TWI603072B - Detecting defects on a wafer - Google Patents

Detecting defects on a wafer Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI603072B
TWI603072B TW103100073A TW103100073A TWI603072B TW I603072 B TWI603072 B TW I603072B TW 103100073 A TW103100073 A TW 103100073A TW 103100073 A TW103100073 A TW 103100073A TW I603072 B TWI603072 B TW I603072B
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Taiwan
Prior art keywords
output
wafer
inspection
raw
different
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TW103100073A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201435330A (en
Inventor
郎軍
陳侃
高理升
黃軍秦
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克萊譚克公司
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Priority to US13/733,133 priority Critical patent/US9053527B2/en
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Publication of TW201435330A publication Critical patent/TW201435330A/en
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Publication of TWI603072B publication Critical patent/TWI603072B/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/0002Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
    • G06T7/0004Industrial image inspection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/95Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination characterised by the material or shape of the object to be examined
    • G01N21/9501Semiconductor wafers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70483Information management, control, testing, and wafer monitoring, e.g. pattern monitoring
    • G03F7/70616Wafer pattern monitoring, i.e. measuring printed patterns or the aerial image at the wafer plane
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70483Information management, control, testing, and wafer monitoring, e.g. pattern monitoring
    • G03F7/70616Wafer pattern monitoring, i.e. measuring printed patterns or the aerial image at the wafer plane
    • G03F7/7065Defect inspection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • G01N2021/8854Grading and classifying of flaws
    • G01N2021/8867Grading and classifying of flaws using sequentially two or more inspection runs, e.g. coarse and fine, or detecting then analysing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/10Image acquisition modality
    • G06T2207/10141Special mode during image acquisition
    • G06T2207/10152Varying illumination
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/30Subject of image; Context of image processing
    • G06T2207/30108Industrial image inspection
    • G06T2207/30148Semiconductor; IC; Wafer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/0002Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
    • G06T7/0004Industrial image inspection
    • G06T7/0008Industrial image inspection checking presence/absence

Description

Detect defects on the wafer

The present invention is generally directed to detecting defects on a wafer. Particular embodiments relate to assigning individual outputs in a raw output for a wafer generated by an inspection system to different segments.

The following description and examples are not considered to be prior art as they are included in this section.

Wafer inspection using optical or electron beam technology is an important technique for debugging semiconductor manufacturing processes, monitoring program changes, and improving production yields in the semiconductor industry. With the ever-decreasing scale of modern integrated circuits (ICs) and the increasing complexity of manufacturing processes, inspections are becoming more and more difficult.

In each processing step performed on a semiconductor wafer, the same circuit pattern is printed in each of the dies on the wafer. Most wafer inspection systems take advantage of this fact and use a relatively simple inter-die comparison to detect defects on the wafer. However, the printed circuitry in each die can include regions of patterned features that are repeated in the x or y direction, such as DRAM, SRAM, or FLASH regions. This type of zone is often referred to as an array zone (the remaining zones are referred to as random or logical zones). To achieve better sensitivity, advanced inspection systems employ different strategies for verifying array areas and random or logical areas.

To set up a wafer inspection program for array inspection, many of the currently used inspection systems require the user to manually set the region of interest (ROI) and target defects in the same ROI. Detects the application of the same set of parameters. However, this setting method is disadvantageous for several reasons. For example, when design rules shrink, the area definition can be more complex and smaller in area. The manual setting of the ROI will eventually become impossible due to the limitations of the stage accuracy and resolution of the inspection system. On the other hand, if the distance between page breaks is greater than the distance that Fourier filtering can perform, the paging will not be suppressed in the array area.

In another approach, intensity is used as one of the features of the segment to group similar intensity pixels together. Then, the same set of parameters are applied to the same group of pixels (based on intensity). However, this method also has several disadvantages. For example, when a geometric feature is evenly spread, an intensity based segmentation algorithm can be used. However, usually this is not enough. Therefore, other segmentation based on nature is needed.

Therefore, a method and system for detecting defects on a wafer by exploiting the knowledge of defects and damage/noises that are geometrically resident in different segments to achieve better detection of defects will be developed. It is advantageous.

The following description of various embodiments should not be construed as limiting the scope of the appended claims.

One embodiment relates to a computer implemented method for detecting defects on a wafer. The computer implemented method includes obtaining a first raw output for a wafer generated using a first optical mode of an inspection system and using a second optical mode of the inspection system to generate a second original for the wafer Output. The method also includes identifying one or more characteristics of the first original output corresponding to one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features formed on the wafer. Additionally, the method includes determining the one or more characteristics based on the first raw output and based on the individual outputs of the second original output and the first raw output generated at substantially the same location on the wafer Individual outputs of the second original output are assigned to different segments such that the patterned features correspond to each of the different segments of the second original output One or more of the one or more The geometric characteristics are different. The method further includes assigning one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments separately. Moreover, the method includes applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the individual output of the second original output assigned to the different segments to thereby detect defects on the wafer.

Each of the steps of the computer implemented method set forth above can be performed as further described herein. The computer implemented methods set forth above may include any other steps of any of the other methods set forth herein. The computer-implemented methods set forth above can be performed using any of the systems set forth herein.

Another embodiment is directed to a non-transitory computer readable medium storing program instructions executable on a computer system for performing a method for detecting defects on a wafer. The method comprises the steps of the computer implemented method set forth above. The non-transitory computer readable medium can be further configured as set forth herein. The steps of the method can be performed as further described herein. Additionally, the method by which program instructions may be executed may include any other steps of any of the other methods set forth herein.

An additional embodiment relates to a system configured to detect defects on a wafer. The system includes an inspection subsystem configured to scan a first optical device pattern using one of the inspection subsystems to generate a first raw output for a wafer and by using the inspection subsystem A second optics mode scans the wafer to produce a second raw output for the wafer. The system also includes a computer subsystem configured to obtain the first and second raw outputs. The computer subsystem is also configured to identify one or more characteristics of the first raw output corresponding to one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features formed on the wafer. Additionally, the computer subsystem is configured to generate the one or more characteristics based on the first raw output and based on individual outputs in the second original output and at substantially the same location on the wafer Individual outputs of the first original output, the individual outputs of the second original output are assigned to different segments such that the patterned features correspond to the different segments of the second original output One or more of each of What characteristics are different. The computer subsystem is further configured to individually assign one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments and apply the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments. The individual output of the second original output to thereby detect defects on the wafer. The system can be further configured as described herein.

2‧‧‧ raw output

4‧‧‧ raw output

6‧‧‧ raw output

10‧‧‧ Non-transitory computer readable media

12‧‧‧Program Instructions

14‧‧‧ computer system

16‧‧‧System

18‧‧‧Test subsystem

20‧‧‧Computer subsystem

22‧‧‧Light source

24‧‧‧Polarized component/light exiting polarizing component

26‧‧‧ Wafer

28‧‧‧ lens

30‧‧‧Polarized component/light exiting polarizing component

32‧‧‧Detector

34‧‧‧ lens

36‧‧‧Polarized component/light emitting polarizer

38‧‧‧Detector

40‧‧‧Steps

42‧‧‧Steps

44‧‧‧Steps

46‧‧‧Steps

48‧‧‧Steps

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the Detailed Description of the Drawing. A schematic diagram of one example of a method for detecting defects on a wafer that performs segmentation and defect detection; FIG. 2 illustrates the execution of raw output generated using different channels of an inspection system Schematic diagram of one embodiment of a method for detecting defects on a wafer for segmentation and defect detection; FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating execution of a computer system for performing the methods set forth herein One of the embodiment instructions of one or more of the method embodiments is a block diagram of one embodiment of a non-transitory computer readable medium; FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating one of the defects configured to detect a wafer A schematic diagram of one of the side views of one embodiment of the system; and FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating one embodiment of a method for detecting defects on a wafer.

