TWI559034B - Head-mounted display apparatus employing one or more reflective optical surfaces - Google Patents

Head-mounted display apparatus employing one or more reflective optical surfaces Download PDF

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TWI559034B
TWI559034B TW100148695A TW100148695A TWI559034B TW I559034 B TWI559034 B TW I559034B TW 100148695 A TW100148695 A TW 100148695A TW 100148695 A TW100148695 A TW 100148695A TW I559034 B TWI559034 B TW I559034B
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reflective
reflective optical
user
eye
optical surface
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TW201326896A (en
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大衛 愛倫 史密斯
葛雷果瑞A 哈理森
蓋瑞E 威斯
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洛伊馬汀公司
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使用一或多個反射光學表面之頭戴式顯示裝置Head-mounted display device using one or more reflective optical surfaces

本發明係關於使用一或多個反射光學表面(例如,一或多個自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面(下文縮寫為「FS/UWA/RO表面」))之頭戴式顯示裝置。更特定言之,本發明係關於使用諸如FS/UWA/RO表面之反射光學表面以顯示來自固持成緊密接近使用者之眼睛之發光顯示系統的影像之頭戴式顯示裝置。The present invention relates to a head mounted display device that uses one or more reflective optical surfaces (e.g., one or more free spaces, ultra wide angles, reflective optical surfaces (hereinafter abbreviated as "FS/UWA/RO surfaces"). More particularly, the present invention relates to a head mounted display device that uses a reflective optical surface such as an FS/UWA/RO surface to display an image from an illuminated display system that is held in close proximity to the user's eye.

諸如戴頭盔式顯示器或戴眼鏡式顯示器之頭戴式顯示器(本文中簡寫為「HMD」)為佩戴在個人之頭部上的顯示器件,其具有位於使用者之一個眼睛或(更通常地)兩個眼睛附近之一或多個小的顯示器件。圖1展示一種類型之HMD之基本元件,該HMD包括顯示器11、反射光學表面13及具有旋轉中心17之眼睛15。如在此圖中所展示,來自顯示器11之光19由表面13反射且進入使用者之眼睛15。A head mounted display such as a head mounted display or a glasses mounted display (herein abbreviated as "HMD") is a display device worn on the head of a person having one eye or (more generally) located at the user's head. One or more small display devices near the two eyes. 1 shows a basic element of a type of HMD that includes a display 11, a reflective optical surface 13, and an eye 15 having a center of rotation 17. As shown in this figure, light 19 from display 11 is reflected by surface 13 and enters the user's eye 15.

一些HMD僅顯示模擬(電腦產生之)影像(如與真實世界影像相反),且因此常被稱作「虛擬實境」或浸沒式HMD。其他HMD在非模擬之真實世界影像上疊置(組合)模擬影像。非模擬影像與模擬影像之組合允許HMD使用者經由(例如)護目鏡或接目鏡檢視世界,與待執行之任務相關的額外資料在護目鏡或接目鏡上疊置至使用者之前向視野(FOV)上。此疊置有時被稱作「擴增實境」或「混合實境」。Some HMDs only display analog (computer generated) images (as opposed to real world images) and are therefore often referred to as "virtual reality" or submerged HMDs. Other HMDs overlay (combine) analog images on non-simulated real world images. The combination of non-analog images and analog images allows the HMD user to view the world via, for example, goggles or eyepieces, and additional information related to the task to be performed is superimposed on the goggles or eyepieces to the user's front field of view (FOV) )on. This overlay is sometimes referred to as "Augmented Reality" or "Mixed Reality."

可使用部分反射/部分透射光學表面(「光束分光器」)來達成將非模擬之真實世界視圖與模擬之影像組合,在該情況下,表面之反射率用以將模擬影像作為虛擬影像(在光學意義上)顯示,且表面之透射率用以允許使用者直接檢視真實世界(被稱作「光學透視(see-through)系統」)。亦可藉由接受來自攝影機之真實世界視圖之視訊且使用組合器將其與模擬影像以電子方式混合來以電子方式進行將真實世界視圖與模擬影像組合(被稱作「視訊透視系統」)。接著可借助於反射光學表面(在此情況下,其不需要具有透射屬性)將組合影像作為虛擬影像(在光學意義上)呈現給使用者。A partially reflective/partially transmissive optical surface ("beam splitter") can be used to combine a non-simulated real-world view with a simulated image, in which case the reflectivity of the surface is used to simulate the image as a virtual image (in In optical terms, the transmittance of the surface is used to allow the user to directly view the real world (referred to as the "see-through system"). The real world view and the analog image can also be electronically combined (referred to as a "video see-through system") by accepting video from the real world view of the camera and electronically mixing it with the analog image using a combiner. The combined image can then be presented to the user as a virtual image (in an optical sense) by means of a reflective optical surface (in this case it does not need to have a transmission property).

自前述內容可看出,反射光學表面可用於HMD中,HMD向使用者提供:(i)模擬影像與非模擬真實世界影像之組合、(ii)模擬影像與真實世界視訊影像之組合,或(iii)純模擬影像。(最後情況常被稱作「浸沒式」系統。)在此等情況中之每一者下,反射光學表面產生由使用者檢視之虛擬影像(在光學意義上)。歷史上,此等反射光學表面已為出射光瞳已實質上不僅限制使用者可得之動態視野而且限制靜態視野之光學系統的部分。具體言之,為了看到由光學系統產生之影像,使用者需要將其眼睛與光學系統之出射光瞳對準且將其保持為如此對準,且甚至接著,使用者可見之影像將不覆蓋使用者的整個完全靜態之視野,亦即,在已使用反射光學表面之HMD中使用的先前光學系統已為光瞳形成系統之部分,且因此已受到出射光瞳限制。As can be seen from the foregoing, reflective optical surfaces can be used in HMDs, which provide the user with: (i) a combination of analog and non-analog real-world images, (ii) a combination of analog and real-world video images, or Iii) Pure analog imagery. (The last case is often referred to as the "immersion" system.) In each of these cases, the reflective optical surface produces a virtual image (in an optical sense) that is viewed by the user. Historically, such reflective optical surfaces have been part of an optical system that has an exit pupil that substantially limits not only the dynamic field of view available to the user but also the static field of view. In particular, in order to see the image produced by the optical system, the user needs to align his eye with the exit pupil of the optical system and keep it in such alignment, and even then, the image visible to the user will not be covered. The entire fully static field of view of the user, i.e., the prior optical system used in the HMD that has used the reflective optical surface, has been part of the pupil forming system and has therefore been limited by the exit pupil.

系統已受如此限制之原因為人類視野顯著大之基本事實。因此,人類眼睛之靜態視野(包括眼睛之視窩視覺及周邊視覺兩者)在水平方向上為大約~150°且在垂直方向上為大約~130°。(出於本發明之目的,150度將用作標稱人類眼睛之直前方靜態視野。)具有能夠容納此大的靜態視野之出射光瞳的良好校正之光學系統稀少,且當其存在時,其昂貴且體積大。The reason why the system has been so limited is the fact that the human vision is significantly larger. Thus, the static field of view of the human eye (including both the visual and peripheral vision of the eye) is approximately ~150° in the horizontal direction and approximately ~130° in the vertical direction. (For the purposes of the present invention, 150 degrees will be used as a straight forward static field of view of the nominal human eye.) A well-corrected optical system with an exit pupil capable of accommodating this large static field of view is sparse, and when present, It is expensive and bulky.

此外,由於眼睛可圍繞其旋轉中心旋轉,亦即,人類大腦可藉由改變眼睛之凝視方向在不同的方向上瞄準人類眼睛之視窩+周邊視野,因此人類眼睛之操作視野(動態視野)甚至更大。對於標稱眼睛,垂直運動範圍為大約向上~40°及向下~60°,且水平運動範圍為大約自直前方±~50°。對於由先前在HMD中使用的類型之光學系統產生的大小之出射光瞳,眼睛之甚至小的旋轉亦將實質上減少在眼睛之靜態視野與出射光瞳之間存在的重疊部分,且較大旋轉將使影像完全消失。雖然理論上有可能,但將與使用者之眼睛同步移動之出射光瞳不切實際且將極為昂貴。In addition, since the eye can rotate around its center of rotation, that is, the human brain can aim at the visual field of the human eye + peripheral vision in different directions by changing the gaze direction of the eye, so the operational field of view (dynamic field of view) of the human eye is even Bigger. For nominal eyes, the vertical range of motion is approximately ~40° up and down ~60°, and the horizontal range of motion is approximately ±~50° from straight front. For an exit pupil of the size produced by an optical system of the type previously used in HMD, even small rotations of the eye will substantially reduce the overlap between the static field of view of the eye and the exit pupil, and Rotating will cause the image to completely disappear. Although theoretically possible, the exit pupil that will move in sync with the user's eyes is impractical and extremely expensive.

鑒於人類眼睛之此等屬性,就提供允許使用者以與其將檢視自然世界之方式相同的方式檢視由影像顯示系統產生之影像的光學系統而言,存在相關的三個視野。三個視野中之最小者為由使用者旋轉其眼睛且因此使其視窩在外部世界上掃描之能力界定的視野。最大旋轉為自直前方大約±50°,因此此視野(視窩動態視野)為大約100°。三個視野中之中間者為直前方靜態視野,且包括使用者之視窩視覺及周邊視覺兩者。如上文所論述,此視野(視窩+周邊靜態視野)為大約150°。三個視野中之最大者為由使用者旋轉其眼睛且因此使其視窩加其周邊視覺在外部世界上掃描之能力界定的視野。基於大約±50°之最大旋轉及大約150°之視窩+周邊靜態視野,此最大視野(視窩+周邊動態視野)為大約200°。視野自至少100度至至少150度且接著至至少200度之此增加尺度為使用者提供益處(就其以直觀且自然方式檢視由影像顯示系統產生之影像之能力而言)。In view of these attributes of the human eye, there are three fields of view associated with an optical system that allows the user to view images produced by the image display system in the same manner as would be to view the natural world. The smallest of the three fields of view is the field of view defined by the user's ability to rotate their eyes and thus their ability to scan the field in the outside world. The maximum rotation is approximately ±50° from the straight front, so this field of view (visual field of view) is approximately 100°. The middle of the three fields of view is a straight front static view and includes both the user's visual and peripheral vision. As discussed above, this field of view (the visual field + peripheral static field of view) is approximately 150°. The largest of the three fields of view is the field of view defined by the user's ability to rotate their eyes and thus their ability to view their peripheral vision over the outside world. The maximum field of view (visual litter + peripheral dynamic field of view) is approximately 200° based on a maximum rotation of approximately ±50° and a visual field of about 150° + peripheral static field of view. The increased scale of the field of view from at least 100 degrees to at least 150 degrees and then to at least 200 degrees provides benefits to the user (in terms of their ability to visually and naturally view images produced by the image display system).

因此,存在對具有與人類眼睛之視野(靜態及動態兩者)的改良之相容性的頭戴式顯示器之需求。本發明係有關此需求,且提供使用提供超寬角度視野之反射光學表面之頭戴式顯示器。Therefore, there is a need for a head mounted display that has improved compatibility with the human eye's field of view (both static and dynamic). The present invention is directed to this need and provides a head mounted display that uses a reflective optical surface that provides an ultra wide viewing angle.

定義definition

在本發明之其餘部分中及在申請專利範圍中,片語「虛擬影像」以其光學意義使用,亦即,虛擬影像為經感知為來自特定處之影像,而事實上,正被感知之光並非源於彼處。In the rest of the invention and in the scope of the patent application, the phrase "virtual image" is used in its optical sense, that is, the virtual image is perceived as being from a particular image, and in fact, is being perceived. Not from one side.

FS/UWA/RO表面在本文中被稱作「自由空間」表面,此係因為其局部空間位置、局部表面曲率及局部表面定向不與特定基板(諸如,x-y平面)有關,而是在表面之設計期間使用在三維空間中適用之基本光學原理(例如,Fermat及Hero最小時間原理)來判定。The FS/UWA/RO surface is referred to herein as a "free space" surface because its local spatial position, local surface curvature, and local surface orientation are not related to a particular substrate (such as the xy plane), but rather to the surface. The basic optical principles (eg, Fermat and Hero minimum time principle) applicable in three-dimensional space are used during design.

FS/UWA/RO表面被稱作「超寬角度」表面,此係因為在使用期間,至少其不限制標稱使用者之眼睛之動態視窩視野。因而,取決於供「超寬角度」表面使用之可選光學組件(例如,菲涅耳透鏡系統)之光學屬性,HMD之總體光學系統可為非光瞳形成,亦即,與具有限制使用者之視野的出射光瞳之習知光學系統不同,用於本文中揭示之光學系統之各種實施例的操作性光瞳將為使用者之眼睛的入射光瞳,此與相關聯於外部光學系統之光瞳相反。附隨地,對於此等實施例,提供至使用者之視野將比習知光學系統大得多,在習知光學系統之情況下,使用者之眼睛與外部光學系統之出射光瞳的甚至小的對準偏差可實質上減少使用者可得之資訊內容,且較大對準偏差可造成整個影像消失。The FS/UWA/RO surface is referred to as the "ultra-wide angle" surface, since at least it does not limit the dynamic view of the eye of the nominal user during use. Thus, depending on the optical properties of the optional optical component (eg, Fresnel lens system) used for the "ultra-wide angle" surface, the overall optical system of the HMD can be non-aperture formed, ie, with limited user Unlike the conventional optical system of the exit pupil of the field of view, the operational aperture for the various embodiments of the optical system disclosed herein will be the entrance pupil of the user's eye, which is associated with the external optical system. The opposite is true. Incidentally, for such embodiments, the field of view provided to the user will be much larger than in conventional optical systems, where the exit pupil of the user's eye and the external optical system is even small in the case of conventional optical systems. The alignment deviation can substantially reduce the information content available to the user, and a large alignment deviation can cause the entire image to disappear.

