US1059324A - Pneumatic attachment for pianos. - Google Patents

Pneumatic attachment for pianos. Download PDF


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US1059324A US27749005A US1905277490A US1059324A US 1059324 A US1059324 A US 1059324A US 27749005 A US27749005 A US 27749005A US 1905277490 A US1905277490 A US 1905277490A US 1059324 A US1059324 A US 1059324A
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William A Watson
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    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard


Taunus-SHEET 1.l
Panama' Apr. 15,1913.
W @f ya Wensen' @y/i722?- .A Patented Apr. 154, 1918.
Pamnted Apr15,1913
7 SHEETS-511mm* a..
1,059,324. Patented Apr. v15', 1913.
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Patented Apr.15,1913;
cz/efzrfi @W6 My; forme f5 Manassas am@ @am W. A. WATSON. PNEUMATIC ATTACHMENT FOR PIANOS.
APPLIOATIO; H'Lnn SEPT. s, 1905. Y
Patented Apr. 15, 1.913.
W. A. WATsoN. l
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 8, 1905. 4 A V I 1 ,059,324. Patented Apr. 15, 1913. 7 snnnTssnnT v.
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f/1T @63009906 E: -53 5 58 'Q/@QQQQQQ m I' f w15/ z I 56 55 5,3 ,il 53 l I './d '3 f5- e o@ @00o w out of sight,vbiit which is readily removable Vto provide an attachment for the automatic rstructure is of such a character as not to .prove and sim various parts of the piano into a so called self-playing UNITED vsraijas rarnivrionnicn WILLIAM A. WATSON, MEDFORD HILLSIDE, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR TO NATIONAL PIAN O COMPANY, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, A CORPORATION OF MAINE.
Patented Apr. 15,1913.
Application led September 8, 1905. Serial No. 277,490.
T 0 all whom t may concern Be it known that I, vWILLIAM ARTHUR' lVATsoN,'of Medford Hillside, in the county of lMiddlesex and State lof Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful lfm proveniente in Pneumatic Attachments for Pianos, of which thefollowing is a. speci fication. c
This invention relates primarily to .pianos and other musical instruments which mechanism ymay be combined to convert-such instruments into self-playing instruments, and my invention relates particularly to that class of pneumaticl pianos in Awhich the mechanism is contained entirely within the piano-case.
The primary object of the invention is@ playing of pianos, which attachment is contained-within thecase -O'f the piano and is for the purpose of inspection or repairs, and which may be employed in any piano of ordinary construction, the said attachment being so compact that it does noty interfere with. the operationof the piano action or other parts of the instrument. The compactness of the .attachment and the general interfere with the freedom of tone, that is, obstruct the passage of sound Waves from the `piano to the room. Another objectof the invention is to construct the attachment in several partsor units which may be individuallyA orl independently removed from the piano `for the purpose of inspection and repair of either of the parts of the attachment or of the piano itself, thereby rendering it unnecessary to remove further parts of the mechanism than may be required tol furnish access to the particular part needing attention.
Other objects of the invention are to immechanism nee ed to convert an. ordinary iano, and render such parts more diminutive in appearance and consequently more inv keep? ing with 'the present style of piano construction, allvas will be more fully herein! after 4described and pointed out in lthe claims.
In carrying outmy invention yI' not only utilize the spaces existing inv pianos where .stantially as hereinafter claimed.
0f the accompanying drawings z-Figure v1-represents a vertical' section through a vcomplete instrument embodying my inven- :removed from the case.
the mechanism can be conveniently placed,
but I also place and arrange the parts ot' my attachment without apparent increase in the mechanism of the piano as a whole,
.giving it the appearance of a simple exjtension of the present mechanism. The resiilt of this is that there is little or no confusion to repairers, because of the presence [of the parts of the attachment, and also the sound vihrationscinanating from the -piano are allowed entire freedom.
To these ends my invention consists in the construction and combination of arts subdescribed and tion. Fig. 2 represents a front elevation of the same the righthand portion being broken away and portions being broken out at the upper left hand parts oi' the figure to show interior details of construction. Fig. 3 represents'an elevation of a rear porthat will' be more fully explained hereini.
tion of the frame or so-called skeleton back Iof the, piano to which the bellows are attached, saidv frame or skeleton back being Fig. et represents a section on line 4% of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 y
represents an enlarged section on line oi` lig. 1. Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the air trunk brackets. F ig. T represents iin elevation of the saine, part-ly broken-out and liig. 8 represents a section on in section. line 8 8 of Fig. 7. Figz represents adetail section, enlarged, on line 9 9 of Fig. 2. Fig. 10 is a view similar to the lower poi-- tionv of Fig. .9, the lower pneumatic being collapsed. Fig. 1'1 is a detail plan view, en-
`la'rged,.ofone of the coupler tongues. Figs.
12 and"13 are'views similar to port-ions of Fig. 1, showing two of the removable units` detached. Fig. 14 represents a detail, eiilarged from Fig. 1, of the means for holding the coupler tongues projectedor retracted. Fig. 15 represents a detail section on line 15-15 of Fig. 1. Figs. 16, 17, and`18 rcpresent respectively detail sections on lines 16-16, 1?-17, and.18-18 of Fig. 9.
` 'incassa Similar reference characters indicate the saine or similar parts throughout the several views.