While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternatives, the specific embodiments are illustrated in the drawings and It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not intended to And all modifications, equivalents and alternatives within the scope.

Turning now to the drawing, the drawing is not drawn to scale. In particular, the proportions of some of the elements of the figures are greatly exaggerated to emphasize the characteristics of the elements. Also note It is intended that the figures are not drawn to the same scale. The same reference numerals have been used to indicate elements that can be configured in a similar manner in one or more of the figures.

One embodiment relates to a computer implemented method for detecting defects on a wafer. The computer implemented method includes obtaining a first raw output for a wafer generated using a first optical mode of an inspection system and using a second optical mode of the inspection system to generate a second original for the wafer The output is shown in step 40 of Figure 5. The first and second raw outputs for the wafer can be performed using the inspection system. For example, obtaining the first and second raw outputs can include using the inspection system to scan light over the wafer and in response to scattering and/or reflection from the wafer detected by the inspection system during scanning. Light produces first and second raw outputs. In this manner, obtaining the first and second raw outputs can include scanning the wafer. However, obtaining the first and second raw outputs does not necessarily involve scanning the wafer. For example, obtaining the first and second original outputs can include obtaining the first and second raw outputs from a storage medium in which the first and second original outputs have been stored (eg, by the inspection system). The first and second raw outputs obtained from the storage medium may be executed in any suitable manner, and the storage medium from which the output is obtained may include any of the storage media set forth herein. In any case, the method includes raw output (eg, raw material) collection.

In one embodiment, the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light scattered from the wafer. In particular, the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light scattered from the wafer and detected by the inspection system. Alternatively, the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light reflected from the wafer and detected by the inspection system. The first and second raw outputs may comprise any suitable raw output and may vary depending on the configuration of the inspection system. For example, the first and second raw outputs can include signals, data, image data, and the like. Additionally, the first and second raw outputs can be generally defined as outputs for at least a portion (eg, a plurality of pixels) of the entire output produced by the inspection system for the wafer. Additionally, the first and second raw outputs can include all of the original inputs generated by the inspection system for the entire wafer All raw outputs, etc., generated for the entire portion of the wafer scanned by the inspection system, regardless of whether the original output corresponds to a defect on the wafer.

In contrast, individual outputs can generally be defined as outputs for a single pixel by verifying the entire output produced by the system for the wafer. Thus, the first and second raw outputs can each comprise a plurality of individual outputs. In other words, individual outputs can be output separately for different locations on the wafer. For example, individual outputs can include individual discrete outputs that are generated for different locations on the wafer. In particular, different locations may correspond to different "checkpoints" on the wafer. In other words, the different locations may correspond to locations on the wafer for which the output is separately generated by the inspection system. In this manner, the different locations may correspond to each location on the wafer at which a "measurement" is performed by the inspection system. As such, the different locations may vary depending on the configuration of the inspection system (eg, where the inspection system produces output for the wafer). The individual outputs contain individual outputs that correspond to and do not correspond to defects on the wafer.

The inspection system can be configured as described herein. For example, the inspection system can be configured for dark field (DF) inspection of wafers. In this manner, the inspection system can include a DF inspection system. The DF inspection system can be configured as further described herein. In another example, the inspection system can be configured for bright field (BF) inspection of wafers. In this manner, the inspection system can include a BF inspection system. The BF inspection system can have any suitable configuration known in the art. The inspection system can also be configured for BF and DF inspections. In addition, the inspection system can be configured as a scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection and inspection system, and such an inspection system can have any suitable configuration known in the art. Additionally, the inspection system can be configured to verify the patterned wafer and possibly also the unpatterned wafer.

In one embodiment, the first and second optics modes are defined by the same values of different detectors of the inspection system and other optical parameters of the inspection system. For example, the inspection system can include multiple detectors (or channels) as further illustrated and described herein, and the first raw output can be generated using one of the first ones of the detectors (or channels) and Second raw output It can be generated using one of the detectors (or channels). In this way, the first and second raw outputs can be generated using different detectors of the inspection system. Different detectors can generate the first and second original outputs substantially simultaneously on the same pass. Different detectors may differ in that they detect physically different detectors of light collected at different angles, but in addition the detectors may have the same configuration (eg, the same configuration and model). However, different detectors may differ in that they detect light that is collected at different angles and that have physically different detectors of different configurations. In addition, different detectors are usually not the same photosensitive elements of the same detector. For example, different detectors are not different pixels of the same detector. Other optical parameters of the inspection system may include all or any other optical parameters of the inspection system, such as illumination wavelength, illumination polarization, illumination angle, collection angle, detection wavelength, detection of polarization, and the like.

In another embodiment, the first and second optics are defined by the same value of one or more of the different detectors, the inspection system, or one or more of the optical parameters of the inspection system and the other optical parameters of the inspection system. mode. The first and second optics modes can be defined by different detectors as explained above, and the different detectors can be configured as explained above. One or more optical parameters having one or more different values may be any of the optical parameters set forth above, and other optical parameters having the same value may include any of the remaining optical parameters set forth above. One. For example, the first and second optics modes can be defined by different values of different detectors, different values of illumination and detection polarization, and all other optical parameters of the inspection system.

In an additional embodiment, the first and second optical devices are defined by the same value of one or more optical parameters of one or more optical parameters of the inspection system, one or more optical parameters, and other optical parameters of the inspection system. mode. In this manner, the first and second optics modes may be defined by different values of at least some of the optical parameters of the same detector (or channel) that may be configured and illustrated as further illustrated herein. . For example, the first and second optics modes can be defined by different values of the same detector but illuminating the polarized light. The same detector may generate the first and second raw outputs in substantially the same pass or in different passes sequentially (eg, depending on different values of the optical parameters and the capabilities of the detector).

In another embodiment, the first and the same value of one or more of the optical parameters of the same system of the inspection system, one or more of the optical parameters, and the other values of the other optical parameters of the inspection system are defined by the first set of detectors. Second optics mode. For example, the first and second detectors, the same three detectors, etc., which can be configured and illustrated herein, can be defined by different values of at least some of the optical parameters of the inspection system. Second optics mode. In one such example, the first and second optics modes can be defined by different values of the same set of two detectors but illuminating the polarized light. The same detector may generate the first and second raw outputs in substantially the same pass or in different passes sequentially (eg, depending on different values of the optical parameters and the capabilities of the detector).

In some embodiments, the first is defined by a combination of one of a subset of detectors of the inspection system, one of the inspection systems, or one of a plurality of optical parameters or a plurality of different values and other optical parameters of the inspection system. And a second optics mode. For example, at least two of the same detectors, the same three detectors, and the optical parameters of the inspection system that are not included in all of the detectors in the inspection system and that can be configured and illustrated herein can be included Different values of certain parameters define the first and second optics modes. In one such example, the first and second optics modes may be defined by the same two detectors of the inspection system rather than one of the third detectors of the inspection system and the different values of the illumination polarization. The detectors included in the subset can generate the first and second raw outputs as explained above.

