TWI511409B - Power management method, apparatus and chip and non-transitory computer readable recording medium - Google Patents

Power management method, apparatus and chip and non-transitory computer readable recording medium Download PDF

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TWI511409B
TWI511409B TW103113229A TW103113229A TWI511409B TW I511409 B TWI511409 B TW I511409B TW 103113229 A TW103113229 A TW 103113229A TW 103113229 A TW103113229 A TW 103113229A TW I511409 B TWI511409 B TW I511409B
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battery
power
function
current
capacity
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TW103113229A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201521326A (en
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Tzi Cker Chiueh
Chia Ming Chang
Shou Hung Ling
Shih Hao Liang
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Ind Tech Res Inst
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電源管理方法、裝置與晶片以及非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介Power management methods, devices and wafers, and non-transitory computer readable recording media
本揭露係關於一種電源管理方法、裝置與晶片以及非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介(Non-transitory Computer Readable Recording Medium)。The present disclosure relates to a power management method, apparatus and chip, and a non-transitory Computer Readable Recording Medium.
即便可攜帶式資訊和通信技術(Information and Communication Technology,ICT)裝置,如智慧型手機,平板電腦等的發展與普及,當電池電量降低時,系統因為電源切斷而突然當機的情況並不罕見。這種電源切斷主要的原因在於:在充電狀態(State of Charge,SoC)變低時,“極化損耗”和鋰離子電池相關的“阻抗”會變得非常高。在ICT裝置上執行不同的程式和功能所造成相同的功率/電湧波動在電池的SoC在低階段時會導致更大電壓波動。當電壓波動達到低電壓閾值(threshold)時,電池低電壓保護機制將被啟動以切斷電源。這種情況在老化的電池尤其顯著,因為老化電池的阻抗增加,因此低SoC的電壓波動會更大,進而也導致減 少在ICT系統進行正確的資料保存和系統關機的預防準備時間。現行大部分的電源管理方法是基於電與電子方面的考慮,而電池特徵曲線(Battery Characteristic Curve,BCC)是基於在第一圖中所示的電池的電化學特性。BCC將電化學特性轉換成常見的電子控制域(電位-容量域,Potential-Capacity Domain),以便執行定量和簡單的控制演算法。當濃差極化損耗(Concentration Polarization Loss)高時,BCC在低狀態SoC時特別有用。Even with the development and popularization of portable information and communication technology (ICT) devices, such as smart phones and tablets, when the battery power is reduced, the system suddenly crashes due to power cutoff. rare. The main reason for this power cut is that the "polarization loss" and the "impedance" associated with the lithium ion battery become very high when the state of charge (SoC) becomes low. Performing the same power/surge fluctuations caused by executing different programs and functions on the ICT device can cause greater voltage fluctuations in the low phase of the SoC of the battery. When the voltage fluctuation reaches a low voltage threshold, the battery low voltage protection mechanism will be activated to turn off the power. This situation is particularly noticeable in aging batteries because the impedance of the aging battery increases, so the voltage fluctuations of the low SoC will be greater, which in turn will result in a reduction. Less preparation time for correct data storage and system shutdown in the ICT system. Most current power management methods are based on electrical and electronic considerations, and the Battery Characteristic Curve (BCC) is based on the electrochemical characteristics of the battery shown in the first figure. BCC converts electrochemical properties into a common electronic control domain (Potential-Capacity Domain) to perform quantitative and simple control algorithms. BCC is particularly useful in low state SoCs when Concentration Polarization Loss is high.
目前電子裝置的電池在低容量狀態時的習知問題是,在操作過程中可能出現的電源湧動會導致系統在使用完低容量狀態電池的剩餘電量在之前就逕行關機。當前的電源管理技術,係以限制用戶使用消耗大量功率的的功能,以當電池電量低時延長電子裝置的使用時間。然而,在電力有限時這類的限制可能會帶來極大的不便,因為用戶經常必須使用消耗更多功率的功能,例如撥打電話、發送帶有附件的電子郵件等。在功率消耗的高點,若無其他有效的管理,一般是採用在低容量狀態的電池可能因達到最低安全電壓定義的閾值,迫使電池保護電路啟動,無預警地切斷電池電路和關閉系統。然而,當一個功能被啟動執行時,經常發生功率消耗的高點,因此,開始執行一個重要的功能往往會導致峰值功率消耗超過安全閾值,必須過早的電源關閉。其結果是,電池的剩餘容量不恰當地使用,即便在剩餘的電力是足以使該系統的操作延長使用一些重要的 功能。The conventional problem with current battery states of electronic devices in low-capacity states is that power surges that may occur during operation can cause the system to shut down before the remaining battery capacity of the low-capacity battery is used. Current power management techniques are designed to limit the user's ability to consume a large amount of power to extend the life of the electronic device when the battery is low. However, such limitations can be extremely inconvenient when power is limited, as users often have to use features that consume more power, such as making calls, sending emails with attachments, and so on. At the high point of power consumption, if there is no other effective management, the battery in the low-capacity state may be forced to start the battery protection circuit and shut off the system without warning, because the threshold defined by the minimum safe voltage is reached. However, when a function is started, the high point of power consumption often occurs. Therefore, starting an important function often results in peak power consumption exceeding the safety threshold, and the power supply must be turned off prematurely. As a result, the remaining capacity of the battery is not used properly, even if the remaining power is sufficient to extend the operation of the system. Features.
本揭露提供一種電池的極化損失開始顯著增加時閾值的檢測方法。本方法也適應於電池的老化的調整。The present disclosure provides a method of detecting a threshold when the polarization loss of a battery begins to increase significantly. The method is also adapted to the adjustment of the aging of the battery.
本揭露提供一種可用於低容量狀態電化學電池的電源管理方法。本電源管理方法是基於BCC,其能反映電池在低容量狀態下,在電池極化顯著上升前的邊界線。本電源管理方法還提供了自適性方式,可隨著電池老化而調整,並適用於任何由電池驅動的裝置,例如,電動汽車、3C裝置等。透過控制裝置中的每一功能元件的功率消耗,本方法可能會停止某些功能緒(function thread),或啟動(或保持)一些功能緒。The present disclosure provides a power management method that can be used in a low capacity state electrochemical cell. The power management method is based on BCC, which reflects the boundary line of the battery in a low capacity state before the battery polarization rises significantly. The power management method also provides an adaptive method that can be adjusted as the battery ages and is applicable to any battery-powered device, such as an electric car, a 3C device, and the like. Through the power consumption of each functional component in the control device, the method may stop certain function threads or initiate (or maintain) some functions.
