TWI631727B - Nitride semiconductor structure - Google Patents

Nitride semiconductor structure

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Publication number
TWI631727B
TWI631727B TW106115426A TW106115426A TWI631727B TW I631727 B TWI631727 B TW I631727B TW 106115426 A TW106115426 A TW 106115426A TW 106115426 A TW106115426 A TW 106115426A TW I631727 B TWI631727 B TW I631727B
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TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
layer
type
gallium nitride
based
type semiconductor
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TW106115426A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201727936A (en
Inventor
吳俊德
李玉柱
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新世紀光電股份有限公司
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Priority to TW106115426A priority Critical patent/TWI631727B/en
Publication of TW201727936A publication Critical patent/TW201727936A/en
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a nitride semiconductor structure and a semiconductor light emitting device, wherein a light emitting layer is disposed between the N-type semiconductor layer and the P-type semiconductor layer, and a hole providing layer is disposed between the light emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor layer, and the hole is provided with a layer. Indium gallium nitride In x Ga 1-x N (0<x<1); wherein the hole is provided with a layer doped with a group of four elements having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 ; The four elements can increase the concentration of holes and reduce the inactivation caused by Mg-H bonding, activate Mg and have an effective effect of the receptor, thereby increasing the luminous efficiency.

Description

Nitride semiconductor structure

The present invention relates to a nitride semiconductor structure and a semiconductor light-emitting element, and more particularly to a nitride semiconductor structure having a hole-providing layer and a semiconductor light-emitting element, by providing an additional hole to obtain good luminous efficiency.

In recent years, the application of light-emitting diodes has become more and more important, and has become an indispensable important component in daily life; and the light-emitting diodes are expected to replace today's lighting equipment and become a solid-state lighting component of the new generation in the future, so the development is high. Energy-saving high-efficiency and higher-power LEDs will be the future trend; nitride LEDs have become one of the latest Xing Optoelectronics semiconductor materials due to their small component size, mercury-free contamination, high luminous efficiency and long life. The emission wavelength of the Group III nitride covers almost the range of visible light, making it a highly promising light-emitting diode material.

Group III nitrides such as indium nitride (InN), gallium nitride (GaN), and aluminum nitride (AlN) have a wide band gap and play a very important role in optoelectronic semiconductor components. InN with a direct band gap of 0.7eV, GaN with 3.4eV, or even AlN with 6.2eV, emits light in wavelengths ranging from red, germanium, germanium, to deep ultraviolet light; and tri-family nitride semiconductors A PN junction is required on the device. Specifically, an N-type nitride semiconductor layer and a P-type nitride semiconductor layer must be formed, and generally an N-type dopant such as Si or Sn is doped to form an N-type nitride semiconductor layer. On the formation of the P-type nitride semiconductor layer, Mg is generally used as the P-type dopant; however, Mg is easily bonded to H to form a Mg-H complexes, resulting in the above-mentioned P-type dopant. Unable to exert the nature of the receptor, causing the concentration of the provided holes to drop drastically, making the light-emitting elements unable to perform their normal functions, and therefore With a low impedance (low-resistance) P-type nitride semiconductor layer is not easy to be formed by conventional techniques.

For example, when forming a semiconductor layer composed of a P-type nitride (for example, gallium nitride), NH 3 gas is generally used as a source of nitrogen, in an epitaxial process (eg, vapor deposition, etc.), The high temperature causes the decomposition of NH 3 to generate a nitrogen atom and a hydrogen atom, and the hydrogen atom forms a bond with a P-type dopant (for example, Mg) used as a receptor in the above semiconductor layer, so that the above-mentioned P-type dopant loses its effect. The doping concentration cannot be effectively improved; in addition, since the activation energy of magnesium in gallium nitride is very large, the efficiency of cavity activation is extremely low (less than 10%); therefore, the hole concentration of P-type gallium nitride It is difficult to increase; therefore, in order to obtain a high hole concentration, it is necessary to reduce the combination of Mg and H so that the P-type gallium nitride can exhibit a sufficiently low impedance to achieve better luminous efficiency.

