US1139103A - Windmill. - Google Patents

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US1139103A
US1139103A US82520614A US1914825206A US1139103A US 1139103 A US1139103 A US 1139103A US 82520614 A US82520614 A US 82520614A US 1914825206 A US1914825206 A US 1914825206A US 1139103 A US1139103 A US 1139103A
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Prior art keywords
vanes
vane
wind
position
mill
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US82520614A
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Robert Clade
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Air Turbine Company
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/70Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades
    • F05B2260/72Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades by turning around an axis parallel to the rotor centre line

Description

R. CLADE.

WINDMILL.

' APPLlCATlON FILED MAR. 17. 1914.

1,139,108. Patented May11,1915.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.

6; Inventor Witnesses THE NORRIS PETERS CO, FHOTO-LITHCL, WASHING TON, D C

R. CLADE.

WINDMILL.

APPLlCATlON FILED MAR. 17, 1914.

Patent-ed May 11, 1915.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

A ttorneys.

THE NORRIS PETERS 60., PHOTO-LITHO., WA r1i| lGTON. D. C,

R. GLADE.

WINDMILL.

APPLICATION FlLED MAR. 17

Patented May 11, 191.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

Inventor Attorneys.

Witnesses THE NORRIS PETERS C0,, PHOTOJJTHQ. WASHING mN, D. C

barn i.

ROBERT GLADE, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, AS SIGNOB. TO AIR, TURBINE CDMPANY OF AMERICA, OF JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY, A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.

WINDMILL.

Specification of Letters Iatent.

Patented May ii, 1915.

Application filed March 17, 1914. Serial No. 825,206.

Z 0 all whom it may concern Be it known that 1, ROBERT GLADE, a subject of the Grand Duke of Baden, residing in the city of Newark, county of Essex, and State of New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Vindmills, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to the type of windmill which has a plurality of vanes, mounted to swing around vertical axes and which are carried between large rims supported by means of spokes from the vertical axis. A typical mill of this character is illustrated in patent to Samuel S. Harper, No. 1,011,618, dated Dec. 12, 1911. In that patent the vanes are secured, through rigid connections, to a ring, which encircles the main axis of the mill. The pressure of the wind upon the vanes will turn them upon their axes so that they will be inclined to the'direction of the wind and through the angular impingement of the wind upon the vanes, the wheels will be rotated. A rigid mechanical connection between the vanes is open to the objection that all of the vanes are not inclined to the proper angle to be acted upon by the wind with the greatest effectiveness.

One object of the present invention is to provide a connection to the vanes whereby their angles in relation to the wind will be most effective.

A further object is to provide means for maintaining the vanes at the most effective angle irrespective of the centrifugal stresses, which act upon the vanes and tend to swing them outward. These stresses vary accord ing to the speed of rotation of the wheel, and on the windward side of the wheel have a tendency to swing the vanes toward the wind, and change the angle of the vanes to aless effective one.

A third object is to provide means for stopping the mill, and permit the vanes to lie in inoperative position with relation to the wind.

Further objects are to improve details of construction whereby the before mentioned objects may be attained.

These and further objects will more fully appear from the following specification and accompanying drawings, considered together or separately.

Figure 1 is a plan view, somewhat diagrammatical, of a portion of a windmill,

embodying the invention showing the positions the vanes assume when the mill is in operation; Fig. Qis a similar view showing the vanes disengaged and the mill at rest; Fig. 3 is an elevation of the mill, and supporting tower; Fig. 4 is a sectional view of one wheel and shaft, showing the details of the shaft bearing and devices for disconnecting the vane angle controlling means; Fig. 5 is a section on the lines 5, 5 of Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a plan view of the yoke and bearing of the vane angle controlling mechanism; Fig. 7 is an elevation thereof; Fig. 8 is an elevation partly in section, of a modification of a portion of the structure illustrated in Fig. 4; Fig. 9 is an elevation of the yoke and bearing of the vane angle controlling mechanism shown in Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a sectional view at right angles to the corresponding part illustrated in Fig. 8; Fig. 11 is a sectional view on the line 11, 11 of Fig. 8; Fig. 12 is an end view of one of the vanes; Fig. 13 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of a vane; Fig. 14 is a detailed view of the connections to the flexible floating ring; Fig. 15 is a view at right angles thereto; Fig. 15 is a sectional view of the spring stop for defining the angle of the vane, and Fig. 17 is a view at right angles thereto.

