused. to collide-'8E violently, with the baffles and to be precipi tated thereby. Action of this character is imperfect for the reason that an obstruction of any considerable dimensions would carry ahead of it a cushion of compressed gaswhich would tend-to prevent an actual collison between the approaching tar particles and the surface of the baffle. "Many of the tar particles w uld 'be shielded 01f; and gradually turned aside by the action of this gas cushion. Y Now, withthis diaphragm of the present invention, the dimensions of the opposing bodies areso small that no shielding action. is exerted and the tar particles which move forward at high velocity are thrown into direct collision with the fine threads and fibers .of the porous diaphragm. The greater the velocity with which these collisions occur the greater will be the effectiveness of the action, and further the filamentous material or fibers against which the tar particles are rates so as to give ample opportunity for thematerials that are to be separated to become entrapped in the fibers of the filter.-
Now, with this'particular invention, the use of a filter would fail to. give the results,
as it has; been found that when the gas passes through the diaphragm E at a slow rate, practically no separation of the tar particles from the gas takes place. The separationis only effected when the gas to j be cleaned is forced through the porous diacal line at the left give grains of impurities per cubic foot remaining in the gas. It is accordingly seen. with below one-half pound pressure the cleaning is very ineflective, and for exceedingly thorough workfrom four to .five pounds pressure is required. These as is customary in the centrifugal type of tar facts difl'erenf-iatethis invention from filtering, since in filtering the solid material is completely removed due to slow rates of travel, and the slower the rates of travel the more effective the cleaning, while with this invention, the higher the velocities themore eflective the cleaning. This curve or diagram is of course accurate only for the particular conditions that surrounded the test in question, but they will serve to show the fact that increase in the velocity of gas flow through the diaphragm E results in an increase of the cleanness of the gas.
The separator G is an ordinary steam separator such as is used for separating entrained moisture from steam. In this instance, however, it is intended to cause the final precipitation of all of the particles of tar after they have passed the porous dia phragm E. It is not necessary to use this apparatus as the tar particles are so heavy that they will drop out of the gas current.
The practical advantages resulting from this invention are many. The first and most important of these is the fact that by this invention it is possible to secure a inuch greater degree of cleanness in the treatment of the gas than has been possible to secure heretofore. In, the second place, the apparatus employed is simple in construction and does not require rapidly rotating parts such extractor. Furthermore, water is not required except for the purpose of cooling the gas and even this is not absolutely essential as the gas can be cooled by air condensers or other means.
Havingthus described my invention, what I claim asinew and desire to secure by Letters Patent is;
1. The herein described process of removing tar particles and the like from gas which consists in passing the gas through a pervious medium causing the particles of -tar to coalesce and the coalesced particles of tar being separated from the pervious medium by the flowing gas.
2. The herein described process of removing tar particles and the like from gaswhich consists in passing the gas through a pervious medium causing the particles of tar to coalesce and the coalesced particles of tar being separated from the pervious medium lesced particles of tar from the gas.
3. The herein described process of removing tar particles and the like from gas which consists in passing the gas through a pervious medium causing the particles of tar to coalesce and the coalesced particles of tar being separated from the pervious medium by the flowing gas, and separating the coalesced particles of tar from the gas by gravity.
i. The herein described process of removing tar particles and the like from gas which consists in passing the gas through a pervious medium causing the particles of tar to coalesce and the coalesced particles of tar being separated from the pervious medium by the flowing gas, and separating the coalesced particles of tar from the gas by inertia. v
5. The herein described process of rem0ving tar particles and the like from gas which consists in obstructing the particles whereby they are made to coalesce and the coalesced particles being carried beyond the obstruction by the gas. Y
6. The herein described process of removing tar particles and the like from gas consisting in passing the gas through a pervious mediumcausing the tar particles to collide with the pervious medium' and precipitatethereon producinga coalescence Of the small particles of: tar into large particles and the large particles being carried through the pervious medium by the gas.
7. The herein described process of remov- I ing tar particles from gas which consists in passing the gas through a pervious diaphragm at a high velocity, and the openings of the diaphragm being sufficiently large to permit the gas and all impurities to pass therethrough, and the tar particles carried by the gas as it passes through the pervious diaphragm being caused to collide with the diaphragm creating a coalescence of the tar particles upon the diaphragm forming large tar particles, which large tar particles are dislodged and carried through the pervious diaphragm by the gas.
8. The herein described process of removing tar particles from gas which consists in passing the 'gas through a pervious diaphragm at a high velocity, and the openings ingtar. particles-from gas consisting in pass ing the gasthrough'a. pervious diaphragm at a: high velocity, causing thetar particles tdcollide with the pervious diaphragm and temporarily lodge thereupon during the coalescence and accumulation of the small particles upon the diaphragm, and then the accumulated particles are dislodged from the diaphragm by the flowing gas.
10. The herein described process of removin tar articles from as consistin in b 23 cumulated tar particles are dislodged from the diaphragm by the flowing gas and which particles fall from the gas by gravity.
11. The herein described process of removing tar particles from gas which con-- sists in passing the gas through a pervious diaphragm at a highvelocity, the area of the diaphragm being small enough so that whenthe gas passes through the diaphragm there will be a sufficient pressure .3'(-) maintained across the diaphragm for cans-" ing the particles carried by the gas to collide with the pervious diaphragm and coalesce thereon and the accumulated particles on the diaphragm being dislodged therefrom byvthe gas current.
1-2. The herein described process of removing tar partlcles from gas which consists passing the gas through-a pervious dias i phragm at a. high velocity; the area ofth to five pounds. maintainedacross the diaphragm for causing the particles carried by the gas to collide with i the pervious diaphragm and coalesce thereon and the acdiaphragm being smallenough so that when the gas passes through the diaphragm there will be-a difference in pressure of fromone cumulated particles on the diaphragm being dislodged bythe gas current.
13. The herein described process-of removing tar particles from gas, consistingv in cooling the gas for condensing the tar vapors, then passing the gas through a pervious medium causing the tar vapors to collide with the vpervious diaphragm and coalesce thereon, and then the coalesced tar particles dislodged from the diaphragm by the flowing gas, 0 p
.14. The herein-described process of removing tar and the like from gas, which consists'in passing the gas through a per 'vi'ous medium, so constructed and arranged that under moderate rates of flow, the tar would not be removed from the gas, but by increasing therate of flow the particles of far will be separated from the gas and coalesce, and then separating the tar particles from the pervious medium.
In testimony whereof I ai -ix my signature in the presence of two Witnesses- -HARRY FORD SMITH. Witnesses:
ANNA, R. EARHART, WM. H. EARHART.
US72544412A 1912-10-12 1912-10-12 Purification of gas. Expired - Lifetime US1140198A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3339351A (en) * 1965-03-12 1967-09-05 Otto H York Company Inc Apparatus for removing liquid particles in a gas stream
DE2904830A1 (en) * 1979-02-08 1980-08-14 Bayer Ag Removing fine droplets of mist from gas stream - fed at specific velocity along pipe contg. row of fibre packings or metal mesh screens

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3339351A (en) * 1965-03-12 1967-09-05 Otto H York Company Inc Apparatus for removing liquid particles in a gas stream
DE2904830A1 (en) * 1979-02-08 1980-08-14 Bayer Ag Removing fine droplets of mist from gas stream - fed at specific velocity along pipe contg. row of fibre packings or metal mesh screens

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