Nowadays, the inventor is still in the spirit of tirelessness in view of the fact that the above-mentioned conventional nitride semiconductor light-emitting elements have many defects in practical implementation, and are supplemented by their rich professional knowledge and years of practical experience. Improvements have been made, and the present invention has been developed based on this.

The main object of the present invention is to provide a nitride semiconductor structure which is provided by a layer provided by a hole to dope a group of four elements to increase the concentration of holes, and to reduce the inactivation phenomenon caused by Mg-H bonding, thereby enabling activation of Mg. The effective action of the acceptor further enables the hole providing layer to have a higher hole concentration, thereby providing more holes into the luminescent layer and increasing the combination of electron holes to obtain good luminescence efficiency.

The present invention further provides a semiconductor light emitting device comprising at least the above nitride semiconductor structure.

In order to achieve the above-described implementation, the present inventors have developed a technique in which a nitride semiconductor structure includes an N-type semiconductor layer and a P-type semiconductor layer, and a light-emitting layer is disposed between the N-type semiconductor layer and the P-type semiconductor layer. A hole providing layer is disposed between the light emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor layer, and the hole providing layer is indium gallium nitride In x Ga 1-x N, wherein 0<x<1, preferably the range of x is 0<x≦0. 1; In addition, the hole supply layer is doped with a group of four elements having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 , and if the doping concentration of the group of four elements is less than 10 17 cm -3 , the effect provided by the hole cannot be obtained. If the doping concentration of the group of four elements is greater than 10 20 cm -3 , the problem of high resistance is obtained. The preferred doping concentration is 8 x 10 17 to 5 x 10 18 cm -3 , and the group of elements may be, for example, carbon.

In addition, the above-mentioned hole providing layer is doped with a P-type dopant having a concentration greater than 10 18 cm -3 , and the thickness of the hole providing layer is between 1 and 100 nm; wherein the P-type dopant may be, for example, magnesium.

In an embodiment of the invention, the multiple quantum well structure may be formed by alternately stacking an indium gallium nitride well layer and a gallium nitride barrier layer; and the hole providing layer has an energy gap system larger than that of the multiple quantum well structure The energy gap of the layer allows the hole to enter the well layer of the multiple quantum well structure to increase the probability of combining electrons with the hole and further improve the luminous efficiency.

In addition, in an embodiment of the invention, a P-type carrier barrier layer (for example, P-type aluminum gallium nitride or the like) may be disposed between the hole supply layer and the P-type semiconductor layer, and the P-type carrier barrier layer has The material is larger than the energy gap of the light-emitting layer. For example, when the light-emitting layer is a multiple quantum well structure, the energy gap of the P-type carrier barrier layer is greater than the energy gap of the barrier layer of the multiple quantum well structure. Avoiding electron escape into the P-type semiconductor layer, has the effect of slowing the electron movement rate and increasing the time of staying in the light-emitting layer; and an N-type carrier barrier layer (for example, an N-type) may be disposed between the light-emitting layer and the N-type semiconductor layer. Aluminum gallium nitride, etc., and the N-type carrier barrier layer is made of a material having a larger energy gap than the light-emitting layer. Similarly, the N-type carrier barrier layer is made of a material having a higher energy gap than the light-emitting layer. In order to avoid the escape of holes into the N-type semiconductor layer, thereby increasing the probability of electronic hole bonding.

The present invention further provides a semiconductor light emitting device comprising a nitride semiconductor structure as described above on a substrate, and an N-type electrode and a P-type electrode for supplying electric energy in a two-phase manner; thereby, the hole provides a four-element element of the layer Increase the concentration of the hole and reduce the inactivation caused by Mg-H bonding, activate Mg and have the effective effect of the receptor, thereby making the hole providing layer have a higher hole concentration, thereby providing more The holes enter the light-emitting layer to increase the combination of the electron holes, so that the semiconductor light-emitting elements can exhibit a sufficiently low impedance to obtain good luminous efficiency.

Furthermore, in order to solve the epitaxial difference phenomenon caused by the lattice difference, a buffer layer may be formed on the surface of the substrate, and the buffer layer is aluminum gallium nitride AlGa y N 1-y , wherein 0<y<1 .

