US1075313A - Self-playing musical instrument. - Google Patents

Self-playing musical instrument. Download PDF

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US1075313A
US1075313A US22199504A US1075313DA US1075313A US 1075313 A US1075313 A US 1075313A US 22199504 A US22199504 A US 22199504A US 1075313D A US1075313D A US 1075313DA US 1075313 A US1075313 A US 1075313A
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pneumatic
pneumatics
action
expression
exhaust device
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US22199504A
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Lewis B Doman
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Amphion Piano Player Company
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10FAUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard

Description

L. B. DOMAN. SELF PLAYING MUSIGAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION PILEIPVAUG. 24, 1904.
Patented Oct. 7, 1913.
2 SHEBTSSHEET 1.
WIT/1155555 y INVZNY'UH, dwm J8 W MW WL- i\\ 1i s M Y I WK 5 I MY'Y'UHNEK L. B. DOMAN. SELF PLAYING musmu. INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED AUG.24, 1904.
1,075,31 3. Patented Oct. 7, 1913.
. a v a SHEETS-SHEET 2.
f 5/33 #5 x V I" 25 1 X Y "j, 1 $2. 7 Z/ 7' WITNEFFEZ I I INVE IVY 'UR,
.UNITED'STATES rg rnnr mwrsiu. point, or mom, new roux, .essrenon r0 AMPHION Piano stares. mum, FELBEIJJGE, new YORK, A oocsrona'rron or NEW roan.
smirrnmustwslcp rns'rnomnm'.
moms-1's.
s gnification of Letters .Patent.
Patented oer. *2,
Applieation flled August le, 1904. ,Serial No. 221,995.
Zoa ll whom it may-concern:
Be it knownthat 1, Lewis Dorms, of
merits in selfplaying musical instruments,
referring more particularly to the expression controlling and allied mechanisms,
somewhat similar to my reissue application- Nb. 594,228 filed November 25, 1910., and also to my pendingapplications Nos. 240,252 filed March 9, 1905, and 329,692 filed August 8, -1906. In this class of instruments a Eeries of primary and'key operating pneu- .matics are placed in communication with suitable air-pom: or bellows and trackerboard over Whic a perforated music-sheet is caused .to travel .to control the action of fso said neumatics for operating the keys or hammers of a piano or other' key-board instrument. I
The primary object of my present invention is toena'ble the operator to easily grade at will .the expression or force of action of the ,keys of the instrument to either extreme or to any intermediate degree by simply Varying the degree of air pressure which operates the primary and key striking pneumatics without changing the pressure in the main bellows.
' A further object is to provide means operable by a light pressure of the finger for accenting an ndividual note or chord when the general expression of the selection, or any portion of it, is below or softer than fortissimo and without shiftingthe expression controlling lever so that if the lever is sctfor pianissimo or any intermediatedegreeof expression any individual note orchord may be accented With full jortissimo expression the instant the corresponding perforation in the music sheet is registered with its duct inthe tracker-board,
without changing the position oft he hand. series of trackenboard dncts- -'1()- across or the expression lever.
view, partly in section, of parts of the mech-- amsm seen in Fig. 1, showing the particirlar features of novelty together with the tempo controlling lever. Fig. 3 is a top ,plan of the main exhaust chambers and expression controlling pneumatics. Fig. i is a front elevation of the expression controlling pneumatics. Fig. 5 is a sectional view of the expression controlling lever and means for accenting individual notes and chords. Fig. (3 is a detail view of a modified means for accenting individual notes or chords. 4 The apparatus shown comprises essentially-a key action, an expression controlling mechanism including a device for accenting individual chords, and suitable'exhausting means operating to maintain a partial vacu um in portions of the key action and expression controlling mechanism. The key-action is similar to that set forth in my pending applications Serial Nos. 227470 and 227471, filed Oct. 6,1904 for operating the keys, as 1--, of a piano or other key-board instrument, and consists essentially of a series of hey-operating pneumatics 2-, one for each key of the piano, which are connected to and operate suitable key-striking fingers -3-, and communicate with corresponding primarypneumatics -l-- through a port -5, and also communicate with atmosphere through suitable ports ,-6. Each primary pneumatic is provided with a valve 7 which plays between the ports 5 and 6 to alternately connect the key-striking pneumatics with an exhaust chamber and atmosphere.
