US1011683A - Safety alighting attachment for flying-machines. - Google Patents

Safety alighting attachment for flying-machines. Download PDF

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US1011683A
US1011683A US58750210A US1910587502A US1011683A US 1011683 A US1011683 A US 1011683A US 58750210 A US58750210 A US 58750210A US 1910587502 A US1910587502 A US 1910587502A US 1011683 A US1011683 A US 1011683A
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parachute
anchor
machine
members
air
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US58750210A
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Jean Francis Webb
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Jean Francis Webb
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D17/00Parachutes
    • B64D17/80Parachutes in association with aircraft, e.g. for braking thereof

Description

J. F. WEBB. SAFETY ALIGHTING ATTACHMENT EUR FLYING MACHINES.
APPLICATION FILED IOGT. 17, 1910.
3 `Patented Dec. 12, 1911.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
J. P. WEBB. SAFETY ALIGHTING ATTACHMENT FOR FLYING MACHINES.
Patented Dec. 12, 1911.
wip.
APPLICATION FILED 00T. 17, 1910.
@wh/noses M J. F. WEBB. SAFETY ALIGHTING ATTACHMENT FOR FLYING MACHINES.
APPLIOATION'PILED 00T. 17,- 1910.
' Patented Dec. 12, 1911.
5 SHEETS-SHEET s.
Y J1/wanton Jem-w17 W63 Z.
ormai.; 5f
, J. F. WEBB. SAFETY ALIGHTING ATTAOHMENTPOR FLYING.l MAGHINES.
. APPLICATION FILED OUT. 17, 1910. 1 ,01 1 D Patented Dec. 12, 1911.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
Sw ww J. P. WEBB. SAFETY ALIGHTING ATTACHMENT FOR FLYING MACHINES. APPLICATION FILED 00T.17, 1910.
1,011,683. l PatentedfDec. 12,1911.
vi Imanes Jaa/ful' 77922.
UNITED STATES PATENT oEEIoE.
JEAN FRANCIS WEBB,
OF NEW YORK, Y.
SAFETY ALIG'HTING ATTACHMENT FOR FLYING-MACHINES.
Specication of Letters Patent. "Patented Dec. 12, 1911. Application filed October 17, 1910. Serial No. 587,502. v
To all whom 'it may concern: A `Be it known that I, JEAN FRANCIS WEBB, residing at NewYork, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented a new and Improved Safety Alighting Attachment for Flying- Machines, of which the following is aspecification.
In the artof aerial navigation as at present practiced, there have come into use essentially two vdistinct typesof machines, the
lighter than air type and the heavier` thanl air type. It is to the lat-ter type that the present invention more particularly has reference. The heavier than air machines usually include one or more supporting planes mounted on a keel frame or chassis, an elevation rudder, av direction rudder, stabilizing devices and a propelling mechanism whereby the machine 1s driven forward with a velocity that is suilicient to cause the force of the. air against the under side of the sustaining planes, to sustain the machine in the air. Should thel speed ofthe machine fall below a predetermined amount, (other things being equal) the force of the aircurrent will not sulice to overcome the action of gravity and the machine will fall to the earth.
v My invention therefore has for its object to provide a means which may ,be brought into action by t-he aviator'at will and .which is particularly designed to be brought into action when the machine becomes disabled, or when, for any reason, the machine begins to drop toward the earth and becomes un- 'manageable To this end I provide one or Vmore parachute members which ordinarily are folded up and held on top of the machine in a compact space, the parachute members being guyed to the machine. An air anchor is also provided whose function it is to drag the arachute or parachute members into positlon to permit the air to enter beneath the same and open them up to sustain the machine suiicient-ly to break its fall, thereby ermitting the machineto descend at a sa e speed.
My invention also includes a housing for the parachute members and anchor whereby the same may be compactly held when not in use. /f
The invention further includes an' ejector `for delivering the anchor and parachute out of the housing,'means being also provided for instantly opening the anchor to cause it to A hold as. soon as it leaves the housing.
' hinges.
. A further object of this invention is toA provide air ships ofany form with a light but very powerful sustaining parachute device thatin time of danger from the stopping of the motor, or from any disabling cause, can be instantly thrown into the air by the aviator, where it automatically opens up and expands its sections, and yet is so light andv compact that when nested and packed into a suitable carrying case it offers little or no air resistance in ordinary flight.