The computer implemented method also includes identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output corresponding to one or more geometric features of the patterned features formed on the wafer, as shown in step 42 of FIG. In one embodiment, the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output comprise a projection along a line within the first original output. A projection can generally be defined as a group, cluster, or sum of individual outputs having a pattern within the original output. For example, along the first raw output The projections of the horizontal and vertical lines are gathered together. In this manner, x and y projections within a first original output that define or correspond to one or more geometrical characteristics of the patterned features can be identified. As such, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output can include performing a two-dimensional (2D) projection of the first raw output. However, one or more of the first raw outputs corresponding to one or more of the patterned features formed on the wafer may include any other characteristic of the first raw output. For example, in another embodiment, the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output comprise a bit strength of the first original output corresponding to one or more of the geometrical features of the patterned features. Identifying one or more of the first raw outputs as set forth above may be performed using any suitable method and/or algorithm in any suitable manner.

In one embodiment, one or more of the geometrical features of the patterned features comprise one of an edge, a shape, a texture, a geometric shape defining a patterned feature, or some combination thereof. For example, the geometry-based segmentation features that can be performed as further described herein include edges, shapes, textures, any mathematical calculations/transformations that define the geometry, or any combination thereof. Although all patterned features formed on a wafer may have a certain roughness and thus a certain "texture", the difference between texture and roughness is that roughness is generally used to refer to and describe only the warp pattern. Roughness on the perimeter of the feature and texture generally refers to the overall texture of the patterned features (eg, whether as designed). One example of a mathematical calculation/transformation that can be used to define the geometry of a patterned feature is a Fourier transform algorithm that can be used to illustrate a relationship between geometry and light scattering. For example, a Fourier transform algorithm can be used to predict a projection in the original output that would correspond to one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features.

In one embodiment, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output is performed based on how one of the patterned features affects one or more of the first raw outputs. For example, one can be used to design a layout of one of the segments that can be performed as set forth herein. In particular, the design layout can be used to identify one or more geometric features of the patterned features in the design layout. Can then determine (for example, by experience, in theory, etc.) the first original The initial output will correspond to one or more of the one or more identified geometric characteristics (eg, projection). In this manner, it can be determined that the first original output will correspond to one or more of the expected characteristics of one or more of the geometric features of the patterned features. One or more of the expected characteristics and one or more of the first original outputs may then be compared in any suitable manner to identify one or more of the one or more geometric characteristics of the first original output corresponding to the patterned features Features. The design layout used in this step can be obtained in any suitable manner and can have any suitable format.

In another embodiment, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output is performed while performing the acquiring the first and second raw outputs. In this manner, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output can be performed in operation while the wafer is being scanned by the inspection system. For example, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output for the first raw output of the wafer acquisition in the same scan as the second original output. As such, other steps (eg, segmentation) as set forth herein may be performed in operation during acquisition of the first and second raw outputs for the wafer using one or more of the identified characteristics of the first raw output. .

The computer implemented method also includes determining the one or more characteristics based on the first raw output and based on the individual outputs of the second original output and the individual outputs of the first original output generated at substantially the same location on the wafer Assigning individual outputs of the second original output to different segments such that one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features corresponding to each of the different segments in the second original output are different, As shown in step 44 of Figure 5. In this manner, the embodiments set forth herein are configured for segmentation based on geometry. More specifically, embodiments described herein utilize how the geometrical characteristics (eg, shape) of the wafer pattern will affect the first and second original outputs and separate the patterns that affect the first and second original outputs differently into Different segments. In other words, the embodiments set forth herein utilize how the geometrical characteristics (eg, shape) of the pattern on the wafer will affect the first and second raw outputs to separate the individual outputs of the second original output into different segments. For example, patterned features having one or more different geometrical characteristics can have different effects on light scattered from the wafer, and thereby the needle can be The first and second raw outputs produced by the wafer have different effects. Their patterned features can be effectively separated into different segments by the embodiments set forth herein. Assigning individual outputs in the second raw output to different segments as set forth herein may be performed using any suitable method and/or any suitable method of algorithm. Individual outputs in the first and second raw outputs generated at substantially the same location on the wafer may be identified based on aligned and/or aligned wafer position information from one of the wafer and inspection systems.

"Segmentation" can generally be defined as a different part of the entire range of possible values for individual outputs. Segmentation may be defined based on values of different characteristics depending on the individual output of the defect detection algorithm using the segmentation. For example, in multiple die automatic threshold (MDAT) algorithms, the value of the individual output that defines the characteristics of the segment may include the median intensity value. In one such illustrative and non-limiting example, if the median intensity value is from 0 to 255, a first segment may include a bit intensity value from 0 to 100 and a second segment. It can contain bit strength values from 101 to 255. In this way, the first segment corresponds to a darker region in the original output and the second segment corresponds to a brighter region in the original output. In some instances, segmentation may use one wafer definition, and for wafers having a geometry similar to that of one wafer, a predefined segmentation may be used.

The embodiments set forth herein are thus configured for segmentation and for detecting defects on a wafer using a plurality of optical mode (or multi-perspective) architectures. As such, the embodiments set forth herein provide a unique value for defect detection on a multi-channel (or multi-detector) system. For example, an embodiment basically applies information collected from one mode to another mode (having a collector that is the same or different from the one mode). In one such example, it allows for detecting defects in one of several channels (or detectors) by utilizing output input information obtained from other channels (or detectors).

In contrast to the embodiments set forth herein, as shown in FIG. 1, the currently used method for performing segmentation and defect detection uses a channel by an inspection system (not shown in FIG. 1) (eg, Channel A) produces the original output 2 to generate segments (eg, segment 0 and Segment 1) and then use the same raw output to perform defect detection in segment 0 to detect the defect of interest (DOI) without performing defect detection in segment 1 so that segment 1 is not detected Damage to the defect. In this way, in the currently used method, defect detection and segmentation are based on raw output from the same channel (or detector). Therefore, as illustrated in Figure 1, the currently used method divides the original output into segments but the segmentation tangent is based on the same channel as the defect detection channel, meaning that the defect detection and segmentation are based on the same channel. The original output information. In addition, the currently used method does not use segmentation information generated using any one channel (or detector) for a different channel (or detector).

However, for a multi-channel verifier, there are many cases in which the channel in which the defect is detected may have no clear separation of the segments and the other channels may have a segmented, clearly separated but defect-free signal. When this situation is encountered, the currently used method will have the disadvantage of using segments for defect detection based on one channel of information.

However, the embodiments set forth herein solve this problem by sharing segments across channels. For example, the raw output obtained from a detector can be divided into two or more segments based on the geometric characteristics of the patterned features formed on the wafer, and then the segmentation information can be transmitted through the wafer location information application. On another channel or detector. In one such example, as shown in FIG. 2, the original output 6 generated using one channel (eg, channel B) can be used to determine segments (eg, segment 0 and segment 1). The segments can then be applied to the original output 4 generated using a different channel (eg, channel A) such that the DOI can be detected in one of the segments (eg, segment 0) while not in the segment The other one (e.g., segment 1) performs defect detection so that no damage defects are detected in the segment. In this way, defect detection and segmentation can be performed using outputs generated by different channels (or detectors). As such, the segments can be shared across channels or detectors.