. Stich parts of the casing and trame and details ot' the piano itself 'as are illustrated in the drawings are or may be of any ordinary or preferred type.' lt will not be necessary herein to describe or even mention many of the parts of the piano itseloi-and it will be suiiicient to refer to the trame or plate 20,
the strings 2l, the sounding-board 22, the
piano action as a whole indicated at 23, the key-bottom 24 and the key-frame 25.
The key-bottom 24 is cut away at therear asindicated at Fig. l; that is, it is .of much less depth than in the ordinary piano. rllhis provides space for the-pneumatic units of the attachment, and at theysame time pro-.
vides less obstruction for the passage oit 2o sound waves 'from the piano. Each key 26 is preferably formed with a rehess or mouth 27 at its rear end to provide for the engage- Inent of a coupling device to give motion to the keys-whenever desired. `therwise each key is constructed and mounted' substantially as in an ordinary piano. Therefore a series 'of tongues 28, one for each key, is pivoted at 29 (Fig. 13) to therail 30 and the front end of each tongue enters the mouth 30 or recess'27 (Fig. l) cfa key, The rail 30 is hinged at 3l to a suitable .strip or bar that is carried by the pneumatic unit., and said rail is provided with an upwardl projecting arm 32 at one end, said arrn aving its 35 upper end engaged withthe under surface of a. cam spring 33 (Fig.y 14) consisting of an undulating piece of resilient inetal s ecured at its ends to the bracket 34. Said spring is formed with two depressed por- 49 ltions as best shown in F ig. 14 so that whenthe arin 32 is inone or the other of the depressed portions the rail 30 will be held backward suiiiciently to discharge all or the tongues 23vfro1n the keys, in which case the pneumatics will actuate the action independently of the keys, or, as vshown in F ig.
. l, in which the tongues 28 are in engagement with the keys, the niovernent of the pneunia'tics to actuate the hamzners will also actuate the keys. From this it willl be readily understood that (l) the keys may actuate the action irrespective ofl the pneumatics; (2) that by a disengagement of the "tongues 28, the action may be actuated by the pneumatics without affecting or operating the keys, and (3) the engagement of tongues 28 and the keys will cause the keys to be actuated bythe pneuinatics. ln other Words, the independent abstracts 38 and capstans 39- provide independent means, op,
erated respectively by the keys and the pneumatics, for actuating the action, the tongues '28 formi-ngconnecting means :tor the pneumatie ydevices and the keys when the auto- 55 mat-ic operation of the latter is desired. As
a means for swinging the rail 30 in the manner described, l preter to provide a clip 35 (Fig. l2) having spring-jaws adapted to engage an offset portion of the arm 32, said -clip 35 having a forwardly extending por- 70 will be hereinafter described Two sticker-operating devices comprising the latxstract 38` and capstan 39 are shown as adapted to engage the sticker 40 of the piano 85 action. Said sticker 40 has a widened foot as shown in Fig. l, said foot being engaged by both said abstract and .capstan The /capstan 39 is carried by a key 26 while the abstract 38 is' longer and extends down in 90 position: 'to engage the upper lever 55 of the pneumatlcs, as shown in Figs. l, 9 and 13.
As shown in Fig. ll each tongue 28 is slotted as at 42, the abstract 38 passing through said Aslot and providcdwith regulating buttons 4l above and below the tongue, where-- by the engagement is such between each tongue 28 and capstan 39 that when the parts are in the positions shown in Fig. l
.the keys, which otherwise would be motionless are made to move. When the key-bottorn, key-frame, keys, cover, key-blocks and lock-rail are all removed as` shown in Fig. l2, unlimited access is aorded to every part of' the piano and pneurnatic actions, and to -1015 the plate, strings, sound-board, pedals, andA treadle mechanism, and there will still remain a vconnection between. the pneumatics and the stickers 40 of the piano action so that the piano may be played during the inspection of parts notwithstanding this dissection.
ln Fig. 43 represents oneoi the supporting guides which supports one end of the key-bottoni 24, and the parts superposed thereon, screws 44 passing through the guides 43 into the said key-bottom and the end blocks thereof. When the screws 44 are removed, the key-bottom 24, key-frame 25 and the keys 26 and the cover of the key- 120 board, (all of these parts being represented in Fig'. 12,'as a unit,) may be readily drawn out from the piano-casing, the mouths or recesses 2'? of the keys readily leaving the tongues 28, and the clip 35 separating from) 125 the arm 32. At the same time the key-frame 4 draws away from its rear supporting guides fic (regis), f y
The pneuinatics are for convenience a.r-
ranged in two banks or horizontal rows, one x above the other, alternate keys being-operatively connected to adjacent pneumatics of the same bank, each pneumatic being of such size and proportion as to contain the proper volume of air necessary orthe desired action for the operation of the piano, in the manner hereinafter referred to. As best shown vin Fig. 9, the 'twobanks of pneumatics and-their appurtenances are alined by brackets-onefof which is shown in said figure at 455 Each of said brackets comprises upper and lower substantially horizontal port-ions and a vertical portion or web connecting them, the left hand edge of the bracket being open. construction are manifold, beingl not.. only to hold in proper alineinent all of the parts portions of 'each superpcsed thereon, dissection of the brackets, pneumatic levers 55 and their appurtenances from the pneumatic banks, by thevremoval of the screws 50. Each-bracket is formed with an opening to provide a handle 46 and is also provided with pendant ends or feet upon which to stand when removed from the piano casing, and with ianges 47 to which the u per and lower tube-boards '48 49 are secure .by
screws 50. As
the plane of the rear ends of the pneumatica 5l and also beyond theplane of the rear edges of the links 54. Therefore the brackets 45 and the two banks of pneumatics and the primaries, when removed from the piano as a unit, may be turned over sothat the portions of the brackets which connectl the upper and lower arms may reston the floor, Without .risk of damage to either the pneumatics or the saidlinks. The Vhandles 46 have their top-and front ed es soA formed as to constitute suitable gui es for the key frame when the latter is introduced to position, andl to support said frame when so placed. The rear edges of said tube-boards are also secured to the vertical portions of the brackets 45 by similar screws 50, and at dove-tailed ways or this oint act as guards to"protect the stickers rom injury by a slight non-alinement.