The exhaust chamber -8 is common/to and at one side of all of the primary pneumatics (l, but the space at the opposite side of each primary pneumatic is connected by which the perforated music sheet 11- traveis and controls the operation of the primary pneumatics and their correspond ing key striking neumatics,
The conduits 9 are provided with comparatively small apertures --12 which open into an exhaust chamber -13, and this exhaust chamber 13, together with the exhaust chamber 8 of each windchest of 'the key action is connected to a conduit 14twhich is in communication with the exhaust device so that a partial vacuum is maintained in these chambers -8- and -13 below atmospheric pressure when the ducts l0 are closed by the music-sheet, but as soon as one or more perforations in the music-sheet are registered with the corresponding ducts in the trackerboard the air at atmospheric pressure enters beneath the primary pneumatics and by reason of the lower pressure in the chamber 8 causes said primary pneumatic to operate the valve 7 to establish communication between the key striking pneumatic and chamber '8 and to cut off communication between said kev pneumatic and atmosphere, thereby causing the sudden collapse of the 'key striking pneumatic to operate the corresponding key of the musical instrument. I have only briefly described this key action for the reason that it is fully set forth in my pending applica tions above referred to, and forms no part of my present invention, except as it enters into combination with the expression con trolling mechanism presently described. In this expression controlling mechanism, I employ two separate exhaust chambers 15- and 16, one of which,-as 15, is connected by a conduit 17 to a suitable air exhausting bellows or equalizer 18;.
only a portion of which is shown in Fig. 1, as the means for maintaining the partial Vacuum in the chamber 15 forms no part of my present invention, and may be of any desired construction. The chamber l5 communicates through a port -lf)- with the interior of a pressure regulating pneumatic -20 in which is located a second, but somewhat smaller pneumatic 21. The chamber 16 also communicates with the interior of the pneumatic --20 through a port -22- and is connected by a conduit 23- to the conduit l4- shown by dotted lines in Fig. l, and is therefore, in communication with the chamber 8- of the key-action. It is now appartnt that the chamber 16 is also in communication with the exhaust device 1 by reason of the fact that both ports 19 and 22 -open into the interior of the. pn'bumatic 20 and since the chamber 16 is in' communication with the exhaust device and also in communication with the chambers 8 and 13 it is evident that these latte chambers are also in communication with the exhaust device.
The pneumatic -20 is preferably made in the form of a bellows, asseen in Fig. .2, and therefore, has a movable wall which is normally distended by means of a spring 21 and this spring is tensioned so as to give the desired pressure available in the key action pneumatics, or rather determines the pressure available in the chambers -8 and 13-. The small pneumatic *21 is also preferably made in the form of a bellows mounted upon the movable wall. of the bellows 20 and has, itself, a movable wall 25 to which is secured a. somewhat spongy or porous valve 26-, which in this instance is made of coarse felt and is adapted to cover the port -l) to regulate the passage of air from the interior of the bellows -20 to the chamber l5 These pneumatics -20 and 2lare very similar in co-nstructionand operation to that setforth in my pending application previously referred to with the exception that the valve -26 is made of coarse felt or other finely porous material, and it is therefore, unnecessary to further illustrate or describe this part of the apparatus further than to state that the objcctot the porous or felt valve 26 is to permit the air to sift therethrough when it is closed in order to subdue the force or pressure of the air without entirely cutting ofl'communication between the pneumatic -20 and chamber l5. This enables me to obtain extremely soft degrees of expression and avoids the quiclr positive cut-off, such as would be produced by a leather or equivalent valvc, and also produces easy glides or gradations of expression owing to its porosity and susceptibility to gradual compression under varying degrees of pressure. Reference is here made to my pending ap plication No. 249,250 filed March 1), 1905, showing similar expression graduating pneumatics.