本揭露的一實施例是關於一種電源管理方法,適應於一電子裝置在一低容量狀態的多個電化學電池,該電子裝置能執行多個功能緒,並且該多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量(minimum battery capacity)。此方法可包含:獲取多筆電池資訊,該多筆電池資訊包括當該至少一個電化學電池在該低容量狀態時,最大允許電流(maximum allowable current)與一最大允許功率(maximum allowable power);經由檢測電壓相對於電流的變化(change of current),更新一電池特徵曲線(Battery Characteristic Curve,BCC);利用此電池特徵曲線,決 定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。An embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to a power management method for adapting an electronic device to a plurality of electrochemical cells in a low-capacity state, the electronic device capable of performing a plurality of functions, and at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells Electrochemical cells have a minimum battery capacity. The method may include: acquiring a plurality of battery information, the maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power when the at least one electrochemical battery is in the low capacity state; Updating a battery characteristic curve (BCC) by detecting a change of current with respect to a current; using the battery characteristic curve Whether any of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and the control terminates or continues the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached, and no function is available When terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
本揭露的另一實施例是關於一種非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介,用於存儲一或多個程式(program)。此一或多個程式使一處理單元來執行:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,此多筆電池資訊包括當此至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用此電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。Another embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to a non-transitory computer readable recording medium for storing one or more programs. The one or more programs are executed by a processing unit: acquiring a plurality of battery information of at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells, the plurality of battery information including when the at least one electrochemical battery is in a low capacity state a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; updating a battery characteristic curve by detecting a change in voltage with respect to the current; using the battery characteristic curve, determining the plurality Whether any of the functions in the function can be terminated, and the control terminates or continues the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached and no function can be terminated Turning off the at least one electrochemical cell; otherwise, returning to the step of acquiring the plurality of battery information.
本揭露的又一實施例是關於一種電源管理裝置,包含一處理單元以及一記憶體。此處理單元被配置來執行:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,此多筆電池資訊包括當此至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有 一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用此電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。Yet another embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to a power management apparatus including a processing unit and a memory. The processing unit is configured to: obtain a plurality of battery information of at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells, the plurality of battery information including a maximum allowable current when the at least one electrochemical cell is in a low capacity state With a maximum allowable power, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; updating a battery characteristic curve by detecting a change in voltage with respect to current; using the battery characteristic curve to determine whether any of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and the control is terminated or continued The plurality of functions performed on the electronic device; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached, and none of the functions can be terminated, turning off the at least one electrochemical cell; otherwise, returning to obtain the plurality of battery information step.
本揭露的又一實施例是關於一種電源管理晶片,包含一或多個積體電路,此一或多個積體電路被配置來處理:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,此多筆電池資訊包括當此至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用此電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。Yet another embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to a power management wafer including one or more integrated circuits configured to process: acquiring at least one of a plurality of electrochemical cells Pen battery information, the plurality of battery information includes a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power when the at least one electrochemical cell is in a low capacity state, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; Detecting a change in voltage with respect to current, updating a battery characteristic curve; using the battery characteristic curve, determining whether any one of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and controlling to terminate or continue the execution on the electronic device a plurality of functions; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached and none of the functions can be terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
根據上述的電源管理方法、裝置與晶片以及非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介,本揭露的實施例可以使用BCC進行動態電流/功率預算,得以更精確地控制電子裝置的功率消耗;自動檢測並更新BCC;和以使用了一種新的演算法來調變(modulate)總 放電電流(total discharge current);其中定義了三種類型的功率(峰值功率(peak power)、,偶爾浪湧功率(occasional surge power)、以及偏移功率(offset power)),作為使用演算法的基礎。此演算法能容忍其他電源管理演算法採用的最大功率峰值(maximum power peaks)。According to the above power management method, device and chip, and non-transitory computer readable recording medium, the disclosed embodiment can use BCC for dynamic current/power budget to more accurately control the power consumption of the electronic device; And update the BCC; and use a new algorithm to modulate the total A total discharge current; three types of power (peak power, occasional surge power, and offset power) are defined as the algorithm used. basis. This algorithm can tolerate the maximum power peaks used by other power management algorithms.
茲配合下列圖示、實施例之詳細說明及申請專利範圍,將上述及本發明之其他特徵詳述於後。The above and other features of the present invention are described in detail below with reference to the following drawings, detailed description of the embodiments, and claims.
201‧‧‧供應電壓201‧‧‧Supply voltage
202‧‧‧電流202‧‧‧ Current
203‧‧‧功率消耗203‧‧‧Power consumption
USB‧‧‧通用序列匯流排USB‧‧‧Universal Serial Bus
CCMA‧‧‧雲端運算行動應用CCMA‧‧‧Cloud Computing Application
I/O‧‧‧輸入/輸出I/O‧‧‧ Input/Output
3G‧‧‧第三代行動通訊技術3G‧‧‧3rd Generation Mobile Communication Technology
301‧‧‧獲取電池資訊301‧‧‧Get battery information
302‧‧‧藉由檢測電壓的相對於電流變化,並且更新一電池特徵曲線(BCC)302‧‧‧ by detecting the change in voltage with respect to current and updating a battery characteristic curve (BCC)
303‧‧‧使用此BCC曲線作為功率預算來控制裝置功能緒的開 啟/關閉303‧‧‧ Use this BCC curve as the power budget to control the function of the device Start/close
304‧‧‧確定是否達到一最低電池容量與一控制限制304‧‧‧ Determine whether a minimum battery capacity and a control limit are reached
305‧‧‧以一正常關機程序關閉電池305‧‧‧ Turn off the battery with a normal shutdown procedure
401‧‧‧2.4瓦的放電曲線與The discharge curve of 401‧‧‧2.4 watts
402‧‧‧8.9瓦放電曲線402‧‧‧8.9 watt discharge curve
403‧‧‧可變電壓閾值控制線403‧‧‧Variable voltage threshold control line
404‧‧‧固定電壓閾值控制線404‧‧‧Fixed voltage threshold control line
501‧‧‧V-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:0.2安培(曲線)501‧‧‧V-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 0.2 amps (curve)
502‧‧‧V-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:1安培(曲線)502‧‧‧V-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 1 amp (curve)
503‧‧‧V-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:2安培(曲線)503‧‧‧V-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 2 amps (curve)
504‧‧‧V-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:4安培(曲線)504‧‧‧V-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 4 amps (curve)
505‧‧‧V-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:6安培(曲線)505‧‧‧V-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 6 amps (curve)
506‧‧‧P-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:0.2安培(曲線)506‧‧‧P-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 0.2 amps (curve)
507‧‧‧P-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:1安培(曲線)507‧‧‧P-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 1 amp (curve)
508‧‧‧P-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:2安培(曲線)508‧‧‧P-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 2 amps (curve)
509‧‧‧P-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:4安培(曲線)509‧‧‧P-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 4 amps (curve)
510‧‧‧P-I-Ah表面模型中,放電電流:6安培(曲線)510‧‧‧P-I-Ah surface model, discharge current: 6 amps (curve)
601‧‧‧BCC曲線601‧‧‧BCC curve
knee_A、knee_B、knee_C‧‧‧膝點knee_A, knee_B, knee_C‧‧‧ knees
701‧‧‧電壓(曲線)701‧‧‧Voltage (curve)
702‧‧‧電流(曲線)702‧‧‧ Current (curve)
703‧‧‧功率(曲線)703‧‧‧Power (curve)
△V/△I‧‧‧阻抗△V/△I‧‧‧ impedance
1001‧‧‧電池處於放電狀態1001‧‧‧The battery is in a discharged state
1002‧‧‧讀取電池資訊1002‧‧‧Read battery information
1003‧‧‧找到在第i個放電過程中在中容量區域的△V/△1003‧‧‧Found △V/△ in the middle volume region during the ith discharge
1004‧‧‧找到對應於△V/△I的膝點1004‧‧‧ Find the knee point corresponding to △V/△I
1005‧‧‧發現一個新的膝點?1005‧‧‧ Found a new knee point?