In all of the views, like parts are designated by similar reference characters.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 3: The mill is supported by means of a framework or tower 1. This tower carries the mill 2 which comprises a shaft 3, carrying hubs 4, 4, 4, 4, thereon at proper intervals. Each pair of hubs is separated, and each one of the pair is connected by means of spokes 5, 5, to a rim 6 thus producing a range of trussed spokes at each end of the mill. The

shaft is supported by means of bearings 7 carried by the framework 1. Each mill has two or more rims between each pair of which are mounted the vanes 8, 8, on vertical axes 9, 9, so that they are free to swing in or out of the line of the rim, as depends upon their location on the wheel in relation to the wind. The parts previously described may be like those illustrated in the Harper patent previously referred to.

The connections for governing and determining the position of the vanes are as follows: Each vane carries an arm 10, preferably located at the bottom thereof. as shown. To the arm is attached a connection 11, preferably made of wire rope or other material which will not appreciably stretch when subjected to strains. To each connectionis attached a spring stop 12 which in turn is connected to the shaft 3.

A suitable form of spring stop device is illustrated in Figs. 16 and 17. This device comprises two interconnected flattened links 13, 15 surrounded by and connected to a spiral spring 1%. The spring is normally compressed as illustrated. When subjected to strains the spring is expanded to a limit determined by the possible extent of separation of the two links.

The operation is graphically illustrated in Fig. 1, assuming the wind to be blowing with the arrow i and the mill turning in the direction indicated by the arrow 7'. The eight vanes illustrated are in the positions a, Z), c, 01, e, f, g and it. The arms 10 all lie at right angles to the vanes and the spring stops 12 all are so adjusted that when in retracted position, the vanes will be tangential to the rim. This will occur only in a calm. Assuming the wind to be blowing with suflicient force to drive the mill, the following will occur: In the position athe vane is traveling edge on to the wind and at the same time is tangential to the rim. No effective impulsive action is possible, but in its position, edge to wind, it produces the minimum amount of retardation to the rotation of the mill. In the position b, the vane, if edge on to the wind, would assume the position shown in broken lines, but, owing to the pressure of the wind, it is turned on its axis, expanding the spring stop '12, and assuming a position intermediate the position indicated by broken lines and the position at rest, which is tangential to the rim. This holds the vane at an effective angle for causing the mill to move in the direction of the arrow 7'. In the position 0 the vane is subjected to greater pressure, hence it is turned inwardly at a greater angle, to the wind, and the spring stop 12 is still farther expanded, holding the vane at an effective angle for rotating the mill. In the position (1 the pressure on the vane is still greater hence it is turned inwardly farther and the spring stop is still farther expanded. In the position 6 the vane is turned inward to the maximum extent permitted by the spring stop 12, the links 13, 13 thereof being in engagement and the spring 14 expanded to the greatest extent. The compressing action of the spring, cou-- pled with the centrifugal pressure acting on the vane, will tend to swing it upon its axis toward the wind, and outwardly so that when it reaches the position 7 it will be outside of the plane of the rim of the wheel. This action is similar to the jibing of a fore-and-aft sail, when the direction of the vessel is changed. In the position f the pressure on the vane is not so great as in the position 6, hence the angle the vane assumes and the tangent is less and the propulsion effect is good. In the position 9 the pressure on the vane is still less and hence the angle to the tangent is still less. In the position 7?. the pressure is still less and the expansive force of the spring in the ward. Ihose on the leeside are blown out-' ward. There is, in addition, to be considered the very important effect of centrifugal force. This force tends to swing the vanes outwardly. The effect, for example, in the structure illustrated in Fig. 1, is to turn the vane in position a outward so that it acts as a drag to its advance against the wind. In the position 0, for example, the centrifugal force will tend to drive the vane toward the tangential position which will be resisted by the action of the spring of thestop 12, thus altering the angle of the vane from an effective one to one less effective. In the position e, for example, the centrifugal force will tend to turn the vane to leeward, assisted by the pressure of the wind, thus rendering the angle less efi'ective. This cen trifugal force will tend to send the vane outward and produce a virtual jibe before it reaches the position 6, say somewhat nearer the position (Z, which will render the angle less effective than in the position shown at (Z. This malign effect of centrifugal force is partly or wholly neutralized by means of the following mechanism: Surrounding the shaft 3 is a ring 15. This ring is preferably not connected in any way to the shaft and is preferably so large that it does not come in contact with it. It is flexible and is preferably made of wire rope of sufficient stiffness to hold its general circularv outline except when subjected to distorting strains. The ring is attached to the vanes by means of connectors 16. These connectors are preferably made of flexible Wire rope which will not stretch in use. Each connector is attached to the vane through the agency of a horse, or traveler 17. The horse has one end attached to about the middle of the vane, and its other extremity attached to the free edge of the vane. The horse is inclined, as shown in Fig. 3, so that its outer end is higher than its inner end, for a purpose to be described. The connection between the connectors and ring is shown in Figs. 14 and 15. A clip 18 is attached to the ring so that it will not slide thereon and one end of the connector is attached thereto. On the other end of the connector is an eye 19 adapted to slide on chion or bracket 20, see Fig. 12, so as to hold the inner end of the horse clear of the vane.