Those novel det-ails of construction, combination and arrangement ofparts hereinafter described and claimed-also constitute a part of my invention.
In the drawings: Figure 1,is a perspective view showing my invention in use. Fig. 2, is an enlarged side elevation 'of the parachute' sections showing the manner of attachingthem to the flying machine- Fig. 3, is a side elevation. of the air anchor in use. (Figs. 2 and 3 may be read as one figure by l joinlng the lines A--B). Fig. 4, is an enlarged central section of thev air anchor frame, thesame bein' shown o'pen in full lines and partly close 3 in dotted lines. Fig.
5, is a 'view of the parts shown in Fig. 4
9, is a central vertical longitudinal section of the carrying case showing the anchor and parachute members folded up into the same. Fig. 10, is a t-op plan view of the case open. Fig.V 1 1, is an end View of the case positioned as shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 12, is an end view of the case positionedv as shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 13, is an enlarged detail sectional view of the'case locking mechanism. Fig. 14, is a detail perspective view of one of the lid Fig. y15, is an Iend elevation of a modified form of the invention in use'. Fig.v 16, is an enlarged sectional view ofthe form" shown in Fig. 15 when the parts are packed into their case. Fig. 17, is a diagrammatic end elevation of a modification ofthe form shown in Figs. 15 and 16.
Referring now to the accompanying draw ings, inwhich like letters andnum'eralsof reference indicate like parts' in all yof vthe figures', 1 designates the flying' machine which may'be ofany type," (.a--machinebfv the well-known Wright type being" illus-y trated inthe drawings). The Sustaining planes 22 of the machine are held on the keel frame or chassis 3, an altitude rudder 4 and a direction rudder 5 being provided together with the propelling mechanism 6, all of which may be of the usual type.
7 designates the parachute members, one or more of which may be used, depending upon the weight of the machine to be sustained. Each parachute member 7 is colnposed of an in verted cup-like body 8 of silk or other suitable material, over which the strengthening cords or mesh 9 are secured. The cords 9 are connected at 10 with the main supporting cable 11 and radiate outwardly to the rim cord 12 of the respective sections. 'lhe lower end of the cable 11 has a ring 13 to which the ends of piano wire slings 14 are secured. The wires 14 passing down and around lthe machine, as at 15 to sustain the machine on an even keel; the wires 14 each may be made to pass through the tubing of the keel frame, if desired. The rim cord 12 of the lower parachute 7 is connected by suitable cords 16 with the framework of the machine 1, and by cords 17 it is also joined to the wires 14. When a series of parachute members 7 are employed the upper ones are joined to the lower ones by cords 18 that connect the several rim cords 12, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings. The cable 11 continues above the parachute sections 7 a suitable distance and is joined at its upper end to what I term an air anchor the purpose of which will more fully appear later. The air anchor which forms an important part of my invention is best shown in Figs. 1 and 3 to 8 inclusive of the drawings, by reference to which it will be noticed that a central rod 19 has a rin 20 at its lower end for the cable 11, and 1s provided with a cup-like casing 21 near its lower end into which .a coil spring 22 on the rod 19 projects. 23 designates a collar that is mounted on the rod 19 between which and thesprin casing 21 the spring 22 is held, a stop 24 eing provided on the rod 19`to limit the upward movement of the collar 23 under the influence of the spring 22. At the upper end the rod 19 has a fixture 34 having bearings 35 -in which the rib sockets 36 are hinged as at 38, stops 37 limiting the opening movement of -the ribs 31'. The ribs' 31 are made of ash, or other suitable material. that will be light, strong and flexible, and they are fitted into and secured to the sockets 36. At their outer ends the ribs 31 have socket members 29 over the buttons 30 of which the cover-- ing 42 is fastened. Hinged to the' collar 23 at 26 are brace members 25 each of which is composed of two sections that are hinged together at 27, one section being hinged at 26 to the collar ,23 and :the other section being hinged at 28 to the socket. 29. Each rib 31 has a stop shoulder member 32 in the recess 33 of which the hinge joint 27 of the respective brace is adapted to lie when the parts are folded up, as shown in Fig. In order to open the ribs 31 fully, coil springs 41 are mounted in slots 40 of a ring` 39 that is fastened to the rod 19 near the top end of the same, one end of which spring 41 being held against the rod 19, while its other end engages a rib 31 to, continuously tend to open up 7 the frame. The anchor frame thus formed is'covered by a suitable cover 42 which is sewn to the ribs 31 and has a central opening over which the mouth of a balloon bag 43 may be secured, a suitable cord mesh being fitted over the whole to strengthen the anchor. In practice either the spring 41 or the spring 22 may be omitted, or both may be used, if desired, so long as a quick initial opening of the anchor is obtained.