貫穿本發明,以下片語/術語應具有以下意義/範圍:Throughout the present invention, the following phrase/term should have the following meaning/scope:

(1) 片語「反射光學表面」(本文中亦被稱作「反射表面」)應包括僅具反射性之表面以及具反射性及透射性兩者之表面。在任一情況下,反射率可為僅部分的,亦即,入射光之部分可透射穿過該表面。同樣,當表面具反射性及透射性兩者時,反射率及/或透射率可為部分的。如以下所論述,可將單一反射光學表面用於兩個眼睛,或每一眼睛可具有其各自的個別反射光學表面。其他變化包括將多個反射光學表面用於兩個眼睛或個別地用於每一眼睛。亦可使用混合及匹配組合,例如,可將單一反射光學表面用於一個眼睛,且將多個反射光學表面用於另一眼睛。作為另一替代例,可提供一個或多個反射光學表面用於使用者眼睛中之僅一者。以下陳述之申請專利範圍意欲涵蓋本文中揭示之反射光學表面之此等及其他應用。詳言之,需要反射光學表面之每一技術方案意欲涵蓋包括指定類型之一或多個反射光學表面的頭戴式顯示裝置。(1) The phrase "reflective optical surface" (also referred to herein as "reflective surface") shall include only reflective surfaces and surfaces that are both reflective and transmissive. In either case, the reflectivity can be only partial, that is, a portion of the incident light can be transmitted through the surface. Likewise, when the surface is both reflective and transmissive, the reflectivity and/or transmittance can be partial. As discussed below, a single reflective optical surface can be used for both eyes, or each eye can have its own individual reflective optical surface. Other variations include the use of multiple reflective optical surfaces for both eyes or individually for each eye. Mixing and matching combinations can also be used, for example, a single reflective optical surface can be used for one eye and multiple reflective optical surfaces can be used for the other eye. As a further alternative, one or more reflective optical surfaces may be provided for only one of the user's eyes. The scope of the patent application set forth below is intended to cover such and other applications of the reflective optical surfaces disclosed herein. In particular, each of the technical solutions requiring a reflective optical surface is intended to cover a head mounted display device comprising one or more reflective optical surfaces of a given type.

(2) 片語「具有至少一發光表面之影像顯示系統」一般用以包括具有一表面之任何顯示系統,該表面不管藉由光穿過表面之透射、在表面處之光之產生(例如,藉由LED陣列)、來自另一光源之光之反射遠離表面或其類似者而發射光。影像顯示系統可使用一個或多個影像顯示器件,例如,一個或多個LED及/或LCD陣列。如同反射光學表面,給定頭戴式顯示裝置可併有用於使用者眼睛中之一或兩者的一或多個影像顯示系統。再次,需要影像顯示系統的以下陳述之申請專利範圍中之每一者意欲涵蓋包括指定類型之一或多個影像顯示系統的頭戴式顯示裝置。(2) The phrase "image display system having at least one illuminating surface" is generally intended to include any display system having a surface that produces light at the surface, whether by transmission of light through the surface (eg, Light is emitted by the LED array), the reflection of light from another source away from the surface or the like. The image display system can use one or more image display devices, such as one or more LEDs and/or LCD arrays. As with the reflective optical surface, a given head mounted display device can have one or more image display systems for one or both of the user's eyes. Again, each of the claims of the following statements requiring an image display system is intended to cover a head mounted display device comprising one or more image display systems of a specified type.

(3) 片語「雙筒檢視器」意謂針對每一眼睛包括至少一單獨光學元件(例如,一顯示器件及/或一反射光學表面)之裝置。(3) The phrase "dual-tube viewer" means a device that includes at least one separate optical component (e.g., a display device and/or a reflective optical surface) for each eye.

(4) 片語「視野」及其縮寫FOV指代在影像(眼睛)空間中的「視在」視野,如與在物(亦即,顯示器)空間中的「真實」視野相反。(4) The phrase "field of view" and its abbreviation FOV refer to the "visual" field of view in the image (eye) space, as opposed to the "real" field of view in the object (ie, display) space.

根據第一態樣,揭示一種頭戴式顯示裝置(100),其包括:According to a first aspect, a head mounted display device (100) is disclosed, comprising:

(I)一框架(107),其經調適以安裝於使用者之頭部(105)上;(I) a frame (107) adapted to be mounted on a user's head (105);

(II)一影像顯示系統(110),其由該框架(107)支撐(例如,該框架在於HMD之使用期間處於使用者之視野外的固定位置處支撐影像顯示系統);及(II) an image display system (110) supported by the frame (107) (eg, the frame supports the image display system at a fixed position outside the field of view of the user during use of the HMD);

(III)一反射光學表面(120),其由該框架(107)支撐,該反射光學表面(120)為不關於三維笛卡爾座標系統之任何座標軸旋轉對稱的連續表面(例如,該反射光學表面可為不關於具有任意原點之三維笛卡爾座標系統之x、y或z軸旋轉對稱的自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面(120)(並非迴轉面));(III) a reflective optical surface (120) supported by the frame (107), the reflective optical surface (120) being a continuous surface that is rotationally symmetric about any coordinate axis of the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system (eg, the reflective optical surface) Can be a free space, super wide angle, reflective optical surface (120) (not a rotating surface) that is not rotationally symmetric about the x, y or z axis of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system with any origin;

其中:among them:

(a)該影像顯示系統(110)包括至少一發光表面(81);(a) the image display system (110) includes at least one light emitting surface (81);

(b)在使用期間,該反射光學表面(120)產生該至少一發光表面(81)之空間上分離之部分的空間上分離之虛擬影像,該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自標稱使用者之眼睛(15)之旋轉中心(17)來量測;且(b) during use, the reflective optical surface (120) produces a spatially separated virtual image of the spatially separated portion of the at least one light emitting surface (81), at least one of the spatially separated virtual images Separating at least one of the other of the spatially separated virtual images by at least 100 degrees, the angular separation being measured from a center of rotation (17) of the eye (15) of the nominal user;

(c)在使用期間,該反射光學表面(120)之至少一點與該反射光學表面(120)之至少一其他點在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自標稱使用者之眼睛(15)之該旋轉中心(17)來量測。(c) during use, at least one point of the reflective optical surface (120) is angularly separated from at least one other point of the reflective optical surface (120) by at least 100 degrees from the eye of the nominal user ( 15) The rotation center (17) is measured.

根據第二態樣,揭示一種頭戴式顯示裝置(100),其包括:According to a second aspect, a head mounted display device (100) is disclosed, comprising:

(I)一框架(107),其經調適以安裝於使用者之頭部(105)上;(I) a frame (107) adapted to be mounted on a user's head (105);

(II)一影像顯示系統(110),其由該框架(107)支撐(例如,該框架在於HMD之使用期間處於使用者之視野外的固定位置處支撐影像顯示系統);及(II) an image display system (110) supported by the frame (107) (eg, the frame supports the image display system at a fixed position outside the field of view of the user during use of the HMD);

(III)一自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面(120),其由該框架(107)支撐;(III) a free space, ultra wide angle, reflective optical surface (120) supported by the frame (107);

其中:among them:

(a)該影像顯示系統(110)包括至少一發光表面(81);(a) the image display system (110) includes at least one light emitting surface (81);

(b)在使用期間,該自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面(120)產生該至少一發光表面(81)之空間上分離之部分的空間上分離之虛擬影像,該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自標稱使用者之眼睛(15)之旋轉中心(17)來量測。(b) during use, the free-space, ultra-wide angle, reflective optical surface (120) produces spatially separated virtual images of the spatially separated portions of the at least one illuminated surface (81), the spatially separated At least one of the virtual images is angularly separated from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images by at least 100 degrees from the center of rotation of the nominal user's eye (15) (17) To measure.

根據第三態樣,揭示一種頭戴式顯示裝置(100),其包括:According to a third aspect, a head mounted display device (100) is disclosed, comprising:

(I)一框架(107),其經調適以安裝於使用者之頭部(105)上;(I) a frame (107) adapted to be mounted on a user's head (105);

(II)一影像顯示系統(110),其由該框架(107)支撐;及(II) an image display system (110) supported by the frame (107);

(III)一反射表面(120),其由該框架(107)支撐,該反射表面(120)將至少200°之一視野提供至一標稱使用者;其中:(III) a reflective surface (120) supported by the frame (107), the reflective surface (120) providing a field of view of at least 200° to a nominal user; wherein:

(a)該影像顯示系統(110)包括至少一發光表面(81),該至少一發光表面(81)包括分別具有第一及第二資訊內容之至少第一及第二空間上分離之發光區域(82、83);(a) the image display system (110) includes at least one light emitting surface (81), the at least one light emitting surface (81) including at least first and second spatially separated light emitting regions having first and second information content, respectively (82, 83);

(b)該反射表面(120)包含分別具有在不同方向上指向之第一及第二表面法線(85、87)之至少第一及第二空間上分離之反射區域(84、86);且(b) the reflective surface (120) includes at least first and second spatially separated reflective regions (84, 86) having first and second surface normals (85, 87) directed in different directions; And

(c)該框架(107)支撐該影像顯示系統(110)及該反射表面(120),使得在由一標稱使用者使用該裝置期間:(c) the frame (107) supports the image display system (110) and the reflective surface (120) such that during use by the nominal user:

(i) 對於該標稱使用者之一眼睛(71)之至少一凝視方向(在圖8中朝向88),來自該第一發光區域(82)之光自該第一反射區域(84)反射離開且進入該眼睛(71),以形成該第一資訊內容之可見虛擬影像(88)(亦即,存在標稱使用者可看到第一資訊內容(且視情況,第二資訊內容)之一凝視方向);(i) for at least one gaze direction (inwardly 88 in Fig. 8) of one of the nominal user's eyes (71), light from the first illuminating region (82) is reflected from the first reflective region (84) Leaving and entering the eye (71) to form a visible virtual image (88) of the first information content (ie, there is a nominal user seeing the first information content (and optionally, the second information content) a gaze direction);

(ii) 對於該眼睛(71)之至少一凝視方向(在圖8中朝向89),來自該第二發光區域(83)之光自該第二反射區域(86)反射離開且進入該眼睛(71),以形成該第二資訊內容之可見虛擬影像(89)(亦即,存在標稱使用者可看到第二資訊內容(且視情況,第一資訊內容)之一凝視方向);且(ii) for at least one gaze direction of the eye (71) (facing 89 in Figure 8), light from the second illuminating region (83) is reflected away from the second reflective region (86) and enters the eye ( 71), to form a visible virtual image of the second information content (89) (ie, there is a gaze direction in which one of the nominal user can see the second information content (and optionally the first information content);

(iii) 對於該眼睛(71)之至少一凝視方向(在圖8中在88之右邊之凝視方向),來自該第一發光區域(82)之光自該第一反射區域(84)反射離開且進入該眼睛(71),以形成該第一資訊內容之可見虛擬影像(88),且來自該第二發光區域(83)之光自該第二反射區域(86)反射離開且不進入該眼睛(71),且不形成該第二資訊內容之可見虛擬影像(亦即,存在標稱使用者可看到第一資訊內容但不能藉由標稱使用者之視窩或周邊視覺看到第二資訊內容之凝視方向)。(iii) for at least one gaze direction of the eye (71) (the gaze direction to the right of 88 in Fig. 8), light from the first illuminating region (82) is reflected off the first reflecting region (84) And entering the eye (71) to form a visible virtual image (88) of the first information content, and light from the second light emitting region (83) is reflected away from the second reflective region (86) and does not enter the Eye (71), and does not form a visible virtual image of the second information content (ie, there is a nominal user can see the first information content but cannot be seen by the nominal user's visual or peripheral vision) The gaze direction of the information content).

根據第四態樣,揭示一種用於設計反射光學表面(120)(其可或可不為FS/UWA/RO表面)之基於電腦之方法,該反射光學表面(120)用於在包括影像顯示系統(110)之頭戴式顯示器(100)中使用,在該頭戴式顯示器(100)之使用期間,該影像顯示系統(110)具有複數個內容區(82、83)(例如,複數個個別像素或個別像素之複數個群組),該方法包括使用一或多個電腦執行以下步驟:According to a fourth aspect, a computer-based method for designing a reflective optical surface (120) that may or may not be a FS/UWA/RO surface is disclosed, the reflective optical surface (120) being used in an image display system Used in a head mounted display (100) of (110), the image display system (110) has a plurality of content areas (82, 83) during use of the head mounted display (100) (eg, a plurality of individual a plurality of groups of pixels or individual pixels), the method comprising performing the following steps using one or more computers:

(a)將該反射光學表面(120)分成複數個局部反射區域(84、86),每一局部反射區域具有一表面法線(85、87)(例如,在局部反射區域之中心處的表面法線);(a) dividing the reflective optical surface (120) into a plurality of partial reflection regions (84, 86), each of the partial reflection regions having a surface normal (85, 87) (eg, a surface at the center of the partial reflection region) Normal line);

(b)使該反射光學表面(120)之每一局部反射區域(84、86)與該影像顯示系統(110)之一個且僅一個內容區(82、83)相關聯,每一內容區(82、83)與至少一局部反射區域(84、86)相關聯;及(b) associating each of the partially reflective regions (84, 86) of the reflective optical surface (120) with one and only one content region (82, 83) of the image display system (110), each content region ( 82, 83) associated with at least one partially reflective region (84, 86); and

(c)調整該反射光學表面(120)之組態(例如,調整表面之局部空間位置及/或局部曲率),使得該等表面法線(85、87)中之每一者等分以下兩個向量:(c) adjusting the configuration of the reflective optical surface (120) (eg, adjusting the local spatial position and/or local curvature of the surface) such that each of the surface normals (85, 87) is equally divided into the following two Vectors:

(1) 自該局部反射區域(84、86)(例如,自局部反射區域之中心)至其相關聯之內容區(82、83)(例如,至其相關聯之內容區之中心)的向量(77、78);及(1) Vectors from the partially reflective region (84, 86) (eg, from the center of the partially reflective region) to its associated content region (82, 83) (eg, to the center of its associated content region) (77, 78); and

(2) 自該局部反射區域(84、86)(例如,自局部反射區域之中心)至在該頭戴式顯示器之使用期間的標稱使用者之眼睛(71)的旋轉中心(72)之位置的向量(79、80)。(2) from the partially reflective region (84, 86) (eg, from the center of the partially reflective region) to the center of rotation (72) of the nominal user's eye (71) during use of the head mounted display The vector of positions (79, 80).

在本發明之以上態樣之某些實施例中,針對使用者之眼睛中之每一者使用單獨反射表面及/或單獨影像顯示系統。在其他實施例中,反射光學表面單獨地或結合其他光學組件(例如,一或多個菲涅耳透鏡)來使來自影像顯示系統之光準直(或實質上準直),此準直經由表面之局部曲率半徑來達成。In some embodiments of the above aspects of the invention, a separate reflective surface and/or separate image display system is utilized for each of the user's eyes. In other embodiments, the reflective optical surface alone or in combination with other optical components (eg, one or more Fresnel lenses) collimates (or substantially collimates) light from the image display system, the collimation is via The local radius of curvature of the surface is achieved.