The two tube-boards 48, 49 aresubstaiitially identical and are formed with the tubes, ducts, or windways as herei'iiafterdescribed. Each pneumatic 51 of the two banks is detachably secured under its respective tubeboard 48 or' 49, as by ribs projecting iii-- wardly from' the primary shells 57 into grooves 92 formed iii the upper member4 of veach pneumatic. Similar to the ribs, projecting fromthe primary shells, as .before mentioned, and attached to the lower side of the tube-board, are also suitable extension guidesl for the better support of the of the pneumatics. As indicated in Fig. 9, the upper levers 55 extend over a rear portion of the upper tubeboard 48, which por- The objects of this but to aord .an easy A shown in Fig. 9 the vertical 1 bracket 45 'proj ect beyondv rear extended portion vtion is preferably provided with a felt cushioning strip asiat 550. This provides a rest or support for preserving the alinement of the upper levers 55 and owing totlie links 54, also preserves the alihement of the mov- -able portions of both banks or series of pneumatics when at rest, because the movable/members of the upper and lower pneumat-ics are connected to the said links by the toes 52. The reason for making each pneumatic relatively .long and narrow is to provide normal capacity/for power while reducing to the minimum the number of banks of pneumatics; and to this end all of the space available from the str-ings out, is utilized, reducing theiron plate also to nearly or .quite the same lane as that of the strings, providing, o course, for an equal strengthening of the plate in a lateral' direc-v tion. This 'arrangement also provides iinportant advantages in leverage-power in addition to pneumatic-power already alluded to, which will be hereinafter more fully described. The movable member of each pneumatic is provided withl a toe or projection 52, adapted to enter a hole 53 formed iii a Y sticker or lifter link 54, so that when the pneumatic is removed Afrom its guides the toe is drawn away and lis disengaged from I the lifter link, the toe being /free to be withdrawn by such removal of the pneumatic.
By this construction, in yaddition to dispensl ing with any necessity for manipulating a connection between the toe and lifter, .there is a mutual co-action between the toe and lifter to prevent any appreciable relative lateral movement of the pneumatic and lifter, the toe thereby forming a guide for the lifter 54. The link 54 has its upper and .lower ends pivotally lconnected with the outer ends of upper and lower levers 55 pivoted at 56 to suitable fixed points of the ios frame of the pneumatic unit.4 All of the links 54 v are arranged vertically in lalineinent, or in other words side by side, and the levers 55 of each row a-re arranged in parallelism, the pivots of each pair of the levers 55bein one above the other and substantially a ined with 'the ends otheir respective pneumatics. The levers 55 are substantially of the saine lengthas the movable members of the pneumatics and the pivot points at one end thereof are in substantial vertical alinement' with the pivot of the keys, therefore reducing to a minimum all Vfriction ofthe moving parts, also affordingabsolute uniformity of movement, and further permitting the upper levers 55 t0 engage with the litters or abstracts 38 at points remote from the free ends of the levers, thereby increasing the leverage of the movable members of the. pneuma-tics.
The summary of the preceding description I Vattaches importance to the location and proportion otthe pneumatics, viz, 'an unusual llo extension toward the strings for the promotion of leverage; a contra extension to locate their pivotal points under the key fulcrum; a forward and backward extension '5 combined with properl wi th to produce .with ducts or windways a and es, connected by curved tubes a2, as shown in Fig. 8. ln Figs. 9 and l0 the tubes aare emitted from most of theducts a3 forthe sake of `clearness of illustration, but it will be understood that, in practice, tubes a2 connect all of the ducts a3 anda". Theducts a extend under the vacuum chamber` and of course there will be one of such ducts for each piano key. In each tube-board there will '25 be one half as 'many ducts a as there are communicating'with such duct a through a keys, the other half of the ducts being in the .othertube-board. Secured against the front edge of each tube-board is a series ciprilnary shells 57, one for each duct a and port or passage'a. The port e is formed in the lower part of the shell 57 and removable s therewith, the material surrounding the termin-al of the port being Hat to receive the 2.35 lower member of the primary. The flat face surrounding the terminal of the port may be termed a conduit-block. Each, shell 57 also has a chamber for thepriinary orV bellows 58 the interior of which communicates the port e. The upper or movable member Vl5() interior 'c2 of a pneumatic 51.
ofeach primary 58 is formed with a pinhole 59, and is provided with a stein 60 having a Valve 6l the upper tace of which is adapted to close openings-62 in the upper "45 wall of the primary shell, and the lower' portion of said valve being adapted to control an opening c leading to port or pas Asage-way c formed in the shell 57.