It now appears that a substantially uniform air pressure below atmosphere is maintained in the chamber l5- by reason of its direct connection with the exhaust device 18- and that the pneumatic 20-- and feltvalve 2(3, together with the s 'rin -24- constitutes what ma be a i J termed, a maximum pressure regulator for determining the pressure available in the key-action, or rather, in the chambers --S and 13 so that such maximum pressure in the key-action may beiequal to or less than the pressure in the exhaust device or in the chamber 15 depending upon the tension of the spring 24.---. For example-4f the force of the suction of the exhaust device exceeds the tension of the sprihg 2-ll the pneumatic 20 will be partially collapsed,
sufliciently to cause the valve 26 to partially close the port -19 until limited by a stop -2Y of the pneumatic -20, which together with the porosity of the valve 26- prevents absolute closure of the port 19.
The bellows 21 constitutes what maybe termed, the accenting pneumatic, that is, it performs the function of unseating the va1ve,-26- in a manner hereinafter described for accenting an individual note or chord when the pressure in the key-action is set to produce a degree of expression softer thanfortissimo fl'. The gradation of expression from'pianissimo through intermediate degrees to fortissim'o is controlled by a plurality ofin this instance four, separate pneumatics 28, each of which is of substantially the same capacity and all com bined have a capacity or'area substantially equal to the capacity or area of the bellows or pressure regulating pneumatic 20 and are arranged with their movable walls facing the movable wall of the pneumatic The movable wall ofeach of the pneumaties -2S is connected by a separate connection, as a link -29-, to the movable wall of the pneumatic. 20 and the interior chamber of each of the pneumatics 28 is connected-by a conduit 30 to an air cylinder or chamber -31, which in turn, is connected by a conduit 32 to the chamber 15 so that these pneumatics 28- are in direct connection with the exhaust device through the conduits 30, chamber 31, conduit 32, chamber ].5 and conduit '17.
A piston -33 is movable in the cylinder +31 across the mouths of the conduits -30 for the purpose of cutting off communication between one or more of the conduits 30- and chamber 15 so that when the piston is drawn back to uncover the mouths of all of the conduits 30 the,
combined pressure in all of the pneumatics 28- is substantially equal to the pressure in the pneumatic --20-, when the valve 2G is fully opened and therefore, the action of the exhaust device upon the bellows -20- is neutralized and permits the action of the exhaust device with full force upon the key action to produce the extremely loud or fortissimo expression in the selection which is being played. On the other handif the piston is moved to the extreme inner position for cutting oti communication between all of the pneutnatics 28 and chamber -15- the full force of atmospheric pressure is'exertedu n the bellows -20 proportionate to the degr e of the vacuum in the chamber 15- whiqi operates to partially close the valve +26, thereby allowing the'air to strain or V-sift through the somewhat porous felt valve to producean extremely soft or; pianissimo effect in the selection which is being rendered. It is now clearly evident that by moving the piston -33 to intermediate points so as to cut oli one or more of the conduits 30 from communication with the chamber 15- a degree of pressure is exerted upon the bellows 20 proportionate to the excess of area or capacity of the pneumatic -20 over the area or capacity of the pneumatics '28 which may be in action or communication with the chamber 15. For example-suppose that the pis ton or valve 33 s'set, as shown in Fig; 2, so as to cut out two of the conduits -30 leaving the'remaining two conduits 30 in communication with the chamber 15, then the force of the exhaust device operating to collapse the bellows -20 is coun' tcracted by substantially half the same force acting upon the pneumatics -2S which remain in communication with the'chamber -15', and-therefore, the felt valve 26 is closed only under a medium pressure, which produces a corresponding air pressure in the key-action and gives an intermediate expression in the selection represented by m, f, or mezzo-forte. In like manner, by
the expression may be changed from one ex degree depending upon the number of pneumatics -28- which may be employed. Although I have shown only four of these pneumatics -28 it is evident that any number may be used, but the combined area or capacity of these governing pneumatic's must be substantially equal to the area or capacity of the mat-ic -20'.