在各種實施例中,HMD裝置可向使用者提供全視窩動態視野、全視窩+周邊靜態視野或全視窩+周邊動態視野。In various embodiments, the HMD device can provide the user with a full view fove dynamic field of view, a full view fossa + peripheral static field of view, or a full view fossa + peripheral dynamic field of view.

在各種實施例中,HMD裝置可為雙筒非光瞳形成系統,其中眼睛在其通常可獲得之整個角度範圍上關於其滾動中心自由地移動,而不約束於透過外部光瞳察看。先前HMD器件已宣稱其具有或可提供寬視野,但此等器件已包括眼睛必須透過其察看之外部光瞳。雖然存在提供至眼睛之寬泛的資訊量,但若眼睛轉動,則資訊失去。此為光瞳形成系統之基本問題,此問題在使用反射表面(且詳言之,FS/UWA/RO表面)之本發明之實施例中得以避免。In various embodiments, the HMD device can be a dual barrel non-aperture forming system in which the eye is free to move about its center of roll over the entire range of angles it is generally available without being constrained by external light viewing. Previous HMD devices have claimed to have or provide a wide field of view, but these devices already include external apertures through which the eye must see. Although there is a wide amount of information provided to the eyes, if the eyes turn, the information is lost. This is a fundamental problem with the pupil forming system, which is avoided in embodiments of the invention using reflective surfaces (and in particular, FS/UWA/RO surfaces).

在本發明之態樣之以上概述中使用的參考數字(該等參考數字為代表性的且並非全包括性或詳盡的)僅為了讀者方便起見,且並不意欲且不應被解釋為限制本發明之範疇。更一般而言,應理解,前述一般描述及以下詳細描述皆僅例示性說明本發明,且並不意欲提供用於理解本發明之性質及特性的綜述或架構。The reference numerals used in the above summary of the present invention are to be considered as illustrative and not intended to be The scope of the invention. Rather, the foregoing general description and the following detailed description of the invention,

本發明之額外特徵及優勢在以下詳細描述中陳述,且自彼描述部分地對熟習此項技術者而言將為易於顯而易見的,或藉由實踐如由本文中之描述例示性說明之本發明來認識。包括隨附圖式以提供對本發明之進一步理解,且將隨附圖式併入且構成此說明書之一部分。應理解,在此說明書中及在圖式中揭示之本發明之各種特徵可以任何或所有組合使用。The additional features and advantages of the invention are set forth in the description which follows, and in which Come to know. The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the invention It is to be understood that the various features of the invention disclosed in this specification and in the drawings may be used in any or all combinations.

圖2及圖3分別為經展示由使用者105佩戴之頭戴式顯示裝置100的側視圖及前視圖。頭戴式顯示裝置使用FS/UWA/RO表面120。2 and 3 are side and front views, respectively, of the head mounted display device 100 worn by the user 105. The head mounted display device uses the FS/UWA/RO surface 120.

在一實施例中,頭戴式顯示裝置100可為(例如)光學透視、擴增實境、雙筒檢視器。因為光學透視、擴增實境、雙筒檢視器通常為HMD之最複雜形式,所以本發明將主要地論述此類型之實施例,應理解,本文中論述之原理同等地可適用於光學透視、擴增實境、單筒檢視器;視訊透視、擴增實境、雙筒及單筒檢視器;及雙筒及單筒「虛擬實境」系統。In an embodiment, the head mounted display device 100 can be, for example, an optical see-through, an augmented reality, a dual-cylinder viewer. Because optical see-through, augmented reality, and binocular viewers are often the most complex forms of HMD, the present invention will primarily discuss embodiments of this type, it being understood that the principles discussed herein are equally applicable to optical see-through, Augmented reality, single-tube viewers; video fluoroscopy, augmented reality, dual-tube and single-tube viewers; and dual-tube and single-tube "virtual reality" systems.

如圖2及圖3中所展示,頭戴式顯示裝置100包括框架107,其經調適而由使用者以類似於佩戴眼鏡之方式的方式佩戴且由使用者之鼻子及耳朵支撐。在圖2至圖3之實施例中以及在本文中揭示之其他實施例中,頭戴式顯示裝置可具有多種組態,且可(例如)類似習知眼罩、眼鏡、頭盔及其類似者。在一些實施例中,可使用條帶相對於使用者之眼睛將HMD之框架固持在固定位置中。一般而言,HMD封裝之外表面可呈相對於HMD之顯示器及使用者之眼睛而將光學系統固持於所需定向上之任何形式。As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the head mounted display device 100 includes a frame 107 that is adapted to be worn by a user in a manner similar to wearing glasses and supported by the user's nose and ears. In the embodiments of Figures 2 through 3 and other embodiments disclosed herein, the head mounted display device can have a variety of configurations and can be, for example, similar to conventional eye masks, eyeglasses, helmets, and the like. In some embodiments, the strap can be used to hold the frame of the HMD in a fixed position relative to the user's eyes. In general, the outer surface of the HMD package can be in any form that holds the optical system in the desired orientation relative to the display of the HMD and the eyes of the user.

頭戴式顯示裝置100包括至少一影像顯示系統110及包括一反射光學表面之至少一光學系統,如圖2及圖3中所展示,該反射光學表面為自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面120(亦即,FS/UWA/RO表面120),該表面120有必要為彎曲的。在一些實施例中,FS/UWA/RO表面可為整個光學系統。表面120可為純反射性或可具有反射屬性及透射屬性兩者,在具有反射屬性及透射屬性兩者之情況下,可將其視為「光束分光器」類型。The head mounted display device 100 includes at least one image display system 110 and at least one optical system including a reflective optical surface. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the reflective optical surface is a free space, an ultra wide angle, and a reflective optical surface. 120 (i.e., FS/UWA/RO surface 120), the surface 120 needs to be curved. In some embodiments, the FS/UWA/RO surface can be the entire optical system. Surface 120 can be purely reflective or can have both reflective and transmissive properties, and can be considered a "beam splitter" type if both reflective and transmissive properties are present.

FS/UWA/RO表面120可完全包圍一或兩個眼睛,以及至少一影像顯示系統110。詳言之,表面可圍繞眼睛側且朝向臉部側彎曲以便擴大可得水平視野。在一實施例中,FS/UWA/RO表面120可延伸多達180°度或180°度以上(例如,大於200°),如最佳地在以下論述之圖6中看出。如在圖3中所說明,HMD可包括由框架及/或鼻脊件210(見以下)分離地支撐的用於使用者之兩個眼睛的兩個單獨FS/UWA/RO表面120R及120L。或者,HMD可使用藉由單一結構伺服兩個眼睛之單一FS/UWA/RO表面,該結構之一些部分由兩個眼睛檢視且該結構之其他部分僅由一個眼睛檢視。The FS/UWA/RO surface 120 can completely enclose one or both eyes, and at least one image display system 110. In particular, the surface can be curved around the side of the eye and toward the side of the face to expand the available horizontal field of view. In an embodiment, the FS/UWA/RO surface 120 may extend up to 180 degrees or more (eg, greater than 200°), as best seen in Figure 6 of the following discussion. As illustrated in FIG. 3, the HMD can include two separate FS/UWA/RO surfaces 120R and 120L for the user's two eyes that are separately supported by the frame and/or nose piece 210 (see below). Alternatively, the HMD can use a single FS/UWA/RO surface that serves two eyes by a single structure, some portions of the structure being viewed by two eyes and the other portions of the structure being viewed by only one eye.

如緊接上文所指出且如在圖3中所說明,頭戴式顯示裝置100可包括鼻脊件210。鼻脊件可為垂直條或壁,其提供兩個FS/UWA/RO表面(使用者之眼睛中的每一者一個表面)之間的分離。鼻脊件210亦可提供使用者之兩個眼睛的視野之間的分離。以此方式,可藉由經由第一影像顯示器件及第一FS/UWA/RO表面向右眼顯示第一影像來向使用者之右眼展示環境中之三維實境的第一表示,而可經由第二影像顯示器件及第二FS/UWA/RO表面向左眼顯示第二影像來向使用者之左眼展示環境中之三維實境的第二表示。單獨的顯示器件/反射表面組合因此服務使用者之每一眼睛,其中每一眼睛看到針對其相對於環境中之三維實境的位置之正確影像。藉由分離使用者之兩個眼睛,脊件210允許將施加至每一眼睛之影像獨立於另一眼睛而最佳化。在一實施例中,鼻脊件之垂直壁可包括兩個反射器(每一側上一個),以允許使用者在其以鼻動方式向左或向右轉動其眼睛時看到影像。As indicated immediately above and as illustrated in FIG. 3, the head mounted display device 100 can include a nose piece 210. The nose piece can be a vertical strip or wall that provides separation between the two FS/UWA/RO surfaces (one surface of each of the user's eyes). The nose piece 210 can also provide separation between the fields of view of the user's two eyes. In this way, the first representation of the three-dimensional reality in the environment can be presented to the right eye of the user by displaying the first image to the right eye via the first image display device and the first FS/UWA/RO surface, but The second image display device and the second FS/UWA/RO surface display a second image to the left eye to present a second representation of the three dimensional reality in the environment to the left eye of the user. The separate display device/reflective surface combination thus serves each eye of the user, with each eye seeing the correct image for its position relative to the three dimensional reality in the environment. By separating the two eyes of the user, the spine 210 allows the image applied to each eye to be optimized independently of the other eye. In one embodiment, the vertical wall of the nose piece can include two reflectors (one on each side) to allow the user to see the image as it rotates its eye to the left or right in a nasal motion.

至少一影像顯示系統110可安裝於FS/UWA/RO表面120內,且可水平安置或相對於水平線成微小角度。或者,該至少一影像顯示系統可定位成剛好在FS/UWA/RO表面外。一般而言,至少一影像顯示系統110(或更明確而言,其至少一發光表面)之傾斜或角度將依據待自表面120反射之多個像素、多個影像及/或多筆顯示資訊之位置而變。At least one image display system 110 can be mounted within the FS/UWA/RO surface 120 and can be placed horizontally or at a slight angle relative to the horizontal. Alternatively, the at least one image display system can be positioned just outside the FS/UWA/RO surface. In general, the tilt or angle of at least one image display system 110 (or more specifically, at least one of its light emitting surfaces) will depend on a plurality of pixels, multiple images, and/or multiple display information to be reflected from surface 120. The position changes.

在某些實施例中,頭戴式顯示裝置100經組態以創造內部空腔,其中FS/UWA/RO表面向內至空腔中為反射性的。對於具有透射屬性之FS/UWA/RO表面,來自至少一影像顯示系統之影像或顯示資訊自表面反射至空腔中且至使用者之眼睛,而同時,光亦藉由穿過反射表面自外部世界進入空腔及使用者之眼睛。In some embodiments, the head mounted display device 100 is configured to create an internal cavity in which the FS/UWA/RO surface is reflective inwardly into the cavity. For FS/UWA/RO surfaces with transmission properties, images or display information from at least one image display system are reflected from the surface into the cavity and to the user's eyes, while at the same time, light is also transmitted from the outside through the reflective surface. The world enters the cavity and the eyes of the user.

如以下詳細論述,在某些實施例中,至少一影像顯示系統110提供多個影像及/或多筆顯示資訊,影像及/或顯示資訊在進入使用者之眼睛之前經調整以用於近距離檢視。在一些實施例中,可選透鏡或透鏡系統115可促成此調整。以名稱G. Harrison、D. Smith及G. Wiese而與本專利同時申請之題為「Head-Mounted Display Apparatus Employing One or More Fresnel Lenses」且由代理人案號IS-00307識別的共同讓渡且同在申請中之美國專利申請案第13/211,365號(其內容被以引用的方式併入本文中)描述將一或多個菲涅耳透鏡用於此目的。其他實施例不利用可選透鏡或透鏡系統,而是依賴於FS/UWA/RO表面提供用於由顯示系統形成之影像之焦點對準、近眼檢視的所要光學屬性。As discussed in detail below, in some embodiments, at least one image display system 110 provides multiple images and/or multiple display information, and the image and/or display information is adjusted for close proximity before entering the user's eyes. View. In some embodiments, an optional lens or lens system 115 can facilitate this adjustment. Co-transfer and identified by the name of G. Harrison, D. Smith and G. Wiese, entitled "Head-Mounted Display Apparatus Employing One or More Fresnel Lenses" and identified by agent number IS-00307 One or more Fresnel lenses are used for this purpose, as described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 13/211,365, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Other embodiments do not utilize an optional lens or lens system, but rely on the FS/UWA/RO surface to provide the desired optical properties for in-focus, near-eye viewing of the image formed by the display system.

頭戴式顯示裝置可包括電子封裝140以控制由至少一影像顯示系統110顯示之影像。在一實施例中,電子封裝140包括提供使來自至少一影像顯示系統110之影像與使用者活動同步所需之定位、定向及位置資訊的加速度計及迴轉儀。可經由耦接至電子封裝140之傳輸纜線150或經由無線媒體將電力及視訊提供至頭戴式顯示裝置100及自頭戴式顯示裝置100提供電力及視訊。The head mounted display device can include an electronic package 140 to control images displayed by at least one image display system 110. In one embodiment, electronic package 140 includes an accelerometer and gyroscope that provides positioning, orientation, and position information needed to synchronize images from at least one image display system 110 with user activity. Power and video can be provided to and from the head mounted display device 100 via a transmission cable 150 coupled to the electronic package 140 or via a wireless medium.

一組攝影機170可位於頭戴式顯示裝置100之相對側上以將輸入提供至電子封裝,從而幫助控制(例如)「擴增實境」場景之電腦產生。該組攝影機170可耦接至電子封裝140以接收電力及控制信號且將視訊輸入提供至電子封裝之軟體。A set of cameras 170 can be located on opposite sides of the head mounted display device 100 to provide input to the electronic package to help control computer generation of, for example, an augmented reality scene. The set of cameras 170 can be coupled to the electronic package 140 to receive power and control signals and to provide video input to the software of the electronic package.