port or passage-Way c connectsA with the As will `be readily understood, all of the operating parts comprised inthe primary and the valves operated thereby are carried by the primary shelland removable therewith as a -B nitary structure. And as the several coinpartments containing these operating parts Aare open on one side when the shell is removed, an inspection of this mechanism, as an entirety, is readily obtained without the .60 necessity of disturbing the position of any of the parts 'carried by said shell. These letters lof reference will be used hereinafter to lescribe the course of the air, but it may be stated here that the openings 62 com- H`evnfiunicate with the atmosphere so that when Said lthe parts are in ne position shown in llig. 9 vthe pn matic 5l will beopen to the atniosphere and consequent-ry expanded shown. its has been stated, the air in the chamberv b is under tension and therefore, whenever air is admitted to one of the primaries 58 through the port a andthe ducts e', e2, a3, due to the passage of the perizoration of the record sheet, the pressure of the air so admitted to the primary 58 will cause the valve 6l to lift to the position shown in Fi l0 becausethe sinallhole 5 9 is not large enough to' permit the air to pass through the primary 58 without actuating its movable member and valve stein and valve. As such movement of the valve opens the passage c, the air in the space c2 of the pneumatic 5l is immediately exhausted intothe chamber b, resulting in the actuation of the sticker 5 and, through the upper lever 55, the abstract 3S and the particular string ,of
'the piano designed to be sounded. As soon the record sheet has passed so that no further air can be drawn through the ducts a', a2, a?, the pressure of the atmosphere through the openings 62 causes the valve to fall from the position shown in Fig. l0 to that shown in Fig. 9, the air that is in the primary 58 now escaping through the pinhole Air under atmospheric pressure then immediately passes through the passageway c into the space c2 of the pneumat-ic and causes the pneumatic and the stickers to return to the position indicated 1n Fig. 9.
.\ As has been described, the banks of pneumatics represented in Figs. 9 and l0, and
the several brackets lo which comprise the alining. trame of said banks, are removable from the casing. rlhe line of separation of the tube-boards, so to permit such rcnioval of the banks, indicated at G3 in i3 and 7. As shown in said figures pon tions of the tube board in which the air ducts or windways are formed overlap. That is, at each end ot' the removed unit, portions ot the action extend over and rest upon brackets or ieinbers within the casing in which continuations of the air ducts or windways are :terrifiedn The horizontal portion of the lifted bracket is represented at 6e' and the upright portion at 65. While Fig. 2 shows these brackets only at the left, it vis to .be understood that a similar structure exists `at the right, and hereinatter they will he referred to as air trunk brackets to distinguish them from the metal brackets which aline the tube boards. l
shall now describe the connections and means whereby the air is kept under tension or partial vacuum in the chamber Z2. f
The .upper and lower chambers Z) connect with a vertical flue .79 (Fig. 6) communicating with a :due or passage Z22 termed in the horizontal portion et the trunk above the iis ducts a* (Fig. 7). Said passage b2 com1nu' nicates with a chamber b3 and through an opening 1n the trunk, with passages b4, b
and 220 (Fig. l). It is to be understood of catedv within the bellows 68 controls the amount of tension or vacuum obtained in the reservoir, the bellows of the reservoir 68 beirig provided with an opening covered by the spring held flap 7l of an ordinary type,
' and the atwo pumping bellows 69 being formed with openings covered by springheld flaps 72 also of Aan ordinary form. As shown in-Figs. l, 3, 4 and 5, the bellows 68 and 69 are attached to and carried by the back-frame 73 which back-frame is removably held in place by any suitable means. When in the position shown, the air passage bl in the back-frame 73 communicates at its .ends with the air passage bs (Fig. 5).4 The special novelty of this part of theinvention comprises the removable back lcarrying a bellows device and acting as legs or a supportI for the same whether in or out of the piano, and the said back being channeled to form a concealed conduit for the bellows, `and the peculiar arrangement ofthe valves communicating with said bellows and channel. Owing to the fact that. the removable backframe 73 extends below the extreme lower portion of the bellows attached to said backframe, the lower portion of said frame acts as legs to support the bellows fin free working position when'in thel piano, and will also act as legs to support the bellows free from the ioor'when the back is removed and.