The means employed for controlling the operation of the piston 33 preferably consists of a lever 34;- which is fulcrumed at and has its lower end connected by a link '36- to the piston 33 and its upper end is arranged in a position convenient for operation and isprovided with an a suitable scale or index 38 having dif ferent characters,-such as fi', f, mf, 72,- and 7972, representing fortissimo, pianissimo and intermediate degrees of expression. It is evident, however, that various other means may, be employed for making and breaking connection between thepneumatics '28 and chamber 15,,as for instance, this may be accomplished automatically by mak- -cot3perate with extra ducts in the trackerboard which might be connected to control separate valves for closing the mouths of the ducts -30 or these extra ducts iii the rate ducts to .admit air under atmotp pressure into said pneumatics 28%;
The means for accenting individual notes moving the piston backward and forward treme to the other, or to any intermediate index finger -37' which ismovable along ing suitable apertures in the music-sheet to tracker-board might be connected by com-- heric i pressure regulating pneuor chords during the rendition of the selection comprises essentially the pneumatic :2l which is connected by a conduit 40 to a chamber -41 which has a port -42- opening to atmosphere and another port 13- which communicates with a second chamber d4. This latter chamber 4.-l--is connected by a conduit 45- to the exhaust chamber -15-, and is therefore, in direct communication with the exhaust device. A. valve 46 plays in the chamber llb etween the ports and ---i3- and normally closes the port -43. This valve has a stem extending through the port -4 3, and just beneath this stem is a pneumatic or diaphragm l7 which plays in the pocket l8 and has a small aperture l9 connecting the chamber lt with the pocket l8 so that the pocket 48- is also in communication with the chamber 15-. Leading from this pocket is a tube or air conduit -50' which has diverging branches -.'31 and 52-, one of which opens into an air chamber having a port --54land a spring closed valve for closing said port which otherwise opens to atmosphere. This chamber 53 is formed in a comparatively small inclosure which is mounted upon the lever This lever -34: is provided with a. lengthwise guide 56 in which is movable a plunger rod -57 having its upper end projecting slightly above the upper end of the lever and its lower end is guided in an opening 58- at one side of the chamber -53 and engages the valve Which is normally closed by a spring 59 so that by placing the finger upon the upper end of the plunger-rod -5T it may be easily and quickly depressed and released to open the valve -55 to admit air under atmospheric pressure through the port 54 and into the conduit 51 and beneath the pneumatic t7., This causes an instantaneous action of the diaphragm 47-, which operates the valve -'l6 to close the port 42 and to open communication between the chamber --4-l and conduit -40-, and therefore, to establish communication between the interior of the pneumatic 21- and chamber 15, thereby throwing the full force of the vacuum of the chamber 15 into the pneumatic -2l and causing said pneumatic -2lto collapse and open the valve 26-. ,The instant this is accomplished it is apparent that the full force of the exhaust device is thrown to the key action, and therefore operates the keys with full fortissi-mo effect. This individual note and chord ,accentin;; device is a particularly important feature of my invention in view of the fact that the plunger rod, or as it may be termed, the. accenting buttonm avbe op-' erated by th e finger while the hand is still upon the expression controlling lever 34-.
may, if desired equip the pedal operating levers with the same kind of an accenting device. 7
In some instances it may be desirable to operate the accenting device automatically, as for instance, by extra perforations in the music-sheet moving across corresponding ducts in the tlzl('l (3l-l)0:1l'(l which may be connected to the conduit 50 whereby the air under atmospheric pressure would be admitted into the pocket 4S, or instead of connecting the duct as described, it might be connected to an extra duct in the trackerboard to operate with one or more extra perforations in the music-sheet to automatically control, the accentuation of the individual notes or chords, and in Fig. 6, I have shown a tracker-board having an extra duct to which is -connected by a conduit b to the conduit -50 and communication with the atmosphere is controlled by extra perforations, as -0 in the music-sheet, as
-C, so that the accenting of the individual notes or chords may be effected automatically or manually.