在頭戴式顯示裝置中使用之影像顯示系統可採取現在已知或隨後開發之許多形式。舉例而言,系統可使用小的高解析度液晶顯示器(LCD)、發光二極體(LED)顯示器及/或有機發光二極體(OLED)顯示器(包括可撓性OLED螢幕)。詳言之,影像顯示系統可使用具有高像素密度的高清晰度、小外觀尺寸之顯示器件,其實例可見於蜂巢式電話工業中。光纖束亦可用於影像顯示系統中。在各種實施例中,可將影像顯示系統視為充當小的螢幕電視。若影像顯示系統產生偏振光(例如,在影像顯示系統使用所有色彩在同一方向上線性偏振之液晶顯示器的情況下),且若與由顯示器發射之光正交地使FS/UWA/RO表面偏振,則光將不會洩漏出FS/UWA/RO表面。顯示之資訊及光源自身將因此在HMD外不可見。Image display systems for use in head mounted display devices can take many forms now known or subsequently developed. For example, the system can use small high resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), light emitting diode (LED) displays, and/or organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays (including flexible OLED screens). In particular, image display systems can use high definition, small form factor display devices with high pixel density, examples of which can be found in the cellular telephone industry. Fiber bundles can also be used in image display systems. In various embodiments, the image display system can be considered to act as a small screen television. If the image display system produces polarized light (eg, where the image display system uses a liquid crystal display in which all colors are linearly polarized in the same direction), and if the FS/UWA/RO surface is polarized orthogonally to the light emitted by the display , the light will not leak out of the FS/UWA/RO surface. The information displayed and the light source itself will therefore not be visible outside the HMD.

根據本發明建構之光學系統(具體言之,用於「擴增實境」HMD之光學系統)之例示性實施例的總體操作由圖2之射線追蹤(具體言之,光線180、185及190)說明。在此實施例中,FS/UWA/RO表面120具有反射屬性及透射屬性兩者。在使用表面120之透射屬性情況下,光線190自環境進入穿過該表面,且朝向使用者之眼睛前進。自表面120之同一區域,光線180由表面反射(使用表面之反射屬性)且接合光線190以創造組合光線185,當使用者在點195之方向上察看時,亦即,當使用者之凝視方向在點195之方向上時,該組合光線185進入使用者之眼睛。當如此察看時,使用者之周邊視覺能力允許使用者再次使用表面之透射屬性看到來自環境中之其他點之穿過表面120的光。The overall operation of an exemplary embodiment of an optical system constructed in accordance with the present invention (specifically, an optical system for "Augmented Reality" HMD) is traced by the ray of Figure 2 (specifically, rays 180, 185, and 190) ) Description. In this embodiment, the FS/UWA/RO surface 120 has both reflective and transmissive properties. With the transmission properties of surface 120, light 190 enters the surface from the environment and travels toward the user's eyes. From the same area of surface 120, light 180 is reflected by the surface (using the reflective properties of the surface) and engages light 190 to create a combined light 185, as viewed by the user in the direction of point 195, i.e., when the user is looking at the direction of gaze. In the direction of point 195, the combined light 185 enters the user's eye. When viewed as such, the user's peripheral visual capabilities allow the user to again see the light passing through the surface 120 from other points in the environment using the transmission properties of the surface.

圖4為說明本文中揭示之頭戴式顯示裝置100的例示性實施例之操作之另一射線追蹤圖式。在此實施例中,總體視覺系統包括三個部分:(1)至少一影像顯示系統110,(2)FS/UWA/RO表面120,及(3)使用者之眼睛310。眼睛310藉由內部晶體330表示。自至少一影像顯示系統110之一像素發射之光由射線180表示(如在圖2中)。此光在由表面120反射後將出現在使用者之眼睛之視網膜上的點處,其限制條件為使用者之凝視方向及相關聯之視野(見以下圖7及圖8之論述)包括射線180撞擊表面120之點。更明確而言,如以下論述,歸因於涉及等分自FS/UWA/RO表面上之點至眼睛之向量與自FS/UWA/RO表面上之點至像素之向量的法線的光學屬性,像素將僅出現在點195處;亦即,即使光以較寬錐體而自像素輻射,FS/UWA/RO表面亦經工程設計以僅使光來自一個位置。4 is another ray tracing diagram illustrating the operation of an exemplary embodiment of a head mounted display device 100 disclosed herein. In this embodiment, the overall vision system includes three parts: (1) at least one image display system 110, (2) FS/UWA/RO surface 120, and (3) user's eye 310. Eye 310 is represented by internal crystal 330. Light emitted from one of the pixels of at least one image display system 110 is represented by ray 180 (as in Figure 2). This light will appear at the point on the retina of the user's eye after being reflected by surface 120, subject to the user's gaze direction and associated field of view (see discussion of Figures 7 and 8 below) including ray 180. The point at which the surface 120 is struck. More specifically, as discussed below, due to the optical properties of the normals that involve aliquoting from the point on the FS/UWA/RO surface to the eye and from the point on the FS/UWA/RO surface to the normal of the pixel. The pixel will only appear at point 195; that is, even if the light is radiated from the pixel with a wider cone, the FS/UWA/RO surface is engineered to only bring light from one location.

在圖4中,假定使用者之凝視方向朝向射線180與表面120之相交點,如由光線185及340說明。然而,眼睛所看到為出現在其前方空間中相距由向量345及350表示之距離(例如,在如由參考數字352展示之無限遠處)的虛擬影像。在圖4中,出於說明之目的來椅子,其中至少一影像顯示系統110產生椅子之真實影像355,在由FS/UWA/RO表面120反射自顯示系統發射之光後,該真實影像355變為虛擬影像360。在「擴增實境」環境中,包括FS/UWA/RO表面之光學系統可(例如)使椅子之虛擬影像360顯得處於與實際上人365在實際環境中之位置相同的位置處。注意,停留於比無限遠近之距離處之射線345包括於圖4中以展示可使該影像以光學方式出現於附近與無限遠之間的任何距離處。舉例而言,人可站在50公尺遠處,且該處為將置放椅子之處。In FIG. 4, it is assumed that the gaze direction of the user is toward the intersection of the ray 180 and the surface 120, as illustrated by the rays 185 and 340. However, what the eye sees is a virtual image that appears in the space in front of it in a distance from vectors 345 and 350 (eg, at infinity as shown by reference numeral 352). In FIG. 4, a chair is provided for illustrative purposes, wherein at least one image display system 110 produces a real image 355 of the chair, which is reflected after the light emitted from the display system is reflected by the FS/UWA/RO surface 120. It is a virtual image 360. In an "amplified reality" environment, an optical system including a FS/UWA/RO surface can, for example, cause the virtual image 360 of the chair to appear at the same location as the actual human 365 in the actual environment. Note that the ray 345 that is at a distance closer to infinity is included in Figure 4 to show that the image can be optically present at any distance between the neighborhood and infinity. For example, a person can stand 50 meters away and where the chair will be placed.

在圖1至圖4中,至少一影像顯示系統展示為具有平坦發光表面(例如,圖4中之表面111)。顯示系統亦可具有彎曲發光表面。此實施例展示於圖5中,在圖5中,光線405自彎曲顯示幕407(彎曲發光表面)發出。此射線自FS/UWA/RO表面120反射,且進入使用者之眼睛310之光瞳415(見射線410)。在此實施例中,表面120亦接納由來自外部環境之由射線345表示之光,因此允許顯示器產生之影像覆疊外部影像。注意,出於說明之目的,將射線345展示為自射線410移位;對於外部影像之純覆疊,射線345將覆疊射線410。In Figures 1 through 4, at least one image display system is shown having a flat light emitting surface (e.g., surface 111 in Figure 4). The display system can also have a curved light emitting surface. This embodiment is illustrated in Figure 5, in which light ray 405 is emitted from a curved display curtain 407 (curved light emitting surface). This ray is reflected from the FS/UWA/RO surface 120 and enters the pupil 415 of the user's eye 310 (see ray 410). In this embodiment, surface 120 also receives light from ray 345 from the external environment, thereby allowing the image produced by the display to overlay the external image. Note that for purposes of illustration, the ray 345 is shown displaced from the ray 410; for a pure overlay of the external image, the ray 345 will overlay the ray 410.

如上文所論述,在已使用反射光學表面之HMD中使用的先前光學系統已為光瞳形成,且因此已具有有限的檢視區,典型的視野為~60度或~60度以下。此情形已大大地限制了先前頭戴式顯示裝置之價值及能力。在各種實施例中,本文中揭示之頭戴式顯示器具有寬得多的視野(FOV),因此與具有較小視野之HMD相比,允許將多得多的光學資訊提供至使用者。寬視野可大於100°、大於150°或大於200°。除了提供更多資訊之外,寬視野亦允許額外資訊可由使用者以更自然方式處理,從而經由所顯示之影像與實境之較好匹配來實現較好的浸沒式及擴增實境體驗。As discussed above, previous optical systems used in HMDs that have used reflective optical surfaces have been pupil-formed, and thus have limited viewing areas, typically having a field of view of ~60 degrees or below. This situation has greatly limited the value and capabilities of previous head mounted display devices. In various embodiments, the head mounted display disclosed herein has a much wider field of view (FOV), thus allowing much more optical information to be provided to the user than an HMD having a smaller field of view. The wide field of view can be greater than 100°, greater than 150°, or greater than 200°. In addition to providing more information, the wide field of view allows additional information to be processed by the user in a more natural way, resulting in a better immersive and augmented reality experience via a better match of the displayed image to the real world.

具體言之,在圖6中說明之例示性實施例中,對於直前方凝視方向,眼睛能夠獲取在圖6中由彎曲FS/UWA/RO表面201及202表示的整個檢視區,對於每一眼睛,該檢視區對應於至少150度之水平視野(FOV)(例如,~168度之水平FOV)。此視野由眼睛之視窩視野及其周邊視野構成。此外,允許眼睛圍繞其旋轉中心自由移動以在不同的凝視方向上瞄準組合之視窩+周邊視野,如當檢視實際世界時眼睛自然地進行。本文中揭示之光學系統因此允許眼睛貫穿運動範圍以與當檢視自然世界時眼睛獲得資訊之方式相同的方式獲得資訊。In particular, in the exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6, for a straight forward gaze direction, the eye is able to acquire the entire viewport represented by curved FS/UWA/RO surfaces 201 and 202 in FIG. 6, for each eye. The viewport corresponds to a horizontal field of view (FOV) of at least 150 degrees (eg, a horizontal FOV of -168 degrees). This field of view consists of the field of view of the eye and its peripheral field of view. In addition, the eye is allowed to move freely about its center of rotation to aim the combined view + peripheral view in different gaze directions, such as when the view is taken naturally. The optical system disclosed herein thus allows the eye to travel through the range of motion to obtain information in the same manner as the eye obtains information when viewing the natural world.

更詳細地查閱圖6,此圖為如自頂部看的使用者之頭部200之前部的簡化線表示。其展示置放於使用者之眼睛203及204前方的FS/UWA/RO表面201及202。如上文所論述,FS/UWA/RO表面201及202可擱置於使用者之鼻子205上,在使用者之鼻子205處,其會合於使用者之頭部200之中前部214處。如以下詳細論述,表面201及202之局部法線及局部空間位置經調整,使得由至少一影像顯示系統(圖6中未圖示)產生之影像針對每一眼睛覆蓋至少100°(例如,在某些實施例中,至少150°,且在其他實施例中,至少200°)之水平FOV。(視情況,亦如以下所論述,局部曲率半徑亦經調整以在與菲涅耳透鏡組合時提供遠距離虛擬影像。)舉例而言,局部法線及局部空間位置可經調整以針對每一眼睛覆蓋使用者之全部~168度直前方水平靜態視野,其中168度自FS/UWA/RO表面201或202之邊緣至邊緣延伸,如由視線210、211及212、213展示。視線因此對應於提供至使用者之寬靜態視野(視窩+周邊)。此外,使用者在繼續察看電腦產生之影像的同時圍繞滾動中心215及216自由移動其眼睛。Referring to Figure 6 in more detail, this figure is a simplified line representation of the front of the user's head 200 as seen from the top. It displays the FS/UWA/RO surfaces 201 and 202 placed in front of the eyes 203 and 204 of the user. As discussed above, the FS/UWA/RO surfaces 201 and 202 can rest on the user's nose 205, which meets the front portion 214 of the user's head 200 at the user's nose 205. As discussed in detail below, the local normals and local spatial locations of surfaces 201 and 202 are adjusted such that images produced by at least one image display system (not shown in FIG. 6) cover at least 100° for each eye (eg, at In certain embodiments, at least 150°, and in other embodiments, at least 200°) horizontal FOV. (As appropriate, as discussed below, the local radius of curvature is also adjusted to provide a long-range virtual image when combined with a Fresnel lens.) For example, local normals and local spatial locations can be adjusted for each The eye covers all of the user's 168 degrees straight forward horizontal static field of view, with 168 degrees extending from the edge of the FS/UWA/RO surface 201 or 202 to the edge as shown by lines of sight 210, 211 and 212, 213. The line of sight thus corresponds to a wide static field of view (visual + perimeter) provided to the user. In addition, the user is free to move his or her eyes around the scroll centers 215 and 216 while continuing to view the image produced by the computer.

在圖6中以及在圖4、圖5及圖12中,為了易於呈現,將FS/UWA/RO表面展示為球面之部分。實務上,表面並非球面,而具有更複雜的組態,使得其局部法線及局部空間位置(且視情況,局部曲率半徑)將提供所要靜態及動態視野(且視情況,至虛擬影像之所要距離)。又,在圖6中,頭戴式顯示裝置之右側與左側相同地操作,應理解,視需要,針對特定應用兩個側可不同。。In Figure 6 and in Figures 4, 5 and 12, the FS/UWA/RO surface is shown as part of the sphere for ease of presentation. In practice, the surface is not spherical, but has a more complex configuration such that its local normal and local spatial position (and, optionally, local radius of curvature) will provide the desired static and dynamic view (and, as appropriate, to the virtual image) distance). Further, in Fig. 6, the right side of the head mounted display device operates in the same manner as the left side, and it should be understood that the two sides may be different for a specific application as needed. .

圖7及圖8進一步說明由本文中揭示之FS/UWA/RO表面提供的靜態及動態視野。圖7展示具有直前方凝視方向73之使用者之標稱右眼71。眼睛之視窩+周邊視野由弧75展示,該弧75具有~168°之角度範圍。注意,為了易於呈現,在圖6至圖8中,如與使用者之光瞳之中心或邊緣相反,相對於使用者之眼睛之旋轉中心展示視野。事實上,由人類眼睛達成之大視野(例如,~168°)為允許高度歪斜之射線進入使用者之光瞳且到達視網膜的視網膜之大的角度範圍之結果。Figures 7 and 8 further illustrate the static and dynamic fields of view provided by the FS/UWA/RO surface disclosed herein. Figure 7 shows the nominal right eye 71 of a user having a straight forward gaze direction 73. The eye's optic fossa + peripheral field of view is shown by an arc 75 having an angular extent of ~168°. Note that for ease of presentation, in Figures 6-8, the field of view is displayed relative to the center of rotation of the user's eye, as opposed to the center or edge of the user's pupil. In fact, the large field of view (eg, ~168°) achieved by the human eye is the result of allowing a highly skewed ray to enter the user's pupil and reach a large angular extent of the retina's retina.