stood up against the wall ofthe room or elsewhere. y
I shall now describe the means for operating the pumping bellows and the construe tion whereby the Ltreadle-1nechanism may be folded within the casing of the-piano as indicated by dotted lines in Ihg. 1 :-The
lower part of the front ofthe piano casing is formed with an opening 7 el which opening may be lclosed by suitable doors or panels 7 5. The side membersv76 of the folding frame are pivoted to vbrackets 77 secuiedinside of the base of the frame, said side members/'76 passing through suitable openings in the deors'or panels 75. Thefouter ends of the sidemembe'rs F6 are formed with feet 78 adapted to rest upon theifloor, and lare connected by a crossbar Each pumping bel-l lows is actuated by an elbow lever the lower arm of which is indicated at 80, passing through suitable openings in the plate'20 and sounding-board 22. Said lower arm 80 chiens of the frame of the pia-no, and the upper arm 82 of each elbow lever is so formed at I83 as to engage a catch 84i carried by the upper edge of the movable member of the bellows 69. E30-82 will actuate the pumping bellows '69 in a manner that will be readily understood, to exhaust air from the passage 67 and reservoir bellows 68. The outer end of each 4is pivoted at 8l (Figs. 1 and 5,) to stan- 70 Oscillation of the elbow'lever 75 lever arm 80 is formed with an upturned ear 80 '85, and the outer members 86 which com' prise the folding portions' of the levers are pivoted at 87 to the arms 80, extending up and over the ears 85 and through the openings in the door or panel 7 5. The outer end 35 of each member 86 is pivotally connected to a fcot-treadle 88 by means of a link 89. -The two treadles are pivoted upon the crossbal 79 of the folding frame. By referring panA ticularly to Fig. l it will be readily under- 9 0 i stood that the folding frame, the treadles, and the outer member or extension 86 of the elbow lever may all be folded to the position indicated by dotted lines, the doors or panslid back, or removed for the urpose. The pivots 87 are in alinement with thepivots '77 when vthe parts are in'the posit-ion shown by full lines in Fig. .1,- and therefore the members 76 and 86 will readily fold up to- 100 gether, carrying the t-readles with them. But when the feet 78 rest upon t-he floor, a. firm foundation is afforded for the pivoted lends of the tre'adles and when pressure isl vexerted uponsaid treadles the links 89 bear1105 the outer members 86 of the folding lever arms downward'. The upturned ears 85 of the, arms 80 prevent the members 86 from turning on the pivots 87 when pressed downelbow lever, on the pivot 81, thereby expand- A ing the bellows 69.. To return the lever and bellows, I may employ a coil spring 91 connecting said lever with a suitable xed such as the scale platel of the piano. `The air conduits or windways will now"l be described and direction of the movement of air -pressure therein z-The ,operation of the bellows and to exhaust the air into the chamber b9 thereof from the chamber b8 of the reservoir bellows 68. At the same time theV vair is exhausted, or put under tension, to
the same degree throughout the conduits o 12E passagesbT, bs, (Figs. 3 and 4) b5, b4, (Fig. 1) b3, b2, (Fig. 7) 5 and b (Figs. 6, '8, 9 and 10). Whenever an opening or perforation in the record sheet 66 crosses an openels 76 being temporarily swung outward or g5' ward, 'and therefore each jointed arm 80 and .110' 86 moves downward as a rigid portion of the part 115 ytreadles results inV actuating the two pumping .120
.ing aG in the tracker-board 90, there ie an .1,30v
. by. stating that this shifting of the valve in-I immediate tendency of air to pass through the ducts or windways a (Figs. 1, 2 and?) and a, a3, a2, a (Fig. v10) and a., due to the suction `or exhaust in the chamber That vis, 'since there is tension in chamber as soon as atmospheric air is admitted through ther duct a, by means of the record* and tracker-board as described, the primary 58 expands and shifts the valve 61 from ,the
position shown in Fig. 9 to the position? shown in Fig. 4l0. The resulting action. has v been referred to, but will beexplained again stantly Vopens communicationtrom the air tension of the chamber A to the selected 'pneumatic 51- through the opening c and the port c leadingi to the space c2 in said pneumatic. .The toe 52 of such pneumatic lifts ,its particular link or sticker 54 and causes the upper lever 55 to 'actuate the abst-ract 38 and the particular pianoaction sticker 40. lThe perforation orhole of the record having passed the opening ink the tracker-board, atmospheric pressure is cut ott' from the conduits a, e, a2, etc., and the tensionA in the chamber o aided by atmospheric .pressure upon the top of valve 61 when in the position shown in Fig. l0, causes the valve to descend to the position shown in F ig. 9, suilicient air escaping from the primary 58 through the small opening 59 to permit ot' the collapse of the said primary. The opening 0 being then closed, no further action of the particular primary and pneumatic occurs until another perforation of the record passes the particular opening in the'tracker-bdard. And the valve 61 l .being in lower position, atmospheric air enters through the openings 62 to the port o and the space c2 in the pneumatic 51 that has been actuated, so as to instantly return the link or sticker 54 and permit the abstract 38 to drop.
Whenit is desired to obtain access tothe. pneumatic action, the screws 44 (Fig. 1) are removed, and the key-bottom 24 with the parts supported thereon as shown in lli'g. 12,
are removed bodily from the piano-case. Then, through the opening thus provided by the so-called lower panel of the case, or through any other suitable opening that may be made in the casing, the. frames may be grasped by the handles 46, and said frames and the banks of pneumatics carried thereby may be lifted out of the casing. Whenever it is desired to obtain access to the piano-action, it is done ,in the ordinary way. A preferred way of removal is by first removingthe usual. detachable parts o the case, as in the work of tuning and regulating the instrument, when the action also iqremoved, lafter which the parts of the attachment vmay be more readily removed.
I "After this last step, the key-bottom 24 and the parts supported thereby may be returned 'receive keys incassi to position, vand the piano may be played by its iinger-keys'in the usual manner, the capstans 39 serving tov engage the stickers 240 of the--piano-action. (lr-it 'the parts shown in Fig. 12 are removed and the parts shown in llig.' 13 left' in thecasing, 'the result iswthat l have provided' a pneumatim piano without keys, but fully adapted to And as has been described, the back-:trame 7 and thebellows carried thereby may be removedfor the purpose of inspection or repair, or to give access to the 'sounding-board.