The object of the present invention and its structural design and advantages will be explained in the light of the preferred embodiments shown in the following drawings, so that the reviewing committee can have a more in-depth and specific understanding of the present invention.

First, in the following description of the embodiments, it should be understood that when a layer (or film) or a structure is disposed on another substrate, another layer (or film), or another structure "on" or "down", "Directly" is located in another substrate, layer (or film), or another structure, or has more than one intermediate layer disposed therebetween in an "indirect" manner. The review panel may describe the location of each layer with reference to the drawings.

Referring to the first figure, a cross-sectional view of a nitride semiconductor structure according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an N-type semiconductor layer (2) and a P-type semiconductor layer (3) on the N-type semiconductor layer. (2) A light-emitting layer (4) is disposed between the P-type semiconductor layer (3), and a hole supply layer (5) is disposed between the light-emitting layer (4) and the P-type semiconductor layer (3). The layer (5) is provided as indium gallium nitride In x Ga 1-x N, wherein 0<x<1, preferably the range of x is 0<x≦0.1; in addition, the hole provides layer (5) doping a hetero group having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 (preferably carbon); in the embodiment, the N-type semiconductor layer (2) is an N-type gallium nitride-based semiconductor layer, and P The type semiconductor layer (3) is a P-type gallium nitride based semiconductor layer.

In addition, the above-mentioned hole providing layer (5) is doped with a P-type dopant (which may be, for example, magnesium) having a concentration greater than 10 18 cm -3 , and the hole providing layer (5) preferably has a thickness of 1 to 100 nm. between.

Furthermore, the above-mentioned light-emitting layer (4) has a multiple quantum well structure (MQW); wherein the multiple quantum well structure can be a well layer of indium gallium nitride and a barrier layer of gallium nitride (barrier) Alternating stacking; and the bandgap energy of the hole providing layer (5) is greater than the energy gap of the well layer of the multiple quantum well structure, so that the hole can enter the well layer of the multiple quantum well structure, Increase the probability of combining electrons with holes to further improve luminous efficiency.

In addition, a P-type carrier barrier layer (6) may be disposed between the hole supply layer (5) and the P-type semiconductor layer (3), and the P-type carrier barrier layer (6) has a larger than the light-emitting layer (4). The energy gap material is made; in this embodiment, it is a P-type aluminum gallium nitride (P-AlGaN) to prevent electrons from escaping into the P-type semiconductor layer (3), which has a slowing electron movement rate. And increasing the time of retention in the light-emitting layer (4); and an N-type carrier barrier layer (7) and an N-type carrier barrier layer (7) may be disposed between the light-emitting layer (4) and the N-type semiconductor layer (2) ( 7) made of a material having an energy gap higher than that of the light-emitting layer (4); in this embodiment, it is an N-type aluminum gallium nitride (N-AlGaN), thereby preventing holes from escaping into the N-type semiconductor Within layer (2).

When the nitride semiconductor structure according to the above embodiment is used in practice, since the hole supply layer (5) is doped with a group of four elements having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 , the tetravalent element is substituted for the pentavalent element. The nitrogen atom, whereby one more positively charged hole, allows the hole supply layer to have a high hole concentration, and the above four elements can be, for example, carbon (C), germanium (Si), germanium (Ge), tin ( Sn), lead (Pb), etc., among which carbon is preferred, because in the process of epitaxy, carbon reacts with hydrogen decomposed by ammonia gas to form a stable compound CH 4 , which is separated from nitrogen. a semiconductor semiconductor, so that the content of H is lowered, and the Mg-H bonding is also reduced, thereby causing Mg to have an effective effect of an ionic state, and therefore, the hole supply layer (5) can have a high hole concentration, thereby Provide more holes into the luminescent layer (4), thereby increasing the combination of electron holes.