圖8示意性地展示圖7之視野與HMD之相互作用,該HMD具有:(a)影像顯示系統,其至少一發光表面81具有第一發光區域82(說明為正方形)及第二發光區域83(說明為三角形),及(b)FS/UWA/RO表面,其具有具第一局部法線85之第一反射區域84及具第二局部法線87之第二反射區域86。8 is a schematic illustration of the interaction of the field of view of FIG. 7 with an HMD having: (a) an image display system having at least one light emitting surface 81 having a first light emitting region 82 (illustrated as a square) and a second light emitting region 83 (Illustrated as a triangle), and (b) FS/UWA/RO surface having a first reflective region 84 having a first partial normal 85 and a second reflective region 86 having a second partial normal 87.

如上文所指示,FS/UWA/RO表面為「自由空間」表面及「超寬角度」表面兩者。此外,如上文所指出且以下更詳細地論述,該表面可參與對進入使用者之眼睛之光的準直(或部分準直)(或為該準直(或部分準直)之唯一來源)。此準直使由FS/UWA/RO表面產生之虛擬影像顯得位於距使用者長的距離(例如,30公尺或30公尺以上)處,其准許使用者易於藉由放鬆的眼睛聚焦於虛擬影像。As indicated above, the FS/UWA/RO surface is both a "free space" surface and an "ultra wide angle" surface. Moreover, as noted above and discussed in more detail below, the surface can participate in collimation (or partial collimation) of the light entering the eyes of the user (or the sole source of the collimation (or partial collimation)) . This collimation causes the virtual image produced by the FS/UWA/RO surface to appear at a distance from the user (eg, 30 meters or more), which allows the user to easily focus on the virtual by relaxing eyes image.

可藉由調整表面之局部法線來達成FS/UWA/RO表面之「自由空間」及「超寬角度」態樣,使得使用者之眼睛將至少一影像顯示系統之發光區域視為來自FS/UWA/RO表面之預定區域(表面上之預定位置)。The "free space" and "ultra-wide angle" aspects of the FS/UWA/RO surface can be achieved by adjusting the local normal of the surface so that the user's eye considers the illumination area of at least one image display system to be from FS/ A predetermined area of the UWA/RO surface (predetermined position on the surface).

舉例而言,在圖8中,HMD之設計者可決定當使用者之凝視方向為直前方時由使用者之視網膜之中心部分檢視到正方形之虛擬影像88及當凝視方向在直前方左邊(例如)~50°時由使用者之視網膜之中心部分檢視到三角形之虛擬影像89將為有利的。設計者將接著組態至少一影像顯示系統、FS/UWA/RO表面、菲涅耳透鏡系統及系統之任何其他光學組件(例如,影像顯示系統與FS/UWA/RO表面之間的一或多個菲涅耳透鏡),使得在HMD之使用期間,正方形之虛擬影像將為直前方的且三角形之虛擬影像將在直前方左邊50°。For example, in Figure 8, the designer of the HMD may determine that the virtual image 88 of the square is viewed from the central portion of the user's retina when the user's gaze direction is straight ahead and when the gaze direction is straight ahead (eg It will be advantageous to view the virtual image 89 of the triangle from the central portion of the user's retina at ~50°. The designer will then configure at least one image display system, FS/UWA/RO surface, Fresnel lens system, and any other optical components of the system (eg, one or more between the image display system and the FS/UWA/RO surface) A Fresnel lens), so that during the use of the HMD, the virtual image of the square will be straight ahead and the virtual image of the triangle will be 50° to the left of the straight ahead.

以此方式,當使用者之凝視方向(視線)與FS/UWA/RO表面直的相交時,將按需要在使用者之眼睛之中心處可見正方形之虛擬影像,且當使用者之凝視方向(視線)與FS/UWA/RO表面以與直前方向左50度相交時,將亦按需要在使用者之眼睛之中心處可見三角形之虛擬影像。雖然未在圖7及圖8中所說明,但將相同的方法用於垂直視野,以及用於離軸視野。更一般而言,在設計HMD及其光學組件中之每一者時,設計者將顯示器之至少一發光表面「映射」至反射表面,使得當眼睛之凝視在特定方向上時,顯示器之所要部分為使用者之眼睛可見。因此,當眼睛在視野上掃描(水平及垂直兩者)時,FS/UWA/RO表面將影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面之不同部分照亮至使用者之眼睛內。雖然前述論述已就標稱使用者之視網膜之中心而言來進行,但當然,該設計處理程序可視需要替代地使用標稱使用者之視窩的位置。In this way, when the user's gaze direction (line of sight) intersects the FS/UWA/RO surface straight, a square virtual image will be visible at the center of the user's eye as needed, and when the user's gaze direction ( When the line of sight and the FS/UWA/RO surface intersect 50 degrees to the left in the forward direction, a virtual image of the triangle is also visible at the center of the user's eye as needed. Although not illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, the same method is used for vertical field of view and for off-axis field of view. More generally, when designing each of the HMD and its optical components, the designer "maps" at least one of the illuminated surfaces of the display to the reflective surface such that when the eye is gazing in a particular direction, the desired portion of the display Visible to the user's eyes. Thus, when the eye is scanned over the field of view (both horizontal and vertical), the FS/UWA/RO surface illuminates different portions of at least one of the illuminated surfaces of the image display system into the user's eye. While the foregoing discussion has been made with respect to the center of the nominal user's retina, of course, the design processing program may alternatively use the position of the nominal user's visual socket as needed.

應注意,在圖8中,使用者之眼睛向右邊的任何旋轉使三角形之虛擬影像89不再為使用者可見。因此,在圖8中,直前方或直前方左邊之任何凝視方向給使用者提供正方形之虛擬影像及三角形之虛擬影像兩者,而直前方右邊之凝視方向僅提供正方形之虛擬影像。當然,虛擬影像之銳度將取決於虛擬影像是由使用者之視窩視覺感知抑或使用者之周邊視覺感知。It should be noted that in Figure 8, any rotation of the user's eyes to the right causes the virtual image 89 of the triangle to be no longer visible to the user. Thus, in Figure 8, any gaze direction on the straight front or straight front left side provides the user with both a square virtual image and a triangular virtual image, while the straight ahead right gaze direction provides only a square virtual image. Of course, the sharpness of the virtual image will depend on whether the virtual image is visually perceived by the user's visual field or perceived by the user.

若HMD之設計者已將正方形之虛擬影像置放於圖8中右邊較遠處,同時使三角形之虛擬影像在左邊較遠處,則將存在僅正方形之虛擬影像可見之凝視方向及僅三角形之虛擬影像可見之其他凝視方向。同樣地,基於本文中揭示之原理,設計者可配置正方形之虛擬影像及三角形之虛擬影像,使得三角形之虛擬影像始終可見,其中正方形之虛擬影像針對一些凝視方向可見而針對其他凝視方向不可見。作為另一變化,HMD之設計者可將正方形及三角形之虛擬影像置放於對於一或多個凝視方向無影像可為使用者可見之位置處,例如,設計者可將虛擬影像置放成剛好在針對直前方之凝視方向的使用者之靜態視野外。由本發明提供至HMD設計者之靈活性因此易於顯而易見。If the designer of the HMD has placed the virtual image of the square farther to the right in Figure 8, while making the virtual image of the triangle farther to the left, there will be a gaze direction visible only to the square virtual image and only the triangle. Other gaze directions visible to the virtual image. Similarly, based on the principles disclosed herein, the designer can configure a virtual image of a square and a virtual image of a triangle such that the virtual image of the triangle is always visible, with the square virtual image being visible for some gaze directions and not visible for other gaze directions. As another variation, the HMD designer can place virtual images of squares and triangles in a position that is visible to the user for one or more gaze directions. For example, the designer can place the virtual image just as it is. Outside the static field of view of the user in the direction of the gaze straight ahead. The flexibility provided by the present invention to the HMD designer is therefore readily apparent.

在一實施例中,藉由使用Fermat及Hero之原理(光依據其沿著最短(最小時間)光徑行進)達成反射表面之「自由空間」及「超寬角度」態樣。以名稱G. Harrison、D. Smith及G. Wiese而與本專利同時申請之題為「Methods and Systems for Creating Free Space Reflective Optical Surfaces」且由代理人案號IS-00354識別的共同讓渡且同在申請中之美國專利申請案第13/211,389號(其內容被以引用的方式併入本文中)描述使用Fermat及Hero原理設計適合於在HMD中使用之FS/UWA/RO表面的實施例。In one embodiment, the "free space" and "super wide angle" aspects of the reflective surface are achieved by using the principles of Fermat and Hero (light travels along the shortest (minimum time) path). Co-transfer and the same as the name of G. Harrison, D. Smith and G. Wiese, entitled "Methods and Systems for Creating Free Space Reflective Optical Surfaces" and identified by the agent number IS-00354 An example of designing an FS/UWA/RO surface suitable for use in an HMD using Fermat and Hero principles is described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 13/211,389, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

借助於Fermat及Hero最小時間原理,可使影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面之任何「所要部分」(例如,影像顯示系統之任何像素)在FS/UWA/RO表面處具有任何所要反射點,其限制條件為自至少一發光表面之所要部分至FS/UWA/RO表面處之反射點且接著至使用者之眼睛之旋轉中心的光徑處於極值。By using the Fermat and Hero minimum time principle, any "desired portion" of at least one of the illuminated surfaces of the image display system (eg, any pixel of the image display system) can have any desired reflection point at the FS/UWA/RO surface, The constraint is that the optical path from the desired portion of at least one of the illuminated surfaces to the point of reflection at the FS/UWA/RO surface and then to the center of rotation of the user's eye is at an extreme value.

光徑之極值意謂光徑長度之一階導數已達到零值,其表示光徑長度之最大值或最小值。可藉由創造反射光學表面之局部區域而在視野中之任何點處插入極值,該局部區域之法線等分(a)自局部區域至使用者之眼睛的向量(例如,自局部區域之中心至使用者之眼睛之中心的向量)與(b)自局部區域至發光表面之「所要部分」的向量(例如,自局部區域之中心至發光表面之「所要部分」之中心的向量)。圖9及圖10說明針對影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面之「所要部分」為像素之情況的處理程序。The extreme value of the optical path means that the first derivative of the optical path length has reached zero, which represents the maximum or minimum of the optical path length. An extremum can be inserted at any point in the field of view by creating a localized region of the reflective optical surface, the normal of the local region being equally divided (a) from the local region to the vector of the user's eye (eg, from a local region) The vector from the center to the center of the user's eye) and (b) the vector from the local region to the "desired portion" of the illuminated surface (eg, the vector from the center of the local region to the center of the desired portion of the illuminated surface). 9 and 10 illustrate a processing procedure for the case where the "desired portion" of at least one of the light-emitting surfaces of the image display system is a pixel.

具體言之,圖9展示由大體上矩形之像素陣列構成之影像顯示系統的發光表面510,該等像素在光束515之方向上朝向頭戴式顯示裝置之前部發出光。光束515自反射光學表面520彈出,為了易於呈現,反射光學表面520在圖8中展示為扁平的。在反射後,光束515即變為進入使用者之眼睛530的光束525。In particular, Figure 9 shows a light emitting surface 510 of an image display system constructed from a generally rectangular array of pixels that emit light in the direction of beam 515 toward the front of the head mounted display device. Light beam 515 is ejected from reflective optical surface 520, which is shown flat in Figure 8 for ease of presentation. After reflection, beam 515 becomes beam 525 that enters the user's eye 530.

出於判定用於每一像素之反射器之表面法線的目的,僅有必要判定對應於光束515及525之向量之三維等分線。在圖9中,此等分線向量以二維形式展示為線535。等分向量535與反射光學表面在反射點540處正交,反射點540為表面520上發光表面510之像素545將為HMD之使用者可見的位置。For the purpose of determining the surface normal for the reflector for each pixel, it is only necessary to determine the three-dimensional bisector of the vector corresponding to beams 515 and 525. In Figure 9, this bisector vector is shown in two dimensions as line 535. The bisector vector 535 is orthogonal to the reflective optical surface at the reflection point 540, which is the location where the pixel 545 of the illumination surface 510 on the surface 520 will be visible to the user of the HMD.

具體言之,在操作中,顯示表面510中之像素545發射光束515,光束515以由對應於等分向量535之表面法線及其垂直平面550確定之角度自反射光學表面520彈出,從而藉由Fermat及Hero原理在由眼睛530沿著光束525看到之反射點540處產生反射之像素。為了準確計算反射點540處之表面法線,光束525可大致穿過使用者之眼睛530之中心555。即使使用者之眼睛旋轉以變為周邊視覺,結果將仍保持大致穩定,直至(如以上結合圖7及圖8論述)眼睛轉動如此多以致不能藉由使用者之視窩或周邊視覺看到顯示器之區域。In particular, in operation, pixel 545 in display surface 510 emits light beam 515 that is ejected from reflective optical surface 520 at an angle determined by surface normals corresponding to bisector vector 535 and its vertical plane 550, thereby Reflected pixels are produced by the Fermat and Hero principles at a reflection point 540 seen by the eye 530 along the beam 525. To accurately calculate the surface normal at reflection point 540, beam 525 can generally pass through the center 555 of the user's eye 530. Even if the user's eyes rotate to become peripheral vision, the result will remain substantially stable until (as discussed above in connection with Figures 7 and 8) the eye is rotated so much that the display cannot be seen by the user's visual or peripheral vision. The area.