The clips 18 are equally distributed around the ring 15. The operation of this feature of the invention is illustrated in Fig. 1. The vanes band f are opposed through their connections with the ring. The centrifugal force acting upon the vane b to throw it to windward is resisted by the centrifugal force on the vane 7 added to the pressure of the wind on that vane. The

, rotative stress on the vane f is much greater than on the vane 0, because in the former instance the wind is behind the axis of the vane. Similarly the vanes c and 9 will tend to balance one another, the centrifugal stresses to some extent equalizing another. So also will the vanes d and h, the vane cl having the greater wind stress. The vanes 01. and 6 will to some extent counter-balance one another, the vane 0, being subject to centrifugal stresses which are resisted by the vanes 0, d and f, 9, all tending to pull the ring in the direction toward the vanes f and g. The effect of this apparatus is such that a vane on one side of the wheel, which has a tendency to turn abnormally outward by centrifugal force, is resisted by a vane, or vanes, on the other side of the wheel upon which the wind acts with greater force, and these centrifugal strains are further balanced by the spring stop on the first vane.

The means for disconnecting the vanes, for rendering them inoperative, when it is desired to stop the mill, are as follows: The spring stops 12 are connected to ropes 21 which pass around sheaves 22 carried by a bracket 23 attached to the shaft 3, below" the upper hub 4 of the lower wheel of the mill 2. These ropes, there being one for each vane, are attached to a cross-head 24 sliding on the shaft. This cross-head is above the hub 4, the wires passing through openings in the hub 4, as shown. The crosshead is connected by rods 25 to a stem 26. These rods pass through openings in the upper member of the bearing 7 as shown and merge into the stem 26 above the hearing. This stem is connected through the intermediary of a bearing 27 to a rope 28, such bearing serving as a swivel. This rope leads over suitable sheaves to a winch 29 at a convenient point so that the cross-head 24 can be elevated or lowered and the inner ends of the spring stops 12 drawn inward or allowed to be drawn outward by the action of the vanes. In other words, the tension on the vanes can be controlled by means of the winch. The bearing 27 is used to keep the rope 28 from twisting. T 0 prevent the lower member of the bearing from one a rotating it is provided with an arm 30 having a notch which engages with and slides upon a fixed rod 31.

The rope 28 is connected to the bearing through the agency of a yoke 32 and crosshead 33 as shown. By slacking off on the rope 28 to the fullest extent, the cross-head 24 will drop and tension on all of the spring stops 12 will be released; however there may be no force tending to swing the vanes to the tangent position. Fig. 2 shows the position of the vanes when this occurs. The

spring stops 12 on all. of the vanes are un* expanded. There being no strain on the spring stops 12, or very little strain, the vanes will all feather and turn away from the wind. The connectors 16 of the ring 15 would prevent this action of the vanes (Z and 6 were it not for the shape of the horses 17 which allow the eyes 19 on each of said vanes to slide up the horse from the center of the vane to the free edge, as shown at d and e in Fig. 2. hen the mill again starts, as soon as thestress ceases on the connectors, the eyes will slide back to the center of the vanes by the action of gravity.

Figs. 8 to 11 show a modification of the devices for operating the ropes 21. These ropes areconnected to a cross-head 34, which is connected to a second cross-head by rods 36. The cross-head 34 is above the hub of the range of spokes at the bottom of the mill. The cross-head 35 is above the uppermost range of the mill. The rods 36 pass through openings in the flanges of the intervening hubs. The cross'head 35 is connected to a rod 27 inside the hollow shaft3 by means of a pin 38 passing through an elongated slot 39 in the shaft. The rod 37 is connected to the rope 28 by a bearing, 40, and a bail 41 which straddlesa bar 42 carried by the framework will prevent twisting of the rope, such bearing serving as a swivel.

From the cross-head 34 depend rods 43 to another cross-head below the one illustrated when the invention is embodied in a struc ture having a plurality of superposed mills, as illustrated in Fig. 22 of the Harper Patent No. 1,011,618, before referred to.

The vanes may be made of tubular metal frames with canvas sails laced to them as illustrated in Fig. 3, but I prefer to make them of thin sheets of metal 43, (see Fig. 13) held apart by spacers 44 and rivets 45.