1n practice under normal conditions the parachute members 7 and the anchor 45 are compactly folded away in a suitable carry-k ing case 46 on top of the machine. rl.`he case 46 which is best shown in Figs. 9 to 14 inclusive, consists of a shell formed of aluminum or other light and strong mate rial, the same being composed of a lower half section 47 and two upper quarter sections or lids 48-48. vThe ends 49 of the case 46 are of coniform to reduce the air resistance and the case is mounted in the central longitudinal plane of the machine by brackets 50V clamped at 51 to the keel frame 3 of the flying machine 1. The lid sections 48 are hinged to the lower section 47 by spring hinges 52 (see Fig. 14) which are deslgned tc open the lids 48 when they are released. The lids 48 are held closed by a suitable locking device, preferably that shown in Fig. 13 of the drawings, by 'reference to which it will be observed that one lid section 48 has a longitudinal reinforced or strengthening bead 53 having a hole 54 to receive themain latch bar 55 that is carried by the lever 56. The other lid has a corresponding bead or reinforced vstrip 57 that also has a hole 58 for the pin 55, the strips 53 and 57 overlapping one another. The lever 56 is fulcrumed at 59 in a bear.- ing fork 60 on one of the latch members. The-latch bar 55 has a latch notch 61 for the pin 62 that is pressed by a spring 63 into engagement with the bar 55 and holds the bar 55 with its free end located Within the hole 58 `when the latch isreleased so as not to project and interfere with the ready removal of the contents of the case or provide an obstruction against which the parachute cords or wires may engage.
The case 46 has adepressed'porton 64 in, its bottom in lwhich the ejector mechanism lies when the parts are housed. The
forked frame 65 secured to the ends of lejector mechanism consists of a light hollow v torsional springs 66 which wrap around a pin 67 in the depression 64, the frame 65 may be covered by a web 68, if desired, to prevent any possible entanglement between the ejector and the parts to be ejected.`
The lever-56 may be rocked to release the lids 48 by a cord 69 that runs to a position where it maybe conveniently grasped by the aviator.
When several parachute members are em,- ployed they are made to fit one within the other, or to nest, as it were.y The several members 7 are rst nested and then folded up umbrella fashion, after which they are let into thecase 46 (the ejector being held down in any suitable way) see Fig. 9, the anchor 45 is closed up and folded into the case on top of the parachute member 7, (see Fig. 9) after which the lids 48 are closed and the latch 62 released to permit' the spring 98 to project the bar 55 into the hole 54 and thereby hold the lids closed. The guy wires 14 and cords 16-17 are allowed to project through openings 70 in the lids 48, (see Fig. 9). The parachutes 7-7 and\ the anchor 45 being now orderly packed in the case 46, the aviator runs the machine in the usual manner. Should, for any reason; the headway of the machine be lost, or should the aviator lose control ofthe machine, thereby allowing it to fall to the earth, the aviator need only pull the rope or cord 69 to move the lever 56 to raise the latch bar 55 and release the lids` 48, whereupon the ejector will throw the contents of the case upwardly and forwardly out. of the case, the anchor 45 instantly opening up to catch the air and form a drag, as 1t were, thereby pulling the parachute members 7 apart, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2. The air will then quickly enter beneath the parachutes and extend them totheir full capacity,'as shown invFig. 2 of the drawings, thereby quickly forming an effective sustaining means for the machine which will be vrighted and held on an even keel, the
-whole structure settling slowly and safely to the earth. When the anchor 45 is first opened theballoon' bag 48 quickly fills with air and isextendedto the position or form shown in Fig. 1, thereby increasing the effective operation of the anchor which by serving as a drag assists the members 7 in sustaining the machine in the air until it settles slowly to the earth.
Numerous modifications and adaptations of the invention may readily become mani fest to those skilled in the art andI do not wish to limit myself to the use o f the form hereinbefore described, although the same is a preferred form.