為了計算表面法線之位置,可使用四元數方法之使用,其中To calculate the position of the surface normal, you can use the quaternion method, where

q1=光束515之定向  Q1 = orientation of beam 515

q2=光束525之定向 Q2 = orientation of beam 525

And

q3=所要表面法線535之定向=(q1+q2)/2 Q3 = orientation of the desired surface normal 535 = ( q1 + q2 )/2

亦可以向量記號來描述表面法線,如在圖11中所說明。在以下等式中且在圖11中,點N遠離反射光學表面之所關注區域之中心處的點M一個單位之距離,且在點M處之反射光學表面之切平面的垂直法線之方向上。控制點M處之反射光學表面之切平面以滿足用以下等式表達之關係,使得在三維空間中,點M處之表面法線等分自點M至所關注像素之中心處的點P之線與自點M至使用者之眼睛之滾動中心處的點C之線(為了參考,點C自眼睛之前部向後大約13 mm)。The surface normal can also be described by a vector notation, as illustrated in FIG. In the following equation and in Figure 11, the point N is a distance away from the point M at the center of the region of interest of the reflective optical surface, and the direction of the vertical normal of the tangent plane of the reflective optical surface at point M on. The tangent plane of the reflective optical surface at control point M satisfies the relationship expressed by the following equation such that in three-dimensional space, the surface normal at point M is equally divided from point M to point P at the center of the pixel of interest Line and line C from the point M to the center of the user's eye (for reference, point C is approximately 13 mm backward from the front of the eye).

描述點M處之表面法線上的點N之等式為:The equation for describing the point N on the surface normal at point M is:

其中所有點N、M、P及C具有指示其在任意笛卡爾座標系統中之三維空間中之位置的分量[x,y,z]。All of the points N, M, P, and C have components [x, y, z] indicating their position in the three-dimensional space in any Cartesian coordinate system.

所得法線向量N-M具有歐幾里德(Euclidean)長度The resulting normal vector N-M has an Euclidean length

|N-M|=1| NM |=1

其中兩個垂直條表示歐幾里德長度,計算如下:Two of the vertical bars represent the Euclidean length and are calculated as follows:

作為一數值實例,考慮以下M、P及C值:As a numerical example, consider the following M, P, and C values:

M=[x M ,y M ,z M ]=[4,8,10]  M =[ x M , y M , z M ]=[4,8,10]

P=[2,10,5]  P = [2,10,5]

C=[6,10,5] C = [6,10,5]

沿著法線之點N計算如下:Calculate the point N along the normal as follows:

P-M=[(2-4),(10-8),(5-10)]=[-2,2,-5] P-M=[(2-4),(10-8),(5-10)]=[-2,2,-5]

C-M=[(6-4),(10-8),(5-10)]=[2,2.-5] C-M=[(6-4),(10-8),(5-10)]=[2,2.-5]

(P-M)+(C-M)=[0,4,-10](P-M)+(C-M)=[0,4,-10]

And

幾何圖展示於圖17中,其中等分線處於兩個較長向量之間。The geometry is shown in Figure 17, where the bisector is between two longer vectors.

當然,前述內容僅為用以展示在判定對於組成意欲向檢視器呈現相鄰虛擬影像之反射區域之自由空間(自由形式)表面流形(manifold)之點場之局部切平面角度約束時使用最小時間之Fermat及Hero原理的代表性計算。僅有的實常數為使用者之眼睛之中心及眼睛之自然視野。可迭代地更新所有其他分量,直至達到針對給定影像顯示系統及反射光學表面定向之適當解。另一方面,像素影像反射位置M1、M2、...、Mn及其相關聯之法線及曲率可被視為矩陣,該矩陣經「變形」(調整)使得FS/UWA/RO表面達成對由影像顯示系統形成之電腦產生之影像的所要虛擬影像處理。Of course, the foregoing is only used to demonstrate the minimum use of the local tangent plane angle constraint on the point field of the free-form (free-form) surface manifold that constitutes the reflective region that is intended to present the adjacent virtual image to the viewer. Representative calculations of the Fermat and Hero principles of time. The only real constant is the center of the user's eye and the natural view of the eye. All other components can be iteratively updated until an appropriate solution for a given image display system and the orientation of the reflective optical surface is reached. On the other hand, the pixel image reflection positions M1, M2, ..., Mn and their associated normals and curvatures can be regarded as a matrix which is "distorted" (adjusted) so that the FS/UWA/RO surface is aligned The desired virtual image processing of the image produced by the computer formed by the image display system.

在應用Fermat及Hero原理時,應注意,在一些實施例中,將需要避免調整法線使得使用者在一個以上點處看到相同像素反射之情形。亦應注意,在一些實施例中,反射光學表面之局部區域可非常小,且可甚至對應於反射器上之點,其中該等點形變(morph)成其他點以形成平滑表面。In applying the Fermat and Hero principles, it should be noted that in some embodiments it will be desirable to avoid adjusting the normals so that the user sees the same pixel reflections at more than one point. It should also be noted that in some embodiments, the localized areas of the reflective optical surface can be very small and can even correspond to points on the reflector where the points are morphed into other points to form a smooth surface.

為了確保使用者可易於聚焦於至少一發光表面之「所要部分」之虛擬影像(例如,像素之虛擬影像),控制包圍反射點(反射區)之區域之曲率半徑使得準直(或幾乎準直)之影像到達使用者。準直(或幾乎準直)之影像具有較平行之光射線,就好像影像已起源於距使用者之遠距離(例如,數十至數百公尺)處。為了達成此表面,可將對應於至少一發光表面之「所要部分」(所要發光像素)的反射光學表面之反射區域之曲率半徑保持為接近自反射區域至顯示器上之發光表面之實際「所要部分」(實際像素)的距離之一半的半徑。In order to ensure that the user can easily focus on the virtual image of the "desired portion" of at least one of the light-emitting surfaces (for example, a virtual image of a pixel), controlling the radius of curvature of the region surrounding the reflection point (reflection region) enables collimation (or almost collimation) The image reaches the user. A collimated (or nearly collimated) image has relatively parallel rays of light as if the image had originated at a distance (eg, tens to hundreds of meters) from the user. In order to achieve the surface, the radius of curvature of the reflective region of the reflective optical surface corresponding to the "desired portion" of the at least one illuminated surface (the desired pixel to be illuminated) can be maintained to be close to the actual desired portion of the self-reflecting region to the illuminated surface on the display. The radius of one-and-a-half the distance of the (actual pixel).

因此,在一實施例中,自相關像素至鄰近像素的反射之像素間法線向量滿足一關係,該關係允許該等像素建立大約為自反射表面上之反射之像素的位置至顯示像素之向量之長度之一半的曲率半徑。影響此參數之調整包括至少一發光表面之大小及該至少一發光表面是否彎曲。Thus, in an embodiment, the inter-pixel normal vector of the reflection from the correlation pixel to the neighboring pixel satisfies a relationship that allows the pixels to establish a vector from the position of the reflected pixel on the reflective surface to the display pixel. The radius of curvature of one-half of the length. The adjustment affecting the parameter includes the size of the at least one light emitting surface and whether the at least one light emitting surface is curved.

圖10說明此實施例。為了控制包圍像素反射之區域之曲率半徑使得準直(或幾乎準直)之影像到達使用者,(諸如)在反射點540處考慮兩個鄰近的像素反射區域。為了達成更好的平衡,可考慮更多區域,但兩個為足夠的。參看圖10,分別相對於顯示表面510上之兩個像素545及615展示兩個像素反射點540及610。在點540及610處之表面法線連同其方向之間的角度一起經計算。在知曉此等角度及點540與610之間的距離的情況下,計算曲率半徑。具體言之,調整表面組態及(視需要)表面之空間位置,直至曲率半徑等於(或大致等於)光束515及620之長度之平均值的一半。以此方式,可將零或近零屈光度的光提供至使用者之眼睛。此等效於來自本質上無限遠之點的光,且光波前為平的,從而形成與光之波前平行的表面法線。Figure 10 illustrates this embodiment. In order to control the radius of curvature of the region surrounding the reflection of the pixel such that the collimated (or nearly collimated) image reaches the user, two adjacent pixel reflection regions are considered at the reflection point 540, such as. In order to achieve a better balance, consider more areas, but two are sufficient. Referring to Figure 10, two pixel reflection points 540 and 610 are shown relative to two pixels 545 and 615 on display surface 510, respectively. The surface normals at points 540 and 610 are calculated along with the angle between their directions. The radius of curvature is calculated with knowledge of these angles and the distance between points 540 and 610. Specifically, the surface configuration and (as needed) spatial position of the surface are adjusted until the radius of curvature is equal to (or substantially equal to) half of the average of the lengths of beams 515 and 620. In this way, zero or near zero diopter light can be provided to the user's eyes. This is equivalent to light from a point that is essentially infinite, and the front of the light is flat, thereby forming a surface normal that is parallel to the wavefront of the light.

除了控制局部曲率半徑之外,在某些實施例中,作為使準直(或幾乎準直)之影像進入眼睛之一階點解,至少一發光表面標稱地位於遠離FS/UWA/RO表面一個焦距之距離處,其中該焦距係基於組成FS/UWA/RO表面之各種反射區域之曲率半徑的平均值。In addition to controlling the local radius of curvature, in some embodiments, at least one of the illuminating surfaces is nominally located away from the FS/UWA/RO surface as a solution to collimate (or nearly collimate) the image into the eye. A focal length distance, wherein the focal length is based on an average of the radii of curvature of the various reflective regions that make up the FS/UWA/RO surface.

應用Fermat及Hero原理之結果為可組合成平滑反射表面之一組反射區域。一般而言,此表面將不為球面或對稱的。圖12為此FS/UWA/RO表面520之二維表示。如上文所論述,表面520可經建構使得在點710及720處之曲率半徑經設定為如下值:該等值提供對自影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面反射的影像(其正由該表面反射)之放鬆檢視。以此方式,在由線730表示之某一方向上察看將提供準直(或幾乎準直)之視覺影像至眼睛530,將在由線740表示之不同方向上察看亦如此。為了實現在整個視野上之檢視之平滑轉變,FS/UWA/RO表面之區域可平滑地自一控制點轉變至另一控制點,如可藉由將非均勻有理B樣條(NURBS)技術用於樣條化表面來執行,因此創造在反射表面上之平滑轉變。在一些情況下,FS/UWA/RO表面可包括足夠數目個區域,使得表面在細粒度等級下變得平滑。在一些實施例中,可使用漸變梯度提供用於顯示器之每一部分(例如,每一像素)的不同放大,以允許較好的可製造性、實現及影像品質。The result of applying the Fermat and Hero principles is a group of reflective regions that can be combined into a smooth reflective surface. In general, this surface will not be spherical or symmetrical. Figure 12 is a two-dimensional representation of this FS/UWA/RO surface 520. As discussed above, surface 520 can be constructed such that the radius of curvature at points 710 and 720 is set to a value that provides an image that is reflected from at least one of the light emitting surfaces of the image display system (which is being reflected by the surface) ) Relaxation review. In this manner, viewing in a direction indicated by line 730 will provide a collimated (or nearly collimated) visual image to eye 530, as will be seen in the different directions indicated by line 740. In order to achieve a smooth transition of the view over the entire field of view, the area of the FS/UWA/RO surface can be smoothly transitioned from one control point to another, as can be achieved by using non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) techniques. Performed on the splined surface, thus creating a smooth transition on the reflective surface. In some cases, the FS/UWA/RO surface may include a sufficient number of regions such that the surface becomes smooth at a fine grain size level. In some embodiments, a gradient gradient can be used to provide different magnifications for each portion of the display (eg, each pixel) to allow for better manufacturability, implementation, and image quality.

圖13及圖14自兩個不同透視圖展示使用以上技術創造之FS/UWA/RO表面。圖15及圖16再次自兩個透視圖展示圖13及圖14之反射表面之另一改進型式。使用以上提及的題為「Methods and Systems for Creating Free Space Reflective Optical Surfaces」之共同讓渡且同在申請中之申請案的基於電腦之技術來設計此等圖之FS/UWA/RO表面。Figures 13 and 14 show FS/UWA/RO surfaces created using the above techniques from two different perspective views. Figures 15 and 16 again show another modification of the reflective surface of Figures 13 and 14 from two perspective views. The FS/UWA/RO surface of these figures is designed using the computer-based technology of the above-mentioned "Methods and Systems for Creating Free Space Reflective Optical Surfaces" and the application-based application.

自前述內容可看出,已揭示用於設計頭戴式顯示器之方法,在例示性實施例中,其可包括:判定所要視野,選擇顯示表面大小(例如,寬度及高度尺寸),選擇顯示表面相對於反射表面之定向,對每一像素在顯示表面上之位置分類,及選擇反射表面上用於顯示來自顯示表面之每一像素的位置。顯示表面可置放於眼睛上方且朝向反射表面傾斜,從而允許反射表面之曲率以將光反射至佩戴者之眼睛。在其他實施例中,顯示表面可置放於其他位置中(諸如,在眼睛側面或在眼睛下方),其中反射位置及曲率經選擇以適當地反射來自顯示表面之光,或以不同程度傾斜。As can be seen from the foregoing, a method for designing a head mounted display has been disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, it can include determining a desired field of view, selecting a display surface size (eg, width and height dimensions), and selecting a display surface. The position of each pixel on the display surface is sorted relative to the orientation of the reflective surface, and the position on the reflective surface for displaying each pixel from the display surface is selected. The display surface can be placed over the eye and tilted toward the reflective surface, allowing the curvature of the reflective surface to reflect light to the wearer's eye. In other embodiments, the display surface can be placed in other locations (such as on the side of the eye or below the eye), wherein the reflected position and curvature are selected to properly reflect light from the display surface, or to be tilted to varying degrees.

在某些實施例中,可創造反射表面之三維具現化或數學表示,其中如上文所論述,反射表面之每一區域為具有等分自彼區域之中心至使用者之眼睛之中心及自彼區域之中心至顯示表面中之像素之中心的向量之法線的局部區域。亦如上文所論述,可控制包圍像素反射之區域之曲率半徑使得準直(或幾乎準直)之影像在視野上到達使用者。經由基於電腦之迭代,可調整可改變參數(例如,局部法線、局部曲率、局部空間位置),直至識別參數之在視野上提供所要光學效能等級以及美學上可接受之可製造設計的組合(集合)。In some embodiments, a three-dimensional representation or mathematical representation of the reflective surface can be created, wherein as discussed above, each region of the reflective surface has a center that is equally spaced from the center of the region to the center of the user's eye and A local area of the normal of the vector from the center of the region to the center of the pixel in the display surface. As also discussed above, the radius of curvature of the area surrounding the reflection of the pixel can be controlled such that the collimated (or nearly collimated) image reaches the user in the field of view. Through computer-based iterations, the changeable parameters (eg, local normal, local curvature, local spatial position) can be adjusted until the identification parameter provides a desired optical performance level and an aesthetically acceptable combination of manufacturable designs in the field of view ( set).