Embodiments set forth herein may be useful in particular in a number of use cases, such as copper residue detection on a wafer after a chemical mechanical planarization of a copper layer has been performed on the wafer. For example, two different channels of the same inspection system can produce the original for the wafer. Output. Both channels detect light scattered from the wafer, and the wafer may comprise copper wires and an oxide formed between the copper wires. The DOI in this case can be a copper residue on the oxide between the copper wires. One of the channels can generate an original output that can be used to detect this DOI. However, the same channel can detect strong scattering from copper lines. Thus, although the DOI can be detected using the original output produced by this channel, strong scattering from the copper line becomes the primary source of damage. In other words, although this channel can have good detection of copper residues, copper line scattering is also intense and becomes a major source of damage. As such, the use of this channel to detect copper residue defects will result in significant damage detection. Therefore, segmentation between the oxide between the copper wire and the wire is explicitly required for this channel to detect copper residue at a low damage rate. However, the segmentation separation using this channel may not be ideal and clean, especially for defective grains, since the copper residue between the copper wires has nearly the same scattering intensity as the copper wire itself. Therefore, the segmentation method in which defect detection and segmentation are based on the current channel of the same channel will not be applicable in this case.

However, another channel of the inspection system may have no detection of copper residue DOI but may have a clear segmentation separation between the copper wire and the oxide. Thus, in the embodiments set forth herein, the original output from this channel can be divided into two segments (eg, copper lines and oxides), and the segmentation information can be applied to the above by wafer position information. Explain the raw output produced by other channels. After this has been done, the other channels set forth above will have a clear segmentation separation, which will enable DOI (copper residue) capture at relatively low damage rates.

The segmentation described herein may be based on projection or based on median intensity. The median segmentation is basically based on the segmentation of the original intensity of the reference image. For median segmentation, the first raw output can be divided into two or more segments based on the bit intensity in the first original output, and then the segmentation information can be applied to the second channel or detected through the wafer position information. Device.

In one embodiment, identifying one or more characteristics of the first raw output and assigning individual outputs of the second original output to no without user input Same segmentation. For example, the embodiments set forth herein can utilize the geometrical characteristics (eg, shape) and projection of the pattern on the wafer to automatically separate individual outputs in the second raw output into different segments. In this way, unlike the method of manually setting the region of interest (ROI) and applying the same set of parameters for defect detection in the same ROI, the design rules shrink and the different regions on the segmented wafer are changed. Hours, using the embodiment segments described in this article will not be more complicated. In addition, unlike the manual method, automatically identifying one or more characteristics of the first original output and assigning individual outputs of the second original output to different segments without the user input is not subject to the verification system phase accuracy. And the impact of resolution limits. Thus, using the embodiments described herein for segmentation, verifying system phase accuracy and resolution limits will not make segmentation impossible.

In another embodiment, assigning individual outputs in the second raw output to different segments is performed without considering design data associated with the patterned features. For example, although the design layout can be used to determine that the first raw output will correspond to one or more of the expected characteristics of one or more of the patterned features, the design layout is not based on the design data itself. segment. In other words, segmentation is based on how one or more of the patterned features will affect the first raw output, rather than based on one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features themselves. In this manner, unlike other methods and systems that segment the original output based on design data associated with the patterned features, if the patterned features will affect the first raw output in the same manner, then based on their patterning How one or more of the features will affect the first raw output execution segmentation can result in a different key to different design data, different electrical functions, different electrical characteristics, performance of devices using patterned features, and the like. The patterned features are assigned to the same segment. For example, based on how the geometric properties will affect the characteristics of the first raw output (eg, intensity) rather than the geometry itself performing segmentation, the patterned features that produce significant noise in the first raw output are assigned to the same Segmentation (regardless of the design material associated with their patterned features) and other patterned features that produce negligible noise in the first raw output are assigned to a different score Segments (also regardless of the design information associated with their other patterned features). In this way, the high noise patterned features can be segmented together and the low noise patterned features can be segmented together.

In an additional embodiment, assigning individual outputs of the second original output to different segments is performed without considering the strength of the individual outputs in the second raw output. In other words, although segmentation may be performed based on one or more identified characteristics of the intensity of the plurality of individual outputs in the first original output based on the first raw output, not based on individual outputs in the first or second original output itself The intensity performs segmentation. For example, a projection along a line within the first raw output can include individual outputs having various and possibly significantly different intensities. However, all of the individual outputs may correspond to the same one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features, such as pagination. As such, all individual outputs of the second original output corresponding to the same one or more geometrical characteristics of the patterned features can be assigned to the same segment, even though all of the individual outputs can have significantly different intensities. In this manner, unlike the method for performing segmentation based on the intensity of individual pixels, the segments performed by the embodiments set forth herein will not be affected by the uneven scattering of the self-patterned features.

In some embodiments, assigning individual outputs of the second original output to different segments comprises analyzing the identified one or more characteristics of the first original output and applying a threshold to the individual outputs of the second original output . For example, as explained above, the projections along the horizontal and vertical lines in the first raw output can be brought together. The projections can then be analyzed, and the threshold can be set to separate the individual outputs in the second raw output into different regions of interest (segments). Analyzing the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output and applying the threshold to the individual outputs in the second original output may reduce the number of individual outputs corresponding to the boundary regions from being improperly assigned to the segments.

In one embodiment, one or more geometric features corresponding to one of the different segments comprise one or more geometric features of the page and correspond to one or more of the other of the different segments The feature contains one or more geometric characteristics of the array area. Pagination is usually done in this technique Intraoperative is defined as the separation of the regions of one of the substantially continuous regions of the physical memory. Each of the contiguous regions of physical memory may be commonly referred to as a one-page frame. Performing segmentation as described herein, one or more characteristics of the paged geometry in the defined array region of the first raw output (eg, x and/or y projection) may be identified and used to correspond to pagination The individual outputs in the second raw output are assigned to one segment and the individual outputs in the second original output corresponding to the array region are assigned to a different segment.

In another embodiment, one or more geometric characteristics of the first original output corresponding to certain ones of the patterned features are not inhibited by filtering, such as Fourier filtering, such as an optical, mechanical, or electronic filtering system. One or more characteristics. For example, unlike some methods for segmentation, page breaks can be suppressed in the array region even if the distance between the pages is greater than the distance that Fourier filtering can perform. In one such example, for some inspection systems, if the width of a page is about 5 μm and the spacing between pages is about 5 μm, Fourier filtering becomes impractical (if not impossible) and the manual of the ROI The setting also becomes impractical (if not impossible). Therefore, the signal (noise) generated by the paging in the second original output can be suppressed, and the defect detection sensitivity that can be achieved using the second original output can be reduced. However, using the embodiments set forth herein, individual outputs in the second original output corresponding to the page may be identified (eg, based on a projection within the first original output) and corresponding to the second original output of the page Individual outputs may be assigned to one segment and other individual outputs in the second original output may be assigned to other segments such that different sensitivities as described further herein may be used to detect defects in different segments.

The computer implemented method further includes assigning one or more defect detection parameters to different segments separately, as shown in step 46 of FIG. One or more defect detection parameters can be individually assigned to all of the different segments. Therefore, one of the individual outputs of the second original output can be ignored when it performs defect detection. Instead, defects can be detected using individual outputs assigned to all of the different segments. In other words, all segments of the second original output can be used to detect defects. In this way, different segments can be handled differently by means of different test recipes. Different test recipes can be referred to The defect detection algorithms assigned to different segments are different. Alternatively, different test recipes may be different in one or more of the same defect detection algorithms assigned to different segments. One or more of the parameters assigned to the different segments of the defect detection algorithm or assigned to the different segments may include any suitable defect detection algorithm. For example, the defect detection algorithm can be a piecewise automatic threshold (SAT) algorithm or an MDAT algorithm. These defect detection algorithms may be specifically adapted to the BF test. However, the defect detection algorithm can be one of the defect detection algorithms suitable for DF test. For example, the defect detection algorithm can be a FAST algorithm or a HLAT algorithm.