It is to be understood that the bellows and treadle mechanism may be entirely dis'- pensed with, inwhich case the duct or ducts (Figs. 1 and 5) may be connected with any suitable source of air under tension.
m e 4/ l he construction of the primary# ell 1s such as to admit of its being removel from the so-called chamber l), without disturbing any of its interior adjustments, and so disl closing its true condition, whether correct or faulty, whenever necessary. tage is, ofcourse, duequ'ite materially to the -fact that the primary shells are, as shown in Figs. 9, 10, 16 and 18, seamless, or with' all the Walls and partitions integral, but still capable of having other parts placed. therein or removed therefrom. rlhe shell.
maybe a light metal cast-ing, or of" vulcanizl able material, the Aessential features' being that it is air tightk when in position in the instrument, and shall be capable of permitvting its contained parts to be removed for examination without dis-associating said This advan.-
parts, and it also prevents any possibility of leakage of air due to shrinkage and swelling or faulty construction liable to exist when made of separate pieces of 'wood glued or .otherwise secured together.
.ing pneumatic, as shown in Figs. 9 and l0,
or may be slid oli? from the ways 92. Each primary shell 57 is secured in operative per sition, to the front of its tube-board, by screws 94', said screws extending into `the tube-board, and holding the shell suiciently closely.` to rthe board to make the passages between the shell and tube-board air-tight.
If desired, however, suitable packing may be employed at the joint. Owing to this construction, the primary shell may be re'- moved for inspection or repair, independently of its pneumatic, or the pneumatic stem is made hollow, and receives a pendanty drawal or re-insertion to permit of its ready passage to and from its normal position.
' As clearly shown in Figs. 9 and 10, the air- -port c' of the primary shell connects with.
the interior'spacer:2 of vthe pneumatic at a point very close to the hinge point ofthe. latter. Therefore, the air in its course to or from the pneumatic '51 takes 'a direct course instead of an angu would result from forming the connection at a point near the middle of the pneumatic.
In other words,` the location of the ypoint'` where the air passes from Aone member to the l other, close to the hinge point. of the pneumatic, avoids the vpresence of any considerable body of air near vthehinge point,;which Would'have to take a course'to the portv c"- in a direct-ion opposite 4to the air whichis in t fixed within the casing-of the piano and constitute brackets which support the upper ycrc-ss portion -96 which, in turn, supports the the body of the pneumatic. l Referring to Figs. l to.9, and`.13,itwill be noticed -that the handles 46ppresentian inclined surface at 95 which'serves as a` guide to facilitate the introduction of the unit shown in Fig. A12; that is,when thekeyframe 25A and the parts connected therewith' are introduced into the. piano-casing, the inner end -of the frame 25 will, if insufflciently raised, contact `withthe inclined surface 95 of the handle 46, so as to Ithereby guide the inner edge of thekey-frame tothe proper plane and further inwardmove ment of said unit results in theinnerrpon tion of the key-frame being supported' u on s the horizontal upper surface of the hanl es 46; `which are, in turn, supported bythe tube-boards 48, 49. i 1
As shown in Figs. 9.andj10, the-valve 61 is pitted at its top and bottom, and cut away around its sides, to dispense with unneces' sary weight and material for agility of motion and greater freedom of air circulation,
A stempassing through the valve and :secured t, the movable member ofthe pri'- wear, etc. `The upper end' or head of .said
stem, which acts as a perpendicularguide for the' more accurate seating of the val.
The air trunk brackets 65 are rigidly yet.,
lar one, such as v pi for the promotion of sharper 1 and more g rapid repetitions of movements of the parts..-
suitable means, and constitute a second set of brackets on which the cross-piece 9G rests, as indicated in Fig. 2. To said crosspiece, thei frame of the tracker-board `90 and mechanism which carries the record, is secured as by brackets 97. The air-tubes which connect the openings a in the tracker-board with the tubes a5, are shown as also supported by the cross-piece 96. Obviously, however, the air-ducts might be :formed n said cross-piece, .or the crosspiece made thick enough to include the said air-ducts. The cross-piece 96 and the air-l ducts and tracker-board and the record mechanism supported thereby, rests at its ends upon the tops of the vertical portions 65 of the air trunk brackets, which as before stated,l practically constitute a second setof brackets-fsb .far as concerns the function of supporting the -removable cross-piece and `record mechanism. It also supports the detachably. secured to the instrument by any I banksV of pneumatics, as has already been' described. Y
Byv comparing Figs. 1, 2, ,6, 7, 8, 9 and l0, it will be seen thatthere i's provided a frame `ilvbich surrounds the piano action and carriesbthe various tubes` or conduits for airf The side port-ions ofthis framecomprlse the verticaluparts 65 which, as described, are
tracker board4 as described. The lower end Y lsurrounding the .piano action as ,above described. i
As will bejreadily understood, since the key-bottom 24 is removably supported .on 7
the guides '43 the latter afford supports or bearings, whichare'independent of the pianoaction supportsfnoportion ofthe said action being.. supportedv b v the key-bottomg r Also thefsup'po'rts fon the pneumatic -action are entirely Vsep s iraatej and independent trom the key-bo actie The 1 upportls'although. the pneumatic and tions vare inf operative conjunction.