在使用期間,非對稱FS/UWA/RO表面(在某些實施例中,其由具有多個局部焦點區域之樣條化表面建構)形成在寬視野上伸展之影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面的虛擬影像。FS/UWA/RO表面可被視為漸進式鏡或漸進式彎曲光束分光器或自由形式鏡或反射器。當眼睛在視野上掃描(水平及垂直兩者)時,彎曲FS/UWA/RO表面將影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面之不同部分照亮至使用者之眼睛內。在各種實施例中,總體光學系統可以低成本大量製造,同時維持與典型之人類視覺解析度相稱的影像品質。During use, the asymmetric FS/UWA/RO surface (in some embodiments, constructed from a splined surface having a plurality of localized focal regions) forms at least one illuminated surface of the image display system that is stretched over a wide field of view Virtual image. The FS/UWA/RO surface can be viewed as a progressive or progressive curved beam splitter or a freeform mirror or reflector. When the eye is scanned over the field of view (both horizontal and vertical), the curved FS/UWA/RO surface illuminates different portions of at least one of the illuminated surfaces of the image display system into the user's eye. In various embodiments, the overall optical system can be mass produced at low cost while maintaining image quality commensurate with typical human visual resolution.

就HMD之總體結構而言,表1陳述了根據本發明建構之HMD顯示器通常將符合的參數之代表性、非限制性實例。此外,本文中揭示之HMD顯示器通常將具有足夠小以確保在使用者之視覺平面中建立使人信服之影像的像素間距離。In terms of the overall structure of the HMD, Table 1 sets forth representative, non-limiting examples of parameters that would normally be met by an HMD display constructed in accordance with the present invention. Moreover, the HMD displays disclosed herein will typically have an inter-pixel distance that is small enough to ensure a convincing image in the user's visual plane.

可在本文中揭示之頭戴式顯示裝置中包括之各種特徵包括(但不限於)以下各者,其中之一些已在上文提及:Various features that may be included in the head mounted display devices disclosed herein include, but are not limited to, the following, some of which have been mentioned above:

(1)在一些實施例中,可使用一或多個菲涅耳透鏡修改自顯示表面發出之光束之屈光度特性。(1) In some embodiments, one or more Fresnel lenses may be used to modify the diopter characteristics of the beam emitted from the display surface.

(2)在一些實施例中,反射光學表面可為半透明的,從而允許光自外部環境進入。內部顯示器產生之影像可接著覆疊外部影像。可經由使用局部化設備(諸如,迴轉儀、攝影機)及軟體操縱電腦產生之影像來對準兩個影像,使得虛擬影像處於外部環境中之適當位置處。詳言之,可使用攝影機、加速度計及/或迴轉儀輔助裝置註冊其在實境中何處及將其影像疊置於外部視圖上。在此等實施例中,可選擇反射光學表面之相對透射率與反射率之間的平衡以向使用者提供具有適當亮度特性之覆疊影像。又,在此等實施例中,真實世界影像及電腦產生之影像可顯得皆處於大致相同之視距,使得眼睛可同時聚焦於兩個影像。(2) In some embodiments, the reflective optical surface can be translucent to allow light to enter from the external environment. The image produced by the internal display can then overlay the external image. The two images can be aligned by using a localized device (such as a gyroscope, a camera) and a software-operated computer-generated image such that the virtual image is in place in the external environment. In particular, cameras, accelerometers, and/or gyroscope aids can be used to register where they are in reality and to overlay their images on an external view. In such embodiments, the balance between the relative transmittance and reflectance of the reflective optical surface can be selected to provide the user with an overlay image having suitable brightness characteristics. Moreover, in these embodiments, the real world image and the computer generated image may appear to be at substantially the same line of sight such that the eye can focus on both images simultaneously.

(3)在一些實施例中,將反射光學表面保持儘可能薄,以便使對穿過表面之外部光之位置或焦點的影響最小化。(3) In some embodiments, the reflective optical surface is kept as thin as possible to minimize the effects on the position or focus of external light passing through the surface.

(4)在一些實施例中,頭戴式顯示裝置將至少100度、至少150度或至少200度之視野提供至每一眼睛。(4) In some embodiments, the head mounted display device provides a field of view of at least 100 degrees, at least 150 degrees, or at least 200 degrees to each eye.

(5)在一些實施例中,由頭戴式顯示器提供至每一眼睛之靜態視野並不在任何大的程度上重疊使用者之鼻子。(5) In some embodiments, the static field of view provided by the head mounted display to each eye does not overlap the user's nose to any significant extent.

(6)在一些實施例中,反射光學表面可使用其光學處方(prescription)在視野上之漸進轉變以維持對可用顯示區之聚焦。(6) In some embodiments, the reflective optical surface can use its optical prescription to progressively shift in view to maintain focus on the available display area.

(7)在一些實施例中,可使用射線追蹤針對特定實施(諸如,軍事訓練、飛行模擬、遊戲及其他商業應用)定製裝置參數。(7) In some embodiments, ray tracing can be used to customize device parameters for specific implementations, such as military training, flight simulation, gaming, and other commercial applications.

(8)在一些實施例中,可關於在視網膜及/或視窩處之調變轉移函數(MTF)規格來操縱反射光學表面及/或顯示器之表面以及透鏡(當使用時)之曲率,及顯示器與反射光學表面之間及反射光學表面與眼睛之間的距離。(8) In some embodiments, the curvature of the reflective optical surface and/or the surface of the display and the lens (when used) may be manipulated with respect to a modulation transfer function (MTF) specification at the retina and/or the optic socket, and The distance between the display and the reflective optical surface and between the reflective optical surface and the eye.

(9)在一些實施例中,本文中揭示之HMD可實施於諸如(但不限於)狙擊手偵測、商業訓練、軍事訓練及作戰以及CAD製造之應用中。(9) In some embodiments, the HMDs disclosed herein may be implemented in applications such as, but not limited to, sniper detection, business training, military training and combat, and CAD manufacturing.

一旦經設計,即可使用現在已知或隨後開發的多種技術及多種材料生產(例如,大量製造)本文中揭示之反射光學表面(例如,FS/UWA/RO表面)。舉例而言,該等表面可由已金屬化以具有合適反射性之塑膠材料製成。亦可使用拋光之塑膠或玻璃材料。對於「擴增實境」應用,可自具有內嵌小反射器之透射性材料建構反射光學表面,因此反射入射波前之部分,同時允許光透射穿過該材料。Once designed, the reflective optical surfaces (eg, FS/UWA/RO surfaces) disclosed herein can be produced (eg, mass produced) using a variety of techniques and materials that are now known or subsequently developed. For example, the surfaces can be made of a plastic material that has been metallized to have suitable reflectivity. Polished plastic or glass materials can also be used. For "Actual Reality" applications, the reflective optical surface can be constructed from a transmissive material having a small embedded reflector, thereby reflecting the portion of the incident wavefront while allowing light to pass through the material.

對於原型零件,丙烯酸塑膠(例如,膠質玻璃)可供正藉由金剛石車削形成之零件使用。對於生產零件,丙烯酸或聚碳酸酯可(例如)供正藉由(例如)射出模製技術形成之零件使用。反射光學表面可描述為詳細的電腦輔助製圖(CAD)描述或描述為非均勻有理B樣條NURBS表面(其可轉換成CAD描述)。具有CAD檔案可允許使用3D印刷來製造器件,在該情況下,CAD描述直接產生3D物件而無需機械加工。For prototype parts, acrylic plastic (for example, colloidal glass) can be used for parts that are being formed by diamond turning. For producing parts, acrylic or polycarbonate can be used, for example, for parts that are being formed by, for example, injection molding techniques. The reflective optical surface can be described as a detailed computer-aided drawing (CAD) description or as a non-uniform rational B-spline NURBS surface (which can be converted into a CAD description). Having a CAD file allows the device to be fabricated using 3D printing, in which case the CAD description directly produces 3D objects without machining.

以上論述之數學技術可在現在已知或隨後開發之各種程式設計環境中及/或以現在已知或隨後開發之各種程式設計語言來編碼。當前較佳之程式設計環境為在Eclipse Programmer之介面中執行的Java語言。亦可視需要使用諸如Microsoft Visual C#之其他程式設計環境。亦可使用由PTC(Needham,Massachusetts)市場銷售之Mathcad平台及/或來自MathWorks,Inc.,(Natick,Massachusetts)之Matlab平台執行計算。所得程式可儲存於硬碟機、記憶卡、CD或類似器件上。可使用可購自多個供應商(例如,DELL、HP、TOSHIBA等)之典型桌上型計算設備執行該等程序。或者,可視需要使用包括「雲端」計算之更強大的計算設備。The mathematical techniques discussed above may be encoded in various programming environments now known or subsequently developed and/or in various programming languages now known or subsequently developed. The current preferred programming environment is the Java language implemented in the Eclipse Programmer interface. Other programming environments such as Microsoft Visual C# can also be used as needed. Calculations can also be performed using the Mathcad platform marketed by PTC (Needham, Mass.) and/or the Matlab platform from MathWorks, Inc., (Natick, Massachusetts). The resulting program can be stored on a hard drive, memory card, CD or similar device. Such programs can be executed using typical desktop computing devices available from multiple vendors (eg, DELL, HP, TOSHIBA, etc.). Alternatively, use a more powerful computing device that includes "cloud" computing as needed.

一般熟習此項技術者自前述揭示內容將顯而易見不脫離本發明之範疇及精神的多種修改。舉例而言,雖然向使用者提供大視野(例如,大於或等於100°、150°或200°之視野)之反射光學表面構成本發明之設計態樣之有利實施例,但亦可使用用於設計本文中揭示之反射光學表面的基於電腦之方法及系統來創造具有較小視野之表面。以下申請專利範圍意欲涵蓋本文中陳述之特定實施例之此等及其他修改、變化及等效物。Many modifications of the scope and spirit of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the <RTIgt; For example, although a reflective optical surface that provides a user with a large field of view (eg, a field of view greater than or equal to 100°, 150°, or 200°) constitutes an advantageous embodiment of the design aspect of the present invention, it can also be used for Computer-based methods and systems for designing reflective optical surfaces disclosed herein to create surfaces with smaller fields of view. The following claims are intended to cover such and other modifications, variations and equivalents

11...顯示器11. . . monitor

13...反射光學表面13. . . Reflective optical surface

15...眼睛15. . . eye

17...旋轉中心17. . . Rotation center

19...來自顯示器之光19. . . Light from the display

71...使用者之標稱右眼71. . . User's nominal right eye

72...使用者之眼睛之旋轉中心72. . . The center of rotation of the user's eyes

73...直前方凝視方向73. . . Straight ahead gaze direction

75...弧75. . . arc

77...向量77. . . vector

78...向量78. . . vector

79...向量79. . . vector

80...向量80. . . vector

81...發光表面81. . . Luminous surface

82...第一發光區域82. . . First light emitting area

83...第二發光區域83. . . Second light emitting area

84...第一反射區域84. . . First reflective area

85...第一表面法線/第一局部法線85. . . First surface normal / first partial normal

86...第二反射區域86. . . Second reflection area

87...第二表面法線/第二局部法線87. . . Second surface normal / second partial normal

88...正方形之虛擬影像/可見虛擬影像88. . . Square virtual image / visible virtual image

89...三角形之虛擬影像/可見虛擬影像89. . . Virtual image of triangle / visible virtual image

100...頭戴式顯示裝置100. . . Head mounted display device

105...使用者/使用者之頭部105. . . User/user's head

107...框架107. . . frame

110...影像顯示系統110. . . Image display system

111...表面111. . . surface

115...透鏡或透鏡系統115. . . Lens or lens system

120...反射光學表面/FS/UWA/RO表面120. . . Reflective optical surface / FS / UWA / RO surface

120L...FS/UWA/RO表面120L. . . FS/UWA/RO surface

120R...FS/UWA/RO表面120R. . . FS/UWA/RO surface

140...電子封裝140. . . Electronic package

150...傳輸纜線150. . . Transmission cable

170...攝影機170. . . camera

180...光線180. . . Light

185...光線185. . . Light

190...光線190. . . Light

195...點195. . . point

200...使用者之頭部200. . . User's head

201...FS/UWA/RO表面201. . . FS/UWA/RO surface

202...FS/UWA/RO表面202. . . FS/UWA/RO surface

203...使用者之眼睛203. . . User's eye

204...使用者之眼睛204. . . User's eye

205...使用者之鼻子205. . . User's nose

210...鼻脊件/視線210. . . Nose ridge / sight

211...視線211. . . Sight

212...視線212. . . Sight

213...視線213. . . Sight

214...頭部之中前部214. . . Front part of the head

215...滾動中心215. . . Rolling center

216...滾動中心216. . . Rolling center

310...使用者之眼睛310. . . User's eye

330...內部透鏡330. . . Internal lens

340...光線340. . . Light

345...向量/射線345. . . Vector/ray

350...向量350. . . vector

352...參考數字352. . . Reference number

355...真實影像355. . . Real image

360...虛擬影像360. . . Virtual image

365...人365. . . people

405...光線405. . . Light

407...彎曲顯示幕407. . . Curved display

410...射線410. . . Rays

415...光瞳415. . . Light

510...發光表面510. . . Luminous surface

515...光束515. . . beam

520...反射光學表面/FS/UWA/RO表面520. . . Reflective optical surface / FS / UWA / RO surface

525...光束525. . . beam

530...使用者之眼睛530. . . User's eye

535...線/等分向量/所要表面法線535. . . Line / bisector vector / desired surface normal

540...反射點540. . . Reflection point

545...像素545. . . Pixel

550...垂直平面550. . . Vertical plane

555...眼睛之中心555. . . Center of the eye

610...像素反射點610. . . Pixel reflection point

615...像素615. . . Pixel

620...光束620. . . beam

710...點710. . . point

720...點720. . . point

730...線730. . . line

740...線740. . . line

圖1為展示HMD之基本組件(亦即,顯示器、反射表面及使用者之眼睛)之示意圖。Figure 1 is a schematic diagram showing the basic components of the HMD (i.e., the display, the reflective surface, and the eyes of the user).

圖2為根據一實例實施例之頭戴式顯示裝置之側視圖表示。2 is a side view representation of a head mounted display device in accordance with an example embodiment.

圖3為圖2之頭戴式顯示裝置之正視圖表示。3 is a front elevational view of the head mounted display device of FIG. 2.

圖4為說明根據一實例實施例之在頭戴式顯示裝置中的自顯示器及外部物件兩者之光路之射線圖。4 is a ray diagram illustrating optical paths from both a display and an external object in a head mounted display device, according to an example embodiment.