In the modied form shown in Figs. 15 and 16 a vertical tubular casing 71 is carried by the iiying machine 1. The casing 71 is made of a light thin material, such as aluminum. Within the casing a piston 72 is mounted, its movement being limited by fthe cable 73 that is secured to it at 74 and 5 to the bottom ofthe case at 75.
The piston 72 carries a series of telescopic pipes 76 whose extension movement is limited by collars 77. The inner pipe forms the rod support for -the air anchor 45, which anchor' -may otherwise be constructed as in the .pre-
ferred form of the invention disclosed particularly in Fig. 4. The pipe rod section- 76 terminates in an air chamber 78 and the 76 are in communication with the casing 71 below the piston 72. The parachute members 7 have ring-like openings- 79 so they may fit over the pipes 76. and they are connected by cords 80 to one another and to the fixed ring 81 of the inner pipe section 76 that forms-the anchor rod.l
In other respects the construction of the parachute members 7 maybe identical with the preferred form disclosed hereinbefore, l
and they may also be similarly guyed together and to the flying vmachine. Nor- Inally the parachute members 7 are nested and packed into the case 71 (see Fig. 16)
compressed air to enter the case 71 from the y tank 82 to force the piston 72 upwardly and extend the telescopic sections 76 thereby ejecting the parachute members and the air anchor from the case 71. A cord 88 may be secured at 86 to the piston 72, and/pass over a pulley 87 from which it extends to-a position in convenient reach of the aviatorby means of which the contents of the case may be ejected in the event 'that the supply of compressed air gives out.
The form shown in Fig. 17 is a modification of the form shown 1n Figs. 15 and 16 and in this form the air tank 82 is connected with the case 71 by a flexible pipe 89 and vthe case 71 in thisform is hinged at 90 to a bracket 91 and lies on top of the flying machine in acrotch 92. The operation of this form differs but slightly from Vthat form shown in Figs. 15 and 16. In this form the contents of the case 7l are ejected ina horizontal direction whereas in the form shown in Figs. l5 and 16 they are ejected in a vertical direction. As soon as the contents of the case 7l have been ejected the case 71 will assume a vertical position due to the air going under the parachute members 7 and the anchor 45 and will thus support the l,iying machine 1.
lfrom the foregoing description it will be noticed l have provided a simple and effectively constructed safety appliance for the purposes specified. The same can be cheaply manufactured at a low gross weight and when not in use it takes up little room and offers little or no air` resistance or impediment to the normal action of the flying machine.
l/Vhat I claim is 1. A flying machine that includes initself sustaining means, a propelling mechanism and devices for controlling its movement;
combined with a plurality of serially arranged normally inactive parachutes `nestabl'e one Within the other for sustaining said flying machine when said flying machine falls. Y
2. A flying machine that includes in itsel a sustaining means, a means for controlling the movement of the flying machine through the air; combined with a plurality of seri ally arranged foldable normally inoperative parachutcs nestable one within the other and mounted on said flying machine, and means for unnesting said parachutes to bring said parachutes into operation to sustain said flying machine in falling.
A flying machine, combined with a parachute, connections between the said parachute and said flying machine, a carrying case for said parachute mounted on said flying machine, and aviator controlled means for mechanically ilinging or casting said parachute out of said case, said means including a pivoted casting arm.
4. A flying machine combined with a sustaining parachute connected thereto, an air anchor connected with said parachute to hold it in position to open, and a carrying case into which said parachute and said an chor is foldable.
5. A ying machine combined with a sustaining parachute connected thereto, an air anchor connected with said parachute to hold it in position to open, a carrying case into which said parachute and said anchor may be folded, and means for 'opening said case to release said parachute and anchor.
G. A flying machine combined with a sustaining parachute connected thereto, an air anchor connected with said parachute to hold it in position to open, a carrying case into which said parachute and said anchor may be folded, means for opening said case to release said parachute and anchor, and means for ejectingsaid anchor from said 7 A flying machine combined with a sustaining parachute connected thereto, an air anchor connected with said parachute to hold it in position to open, a carrying case into which said parachute and said anchor may be folded, means for opening said case to release said parachute and anchor, and
imanes means for ejecting said parachute and anchor from said case.