The different test recipes may also differ in one or more of the optical parameters used to obtain the second raw output for the wafer. For example, in a multi-pass test, different passes can be performed with different values of at least one optical parameter (eg, polarization, wavelength, illumination angle, collection angle, etc.) of the inspection system, and are generated in different passes. The second raw output can be used to detect defects in different regions of the wafer in which the patterned features having one or more different geometrical characteristics are formed. In this manner, a crystal containing patterned features having one or more different geometrical properties can be examined using a second original output from a different one of the different passes performed using one or more different optical parameters. The area of the circle.

In one embodiment, the one or more defect detection parameters include a threshold value that will be applied to a difference between the individual outputs of the second original output and a reference. In this way, depending on the segment to which the individual outputs in the second original output have been assigned, different thresholds can be applied to the difference between the individual outputs in the second original output and the reference. For example, a reference (such as an 8-bit reference image) can be subtracted from an individual output (such as an 8-bit test image) in the second original output, regardless of whether the individual output in the second original output has been assigned to What is the segmentation? The reference may include any suitable reference, such as a grain in the second original output corresponding to one of the grains on the wafer (which is different from the individual output of the second original output from which the reference is subtracted), crystal One unit on the circle (which is different from the one from which it has been subtracted) Refer to the individual outputs of the individual output of the second original output). Any individual output in the second original output having a difference above the assigned threshold may be identified as a defect. In this way, defects can be detected with different thresholds depending on the segment to which the individual outputs in the second original output have been assigned.

In another embodiment, one or more defect detection parameters are individually assigned to different segments such that the individual outputs in the second original output assigned to the different segments are detected with different sensitivities with different sensitivities. Thus, the embodiments set forth herein can achieve better detection of defects by utilizing the knowledge that DOI and damage/noise are geometrically resident in different segments. For example, different geometries can exhibit different types of defects. In one such example, in an array pattern region, the first raw output can include alternating linear patterns of relatively bright individual outputs and relatively dark individual outputs. In some such instances, the DOI may be located in a portion of the second original output that corresponds to a portion of the first original output that includes the relatively bright individual output, and the impairment defect may be located in the second original output corresponding to the containing relative The portion of the portion of the first original output of the dark individual output. In this way, the sensitivity of a detection algorithm can be set differently for use in the array area, using segments that define the characteristics of the geometry (eg, x or y projections of the pages in the array area). Better sensitivity and less damage from paging. Thus, the embodiments set forth herein advantageously allow for the separation of different geometric patterns of wafers into one of the different segments in an automated manner. This segmentation makes it possible to handle these regions differently and to achieve better sensitivity. Different geometries also scatter light differently. In this way, certain geometries may cause the first raw output to be relatively noisy while other geometries may cause the first original output to be relatively quiet. However, only the intensity of the individual outputs of the first raw output is used for segmentation, and the individual outputs in the second original output corresponding to the relatively noisy and relatively quiet regions may be grouped together (eg, due to poorly defined boundaries) . In contrast, in the embodiments set forth herein, a defect in the region of the wafer having one or more geometric characteristics corresponding to less noise in the second original output can be achieved. Sensitivity. In addition, for narrowband inspection systems, defects can usually be buried In noise, this is because the pattern also scatters a significant amount of light. However, the embodiments set forth herein enable detection of their deficiencies by noise detuning from nearby patterns.

The computer implemented method further includes applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the individual outputs of the second original outputs assigned to the different segments to thereby detect defects on the wafer, as shown in FIG. 48 shows. As explained above, different segments can be handled differently with different test recipes. In this manner, applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the individual outputs in the second raw output can include verifying the segments with different recipes to thereby detect defects on the wafer. For example, a segment to which an individual output of the second original output has been assigned may be used to determine a threshold that will be applied to the difference between the individual output in the second original output and the reference. After determining that the individual output in the second original output has been assigned to the segment and assigning one or more defect detection parameters to the different segment, the assigned one or more defect detection parameters may be applied as The individual outputs assigned to the second original output of the different segments are typically executed.

In one embodiment, acquiring the first and second raw outputs is performed in one pass of one of the plurality of passes of the wafer, and the computer is not executed for the original output obtained in another pass of the multiple pass check Method of implementation. In this way, the segments as set forth herein can be performed for only one pass of a multi-pass test. The raw output obtained in other passes can be used for other purposes. For example, a multi-pass inspection may achieve a segmentation goal where one pass has the best signal for the defect and the other pass provides the segmentation based on the geometry. In particular, different passes of the multi-pass test may be performed with one or more different defect detection parameters and/or one or more different optical parameters such that the original output and/or defect detection results are directed to different passes Different times. In one such example, one optical mode used in one pass of a multi-pass test may allow segmentation, while another optical mode of the inspection system used in another pass of the multi-pass test may provide the highest DOI Sensitivity. However, the segmentation as set forth herein may be performed for multiple passes of a multiple pass test. For example, in another embodiment, acquiring the first and second ones in one pass of one of the wafers The raw output, and the computer implemented method is performed for the raw output obtained in another pass of the multipass pass. The computer implemented method can be performed for one or more different parameters for different passes.

In another embodiment, additional defects are detected using the raw output obtained in other passes, and the method includes combining the defects with additional defects to produce a test result for the wafer. For example, as explained above, one pass of a multi-pass test can be used for segmentation, and another pass of a multi-pass test can be used to detect the DOI with the best signal. In another example, different passes can be used for different segments. Therefore, different passes of multiple passes can detect different types of defects. In this way, the results of the different passes of the multi-pass inspection can be combined to produce an overall inspection result for the wafer. The result of detecting defects using the original output obtained in different passes may be combined after the defect detection using the original output resulting from all of the different passes has been performed. Alternatively, the defect detection results generated using the raw outputs obtained in different passes may be combined while running or while an output in the original output is still being acquired.

In an additional embodiment, the method includes applying one or more pre-determined defect detection parameters to the first or second raw output to detect additional defects on the wafer and combining the defects and additional defects to produce a wafer test result. For example, a reference (such as an 8-bit reference image) can be subtracted from an individual output (such as an 8-bit test image) from the first or second original output, regardless of the first or second original output. How is the individual output assigned to it? References may include any suitable reference, such as those set forth above. Additionally, the same reference can be used by applying one or more defect detection parameters to individual outputs in the second original output and by applying one or more pre-determined defect detection parameters to the first or second The original output detects defects. The result of the subtraction can be an absolute difference. A pre-determined direct difference threshold can then be applied to the absolute difference and any individual output having an absolute difference above one of the thresholds can be identified as a defect. In addition, the same pre-determined direct difference threshold can be applied to the absolute difference, regardless of the segment to which the individual output in the second original output has been assigned. With this The pattern detection defect can then be combined with the defect detected by applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the individual output in the second original output to produce the final inspection result of the wafer. For example, a defect mask can be generated separately for all defects detected in any manner. The region can be "growthed" from the two difference image execution regions, and one of all defects can be produced as the final mask.

Detecting defects in different ways as described above may provide defect re-detection, which may be advantageous for several reasons. For example, automatic 2D projection and geometric segmentation provide convenient use for robust defect re-detection and defect re-detection. In addition, the segmentation described in this article provides a dynamic way of mapping defects and reference images. For example, if the segmentation is noisy, the difference can be detuned. In contrast, if the segmentation is cleaner, the difference can be amplified. In addition, the dual detection as described above reduces the likelihood of false alarms for any detection method.