1006‧‧‧重新計算BCC曲線1006‧‧‧Recalculating BCC curves
1007‧‧‧計算電流預算與功率預算1007‧‧‧ Calculate current budget and power budget
1008‧‧‧根據電流預算和功率預算算執行控制功能緒1008‧‧‧Executing control functions based on current budget and power budget
1101‧‧‧決定當前的電源容量是否足以啟動優先K的功能緒1101‧‧‧Determines whether the current power supply capacity is sufficient to activate the priority K function
1102‧‧‧從具有最低優先順序的功能緒開始,計算所有優先順序比K低的功能緒的偏移功率的總和1102‧‧‧From the function with the lowest priority, calculate the sum of the offset powers of all the functions with a lower priority than K
1103‧‧‧決定可用的電流/功率容量與計算的偏移功率總和是否大於具有K的目標功能緒的偶爾湧動功率1103‧‧‧Determines whether the sum of the available current/power capacity and the calculated offset power is greater than the occasional surge power of the target function with K
1106‧‧‧取消功能緒的啟動1106‧‧‧Cancel the start of function
1107‧‧‧終止功能緒1107‧‧‧End of function
1108‧‧‧啟動功能緒1108‧‧‧Start function
1201‧‧‧電壓曲線(有BCC)1201‧‧‧ voltage curve (with BCC)
1202‧‧‧電流曲線(有BCC)1202‧‧‧ Current curve (with BCC)
1203‧‧‧電壓曲線(無BCC)1203‧‧‧ voltage curve (without BCC)
1204‧‧‧電流曲線(無BCC)1204‧‧‧ Current curve (without BCC)
1205‧‧‧BCC控制線1205‧‧‧BCC control line
第一圖是一典型的電池的極化曲線的一示意圖,包含的電阻電位降(IR drop)、活化極化(activation polarization)、以及電池的濃差極化(concentration polarization)。The first figure is a schematic diagram of the polarization curve of a typical battery, including the IR drop, the activation polarization, and the concentration polarization of the cell.
第二圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明在一實際情境中,一3G手機通話時的電源浪湧所產生的率消耗的一示意圖。The second figure is a schematic diagram illustrating the rate consumption caused by a power surge during a 3G mobile phone call in an actual situation according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第三圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明一種電源管理方法,適應於一低容量狀態下的電化學電池。The third figure is a power management method according to an embodiment of the present disclosure, which is adapted to an electrochemical battery in a low capacity state.
第四圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明電池在低容量狀態的特性。The fourth figure illustrates the characteristics of the battery in a low capacity state in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第五圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明一電池放電曲線模型,其中(a)V-I-Ah特徵、(b)V-Ah特徵、(c)P-I-Ah特徵、(d)P-Ah特徵。The fifth figure is a battery discharge curve model according to an embodiment of the present disclosure, wherein (a) VI-Ah features, (b) V-Ah features, (c) PI-Ah features, (d) P-Ah feature.
第六圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明決定BCC曲線的一示 意圖。The sixth figure is an illustration of determining a BCC curve according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. intention.
第七圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明在一實際應用中,將電池放電的V-I-Ah的一示意圖。The seventh figure is a schematic diagram of V-I-Ah for discharging a battery in a practical application in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第八圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明藉由取樣△V/△I變化率,決定BCC曲線的一示意圖。The eighth figure is a schematic diagram for determining the BCC curve by sampling the rate of change of ΔV/ΔI according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第九圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明BCC曲線以V-Ah來獲得I-Ah和P-Ah的示意圖,其中(a)BCC曲線在V-Ah域的一示意圖、(b)BCC曲線在I-Ah域的一示意圖、(c)BCC曲線在P-Ah域的一示意圖。The ninth figure is a schematic diagram showing the BCC curve obtaining I-Ah and P-Ah by V-Ah according to an embodiment of the present disclosure, wherein (a) a schematic diagram of the BCC curve in the V-Ah domain, and (b) BCC A schematic diagram of the curve in the I-Ah domain, and (c) a schematic representation of the BCC curve in the P-Ah domain.
第十圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明含有更新該BCC曲線步驟之電源管理方法的一流程圖。The tenth figure is a flow chart illustrating a power management method including the step of updating the BCC curve in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第十一圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明基於電流預算與功率預算,執行功能緒的執行控制步驟的一流程圖。The eleventh diagram is a flowchart illustrating an execution control step of executing a function based on a current budget and a power budget, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第十二圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明基於BCC曲線,CPU的工作頻率調整的結果的一示意圖。The twelfth figure is a schematic diagram showing the result of the adjustment of the operating frequency of the CPU based on the BCC curve according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
第十三圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明基於BCC曲線,CPU的工作頻率調整的性能表現的一示意圖。The thirteenth diagram is a schematic diagram showing the performance of the operating frequency adjustment of the CPU based on the BCC curve according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
以下,參考伴隨的圖式,詳細說明依據本揭露的實施例,俾使本領域者易於瞭解。所述之發明創意可以採用多種變化的實施方式,當不能只限定於這些實施例。本揭露省略已熟知部分(well-known part)的描述,並且相同的參考號於本揭露中代表 相同的元件。Hereinafter, the embodiments according to the present disclosure will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, which will be readily understood by those skilled in the art. The inventive concept described above may take a variety of variations, and should not be limited to only these embodiments. The disclosure omits the description of a well-known part, and the same reference number is represented in the disclosure. The same components.