Referring to the second figure, the nitride semiconductor structure described above can be applied to a semiconductor light emitting device. The second figure is a schematic cross-sectional view of a semiconductor light emitting device fabricated according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. The semiconductor light emitting device includes at least Have:

a substrate (1);

An N-type semiconductor layer (2) is disposed on the substrate (1);

a light-emitting layer (4) disposed on the N-type semiconductor layer (2); wherein the light-emitting layer (4) has a multiple quantum well structure;

a hole providing layer (5) is disposed on the light emitting layer (4), and the hole providing layer (5) is indium gallium nitride In x Ga 1-x N, wherein 0<x<1, preferably 0<x≦0.1; further, the hole supply layer (5) is doped with a group of four elements (preferably carbon) having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 ; The thickness of the layer (5) is preferably between 1 and 100 nm, and may be doped with a P-type dopant (which may be, for example, magnesium) having a concentration greater than 10 18 cm -3 , and the hole provides a gap of the layer ( 5 ) An energy gap larger than a well layer of a multiple quantum well structure;

a P-type semiconductor layer (3) is disposed on the hole providing layer (5);

An N-type electrode (21) is disposed on the N-type semiconductor layer (2) in an ohmic contact;

a P-type electrode (31) is disposed on the P-type semiconductor layer (3) in an ohmic contact; wherein the N-type and P-type electrodes (21), (31) are cooperatively supplied with electric energy, and may be of the following materials, However, it is not limited to these materials: titanium, aluminum, gold, chromium, nickel, platinum, alloys thereof, etc., and the process methods thereof are well known in the art, and are not the focus of the present invention. It will not be repeated in the present invention.

In addition, a P-type carrier barrier layer (6) may be disposed between the hole supply layer (5) and the P-type semiconductor layer (3), and a N is disposed between the light-emitting layer (4) and the N-type semiconductor layer (2). Type carrier barrier layer (7), and N, P type carrier barrier layers (7), (6) are made of a material having a higher energy gap than the light-emitting layer (4); The epitaxial difference phenomenon caused by the lattice difference may also form a buffer layer (8) on the surface of the substrate (1), and the buffer layer (8) is aluminum gallium nitride AlGa y N 1-y , where 0<y< 1 material.

Therefore, it can be seen from the above description of the nitride semiconductor structure that the semiconductor light-emitting device of the present invention reduces the inactivation caused by Mg-H bonding by the dopant of the four-element element of the hole providing layer (5). Activate Mg to have an effective effect of the acceptor, thereby enabling the hole supply layer (5) to have a high hole concentration, providing more holes into the light-emitting layer, and increasing the combination of electron holes, so that the semiconductor light-emitting element can be A sufficiently low impedance is exhibited to achieve good luminous efficiency.

In summary, the nitride semiconductor structure and the semiconductor light-emitting device of the present invention can achieve the intended use efficiency by the above-disclosed embodiments, and the present invention has not been disclosed before the application, and has completely complied with the patent. The rules and requirements of the law.爰Issuing an application for a patent for invention in accordance with the law, and asking for a review, and granting a patent, is truly sensible.

The illustrations and descriptions of the present invention are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention; those skilled in the art, which are characterized by the scope of the present invention, Equivalent variations or modifications are considered to be within the scope of the design of the invention.

(1) ‧‧‧Substrate (2)‧‧‧N type semiconductor layer (21)‧‧‧N type electrode (3)‧‧‧P type semiconductor layer (31)‧‧‧P type electrode (4)‧‧ ‧ luminescent layer (5) ‧ ‧ hole provided layer (6) ‧ ‧ P type carrier barrier layer (7) ‧ ‧ N type carrier barrier layer (8) ‧ ‧ buffer layer

First: a cross-sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a nitride semiconductor structure of the present invention

Second drawing: a schematic cross-sectional view of a semiconductor light emitting device fabricated in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention

Claims (10)