A valuable feature of my invention is that in strong winds the spring stops 12 will be expanded to a greater extent due to the increased pressure of wind on the vanes, and smaller surface of vane area will be acted upon by the wind and the speed of the mill will therefore be kept within reasonable on vertical axes between the rims, means connected to the vanes and acting to normally turn them to a tangential position in relation to the rims, and a flexible ring surrounding the shaft and connectors between the vanes and the ring to balance the centrifugal forces which tend to turn certain vanes outwardly by the increased wind pressure on other vanes.

2. A windmill having a vertical shaft, carrying rims, a plurality of vanes turning on vertical axes between the rims, spring stops connected to the vanes and acting to normally turn them to a tangential position in relation to the rims, and a flexible ring sur rounding the shaft and connectors between the vanes and the ring to balance the centrifugal forces, which tend to turn certain vanes outwardly, by the increased wind pressure on other vanes.

3. A windmill having a vertical shaft, rims thereon, vanes carried on vertical axes between the rims, arms on the vanes, spring stops connected to the arms and tending to normally hold the vanes in tangential relation to the rims, a flexible ring surrounding the shaft, and connections between the ring and vanes so that the pressure oi the wind on those vanes which are to windward of the shaft will resist the centrifugal. stresses on those vanes which are to leeward of the shaft.

4. A windmill which comprises a shaft, a plurality of rims carried by the shaft, a plurality of vanes turning on vertical axes between the rims, an arm connected to each vane at right angles thereto, a spring stop connected to each arm, a collar connected to the stops, and means outside of the wheel for sliding the collar to release the tension on the stops, a flexible ring surrounding the shaft, a horse on each vane extending to its free edge, and a connection between the ring and each horse whereby when the tension on the spring stop is released the vanes will be free to feather and the connections on some of the vanes will slide along the horses to the free edges of such vanes to release such vanes from the restraining influences of the a horse extending from about the middle of each vane to the free edge thereof, at an upward angle, connections between the ring and each horse whereby when the tension on the spring stop is released the vanes will be free to feather and the connections on some of the vanes will slide along the horses to the free edges of such vanes to release such vanes from the restraining influences of the connections.

This specification signed and witnessed this eleventh day of March, 1914.

ROBERT GLADE.

WVitnesses:

NATHAN H. LORD, ANNA E. REN'IoN.

Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents,

Washington, D. G.

US82520614A 1914-03-17 1914-03-17 Windmill. Expired - Lifetime US1139103A (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4180367A (en) * 1975-02-10 1979-12-25 Drees Herman M Self-starting windmill energy conversion system
US4197055A (en) * 1977-11-28 1980-04-08 Campbell James S Vertical axis windmill
US4299537A (en) * 1979-06-19 1981-11-10 Evans Frederick C Interlinked variable-pitch blades for windmills and turbines
DE3121106A1 (en) * 1981-05-27 1982-12-16 Erich Herter turbine
US4364710A (en) * 1979-12-07 1982-12-21 James Campbell Vertical-axis windmill of the Chinese type
US4392780A (en) * 1978-04-11 1983-07-12 Taft John R Wind powering of turbine having variable pitch vanes
US4457669A (en) * 1978-10-24 1984-07-03 Corry William R Jibe mill
DE3304944A1 (en) * 1983-02-12 1984-08-16 Erich Herter wind turbine
US20080007067A1 (en) * 2005-01-19 2008-01-10 Byung-Sue Ryu Wind Turbine

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4180367A (en) * 1975-02-10 1979-12-25 Drees Herman M Self-starting windmill energy conversion system
US4197055A (en) * 1977-11-28 1980-04-08 Campbell James S Vertical axis windmill
US4392780A (en) * 1978-04-11 1983-07-12 Taft John R Wind powering of turbine having variable pitch vanes
US4457669A (en) * 1978-10-24 1984-07-03 Corry William R Jibe mill
US4299537A (en) * 1979-06-19 1981-11-10 Evans Frederick C Interlinked variable-pitch blades for windmills and turbines
US4364710A (en) * 1979-12-07 1982-12-21 James Campbell Vertical-axis windmill of the Chinese type
DE3121106A1 (en) * 1981-05-27 1982-12-16 Erich Herter turbine
DE3304944A1 (en) * 1983-02-12 1984-08-16 Erich Herter wind turbine
US20080007067A1 (en) * 2005-01-19 2008-01-10 Byung-Sue Ryu Wind Turbine
US7591635B2 (en) * 2005-01-19 2009-09-22 Byung-Sue Ryu Wind turbine

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