第二圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明在一實際情境中,一3G手機通話時的電源浪湧所產生的功率消耗的一示意圖。如第二圖所示,供應電壓(supplied voltage)201、電流202、和功率消耗203代表三個測得的參數:Ppeak 代表功能緒的峰值功率(peak power),這是在一功能緒被執行的期間與最高功率的使用有關的一功率峰值(power peak),如第二圖中(1)所示;Poccasional surge 代表在一功能緒被執行的期間與一些偶爾發生的峰值有關的功率,如第二圖中(2)所示;以及Poffset 係參考當一功能緒被關閉時的功率偏移量(power offset),如第二圖中(3)所示供應電壓(supplied voltage)201、電流202、以及功率消耗203代表三個測得的參數:緒峰值功率Ppeak 代表功能緒的峰值功率(peak power),這是在一功能緒被執行的期間與一最高的功率使用(highest power usage)有關的一功率峰值(power peak),如第二圖中(1)所示;偶爾峰值Poccasional surge 代表在一功能緒被執行的期間與一些偶爾的峰值(occasional peaks)有關的功率,如第二圖中(2)所示;以及緒偏移功率Poffset 代表當一功能緒被關閉時的功率偏移量(power offset),如第二圖中(3)所示。此功能緒的峰值功率通常發生在當一個功能緒被啟動的開始。功能緒的一些偶爾發生的峰值往往是一個功能緒被執行的期間偶爾發生的峰值。此類功率浪湧峰值高於額定功率(nominal power),但出現期間較短。當一個功能緒被關閉時偏移功率可以視為是額 外的一功率容許量(power allowance)。然後此功率容許量可以被其它功能緒所使用。The second figure is a schematic diagram illustrating power consumption caused by a power surge during a 3G mobile phone call in an actual situation according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. As shown in the second figure, the supplied voltage 201, the current 202, and the power consumption 203 represent three measured parameters: P peak represents the peak power of the function, which is in a function The power peak during the execution period is related to the use of the highest power, as shown in (1) in the second figure; the P occasional surge represents the power associated with some occasional peaks during the execution of a function. , as shown in (2) in the second figure; and P offset refers to the power offset when a function is turned off, as shown in (3) of the second figure, the supplied voltage (supplied voltage) 201, current 202, and power consumption 203 represent three measured parameters: the peak power Ppeak represents the peak power of the function, which is used during the execution of a function with a highest power ( The highest power usage) is related to a power peak, as shown in (1) in the second figure; occasionally, the peak P occasional surge represents a period of time during which a function is executed, related to some occasional peaks (occasional peaks). Power, as shown in the second figure (2); and the offset power P offset represents a power offset when a function is turned off, as shown in (3) of the second figure. The peak power of this function usually occurs when a function is started. Some of the occasional peaks of a function are often spikes that occur occasionally during the execution of a function. This type of power surge peak is higher than the nominal power, but the period of occurrence is shorter. The offset power can be considered as an additional power allowance when a function is turned off. This power allowance can then be used by other functions.
第三圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明一種電源管理方法,適應於一低容量狀態下的一電化學電池。如第三圖所示,此電源管理方法獲取電池資訊(步驟301),例如基於裝置硬體的電池資訊,以預先獲知當電池電量不足時,電池的最大允許電流與最大允許功率;藉由檢測電壓相對於電流的變化,並且更新一電池特徵曲線(BCC)曲線(步驟302);使用此BCC曲線作為功率預算來控制裝置功能緒(device function thread)的開啟/關閉(步驟303);確定是否達到一最低電池容量與一控制限制(步驟304);以及當達到最低電池容量與控制限制時,以一正常關機程序關閉電池(步驟305);否則,返回獲取電池資訊的步驟(步驟301)。The third figure is a power management method according to an embodiment of the present disclosure, which is adapted to an electrochemical battery in a low capacity state. As shown in the third figure, the power management method acquires battery information (step 301), for example, based on the battery information of the device hardware, to know in advance the maximum allowable current and the maximum allowable power of the battery when the battery is low; Changing the voltage with respect to the current, and updating a battery characteristic curve (BCC) curve (step 302); using the BCC curve as a power budget to control the on/off of the device function thread (step 303); A minimum battery capacity and a control limit are reached (step 304); and when the minimum battery capacity and control limit are reached, the battery is turned off in a normal shutdown procedure (step 305); otherwise, the step of obtaining battery information is returned (step 301).
在步驟302中,執行BCC曲線的更新係與電池的條件無關;換句話說,電池老化、或者用新電池更換舊電池等,皆執行BCC曲線的更新。並且,對於一裝置內每一功能元件(執行功能緒)的功率消耗皆定義三種類型的功率相關參數,使該裝置可以根據最大允許電流與最大允許功率來控制硬體,以執行重要的功能緒。依此,本揭露之電源管理方法使該裝置能夠比不使用本電源管理方法執行更多的功能緒。In step 302, the update of the BCC curve is performed regardless of the condition of the battery; in other words, the battery is aged, or the old battery is replaced with a new battery, etc., and the BCC curve is updated. Moreover, three types of power-related parameters are defined for the power consumption of each functional component (execution function) in a device, so that the device can control the hardware according to the maximum allowable current and the maximum allowable power to perform important functions. thread. Accordingly, the power management method of the present disclosure enables the device to perform more functions than without using the power management method.