8. The combination of a flying machine, a foldablc sustaining parachute therefor, a
said
foldable air anchor connected with said parachute, andl a single releasable holder for -sai'd parachute and said anchor, together with automatic means for opening said anchor when released from said holder.
9. A vflying machine, a plurality of parachute members nestable onel-within'the other and foldable while nested, connections be tween said parachute members and said flying machine, a single'carrying case for said members, and means for openinc said case to release said members.
l0. A flying machine, a plurality of parachute members nestable one within the other and foldable While nested, connections bc tween said parachute members and said flying machine, a single carrying case for said members, and means for throwing all of said parachute members out of said case.
l1. A flying machine, a nest of parachute members connected thereto to support said machine, an air anchor connected to said parachute members, a single means for holding the said parachute members and said anchor folded together on the machine when not in use.
l2. A flying machine, a nest of parachute members connected thereto to supportsaid machine, an air anchor connected to said parachute members, means for holding the said parachute members when nested and said anchor, folded together on the machine when not in use, and means for releasing said holding means to permit said anchor to drag said parachute members into position to be opened by the air entering the same.
v13. fn a flying machine, a nest of flexible parachute members, a foldable air anchor vconnected to the same, means continuously tending to open said anchor, a single carrying case for all of said parachute members and said anchor, and means for ejecting all of said members from said case to permit said anchor to open and thereby drag and cause said parachute members to unnest and come into position to be opened by the air entering the same. l
14. In a flying machine, a flexible parachute member flexibly secured to the top of said machine., an air anchor flexibly secured to the top of said parachute member, a single carrying case for said parachute and said anchor into which said anchor and parachute may be folded, means for holding said parachute and said anchor in said carrying case, means for releasing said holding means, and means in said carrying case for throwing said parachute member and said anchor simultaneously out of said carrying ease when open.
15. In a flying machine, a plurality of which said parachute members when nested may be folded and into which said air anchor When folded may be placed, means con- *tinuously tending to open said air anchor,
means continuously tending to throw all of said parachute members and said -air anchor out of said carrying case, releasable means for holding said carrying case closed to retain said parachute members and said air anchor and prevent the operation of said throwing out means.
16. An air anchor, a cable depending therefrom, a flying machine suspended from said cable, a parachute on said cable, guys joining said parachute to said {iying machine, and a carrying case on said iying machine into which said parachute and anchor may be stored when not in use.
17. An air anchor, a cable depending therefrom, a ying machine suspended by said cable and a plurality of parachutes on said cable said arachute members being nestable one Within -the other.
18. The combination of an aeroplane With a parachute, consisting of a. multiple of 30 units that telescope or nest into each other in Whole or in part. 19. A cigar-shaped carrying case consisting of a bottom half section having a longitudinal depression in its bottom, a spring 35 actuated 'ejector pivotally mounted in said depression to lie therein, a pair of lid sections'hingedto said bottom section to close over the same, meansfor latching said lid sections together, means for moving said 40 latching means to release said lid sections,- and means for holding said latching means in itsv releasing position.
- 20. A cigar shaped carrying case consisting of a bottom section and a lidsection, 45 a spring actuatedejector pivotally mounted in said bottom section, means for latching saidV lid section closed, means for moving said 'latching means to release said lidvsection, and means for holding said latching 50 means in its releasing position.
JEAN FRANCIS WEBB.
Witnesses:
JEAN F. WEBB, Jr., i CLIFFORD CAMPBELL.
US58750210A 1910-10-17 1910-10-17 Safety alighting attachment for flying-machines. Expired - Lifetime US1011683A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2432375A (en) * 1944-09-07 1947-12-09 L L Bowles Safety landing equipment for aeroplanes
US2433952A (en) * 1943-10-23 1948-01-06 Samuel J Hines Safety parachute
US2455044A (en) * 1945-11-19 1948-11-30 Caplan Harry Parachute
US2711868A (en) * 1952-10-25 1955-06-28 Parker Kenneth Flotation device for aircraft

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2433952A (en) * 1943-10-23 1948-01-06 Samuel J Hines Safety parachute
US2432375A (en) * 1944-09-07 1947-12-09 L L Bowles Safety landing equipment for aeroplanes
US2455044A (en) * 1945-11-19 1948-11-30 Caplan Harry Parachute
US2711868A (en) * 1952-10-25 1955-06-28 Parker Kenneth Flotation device for aircraft

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