  1. A nitride semiconductor structure comprising: an N-type semiconductor layer; a light-emitting layer having a multiple quantum well (MQW) structure; an aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based P-type carrier barrier layer; and an indium-containing nitride layer a gallium-based P-type hole providing layer; and a P-type semiconductor, wherein the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer is disposed between the light emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor, the aluminum-containing gallium nitride a P-type carrier barrier layer is disposed between the light-emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor, wherein the indium-containing P-type gallium nitride-based hole provides a layer doped with carbon having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 The dopant is disposed between the N-type semiconductor and the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer.
  2. A nitride semiconductor structure comprising: an N-type semiconductor layer; a light-emitting layer having a multiple quantum well (MQW) structure, the multiple quantum well structure comprising a plurality of gallium nitride barrier layers and a plurality of indium-containing layers Gallium nitride well layers are alternately stacked; a gallium nitride-based P-type hole containing indium is provided with a carbon doping having a concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 ; and a P -type semiconductor layer The light emitting layer is disposed between the N-type semiconductor and the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer, and the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer is disposed on the light emitting layer and the Between the P-type semiconductors, wherein the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole provides a layer having an energy gap larger than that of the well layer of the multiple quantum well structure.
  3. A nitride semiconductor structure comprising: an N-type semiconductor layer; an aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based N-type carrier barrier layer; an luminescent layer having a multiple quantum well (MQW) structure; and an aluminum-containing nitridation layer a gallium-based P-type carrier barrier layer; an indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole supply layer disposed between the light-emitting layer and the aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based P-type carrier barrier layer, the indium-containing layer a gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer having a carbon doping peak concentration of 10 17 to 10 20 cm -3 ; and a P-type semiconductor, wherein the light-emitting layer is disposed in the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P Between the type of hole providing layer and the aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based N-type carrier blocking layer, the aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based N-type carrier blocking layer is disposed between the N-type semiconductor layer and the light-emitting layer The aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based P-type carrier blocking layer is provided between the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer and the P-type semiconductor.
  4. A nitride semiconductor structure comprising: an N-type semiconductor layer; a P-type semiconductor layer; a light-emitting layer disposed between the N-type semiconductor layer and the P-type semiconductor layer; and an indium-containing gallium nitride-based P a hole providing layer is disposed between the light emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor layer, wherein the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer has a carbon doping peak, and the carbon doping peak concentration is greater than 10 17 cm -3 but not more than 10 20 cm -3 .
  5. A nitride semiconductor structure comprising: a gallium nitride-based P-type semiconductor layer having a carbon-rich layer having a carbon doping peak, the concentration of the carbon doping peak being greater than 10 17 cm -3 but not more than 10 20 cm -3 ; an N-type semiconductor layer; and a light-emitting layer disposed between the gallium nitride-based P-type semiconductor layer and the N-type semiconductor layer, and The carbon-rich layer is located on a side of the gallium nitride-based P-type semiconductor layer close to the light-emitting layer.
  6. The nitride semiconductor structure according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the indium-containing gallium nitride-based P-type hole providing layer has a P-type dopant, and the P-type dopant includes magnesium The concentration of the P-type dopant is greater than 10 18 cm -3 .
  7. The nitride semiconductor structure according to any one of claims 1, 2, 4 and 5, further comprising an aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based N-type carrier barrier layer, the aluminum-containing gallium nitride system An N-type carrier blocking layer is disposed between the N-type semiconductor layer and the light-emitting layer.
  8. The nitride semiconductor structure according to any one of claims 2, 4 and 5, further comprising an aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based P-type carrier barrier layer, the aluminum-containing gallium nitride-based P-type A carrier barrier layer is disposed between the light emitting layer and the P-type semiconductor layer.
  9. The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 5, wherein the material of the carbon-rich layer further comprises indium.
  10. The nitride semiconductor structure according to any one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9, wherein the hole providing layer is opposite to the P-type semiconductor layer or the P-type layers Has a relatively low hydrogen concentration.
TW106115426A 2012-11-19 2012-11-19 Nitride semiconductor structure TWI631727B (en)

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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030085409A1 (en) * 2001-11-02 2003-05-08 Yu-Chen Shen Indium gallium nitride separate confinement heterostructure light emitting devices
US20110114916A1 (en) * 2009-07-15 2011-05-19 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Iii-nitride semiconductor optical device and epitaxial substrate

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030085409A1 (en) * 2001-11-02 2003-05-08 Yu-Chen Shen Indium gallium nitride separate confinement heterostructure light emitting devices
US20110114916A1 (en) * 2009-07-15 2011-05-19 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Iii-nitride semiconductor optical device and epitaxial substrate

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