依據本揭露實施例之低容量狀態電化學電池的電源管理方法是基於電池電化學的特性與電功率的分佈。如第四圖所示,有兩個恆功率(constant power)放電曲線(2.4瓦的放電曲線401與8.9瓦放電曲線402)。當該裝置的電池功率將被用盡時,電池被控制在沿著V-Ah域內的BCC曲線的一膝點(knee point)以上的放電,其中,該膝點係定義為此BCC曲線上的一點,該點的斜率變化遠大於其他鄰近的點。此BCC曲線也可以被映射至I-Ah域或P-Ah域,如第九圖所示,此將於稍後描述。此BCC可以用來作為電流的預算(在I-Ah域),或是用於功率調變的功率預算(在P-Ah域),以致能該裝置來執行具有較大功率消耗的重要功能緒。The power management method of the low capacity state electrochemical cell according to the disclosed embodiment is based on the electrochemical characteristics of the battery and the distribution of electrical power. As shown in the fourth figure, there are two constant power discharge curves (2.4 watt discharge curve 401 and 8.9 watt discharge curve 402). When the battery power of the device is to be used up, the battery is controlled to discharge above a knee point of the BCC curve in the V-Ah domain, wherein the knee point is defined as this BCC curve. One point, the slope of the point changes much more than other neighboring points. This BCC curve can also be mapped to the I-Ah domain or the P-Ah domain, as shown in the ninth figure, which will be described later. This BCC can be used as a current budget (in the I-Ah domain) or as a power budget for power modulation (in the P-Ah domain) so that the device can perform important functions with greater power consumption. .
依據本揭露實施例之電源管理方法中的BCC曲線可以是美國專利公開號2012/0133331中揭露之技術的延伸,其中該BCC曲線在該美國專利公開號2012/0133331的揭露中係以電壓相對於放電容量域表示(voltage versus discharge capacity domain,V-Ah)。而在本揭露中,BCC曲線延伸至一電流對放電容量域(current versus discharge capacity domain,I-Ah)與一功率對放電容量域(power versus discharge capacity domain,P-Ah),因而,比較容易被電源管理電路所使用。換句話說,在本揭露中,此BCC曲線被表示於V-Ah域、I-Ah域、以及P-Ah域。藉由I-Ah域的BCC或P-Ah域的BCC,該裝置可以 預先知道最大允許電流與最大允許功率,此兩者都是與充電狀態(State of Charge,SoC)的量有關係。相較之下,現行的技術是將最大容許電流/功率固定在一選擇的值、或是根據電池的工作溫度減小電流,而依據本揭露的實施例利用一方程式來根據電池的工作溫度去定義電流的改變或是減小電流。依據本揭露的使用一方程式來定義相對於該電池之SoC的電流/功率的變化以獲得給系統參考的以及用於電池放電控制之相對應的量。在電池放電過程中,該裝置可以自動搜索並更新BCC曲線。因此,本電源管理方法可以避免因電力消耗浪湧導致系統不適當的關機,並且可以執行更多的功能緒。The BCC curve in the power management method in accordance with the disclosed embodiments may be an extension of the technique disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2012/0133331, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. The voltage versus discharge capacity domain (V-Ah). In the present disclosure, the BCC curve extends to a current versus discharge capacity domain (I-Ah) and a power versus discharge capacity domain (P-Ah), and thus is relatively easy. Used by power management circuits. In other words, in the present disclosure, this BCC curve is represented in the V-Ah domain, the I-Ah domain, and the P-Ah domain. By means of the BCC of the I-Ah domain or the BCC of the P-Ah domain, the device can The maximum allowable current and the maximum allowable power are known in advance, both of which are related to the amount of State of Charge (SoC). In contrast, the current technology is to fix the maximum allowable current/power at a selected value or to reduce the current according to the operating temperature of the battery, and according to the embodiment of the present disclosure, a program is used to calculate the operating temperature of the battery. Define the change in current or decrease the current. The change in current/power relative to the SoC of the battery is defined in accordance with the disclosed one-of-a-kind program to obtain a corresponding amount referenced to the system and for battery discharge control. The device automatically searches for and updates the BCC curve during battery discharge. Therefore, the power management method can avoid an improper shutdown of the system due to a power consumption surge, and can perform more functions.
以下說明預先知道最大允許電流與最大允許功率之步驟的理論基礎。The following is a theoretical basis for the steps of knowing the maximum allowable current and the maximum allowable power in advance.
不同的電池表現出不同的放電特性。第五圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明由兩個或多個不同的放電曲線形成的一電池放電曲線模型。如第五(a)圖與五(c)圖所示,一內插函數、或是其他曲線擬合(curve fitting)方法、以及智慧推理(intelligent reasoning)方法都可用來建立電池的V-I-容量(Ah)與P-I-容量(Ah)的表面模型(surface model)。此3D模型然後被分別投影至V-Ah平面(第五(b)圖)、I-Ah平面、以及P-Ah平面(第五(d)圖),而BCC曲線可由一簡單的線性函數表示。在第五(a)圖與五(b)圖所示的V-I-Ah表面模型中,有五條曲線分別代表 不同的放電電流:0.2安培(曲線501)、1安培(曲線502)、2安培(曲線503)、4安培(曲線504)、以及6安培(曲線505)。並且,在P-I-Ah表面模型中,有五條曲線分別代表不同的放電電流:0.2安培(曲線506)、1安培(曲線507)、2安培(曲線508)、4安培(曲線509)、以及6安培(曲線510)。Different batteries exhibit different discharge characteristics. The fifth figure is a battery discharge curve model formed by two or more different discharge curves in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. As shown in Figures 5(a) and 5(c), an interpolation function, or other curve fitting method, and intelligent reasoning method can be used to establish the VI-capacity of the battery. (Ah) and PI-capacity (Ah) surface model. This 3D model is then projected to the V-Ah plane (fifth (b) map), the I-Ah plane, and the P-Ah plane (fifth (d) map), respectively, and the BCC curve can be represented by a simple linear function. . In the V-I-Ah surface model shown in the fifth (a) and fifth (b), there are five curves representing Different discharge currents: 0.2 amps (curve 501), 1 amp (curve 502), 2 amps (curve 503), 4 amps (curve 504), and 6 amps (curve 505). Also, in the PI-Ah surface model, there are five curves representing different discharge currents: 0.2 amps (curve 506), 1 amp (curve 507), 2 amps (curve 508), 4 amps (curve 509), and 6 Ampere (curve 510).
在第六圖與第九(a)圖的V-Ah域中,在美國專利公開號2012/0133331中所建議的軟限制(soft-limit)電壓曲線是:V=f(Ah)=av ×Ah+bv In the V-Ah domain of the sixth and ninth (a) figures, the soft-limit voltage curve suggested in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2012/0133331 is: V = f(Ah) = a v ×Ah+b v
在第九(b)圖的I-Ah域中,依據本揭露一實施例所建議的在低電量時的軟限制電流預算曲線是:I=f(Ah)=aI ×Ah+bI In the I-Ah field of the ninth (b) diagram, the soft limit current budget curve proposed at low power according to an embodiment of the present disclosure is: I = f (Ah) = a I × Ah + b I
第九(c)圖的P-Ah域中,本揭露所建議的在低電量時的軟限制功率預算曲線是:P=f(Ah)=aP ×Ah+bP In the P-Ah domain of the ninth (c) diagram, the soft-restricted power budget curve proposed in the present disclosure at low power is: P = f(Ah) = a P × Ah + b P
所以,經由上述方程式可以獲得在一特定容量與一特定電壓狀態下的電池的電流與功率。Therefore, the current and power of the battery at a specific capacity and a specific voltage state can be obtained by the above equation.