The method can also include storing the results of any of the steps of the method in a storage medium. The results can include any of the results set forth herein and can be stored in any manner known in the art. For example, a segment to which an individual output is assigned and/or assigned to one or more defect detection parameters of a different segment can be used to generate a data structure, such as stored on one of the storage media coupled to one of the inspection systems. Lookup table. The storage medium may comprise any suitable storage medium known in the art. After the results have been stored, the results can be accessed in a storage medium and used as described herein, formatted for display to a user, used by another software module, method or system, and the like. The results of the storage can also be as described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2009/0080759, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein to The reference is incorporated.

Another embodiment relates to storing a non-transitory computer program executable on a computer system for performing a method for detecting a defect on a wafer (ie, a computer implemented method) Readable media. One such embodiment is shown in Figure 3. For example As shown in FIG. 3, the non-transitory computer readable medium 10 includes program instructions 12 executable on the computer system 14 for performing the methods described above for detecting defects on a wafer. . The computer implemented method for its executable program instructions may include any other steps of any of the other methods set forth herein.

Program instructions 12 that implement methods such as those described herein may be stored on non-transitory computer readable medium 10. The computer readable medium can be a storage medium such as a magnetic or optical disk, a magnetic tape or any other suitable computer readable medium known in the art.

The program instructions can be implemented in any of a variety of ways, including program-based techniques, component-based techniques, and/or object-oriented techniques, among other techniques. For example, program instructions may be implemented using Matlab, Visual Basic, ActiveX controls, C, C++ objects, C#, JavaBeans, Microsoft Foundation Classes ("MFC"), or other techniques or methods.

Computer system 14 can take a variety of forms, including a personal computer system, a large computer system, a workstation, a system computer, an imaging computer, a programmable image computer, a parallel processor, or any other device known in the art. In general, the term "computer system" is broadly defined to encompass any device having one or more processors that execute instructions from a memory medium.

An additional embodiment relates to a system configured to detect defects on a wafer. An embodiment of this system is shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 4, system 16 includes an inspection subsystem 18 and a computer subsystem 20. The inspection subsystem is configured to scan a wafer by using a first optical mode of the inspection subsystem to generate a first raw output for a wafer and to scan the wafer by using a second optical mode of the inspection subsystem A second raw output is generated for the wafer. For example, as shown in FIG. 4, the inspection subsystem includes a light source 22 such as a laser. Light source 22 is configured to direct light to polarizing assembly 24. Additionally, the inspection subsystem can include more than one polarizing component (not shown), each of the polarizing components It can be positioned independently in the path of light from the source. Each of the polarizing components can be configured in a different manner to alter the polarization of light from the source. The inspection subsystem can be configured to select and remove the polarizing assembly into and out of the path from the light source in any suitable manner depending on which polarization setting is selected for illumination of the wafer during a scan. The polarization setting used for illumination of the wafer during a scan may include p-polarized (P), s-polarized (S), or circularly polarized (C).

Light exiting polarizing assembly 24 is directed to wafer 26 at an oblique angle of incidence, which may include any suitable oblique angle of incidence. The inspection subsystem may also include one or more optical components (not shown) configured to direct light from the light source 22 to the polarizing assembly 24 or from the polarizing assembly 24 to the wafer 26. The optical component can comprise any suitable optical component known in the art, such as, but not limited to, a reflective optical component. Additionally, the light source, the polarizing component, and/or the one or more optical components can be configured to direct light to the crystal at one or more angles of incidence (eg, a tilted incident angle and/or a substantially normal incident angle) circle. The inspection subsystem can be configured to perform scanning by scanning light over the wafer in any suitable manner.

Light scattered from the wafer 26 can be collected and detected by multiple channels of the inspection subsystem during the scan. For example, light scattered from the wafer 26 at a relatively close angle to the normal can be collected by the lens 28. Lens 28 can include a refractive optical element as shown in FIG. Additionally, lens 28 can include one or more refractive optical elements and/or one or more reflective optical elements. Light collected by lens 28 can be directed to polarizing assembly 30, which can comprise any suitable polarizing assembly known in the art. Additionally, the inspection subsystem can include more than one polarizing assembly (not shown), each of which can be individually positioned in the path of light collected by the lens. Each of the polarizing components can be configured to change the polarization of the light collected by the lens in a different manner. Depending on which polarization setting is selected for detection of light collected by lens 28 during scanning, the inspection subsystem can be configured to move the polarizing assembly into and out of the path of light collected by the lens in any suitable manner. . Polarization settings for detection of light collected by lens 28 during scanning may be included in the description herein Any of the polarization settings (eg, P, S, and non-polarized (N)).

The light exiting polarizing assembly 30 is directed to the detector 32. The detector 32 can include any suitable detector known in the art, such as a charge coupled device (CCD) or another type of imaging detector. The detector 32 is configured to generate an original output responsive to the scattered light collected by the lens 28 and transmitted by the polarizing assembly 30 (if positioned in the path of the collected scattered light). Thus, lens 28, polarizing assembly 30 (if positioned in the path of light collected by lens 28) and detector 32 form a channel for the inspection subsystem. This channel of the inspection subsystem can include any other suitable optical component (not shown) known in the art, such as a Fourier filter component.

Light scattered from the wafer 26 at different angles may be collected by the lens 34. Lens 34 can be configured as explained above. Light collected by lens 34 can be directed to polarizing assembly 36, which can comprise any suitable polarizing assembly known in the art. Additionally, the inspection subsystem can include more than one polarizing assembly (not shown), each of which can be individually positioned in the path of light collected by the lens. Each of the polarizing components can be configured to change the polarization of the light collected by the lens in a different manner. Depending on which polarization setting is selected for detection of light collected by lens 34 during scanning, the inspection subsystem can be configured to move the polarizing assembly into and out of the path of light collected by the lens in any suitable manner. . The polarization setting for detection of light collected by lens 34 during scanning may include P, S or N.

The light exiting polarizing assembly 36 leads to a detector 38 that can be configured as explained above. The detector 38 is also configured to generate an original output responsive to the collected scattered light passing through the polarizing component 36 (if positioned in the path of the scattered light). Thus, lens 34, polarizing assembly 36 (if positioned in the path of light collected by lens 34) and detector 38 may form another channel of the inspection subsystem. This channel may also include any of the other optical components (not shown) set forth above. In some embodiments, lens 34 can be configured to collect light scattered from the wafer at a polar angle from about 20 degrees to about 70 degrees. Additionally, lens 34 can be configured as a reflective optical component (not Shown), the reflective optical component is configured to collect light scattered from the wafer at an azimuthal angle of about 360 degrees.

The inspection subsystem shown in Figure 4 may also include one or more other channels (not shown). For example, the verification subsystem can include an additional channel that can include any of the optical components set forth herein, such as one lens configured as one side channel, one or more polarizing components, and one Detector. The lens, one or more polarizing components, and the detector can be further configured as set forth herein. In one such example, the side channels can be configured to collect and detect light scattered from the plane of incidence (eg, the side channels can include one lens and a group centered in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of incidence) State to detect one of the light collected by the lens).

When the original output is produced using a plurality of optical modes having one or more of the optical parameters of one or more of the inspection systems, the value of any optical parameters of the inspection subsystem can be altered in any suitable manner, if necessary. For example, to change the illumination polarization state for different optics modes, the polarizing assembly 24 can be removed and/or replaced with a different polarizing component as set forth herein. In another example, to change the illumination angle of the different optics modes, the position of the light source and/or any other optical component (eg, polarizing assembly 24) used to direct light to the wafer can be altered in any suitable manner.