In the operation of my invention a partial vacuum is maintained in the chamber -15, and also in the chambers 31 and 44 at a pressure below atmosphere substantially equal to the pressure in the exhaust device and when the ports of the conduits 30 opening into the chamber 31- are'all uncovered and the valve 26 is fully opened a similar pressure below atmosphere is maintained in the bellows 20- and govern'ing pneumatics -28 and these pneumatics 2()- and 28- being linked to each other and of substantially the same area, it is evident that the pressure upon the bellows 20 is neutralized by the equal pressure in the combined pneumatics --28, and therefore, the full force of the exhaust device is transmitted to the key action for producing fortissimo effect in the rendition of the selection. Now, whenit is desired to 'soften the expression it may be dime stepby step by moving the piston -33 to cover one or more of the'ports of the conduits 30 thereby cutting ofi" the corresponding pneumatics 28-- from communication with the exhaust tlpvice, thus breaking the neutr'alizingefiei of the pressure upon the pneumatic 20..-, whereupon saidpneumatic 20 is partially collapsedagainst the tension of the spring 24 to partially cut ofl" communication between the exhaust device and key action, thereby subduing the force of action of the key pneuthe accenting button or rod 5i'-, thereby opening the valve 55&- and connecting the chamber 48- with atmosphere, which causes the operation of the pneumatic l7'- to actuate the valve -t6- and connect the chamber '-l-1- with the pneumatic 2l-- through the conduit 40. This causes a partial vacuum in and collapses the pneumatic 2l to unseat the valve 26-, and thereby establish direct communication be tween the exhaust device and key action so that the full force of the exhaust device is felt upon theltey striking pneumatics at the instant that the accenting buttpn=-57- is depressed.
Reference is hereby made to my pending application X0. 780,350 filed'July 2-1, 1913, in which resistance pneumatics of graded sizes are specifically claimed.
Having thus described my invention what I- claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. In a self-playing musical instrument, an expression-controlling mechanism including an expression pneumatic and a plurality of separate resistance pneumatics, each havin; separate connection with the first named pneumatic, in combination with an air exhaust device in communication with the first named pneumatic, a valve actuated by the expression pneumatic to control such communication means to connect each of the resistance pneumatics to said exhaust device, one at a' time for producing a step-by-step gradation of expression, and manually controlled pneiunatic means for actuating said valve independently of the expression pneumatic. I
2. In a self-playing musical instrument, the combination with an air-exhaust device and an exhaust-chamber of the playing ac: tion, of an expression pneumatic in the connection between the exhaust device and said chamber, an accenting pneumatic within and actuated by the expression pneumatic, a series of separate pneumatics adapted to resist the collapse of the first named pneumatic, means for placing said separate pneumatics, one bvone, in communication with the exhaust device, and separate actuating means for the accenting pneumatic. 3. In a self-playing musical instrument,
the combination with an air exhaust device and an exhaust chamber in communication therewith, oi? separately operable pneuniatics one within the other, and actuated by the suction from the exhaust, device to control such connnunieation, a series of separate pneumatics adapted to resist the action of one oi? the first named pneumatics, and
additional. means for placing said separatepneumatics in communication, one by one, with the exhaust device. i
4. In a self-playing musical instrument, separately opecable expression governing neumatics, one wit-hin'the other, and an ex ha'ust-device in communication therewith, in
connected to one of said neumatics to 0p pose its collapse.
a self-playing musical instrument,., separately. operable expression governing" pneumatics, one within the other, and an exhaust device in communication therewith, in combination with separate pneumatics connected to the outer pneumatic to oppose its collapse, and means to deflate said separate pneumatics individually and collectively.
6. In a self-playing musicai instrument, separately operable expression neumatics, one within the other, and an exhaust device in communication therewith, in combination with means to introduce varying degrees of resistance to the collapse of the-outer pneumatic.
7. In a self-playing musical instrument, separately operable expression neumatics one'within the other, and an exhaust device combination with separate resistance devices in communication therewith, in combination with a series of devices of substantially the same resisting power connected to one of said pneumatics to oppose its collapse, and means to make and break the resisting power of each device.