在步驟302中,該裝置會自動搜索並且更新BCC曲線。自動更新BCC曲線的關鍵是搜索V-Ah曲線、I-Ah曲線、以及 P-Ah曲線上對應的膝點。搜索膝點的指南是找到當電池的放電容量增加時,阻抗(阻抗的定義為電壓變化與電流變化的比值,即△V/△I)突然相對地增大的點。此可以藉由定期檢查△V/△I而觀察到。In step 302, the device automatically searches for and updates the BCC curve. The key to automatically updating the BCC curve is to search for V-Ah curves, I-Ah curves, and The corresponding knee point on the P-Ah curve. The guide for searching for the knee point is to find a point at which the impedance (the impedance is defined as the ratio of the voltage change to the current change, that is, ΔV/ΔI) suddenly increases relatively when the discharge capacity of the battery increases. This can be observed by periodically checking ΔV/ΔI.
以下使用一實施例來描述如何發現膝點。藉由讀取V和I在V-I-Ah模型中的相對變化率(relative change ratio),可獲得當到達極限時BCC曲線的兩個端點值(即,最大電流與最小電流)。將此結果報告給裝置,以讓該裝置能夠有效地使用電池的容量。An embodiment is used below to describe how to find a knee point. By reading the relative change ratio of V and I in the V-I-Ah model, two endpoint values (ie, maximum current and minimum current) of the BCC curve when the limit is reached can be obtained. This result is reported to the device to enable the device to effectively use the capacity of the battery.
然後,如美國專利公開號2012/0133331所建議的一恆定電流放電的實驗可用來建立在不同的放電率的電壓與容量之間的關係,如第六圖所示。放電率通常表示為C或C-速率(C-rate),以表示一放電率等於在一小時內的一電池的容量。對於具有0.1C(0.2安培)的放電曲線501的2Ah電池(如第六圖所示),充分放電時間(從充滿電至全空狀態)約10小時。相對應於放電曲線502、503、504、以及505的放電時間分別約為兩小時(0.5C)、一小時(1C)、30分鐘(2C)、以及20分鐘(3C)。類似的關係資訊也可以在各放電曲線資料庫中找到。然而,現有的資料庫可能不適用於實際的應用。並且,這些曲線可能隨著電池的老化而變化。並且,在特定的溫度範圍內(例如,25℃~30℃,或是對於不同的氣候區域的室溫溫度 範圍),在這些放電曲線的非恆定的電流量測的即時資訊可以被用來建立資料庫。所需最少的放電曲線數量是2。換句話說,在此實施例中,裝置需要通過低容量區域兩次,才能夠發現膝點。An experiment of constant current discharge as suggested by U.S. Patent Publication No. 2012/0133331 can then be used to establish the relationship between voltage and capacity at different discharge rates, as shown in the sixth figure. The discharge rate is usually expressed as C or C-rate to indicate that a discharge rate is equal to the capacity of a battery within one hour. For a 2 Ah cell with a discharge curve 501 of 0.1 C (0.2 amps) (as shown in Figure 6), the discharge time (from full charge to full empty state) is sufficient for about 10 hours. The discharge times corresponding to the discharge curves 502, 503, 504, and 505 are approximately two hours (0.5 C), one hour (1 C), 30 minutes (2 C), and 20 minutes (3 C), respectively. Similar relationship information can also be found in each discharge curve database. However, existing databases may not be suitable for practical applications. Also, these curves may change as the battery ages. And, within a specific temperature range (for example, 25 ° C ~ 30 ° C, or room temperature temperature for different climate regions) Range), real-time information on the non-constant current measurements of these discharge curves can be used to build a database. The minimum number of discharge curves required is 2. In other words, in this embodiment, the device needs to pass through the low volume area twice to be able to find the knee point.
接下來是自動搜索電池放電過程中的非線性區域的邊界(第六圖中V-Ah的轉折點)。在實際運作過程中,電池放電是非恆定的電流(曲線702),導致電壓(曲線701)與功率(曲線703)的波動,如第七圖所示,並且更難以找到BCC曲線。然而,如第八圖所示,△V/△I的變化率可以被用來找到轉折點。以第八圖為例,可比較一最低容量區域中的△V/△I,例如30%±20%,以及一中容量區域中的△V/△I,例如50%±30%。對於其△V/△I高於一閾值(例如,10%)的點,可以選擇做為一個膝點。在第八圖中,此閾值被定義為30%。The next step is to automatically search for the boundary of the nonlinear region during battery discharge (the turning point of V-Ah in the sixth figure). During actual operation, the battery discharge is a non-constant current (plot 702), resulting in fluctuations in voltage (plot 701) and power (plot 703), as shown in the seventh figure, and it is more difficult to find the BCC curve. However, as shown in the eighth figure, the rate of change of ΔV/ΔI can be used to find the turning point. Taking the eighth figure as an example, ΔV/ΔI in a minimum capacity region, for example 30% ± 20%, and ΔV/ΔI in a medium capacity region, for example 50% ± 30%, can be compared. For a point where ΔV/ΔI is higher than a threshold (for example, 10%), it can be selected as a knee point. In the eighth figure, this threshold is defined as 30%.
然後,利用此多個被選出的△V/△I,即可配置I-Ah BCC曲線與P-Ah BCC曲線,其中下面的參數a和b可以藉由BCC曲線的兩個轉折點來獲得。例如,在第六圖中,knee_A與knee_B被選中。也就是說,參數a可以藉由連接knee_A與knee_B的BCC線(曲線601)的斜率來獲得,參數b接著可依下列計算而獲得:允許的最小電壓=aV ×放電容量+bV (描述於美國專利公開號2012/0133331), 電流預算=fI (放電容量)=aI ×放電容量+bI ,功率預算=fP (放電容量)=aP ×放電容量+bPThen, using the plurality of selected ΔV/ΔI, the I-Ah BCC curve and the P-Ah BCC curve can be configured, wherein the following parameters a and b can be obtained by two turning points of the BCC curve. For example, in the sixth figure, knee_A and knee_B are selected. That is, the parameter a can be obtained by connecting the slopes of the BCC lines (curves 601) of knee_A and knee_B, and the parameter b can then be obtained by the following calculation: minimum voltage allowed = a V × discharge capacity + b V (description U.S. Patent Publication No. 2012/0133331), current budget = f I (discharge capacity) = a I × discharge capacity + b I , power budget = f P (discharge capacity) = a P × discharge capacity + b P .