Computer subsystem 20 is configured to acquire first and second raw outputs produced by the verification subsystem. For example, the first and second raw outputs generated by the detector during the scan may be provided to computer subsystem 20. In particular, a computer subsystem can be coupled to each of the detectors (eg, by one or more transmission media shown by dashed lines in FIG. 4, such transmission media can include those known in the art Any suitable transmission medium) to enable the computer subsystem to receive the first and second raw outputs produced by the detector. The computer subsystem can be coupled to each of the detectors in any suitable manner. The first and second raw outputs produced by the detector during scanning of the wafer may include any of the first and second raw outputs set forth herein.

The computer subsystem is configured to identify one or more of the one or more geometric characteristics of the first original output corresponding to the patterned features formed on the wafer in accordance with any of the embodiments set forth herein characteristic. One or more of the first raw outputs may include any of the features set forth herein. One or more geometric characteristics may also include any of the features set forth herein. The patterned features can include any of the patterned features set forth herein.

Additionally, the computer subsystem is configured to be based on the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output and based on the individual outputs in the second original output and in the first raw output generated at substantially the same location on the wafer Individual outputs, assigning individual outputs of the second original output to different segments such that one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features corresponding to each of the different segments in the second original output different. The computer subsystem can be configured to assign individual outputs of the second raw output to different segments in accordance with any of the embodiments set forth herein. Individual outputs may include any of the individual outputs set forth herein. Different segments can be configured as described in this article. The identified or plurality of characteristics of the first raw output may include any of the features set forth herein.

The computer subsystem is further configured to individually assign one or more defect detection parameters to different segments in accordance with any of the embodiments set forth herein. The one or more defect detection parameters can include any of the defect detection parameters set forth herein. The computer subsystem is also configured to apply the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to individual outputs assigned to the second original output of the different segments to thereby detect defects on the wafer, which may be based on Any of the embodiments set forth herein are performed. The one or more defect detection parameters assigned may include any of the parameters set forth herein.

The computer subsystem can be configured to perform any of the other steps of any of the method embodiments set forth herein. The computer subsystem, inspection subsystem, and system can be further configured as described herein.

It should be noted that FIG. 4 is provided herein as a general illustration that may be included herein. One of the configuration subsystems of the system embodiment illustrated. Obviously, the test subsystem configuration set forth herein can be modified to optimize the performance of the test subsystem as typically performed when designing a commercial inspection system. In addition, the systems described herein can be implemented using an existing inspection system such as one of the Puma 90xx, 91xx, and 93xx series of tools commercially available from KLA-Tencor, Milpitas, California (eg, by way of example herein) The functionalities described are added to an existing inspection system). For some of these systems, the methods set forth herein may be provided as optional functionality of the system (eg, in addition to other functionalities of the system). Another option is that the system described in this article can be designed to "start from scratch" to provide a complete new system.

Embodiments set forth herein may also be implemented on a variety of multi-channel or multi-perspective inspection systems. For example, a multi-perspective inspection system can include two collectors optimized for defect detection in addition to a top relative large numerical aperture (NA) collector and using one of the baseplate illuminations with imaging optics. Ultraviolet (DUV) system. In such a system, the embodiments set forth herein may use the raw output produced by the top collector, which is the largest and has the highest resolution for segment definition and its side collectors are usable. Segment information to improve defect detection sensitivity.

Further modifications and alternative embodiments of the various aspects of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art. For example, methods and systems are provided for detecting defects on a wafer. Accordingly, the description is to be regarded as illustrative only, and is intended to be a It is to be understood that the form of the invention shown and described herein is considered as a preferred embodiment. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; </ RTI> <RTIgt; feature. Variations in the elements set forth herein may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

4‧‧‧ raw output

6‧‧‧ raw output

Claims (51)