圖5為說明使用彎曲顯示器及彎曲反射器之一實例實施例之射線圖。Figure 5 is a ray diagram illustrating an example embodiment using a curved display and a curved reflector.

圖6為說明根據一實例實施例之對應於使用者之兩個眼睛的兩個彎曲反射光學表面之使用的頭戴式顯示裝置之俯視圖。6 is a top plan view of a head mounted display device illustrating the use of two curved reflective optical surfaces corresponding to two eyes of a user, in accordance with an example embodiment.

圖7為說明針對直前方凝視方向之標稱人類眼睛的靜態視野之示意圖。Figure 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating the static field of view of a nominal human eye for a straight forward gaze direction.

圖8為說明根據一實例實施例之圖7之靜態視野與FS/UWA/RO表面之間的相互作用之示意圖。圖8中之箭頭說明光傳播之方向。8 is a schematic diagram illustrating the interaction between the static field of view of FIG. 7 and the FS/UWA/RO surface, according to an example embodiment. The arrows in Figure 8 illustrate the direction of light propagation.

圖9為說明根據一實例實施例之自顯示器上之一給定像素(當其朝向眼睛反射時)的光路之射線圖。9 is a ray diagram illustrating an optical path from a given pixel (when it is reflected toward an eye) on a display, in accordance with an example embodiment.

圖10為說明根據一實例實施例之自顯示器上之兩個像素(當其朝向眼睛反射時)的光路之射線圖。10 is a ray diagram illustrating an optical path from two pixels on a display (when it is reflected toward the eye), according to an example embodiment.

圖11為說明根據一實例實施例之在選擇反射器之局部法線的方向時使用之變數之圖。11 is a diagram illustrating variables used in selecting the direction of a local normal to a reflector, according to an example embodiment.

圖12為根據一實例實施例之彎曲反射器連同光路之表示。Figure 12 is a representation of a curved reflector along with an optical path, in accordance with an example embodiment.

圖13及圖14自兩個透視圖說明根據一實例實施例之FS/UWA/RO表面。Figures 13 and 14 illustrate FS/UWA/RO surfaces in accordance with an example embodiment from two perspective views.

圖15及圖16自兩個透視圖說明根據一實例實施例之另一FS/UWA/RO表面。Figures 15 and 16 illustrate another FS/UWA/RO surface in accordance with an example embodiment from two perspective views.

圖17為說明根據一實例實施例之用於計算反射表面之局部法線的幾何圖之示意圖。17 is a schematic diagram illustrating a geometrical diagram for calculating a local normal of a reflective surface, in accordance with an example embodiment.

100...頭戴式顯示裝置100. . . Head mounted display device

105...使用者/使用者之頭部頭部105. . . User/user's head

107...框架107. . . frame

110...影像顯示系統110. . . Image display system

115...透鏡或透鏡系統115. . . Lens or lens system

120...反射光學表面/FS/UWA/RO表面120. . . Reflective optical surface / FS / UWA / RO surface

140...電子封裝140. . . Electronic package

150...傳輸纜線150. . . Transmission cable

170...攝影機170. . . camera

180...光線180. . . Light

185...光線185. . . Light

190...光線190. . . Light

195...點195. . . point

Claims (23)

一種頭戴式顯示裝置,其包含:(I)一框架,其經調適以安裝於一使用者之頭部上;(II)一影像顯示系統,其由該框架支撐;及(III)一反射光學表面,其由該框架支撐,該反射光學表面為不關於一三維笛卡爾座標系統之任何座標軸旋轉對稱的一連續表面;其中:(a)該影像顯示系統包括至少一發光表面;(b)在使用期間,該反射光學表面產生該至少一發光表面之空間上分離之部分的空間上分離之虛擬影像,該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自一標稱使用者之眼睛之旋轉中心來量測;且(c)在使用期間,該反射光學表面之至少一點與該反射光學表面之至少一其他點在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自一標稱使用者之眼睛之該旋轉中心來量測。 A head mounted display device comprising: (I) a frame adapted to be mounted on a user's head; (II) an image display system supported by the frame; and (III) a reflection An optical surface supported by the frame, the reflective optical surface being a continuous surface that is rotationally symmetric about any coordinate axis of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system; wherein: (a) the image display system includes at least one light emitting surface; (b) During use, the reflective optical surface produces a spatially separated virtual image of the spatially separated portion of the at least one light emitting surface, and at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is spatially separated from the spatial image At least one of the others is angularly separated by at least 100 degrees, the angular separation being measured from a center of rotation of a nominal user's eye; and (c) at least one point of the reflective optical surface during use At least one other point of the reflective optical surface is angularly separated by at least 100 degrees, the angular separation being measured from the center of rotation of a nominal user's eye. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中:該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少150度;且該反射光學表面之至少一點與該反射光學表面之至少 一其他點在角度上分離至少150度。 The head-mounted display device of claim 1, wherein: at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is angularly separated by at least 150 degrees from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images; At least one point of the reflective optical surface and at least the reflective optical surface One other point is angularly separated by at least 150 degrees. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中:該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少200度;且該反射光學表面之至少一點與該反射光學表面之至少一其他點在角度上分離至少200度。 The head-mounted display device of claim 1, wherein: at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is angularly separated by at least 200 degrees from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images; At least one point of the reflective optical surface is angularly separated from at least one other point of the reflective optical surface by at least 200 degrees. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中在使用期間:該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之該至少一者沿著穿過該反射光學表面之該至少一點之一凝視方向而定位;且該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之該至少一其他者沿著穿過該反射光學表面之該至少一其他點之一凝視方向而定位。 The head mounted display device of claim 1, wherein during use: the at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is positioned along a gaze direction through the at least one of the reflective optical surfaces; The at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images are positioned along a gaze direction through one of the at least one other point of the reflective optical surface. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該反射光學表面為半透明的。 A head mounted display device according to claim 1, wherein the reflective optical surface is translucent. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該裝置具有一個且僅一個反射光學表面。 A head mounted display device according to claim 1, wherein the device has one and only one reflective optical surface. 如請求項1之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該裝置具有兩個且僅兩個反射光學表面,該使用者之眼睛中之每一者一表面。 A head mounted display device according to claim 1, wherein the device has two and only two reflective optical surfaces, one of each of the user's eyes. 一種頭戴式顯示裝置,其包含:(I)一框架,其經調適以安裝於一使用者之頭部上;(II)一影像顯示系統,其由該框架支撐;及(III)一自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面,其由該 框架支撐;其中:(a)該影像顯示系統包括至少一發光表面;(b)在使用期間,該自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面產生該至少一發光表面之空間上分離之部分的空間上分離之虛擬影像,該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少100度,該角度分離係自一標稱使用者之眼睛之一旋轉中心來量測。 A head mounted display device comprising: (I) a frame adapted to be mounted on a user's head; (II) an image display system supported by the frame; and (III) a free Space, ultra-wide angle, reflective optical surface, Frame support; wherein: (a) the image display system includes at least one light emitting surface; (b) during use, the free space, the ultra wide angle, and the reflective optical surface create a spatially separated portion of the at least one light emitting surface The separated virtual image, at least one of the spatially separated virtual images being angularly separated from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images by at least 100 degrees, the angular separation being from a nominal One of the user's eyes rotates the center to measure. 如請求項8之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少150度。 The head mounted display device of claim 8, wherein at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is angularly separated by at least 150 degrees from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images. 如請求項8之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一者與該等空間上分離之虛擬影像中之至少一其他者在角度上分離至少200度。 The head mounted display device of claim 8, wherein at least one of the spatially separated virtual images is angularly separated by at least 200 degrees from at least one other of the spatially separated virtual images. 如請求項8之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該裝置包含一第一影像顯示系統及一第二影像顯示系統以及與該第一影像顯示系統成固定關係之一第一自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面及與該第二影像顯示系統成固定關係之一第二自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面。 The head-mounted display device of claim 8, wherein the device comprises a first image display system and a second image display system, and a first free space, an ultra-wide angle, and a fixed relationship with the first image display system. a reflective optical surface and a second free space, an ultra-wide angle, a reflective optical surface in fixed relationship with the second image display system. 如請求項8之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面為半透明的。 A head mounted display device according to claim 8, wherein the free space, the ultra wide angle, and the reflective optical surface are translucent. 如請求項8之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該自由空間、超寬角度、反射光學表面經組態以至少部分地使自該影像顯 示系統之至少一發光表面發射之光準直。 The head mounted display device of claim 8, wherein the free space, ultra wide angle, reflective optical surface is configured to at least partially cause the image to be displayed The light emitted by at least one of the light emitting surfaces of the system is collimated. 一種頭戴式顯示裝置,其包含:(I)一框架,其經調適以安裝於一使用者之頭部上;(II)一影像顯示系統,其由該框架支撐;及(III)一反射表面,其由該框架支撐,該反射表面將至少200°之一視野提供至一標稱使用者;其中:(a)該影像顯示系統包括至少一發光表面,該至少一發光表面包括分別具有第一及第二資訊內容之至少第一及第二空間上分離之發光區域;(b)該反射表面包含分別具有在不同方向上指向之第一及第二表面法線的至少第一及第二空間上分離之反射區域;且(c)該框架支撐該影像顯示系統及該反射表面,使得在由一標稱使用者使用該裝置期間:(i)於該標稱使用者之一眼睛之至少一凝視方向,來自該第一發光區域之光自該第一反射區域反射離開且進入該眼睛以形成該第一資訊內容之一可見虛擬影像;(ii)於該眼睛之至少一凝視方向,來自該第二發光區域之光自該第二反射區域反射離開且進入該眼睛以形成該第二資訊內容之一可見虛擬影像;且(iii)於該眼睛之至少一凝視方向,來自該第一發光區域之光自該第一反射區域反射離開且進入該眼睛 以形成該第一資訊內容之一可見虛擬影像,且來自該第二發光區域之光自該第二反射區域反射離開且不進入該眼睛,且不形成該第二資訊內容之一可見虛擬影像。 A head mounted display device comprising: (I) a frame adapted to be mounted on a user's head; (II) an image display system supported by the frame; and (III) a reflection a surface supported by the frame, the reflective surface providing a field of view of at least 200° to a nominal user; wherein: (a) the image display system includes at least one light emitting surface, the at least one light emitting surface comprising At least first and second spatially separated illumination regions of the first and second information content; (b) the reflective surface includes at least first and second portions respectively having first and second surface normals directed in different directions a spatially separated reflective area; and (c) the frame supports the image display system and the reflective surface such that during use of the device by a nominal user: (i) at least one of the eyes of the nominal user a gaze direction, light from the first illuminating region is reflected away from the first reflective region and enters the eye to form a visible virtual image of one of the first information content; (ii) at least one gaze direction of the eye, from The second Light from the light region is reflected away from the second reflective region and enters the eye to form a visible virtual image of one of the second information content; and (iii) at least one gaze direction of the eye, light from the first illumination region Reflecting away from the first reflective area and entering the eye The virtual image is visible to form one of the first information content, and the light from the second light-emitting area is reflected away from the second reflective area and does not enter the eye, and the virtual image is not formed by one of the second information content. 如請求項14之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該裝置包含一第一影像顯示系統及一第二影像顯示系統以及與該第一影像顯示系統成固定關係之一第一反射表面及與該第二影像顯示系統成固定關係之一第二反射表面。 The head-mounted display device of claim 14, wherein the device comprises a first image display system and a second image display system, and a first reflective surface in a fixed relationship with the first image display system and the second The image display system is in a fixed relationship with one of the second reflective surfaces. 如請求項14之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該反射表面為半透明的。 A head mounted display device according to claim 14, wherein the reflective surface is translucent. 如請求項14之頭戴式顯示裝置,其中該反射表面經組態以至少部分地使自該影像顯示系統之至少一發光表面發射之光準直。 The head mounted display device of claim 14, wherein the reflective surface is configured to at least partially collimate light emitted from at least one of the light emitting surfaces of the image display system. 一種用於設計一反射光學表面之基於電腦之方法,該反射光學表面用於在包括一影像顯示系統之一頭戴式顯示器中使用,在該頭戴式顯示器之使用期間,該影像顯示系統具有複數個內容區,該方法包括使用一或多個電腦執行以下步驟:(a)將該反射光學表面分成複數個局部反射區域,每一局部反射區域具有一表面法線;(b)使該反射光學表面之每一局部反射區域與該影像顯示系統之一個且僅一個內容區相關聯,每一內容區與至少一局部反射區域相關聯;及(c)調整該反射光學表面之組態使得該等表面法線中之 每一者等分以下兩個向量:(1)該局部反射區域至其相關聯之內容區的一向量;及(2)該局部反射區域至在該頭戴式顯示器之使用期間一標稱使用者之眼睛之一旋轉中心之位置的一向量。 A computer based method for designing a reflective optical surface for use in a head mounted display comprising an image display system, the image display system having during use of the head mounted display a plurality of content regions, the method comprising performing the following steps using one or more computers: (a) dividing the reflective optical surface into a plurality of partial reflection regions, each of the partial reflection regions having a surface normal; (b) causing the reflection Each of the partial reflection regions of the optical surface is associated with one and only one content region of the image display system, each content region being associated with at least one partial reflection region; and (c) adjusting the configuration of the reflective optical surface such that Equal surface normal Each of the two vectors is equally divided: (1) a vector of the partially reflective region to its associated content region; and (2) the partially reflective region to a nominal use during use of the head mounted display One of the eyes of the person's eye rotates the center of the vector. 如請求項18之方法,其中該反射光學表面之該組態經調整以至少部分地使自該影像顯示系統發射之光準直。 The method of claim 18, wherein the configuration of the reflective optical surface is adjusted to at least partially collimate light emitted from the image display system. 如請求項18之方法,其進一步包含生產該反射光學表面。 The method of claim 18, further comprising producing the reflective optical surface. 一種體現於一有形電腦可讀媒體中之電腦程式,其用於執行如請求項18之方法。 A computer program embodied in a tangible computer readable medium for performing the method of claim 18. 一種電腦系統,其經程式化以執行如請求項18之方法。 A computer system programmed to perform the method of claim 18. 一種電腦系統,其包含:(a)一處理器;(b)一記憶體單元,其耦接至該處理器,該記憶體單元儲存包括用於執行如請求項18之方法之程式化指令的一電腦程式。A computer system comprising: (a) a processor; (b) a memory unit coupled to the processor, the memory unit storing program instructions for executing a method as claimed in claim 18 A computer program.
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