然後,配置被允許的放電電流與放電容量之間的關係,以得到第九圖。最簡單的方法是選擇△V/△I後,以一條直線連接兩個不同的電流對應的兩個值:電流預算=fI (放電容量)Then, the relationship between the allowable discharge current and the discharge capacity is configured to obtain the ninth diagram. The easiest way is to select two values corresponding to two different currents in one straight line after selecting ΔV/△I: current budget = f I (discharge capacity)
另一種方法是以一條直線連接兩個不同的功率對應的兩個值:功率預算=fP (放電容量)Another method is to connect two values corresponding to two different powers in one straight line: power budget = f P (discharge capacity)
最後,藉由在電池放電過程中(其可以是非恆定功率放電)到達膝點,利用第六圖、第七圖、以及第九圖為例,藉由已知的knee_A與knee_B,可發現一新的knee_C。新發現的knee_C可做為一更新點。藉由連接此更新點與前述已知的knee_B,可得到一條新的BCC曲線。Finally, by reaching the knee point during battery discharge (which may be a non-constant power discharge), using the sixth, seventh, and ninth diagrams as an example, a new one can be found by knowing knee_A and knee_B. knee_C. The newly discovered knee_C can be used as an update point. By connecting this update point with the aforementioned known knee_B, a new BCC curve can be obtained.
第十圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明含有更新該BCC曲線步驟之電源管理方法的一流程圖。當考慮電池老化以及新電池與舊電池對應的△V/△I值在不同的SoC相比時,舊電池的△V/△I會在不同的SoC明顯地增加。所以,是在放電過程中並且是在SoC的中間區域作出此比較,而△V/△I增加的程度被用來做為尋找膝點的參考閾值。如第十圖所示,步驟 1001是使電池處於放電狀態。步驟1002是讀取電池資訊。步驟1003是找到在第i個放電過程中在中間容量區域的△V/△I。步驟1004是找到對應於△V/△I的膝點。在步驟1005中,當發現一個新的膝點時,繼續執行步驟1006;否則,返回步驟1003。步驟1006是重新計算BCC曲線。步驟1007是計算電流預算與功率預算,以及步驟1008是根據電流預算與功率預算,執行功能緒執行控制。The tenth figure is a flow chart illustrating a power management method including the step of updating the BCC curve in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. When considering the battery aging and the ΔV/ΔI value of the new battery corresponding to the old battery is compared in different SoCs, the ΔV/ΔI of the old battery will increase significantly at different SoCs. Therefore, this comparison is made during the discharge and in the middle of the SoC, and the degree of increase of ΔV/ΔI is used as a reference threshold for finding the knee point. As shown in the tenth step, the steps 1001 is to put the battery in a discharged state. Step 1002 is to read battery information. Step 1003 is to find ΔV/ΔI in the intermediate capacity region during the ith discharge. Step 1004 is to find a knee point corresponding to ΔV/ΔI. In step 1005, when a new knee point is found, proceed to step 1006; otherwise, return to step 1003. Step 1006 is to recalculate the BCC curve. Step 1007 is to calculate the current budget and power budget, and step 1008 is to perform the function execution control based on the current budget and the power budget.
在步驟1002中,電池資訊包含電壓(V)、電流(I)、放電容量、溫度或放電過程“i”的計數等。在步驟1003中,中容量區域可選擇為,例如50%±30%,以及記錄相對應的△V/△I。觀察放電期間的△V/△I以及根據步驟1003中選出的△V/△I來進行多次比較。當比較結果超過一閾值時,例如10%,表示在第i個放電過程中發現一膝點knee_i。在步驟1006中,藉由連接新的膝點與前一個膝點knee_i-1或甚至是多個更前面的膝點來建立新的BCC曲線。在步驟1007中,可從knee_i發現一組參數,例如,電壓、電流、功率、放電容量、溫度等,並且與前一個(第i-1個)放電過程的膝點knee_i -1的參數相比中可形成V-Ah平面、I-Ah平面、以及P-Ah平面上的線性方程式,並且可從這些方程式中獲得電壓的下限、電流的上限、以及功率的上限。In step 1002, the battery information includes voltage (V), current (I), discharge capacity, temperature or a count of the discharge process "i", and the like. In step 1003, the medium volume region may be selected, for example, 50% ± 30%, and the corresponding ΔV / ΔI is recorded. A plurality of comparisons were made by observing ΔV/ΔI during discharge and ΔV/ΔI selected in step 1003. When the comparison result exceeds a threshold, for example, 10%, it is indicated that a knee point knee_i is found during the i-th discharge. In step 1006, a new BCC curve is established by connecting the new knee point to the previous knee point knee_i-1 or even a plurality of more forward knee points. In step 1007, a set of parameters, such as voltage, current, power, discharge capacity, temperature, etc., can be found from knee_i and compared to the knee point knee_i-1 parameter of the previous (i-1th) discharge process. A linear equation on the V-Ah plane, the I-Ah plane, and the P-Ah plane can be formed, and the lower limit of the voltage, the upper limit of the current, and the upper limit of the power can be obtained from these equations.