l'cQnstITMCtDn of the metal scale- ,plate-2d eta piano is to form it with -ribs or iinsyfoipstrehgthening purposes which ribs or. fins pi'nfect'solely at a right angle'lto the plane-of theplate itself.` ln order to indicated inFig. l, to receive ther-unit represented in Fig." A13 with 'the ttoxngsupfperts and from the piano'-` pneumatics suiiicientlylongfand narrowM t enabletheintobe groupedin two banks and" still :give them normal ain-capacity, I provide theI strengthening rib or fin. parallelvwith the plane of the plate itself, asf indicated at 98 in Fig Usually, the has been provide-o. with laneof the late to a distance or height mounted rin the space substantially equal to the width of the rib 98; but by forming the plate with said strengthening ribor rin in the sameplane as the plate 20 instead of at a right angle there`- to, sufficient space is ai'orded for the location ot the bank of pneumatics as described and shown. lt is also be pointed out that the' distance ot the aiipassage is of unusual shortness trom the chamber b to the pneul matic 5l, and also or unusual capacity, being as 1t were, a simple transmission of the vacuum tension around the frontal edge ot the tube-board, directly into the pneumatic, and ot' nearly equal width with the pneumaticA beneath it, and has a direct vertical chute-like passage oi? normal atmosphere rom the `opening 52 to the pneumatic. These features are more instantaneous and powerful action of the movable parts. Another feature o' improvement is found in the walls of the primary, which are'J absolutely rigid except on the lines around the edges and center, which are Flexible joints or itolds, with their angles bent inward, that is, toward the central portion ot' its cavity, the resulting effect of' which is to augment their lifting power againstthe valve 6l, as by a toggle joint ac- "tion, when pressure within the primary is against the inner sides otv exerted lateraly said walls.
lt will be noted that the removable back forms a support for the bellows when removed from the piano and stood on the floor, which support will hold the bellows at a convenient height 'for inspection, or for condition of said bellows. 1 v
l am .aware that the key operating pneumatics of instruments of this character' have been controlled by means of valves and diaphragms or small pneuniatics located. in sec- .tional wood casings or shells, and also in sectional'met-allic shells. So tar as ll am aware, however, l am the irstto providz structure in which the entire primary shell is seamless, instead of being made up of several seamless pieces," the advantages of which have been hereinbet'ore described.
Having now described my Ainveifition claim 1.; ,in a 'musical instrument, a key-bottom out away at the rear, and a set or pneumatics adorded by said rel duction of the key-bottom- 2. ln a self-'playing piano, thecombination with ngenkeys having ,capstanav ot piano-action -stickers having widened feet, pneumatic playing devices, abstracts actuated by said pneumatic playing devices and designed to promote both. engaging the widened feet of said stickers, means being provided for operl ativel-7 connecting the pneumatically-actuated abstracts and the keys when the automatic operation of 'the keys is desired.
3. ln a self-playing piano, ther combination with a removable unit including keys having recessed rear ends,of asecond remos/ able unit comprising a set of pneumatics, abstracts adapted to-be actuated by said pneumatics, and tongues engaged with said Labstracts and adaptedv to engage the recesses of the keys. y
4f. lna self-.playing piano, the combination with a removable unit including keys having recessed rear ends, otra second removable unit comprising a set of pneumatics, abstracts adapted to be actuatedby said pneumatics, tongues engagedwth said abstracts and adapted to engage the recesses,
of the keys, and means for withdrawing the tongues from engagement with the keys while still in-operativeconnection with the said abstracts. I 5. In a self-playing piano, the combination with finger-keys having recessed rear ends, oit pivotally mounted tongues .entering recesses of the keys, said tongues being provided i with slots, abstracts passing through said slots and having buttons above and below the tongues, and a set of pneumatics and' means whereby said pneumatics may actuate said abstracts.
6. ln a self-playing piano, the combination with the piano action, of a frame provided with ducts and surrounding the piano action, a tracker board, and primaries cooperating witli the tracker-board and with the ducts. f 'v v 7. ln a self-playing piano, the combination with the piano action, of a frame pro-v vided with ducts and surrounding the piano act-ion, and a tracker-board, and primaries cooperating with the tracker-board and with the ducts, a portion of said frame being adapted to support the rear portion of the key frame.
8. ln "av musical instrument, the combina- 4tion with a plurality of banks of pneumatics, of a plurality of brackets secured to said banks and holding them in alinement as a unit.v af" 9. ln a musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of banks of pneumatics, of a plurality of brackets secured to .said banks-and holding them in alinement as a unit, said brackets having handles for lifting or transporting such unit.
l0. ln a musical instrument, the combina- Ation with a plurality of banks ofpneumatics, of a plurality of brackets secured to said banks and holding said banks as a unit with their pneumatics in alinement, said brackets having handles for lifting or ilo transporting such unit, thel said brackets haiilglig also .base portions adapted to' re'st on.
e oor when the unit isremoved.-
11. In a musical instrument, "thel combinawith their pneumatics in alinement, said brackets having portions projecting beyondthe yplane 4of the rea'r endso the for the purpose described.
12. In ,a muslca'linstrument, thecombinapneumatics,
tion with upper and lower` banks of pneumatics, of abstracts levers for actuating said abstracts, connections between said' levers andthe movable members of bothvbanks of pneumatics, and al rest or support for preserving the alinement .ofthe said levers and the movable members .of both banks of pneu-vv matics when said leversfand members are at rest.
.1 3. A musical instrument vcomprising ,in its construct-ion a set of'pneumatics, levers pivotally" supported above and below and substantially in vertical alinementwith the hinged points of the movable members of the pneumatics, links connecting the free ends of the levers, connections between the pneumatics and links for actuating 'the lat ter, and connections between the upper levers and the action of said instrument.