8. In a self-playing musical instrument separately operable expression governing pneumatics one within the'other and an exhaust device in communication with one of said pneumatics, in combination with a series of separate pneumatics of substantially the same size connected to one of the expression pneumatics to oppose its collapse, and means to deflate said separate pneumatics, one by one.
9. In a self-playing n1us1cal instrument, separately operable governing pneumat cs one within the other and an exhaust device in communication with the outer pneumatic, in combination with a series of separate neumatics connected'to the outer pneumatic to oppose its collapse and having a combined area exposed to atmosphere substantially equal to that of the outer-pneuinatic, and means to deflate the separate neumatics, one by one.
10. In a self-playing musical instrument,
the combination with an exhaust device, of separately operable expression governing pneumatics one within the other, the outer one being in communication with said device, an exhaust chamber of a playing action in communication with said outer pneumatic, separate pneumatics of substantially the same size connected to the outer pneu, matic to oppose its collapse, and means to place said separate pneumatics, one by one. in communication with said outer pneumatic.
11. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, an exhaust device and action having an exhaust chest in communication with the exhaust device in combination with means including a series of pneumatic resistance devices for effecting a step-bystep closing, and a step-by-step opening of such communication, and an accenting pneumatic operable separately from said means.
12. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, an exhaust device and action having an exhaust chest, a valved port connected to the exhaust device and chest, a valvefor said port, manually controlled pneumatic means to move the valve to its port with varying degrees of pressure, and an accenting pneumatic for opening said valve independently of said pneumatic means.
13. In apneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device, of a pressure regulating pneumatic in'connection with the exhaust device, and a valve actuated by said pneumatic to partially close communication between the pressure regulating pneumatic and exhaust device and a separate valve controlling communication between the resistance pneumatics and exhaust device.
14. In a neumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device, of a pressure regulating pneumatic in communication with theexhaust device and including a valve for partially closing communication between the pressure regu lating pneumatic and exhaust device, additional pneumatics connected to and controlling the action of the pressure regulating pneumatic, and means for controlling the action of the additional pneumatics.
15. An expression regulating mechanism for self-playing musical instruments comprising regulator acting under varying air tensions, separate devices for resisting such action in one direction, and means for operating said devices. I
16. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device and key action having an exhaust chest connected thereto, of means including two pneumatics one within the other for partially closing communication between the exhaust device and. chest to regulate the expression, a plurality of resistance pneumatics communicating with the. exhaust device and connected to one of the first named pneumatics to control its operation, addi' tional means to cut off communication of one or more of the resistance pneumatics with the exhaust device, and further means to actuate the inner pneumatic separately from the outer pneumatic.
17. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device and key-action having an exhaust chest connected thereto, of means for partially closing communication between the exhaust device and chest to regulate the expression, a plurality of resistance pneumatics communicating with the exhaust device and connected to said means to control its operation, additional means to cut off communication of one or more of the pneumatics with the exhaustdevice, and separate means to actuate a part of the first named means to open full communication between the exhaust device and exhaust chest for accenting individual notes or chords. v
' 18. In a self-playing musical instrument, the combination with an exhaust device and a key-action having an air chest connected thereto, an expression pneumatic connected to the exhaust device and to the air chest,
21 valve within and movable independently of the expression pneumatic for controlling communication between the exhaust device and air chest, separate pneumatics connected to and controlling the action of the expression pneumatic and also in communication with the exhaust device, means for cutting off communication of one or more of the separate pneumatics with the exhaust device, and additional means for controlling the action of the valve independently of the separate pneumatics.
19. In a self-playing musical instrument, an expression regulator acting under varying air tensions, and means including separate pneumatics for applying different degrees of resistance to the movement of the regulator in one direction.
20. In a self-playing musical instrument,. a wind inducing device and a communicating sound producing action, in combination with an expression regulator in the connection between said device and action, separate pneumatics and connections between them and the regulator to resist the action of the regulator in one direction, and means for opening and closing communicationhetween said pneumatics and wind. inducing device.
21. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device and an action chest communicating therewith, of an expression regulating mechanism comprising means to rol 23. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combinatlon with a manual,
of an expression controlling mechanism including an accenting pneumatic and a manual mounted upon and movable independently of the former manual.
24. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with aplurality of separate manuals for different purposes, of an accenting pneumatic and means including finger pieces mounted upon said manuals and operable independently of each other and of their respective manuals for operating the accenting pneumatic.
25. In a pneumatic action for musical instruments, the combination with an exhaust device and a pneumatic key action, of a valve controlling communication bet-Ween the exhaust device and key action, means including separate devices to resist the closing of the valve, means to control the action of said devices, and separate means to open said valve.
26. In a mechanical musical instrument, the combination with wind-inducing devices and communicating sound producing de vices, of toneexpression-controlling devices comprising a pneumatic regulator interposed in and cont-rolling the air passage between the Wind-inducingdevices and the soundproducing devices, a pneumatic actuator operative by atmospheric pressure and by the wind-inducing devices and adapted to operate the regulator, and means adapted to connect the actuator with the wind-inducing deaims to assure loud-tone effects or with the atmosphere to assure soft-tone effects.
27. In a mechanical musical instrument, the combination with wind-inducing devices and communicating sound -producing devices, of tone-expression-controlling devices comprising av pneipuatic regulator interposed in and contro ling the air passage between the Wind-inducing devices and the sound-producing devices, a pneumatic a cttrator operative by atmospheric pressure and by the Wind-inducing devices and-adapted to operate the regulator, and a system of passages and valves adapted to connect the actuator with the wind-inducing devices to assure loud-tone effects or with the atmosphere to assure soft-tone effects.
28; In a mechanical musical instrument, the combination with exhaust-Wind-inducing operate the regulator, and means adapted to 7 connect the actuator with the windinducing devices to assure loud-tone effects or with the atmosphere to assure soft-tone effects.
29. In a mechanical musical instrument, the combination with wind-inducing devices and communicating soundproducing devices, of toneexpression-controlling devices comprising a pneumatic regulator interposed in and controlling the air-passage between the Wind-inducing devices and the soundproducing devices, a pneumatic actuator operative by atmospheric pressure and by the wind-inducing-devices and adapted to operate the regulator, and means adapted to corin'ect the actuator with the wind-inducing de vices to assure loud-tone eflects or with the atmosphere to assure soft-tone efiects; said regulator and actuator being relatively ar ranged to cause either of them to be operated directly from the other.
30.'In a mechanical musical instrument, the combination with wind-inducing devices and communicating soundproducing devices, of toneexpression controlling devices comprising a pneumatic regulator interposed in and controlling the air passage between the wind-inducing devices and the. sound-producing devices, means such as a spring normally expanding the regulator to open said airpassage, a pneumatic actuator operative by atmospheric pressure and by the wind-inducing devices and adapted to operate the regulator, and means adapted to connect the actuator either with the windinducing devices or with the atmosphere, whereby when the actuator is connected with the Wind-inducing devices the regulator will assure loud-tonedects and when the actuator is connected with the atmosphere the regulator will be more or less collapsed against the influence of its expanding means to produce soft effects.
31. In a self-playing musical instrument,
a pneumatic sound producing action and an exhaust device connected thereto, an expres sion pneumatic in the connection between the exhaust device and action, a valve actuated by said pneumatic to regulatethe air tension in the sound producing action, a resistance. pneumatic arranged in opposition an expression grading mechanism having a vice, the lever and an accent controlling (le- 10 serles of air ports, means lncludlng a lever vice having an air-port 0n the lever.
for opening and closing said ports in succes In witness whereof I have hereunto set sion, an accenting pneumatic,.and means inmy hand' this 19 day of August 1904. eluding an air port on the lever for eontr01- ling the operation of said accenting pneu- LEWIS DOMAN' matic. Witnesses:
33. In a self-playing musical instrument, v Mrs. THOMAS Enmo 'r,
a lever-e0ntro11ed expression-grading de- A. BIBBENB.
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