  1. A computer implemented method for detecting defects on a wafer, comprising: obtaining a first raw output for a wafer generated using a first optical mode of an inspection system and using one of the inspection systems a second optical mode generated for the second original output of the wafer; identifying one or more characteristics of the first original output corresponding to one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features formed on the wafer; Based on the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output and based on individual outputs in the second raw output and individual outputs in the first raw output generated at substantially identical locations on the wafer, Assigning the individual output of the second original output to a different segment such that the one of the patterned features corresponds to the one or more of each of the different segments of the second original output Geometric characteristics are different, wherein the one or more geometric characteristics corresponding to one of the different segments comprise one or more geometric features of the page, and wherein the one of the different segments corresponds to The one or more geometric characteristics include one or more geometric characteristics of the array region; assigning one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments separately; and assigning one or more defect detections The measured parameters are applied to the individual outputs assigned to the second original outputs of the different segments to thereby detect defects on the wafer.
  2. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined by the same values of different detectors of the inspection system and other optical parameters of the inspection system.
  3. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more of the different detectors of the inspection system, one or more of the optical parameters of the inspection system, and the other of the inspection system The same values of the optical parameters define the first and second optics modes.
  4. The method of claim 1, wherein the same detector of one of the inspection systems, one or more optical parameters of the inspection system, or one or more different values, and the same value of other optical parameters of the inspection system define the same value First and second optics modes.
  5. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined as one or more different values of the same set of detectors of the inspection system, one or more optical parameters of the inspection system, and the inspection A combination of the same values of other optical parameters of the system.
  6. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined as one of a subset of detectors of the inspection system, one or more optical parameters of the inspection system, or a plurality of different values and A combination of the same values of other optical parameters of the inspection system.
  7. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light scattered from the wafer.
  8. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light reflected from the wafer.
  9. The method of claim 1, wherein the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output comprise a projection along a line within the first original output.
  10. The method of claim 1, wherein the identified one or more characteristics of the first original output comprise a bit strength of the one or more geometric characteristics of the first original output corresponding to the patterned features.
  11. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more geometrical characteristics of the patterned features further comprise an edge, a shape, a texture, a mathematical calculation defining a geometry of the patterned features, or some combination thereof.
  12. The method of claim 1, wherein the identifying is performed based on how the one or more characteristics of the first original output are affected by designing one of the patterned features.
  13. The method of claim 1, wherein the identifying is performed while the obtaining is performed.
  14. The method of claim 1, wherein the identifying and assigning the individual output are performed automatically without user input.
  15. The method of claim 1, wherein the assigning the individual output is performed without considering design data associated with the patterned features.
  16. The method of claim 1, wherein the assigning the individual output is performed without considering the strength of the individual output in the second raw output.
  17. The method of claim 1, wherein the assigning the individual output comprises: analyzing the identified one or more characteristics of the first original output; and applying a threshold to the individual output of the second original output.
  18. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more characteristics of the first original output corresponding to the one or more geometric characteristics of certain ones of the patterned features are not inhibited by filtering.
  19. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more defect detection parameters include a threshold value that is to be applied to a difference between the individual output of the second original output and a reference.
  20. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more defect detection parameters are individually assigned such that the individual outputs of the second original output assigned to the different segments are detected with different sensitivities defect.
  21. The method of claim 1, wherein the obtaining is performed in one pass of one of the plurality of passes of the wafer, and wherein the computer implementation is not performed for the raw output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass test The method.
  22. The method of claim 1, wherein the obtaining is performed in one pass of one of the plurality of passes of the wafer, and wherein the computer is executed for the raw output obtained in another pass of the multipass pass method.
  23. The method of claim 1, wherein in one of the plurality of passes of the wafer Performing the acquisition, wherein the computer-implemented method is not performed for the original output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass test, wherein the original output acquired in the other pass is used to detect additional defects, and wherein the The method further includes combining the defects with the additional defects to produce a test result for the wafer.
  24. The method of claim 1, wherein the obtaining is performed in one pass of one of the plurality of passes of the wafer, wherein the computer implemented method is performed for the raw output obtained in another pass of the multiple pass check Wherein the original output obtained in the other pass is used to detect additional defects, and wherein the method further comprises combining the defects with the additional defects to produce a test result for the wafer.
  25. The method of claim 1, further comprising: applying one or more pre-determined defect detection parameters to the first or second original output to detect additional defects on the wafer and to combine the defects with the Additional defects are generated to produce inspection results for the wafer.
  26. A non-transitory computer readable medium storing program instructions for performing a method for detecting a defect on a wafer on a computer system, wherein the method includes: acquiring one of the inspection systems a first optical output generated by the first optics mode for a first output of the wafer and a second original output generated for the wafer using one of the inspection systems; identifying the first original output corresponding to the formation One or more characteristics of one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features on the wafer; based on the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output and based on individual outputs of the second original output and Individual outputs of the first raw output generated at substantially identical locations on the wafer, the individual outputs of the second original output being assigned to different segments such that the corresponding patterned features correspond One or more of each of the different segments in the second original output The characteristics are different, wherein the one or more geometric characteristics corresponding to one of the different segments comprise one or more geometric features of the page, and wherein the other one of the different segments corresponds to The one or more geometric characteristics include one or more geometric characteristics of the array region; assigning one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments separately; and assigning one or more defect detections The parameters are applied to the individual outputs in the second original output assigned to the different segments to thereby detect defects on the wafer.
  27. A system configured to detect defects on a wafer, comprising: an inspection subsystem configured to scan the wafer by using a first optical mode of the inspection subsystem to generate a a first raw output of the wafer and scanning the wafer to generate a second raw output for the wafer by using a second optical mode of the inspection subsystem; and a computer subsystem configured to: acquire The first and second raw outputs; identifying one or more characteristics of the first original output corresponding to one or more geometric features of the patterned features formed on the wafer; based on the first raw output Identifying the one or more characteristics and based on the individual outputs of the second original output and the individual outputs of the first original output generated at substantially the same location on the wafer, the second original output The individual outputs are assigned to different segments such that the one or more geometric characteristics of the patterned features corresponding to each of the different segments of the second original output are different, Which corresponds to And the one or more geometric characteristics of one of the different segments comprise one or more geometric features, and wherein the one or more geometric characteristics corresponding to the other of the different segments comprise an array One or more geometric characteristics of the zone; Assigning one or more defect detection parameters to the different segments separately; and applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters to the second original output assigned to the different segments Individual outputs to detect defects on the wafer.
  28. The system of claim 27, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined by the same values of different detectors of the inspection subsystem and other optical parameters of the inspection subsystem.
  29. The system of claim 27, wherein the same value is defined by one or more of the different detectors of the inspection subsystem, one or more of the optical parameters of the inspection subsystem, and other optical parameters of the inspection subsystem First and second optics modes.
  30. The system of claim 27, wherein the same detector of one of the inspection subsystems, one or more of the one or more optical parameters of the inspection subsystem, and the same value of the other optical parameters of the inspection subsystem The first and second optics modes are defined.
  31. The system of claim 27, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined as one or more different values of the same set of detectors of the test subsystem, one or more optical parameters of the test subsystem, and One of the same values of the other optical parameters of the test subsystem.
  32. The system of claim 27, wherein the first and second optics modes are defined as one or more of the sub-group detectors of the verification subsystem, one or more optical parameters of the inspection subsystem And a combination of the same values of other optical parameters of the inspection subsystem.
  33. The system of claim 27, wherein the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light scattered from the wafer.
  34. The system of claim 27, wherein the first and second raw outputs are responsive to light reflected from the wafer.
  35. The system of claim 27, wherein the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output comprise a projection along a line within the first original output.
  36. The system of claim 27, wherein the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output comprise a bit strength of the one or more geometric characteristics of the first original output corresponding to the patterned features.
  37. The system of claim 27, wherein the one or more geometrical characteristics of the patterned features further comprise an edge, a shape, a texture, a mathematical calculation defining a geometry of the patterned features, or some combination thereof.
  38. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to design how the layout affects the one or more characteristics of the first raw output based on one of the patterned features to identify the one or more characteristic.
  39. The system of claim 28, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to identify the one or more characteristics while the computer subsystem acquires the first and second raw outputs.
  40. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to automatically identify the one or more characteristics without user input and assign the individual output of the second original output to a different score segment.
  41. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to assign the individual output of the second raw output to a different score without considering design data associated with the patterned features segment.
  42. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to assign the individual output of the second original output to a different score without considering the intensity of the individual output in the second raw output segment.
  43. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to analyze the identified one or more characteristics of the first raw output and apply a threshold to the individual output of the second original output, The individual input in the second original output Assign to different segments.
  44. The system of claim 27, wherein the one or more characteristics of the first raw output corresponding to the one or more geometric characteristics of certain ones of the patterned features are not inhibited by filtering.
  45. The system of claim 27, wherein the one or more defect detection parameters comprise a threshold value that is to be applied to a difference between the individual output of the second original output and a reference.
  46. The system of claim 27, wherein the computer subsystem is further configured to individually assign the one or more defect detection parameters such that the individual output of the second raw output assigned to the different segments is used Detect defects with different sensitivities.
  47. The system of claim 27, wherein the verification subsystem is further configured to generate the first and second raw outputs in one of a plurality of passes of the wafer, and wherein the computer subsystem is grouped Identifying the one or more characteristics, assigning the individual output, individually assigning the one or more defect detection parameters, or applying the assigned one, not for the original output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass test One or more defect detection parameters.
  48. The system of claim 27, wherein the verification subsystem is further configured to generate the first and second raw outputs in one of a plurality of passes of the wafer, and wherein the computer subsystem is further Configuring to identify the one or more characteristics for the original output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass check, assign the individual output, individually assign the one or more defect detection parameters, and apply the assigned One or more defect detection parameters.
  49. The system of claim 27, wherein the verification subsystem is further configured to generate the first and second raw outputs in one pass of one of the plurality of passes of the wafer, wherein the computer subsystem is configured Identifying the one or more characteristics, assigning the individual output, not for the original output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass test, Assigning the one or more defect detection parameters and applying the assigned one or more defect detection parameters separately, wherein the original output obtained in the other pass is used to detect additional defects, and the computer subsystem further The defects are configured to combine the defects with the additional defects to produce a test result for the wafer.
  50. The system of claim 27, wherein the verification subsystem is further configured to generate the first and second raw outputs in one of a plurality of passes of the wafer, wherein the computer subsystem is further grouped Identifying the one or more characteristics for the original output obtained in another pass of the multi-pass test, assigning the individual output, individually assigning the one or more defect detection parameters, and applying the assigned one Or a plurality of defect detection parameters, wherein the original output obtained in the other pass is used to detect additional defects, and the computer subsystem is further configured to combine the defects and the additional defects to generate the wafer Test results.
  51. In the system of claim 27, the computer subsystem is further configured to apply one or more pre-determined defect detection parameters to the first or second raw output to detect additional defects and combinations on the wafer The defects and the additional defects are used to produce inspection results for the wafer.
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