14. A musical instrumentcomprising in its construction a set of pneumatics, said pneumatics being long and, narrow, levers pivotally supported above and. below and substantially in' vertical alinement with the hinged points of the movable members ot the pneumatics, links connecting the 'free ends of the levers, connections between the pneumaticsand links for actuating the latter, and connections between the upper levers and the action of said instrument.
15. In a musical instrument, the combination with the action .thereof and abstracts for actuating the same, of a set of pneumatics, upper and lower levers pivoted in vertical alinement with the pivotal point of the movable members ofthe pneumatics, links connecting the free ends of said levers, said links having holes, and projections from the pneumatics detachably entering saidholes of the links.
16. In a pneumatic instrument, the combination with removable pneumatics, of lifters operatively connected therewith,' piv otally mounted levers pivotally connected with said litters, and an abstract tor each lifter, each abstract being 1n operativeecon- Vtact withritsievermat a point remote from the ends of the' lever. 1 1
17. In a mechanical musical instrument, a windway, pneumatics slidably. connected with said windway, and connections between the pneumatics and the action devices of the instrument, each pneumatic being adapted ducts leading from the traeker -board 2l. In a musical instrument, the c dnbination with brackets supported withinthe in-4 to slide into registration with its. coperatving parts when placed in position.
18. In a musical iustrun''ent, brackets within the instrument and removable therefrom, and a- ,set lof pneumat-ics removably7 supported. on said brackets by a 'slidable connection, 4said brackets fand pneumatics Qbeing removable from theinstrument as a unitary structure. A
19. In a musical instrument, the combina tion with fixed conduit sections within the instrument, of primaries,l pneumatics, and air-conduit sections leading to the primaries and pneumatics, the said primaries and pneumatics and .their air conduit sections 'removably resting on the 'fixed conduit sections with the conduits 'of the sections regis- 4 20. In a musical instrument, the combination with brackets supported within the in strument and having conduits or duets, of a A tra cker-board and a support for said"`tracker-v board removably supported by said'brac-kets,
the ducts of the bracket registering with' st-rument and having lair ducts, of. 'a cross *andl carrying air-ducts, and a tracker-board and trackerfoperating mechanism 'supported by said cross piece.
,piece removably 'supported by said brackets 22. In a musical instrument, the combina- ,tion'with a sticker or lifter having a recess,
of a pneumatic having a toe entering said recess to actuate the sticker, sa-id-'toe'ib'ei-ng free to be withdrawn romsald recess upon position.
.removal of the pneumaticl from its normal plate provided with an integral strengthening fin in a plane parallel with the plane of 4theplate, and pneumatics mounted in 'front of the yplate and close to the outer face of said iin.
24. A self-playing piano having its scaleplate provided with a widened laterally eX- i' tending strengthening iin, and banks 'of pneumatics mounted in front of the plate, I
and close' to the outer face of said iin..
vprimary and having an opening leading-to and communicating with the air-port of the .115 25. In a musical instrument, the combinael pneumatic, said shell forming a portion ofv the support for the pneumatic and remove able independently thereof.
. 26. In a musical instrument, the combina# tion with a suitable support, `oi a detachable.
primary shell and adetachable pneumatic, a l
port leading throughsaid priniary shell from the pneumatic to the support,"` said shell and pneumaticfbeing detachable inde lpendently of'each other.
235% In'f'ian automatic musical instrument, apartitioned casing or sghell, avalve and a valve-operating pneumatic located in cham- .pendicular duct, said compartments being Windway, of a metal primary shell having, compartments for the pneumatically oper@ ated valve `mechanism .and detachably secured to said support and having-a peropen at one side to expose said valve mechanism when the shell is removed, and! a pneumatic slida-bly connected with the support and communicating with said duct.
29. A shell for the 'control' valve of the power pneumaticof a' musical instrument,
said shell having an end Wall and top, bottom-and' side Walls, all of which are seamless, the other end being open to register With a vacuum passage or chamber of the instrument, said shell also having means for 5 holding a pneumatic and a valve in proper relative positions.
30. A shell for the :control valve of the power pneumatic of a musical instrument, said shell'having an end Wall and top, bot- Copies of this patent magy be obtained for tom 'and' sidewalls, all of Which are seamless, the other end being open to 'register with a vacuum passage or chamber of the instrument, said shell having a partitionto form a 'valve chamber.V
31. A shell for the control "valve of the power pneumatic-.ef/a"musical instrument,
'said shell-having an end Wall and top, bot- /tom and side Walls, all of Which are seamless,
the other end being open. to register with a vacuum passage orchambcr of the instrument, said shell having an angular partition to form a valve chamber and a passage adapted to register with a pneumatic..
432. The combination with a shell for the control valve of the power-pneumatic of a vmusical instrument, said shell having, an p end Wall and top, bot-tom and side Walls, all
of which are seamless, the other end being open to register With a vacuum vpassage or chamber of the instrument, said shell having a partition provided with a port, of a valve for said port, said valve being located one side of said artition, and a pneumatic the other side ofp said partition to actuate said valve.
In testimony whereof I have attixedmy signature, in p-resence of tWo Witnesses.
ve cents each, by addressing the Commissiimer d'1 Patents, Washington, D. C,
US27749005A 1905-09-08 1905-09-08 Pneumatic attachment for pianos. Expired - Lifetime US1059324A (en)

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US319259A US967866A (en) 1905-09-08 1906-05-29 Key-bottom.

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