參考第四圖,當分析了電池的低容量狀態以尋找電池在低 容量狀態時的電壓閾值控制機制(即,BCC曲線)時,該機制可以是(1)可變電壓閾值控制線403或是(2)固定電壓閾值控制線404之前述兩者的其中之一;其中,該可變電壓閾值控制是該BCC曲線,而其適當的控制曲線可以在V-Ah圖中接近膝點被發現。以具有最小允許電壓2.8V的電池作為範例,當電池依循控制曲線放電時,最大允許功率是Pmax allowable 。以第二圖中的3G手機通話為例,其他功能緒的峰值功率、偶爾湧動功率、以及偏移功率也被量測而得,並列出一優先順序名單(priority list)來決定該功能緒控制,以降低電力消耗,從而使得因被終止的功能緒而被釋放出的功率可以允許被具有較高優先權的功能緒所使用。所以,在第十圖的步驟1006中,即使當電池處於低容量狀態下時,該裝置也可以穩定地運行。另一方面,藉由透過功能緒執行的優先序名單,用戶有更多的彈性來管理功能緒的執行。Referring to the fourth figure, when the low-capacity state of the battery is analyzed to find the voltage threshold control mechanism (ie, the BCC curve) of the battery in the low-capacity state, the mechanism may be (1) the variable voltage threshold control line 403 or (2) One of the foregoing two of the fixed voltage threshold control lines 404; wherein the variable voltage threshold control is the BCC curve, and its appropriate control curve can be found near the knee point in the V-Ah diagram. Taking a battery with a minimum allowable voltage of 2.8V as an example, when the battery is discharged according to the control curve, the maximum allowable power is P max allowable . Taking the 3G mobile phone call in the second figure as an example, the peak power, occasional surge power, and offset power of other functions are also measured, and a priority list is listed to determine the function. Control to reduce power consumption so that the power released due to the terminated function can be allowed to be used by functions with higher priority. Therefore, in step 1006 of the tenth figure, the apparatus can operate stably even when the battery is in a low capacity state. On the other hand, users have more flexibility to manage the execution of the function thread through the priority list executed by the function thread.
藉由第二圖之裝置中每一功能緒的功率消耗負載模式、第六圖之電池的V-Ah圖、存儲於存儲裝置內的先前獲得的BCC控制資料、以及運作過程中的電池資訊(電壓、電流、容量、溫度等)量測,該裝置可以控制功能緒的開啟/關閉(ON/OFF),以在電池電量變低時(即,在有限的功率預算與有限的電流預算),提供更多的便利性給使用者。The power consumption load mode of each function in the device of the second figure, the V-Ah diagram of the battery of the sixth figure, the previously obtained BCC control data stored in the storage device, and the battery information during operation ( Measurements of voltage, current, capacity, temperature, etc., the device can control the on/off of the function to reduce the battery when the battery is low (ie, with limited power budget and limited current budget). Provide more convenience to users.
第十一圖是根據本揭露的一實施例,說明基於電流預算與 功率預算,執行功能緒的執行控制步驟1008的一流程圖。以執行一個具有優先順序K(=3)的功能緒為例,如第十一圖所示,步驟1101是決定當前的電源容量是否足以啟動優先順序K(=3)的功能緒;當該電源容量足夠時,繼續執行步驟1108以啟動該功能緒;否則,執行步驟1102。步驟1102至步驟1105是從具有最低優先順序的功能緒開始,計算所有優先順序比K(=3)低的功能緒的偏移功率的總和。例如,如果有9個優先順序等級(priority level),8是最低優先順序等級,則優先順序等級為4~8的功能緒的偏移功率總和(offset power sum)被計算。在步驟1102中,該偏移功率總和的計算從最低優先順序等級(亦即8)的所有功能緒開始至優先順序等級(8-j)為止。在一實施例中,參數j的初始值被設定為0。步驟1103是決定可用的電流/功率容量與在步驟1102中計算的偏移功率總和是否大於具有K(=3)的目標功能緒(target function thread)的偶爾湧動功率;當可用的電流/功率容量與在步驟1102中計算的偏移功率總和大於與K(=3)的目標功能緒的偶爾湧動功率時,繼續執行步驟1107,以終止步驟1102內所有的功能緒,然後啟動該目標功能緒,如步驟1108所示;否則,執行步驟1104。步驟1104是包括具有下一個更高的優先順序等級(由1迭代遞增)的所有功能緒。步驟1105是判斷計算中的功能緒的優先順序等級是否達到目標功能緒程的優先順序等級。當計算中的功能緒程的優先順序等級仍低於目標功能緒程的優先順序等級時,返回到步驟1102;否則,繼續執行步驟1106以取消 該目標功能緒的啟動,因為即使終止比該目標功能緒具有較低的優先順序等級的所有功能緒,仍舊不足以釋放出足夠的功率容量來啟動該目標功能緒。An eleventh diagram is based on an embodiment of the present disclosure, illustrating a current budget based on The power budget is a flowchart of the execution control step 1008 of the function. Taking a function with priority K(=3) as an example, as shown in FIG. 11, step 1101 is a function for determining whether the current power supply capacity is sufficient to activate the priority order K (=3); When the capacity is sufficient, step 1108 is continued to initiate the function; otherwise, step 1102 is performed. Steps 1102 to 1105 start from the function with the lowest priority order and calculate the sum of the offset powers of all the functions whose priority order is lower than K(=3). For example, if there are 9 priority levels and 8 is the lowest priority level, the offset power sum of the function level of 4 to 8 is calculated. In step 1102, the calculation of the sum of the offset powers begins with all of the functions of the lowest priority level (ie, 8) until the priority level (8-j). In an embodiment, the initial value of the parameter j is set to zero. Step 1103 is to determine if the available current/power capacity and the sum of the offset powers calculated in step 1102 are greater than the occasional surge power of the target function thread with K(=3); when available current/power When the sum of the capacity and the offset power calculated in step 1102 is greater than the occasional surge power of the target function with K (=3), step 1107 is continued to terminate all the functions in step 1102, and then the target function is activated. As shown in step 1108; otherwise, step 1104 is performed. Step 1104 is to include all of the functions with the next higher priority level (incremented by 1 iteration). Step 1105 is to determine whether the priority level of the function in the calculation reaches the priority level of the target function. When the priority level of the function in the calculation is still lower than the priority level of the target function, return to step 1102; otherwise, continue to step 1106 to cancel The target function is started because even if all functions with a lower priority level than the target function are terminated, it is still not enough to release enough power capacity to start the target function.
根據一實驗顯示,依據本揭露實施例的電源管理方法使該裝置能夠啟動更多的功能緒,如以下說明:當電池沿BCC曲線放電時,電池電壓因為電池容量降低被調整至一更高的準位,而電流隨著電池容量的降低而減少。可合理推斷出,以這樣方式運作的電池具有容忍發生峰值功率的特性,尤其是當電池已接近其低容量狀態時,其濃差極化導致增加阻抗。相較於中容量區域,一微小的電流波動會導致大的電壓反應。換句話說,△V/△I將迅速增加。在低電池容量時增加電池的工作電壓(與降低電流)的方式提供下列特性:在決定一功能緒是否可以啟動時,會將偶爾湧動功率列入考慮,而不是如既有技術中僅考慮最大峰值功率來決定是否啟動一功能緒。所以,相較於既有技術,依據本揭露實施例之系統穩定性是更堅固的。According to an experiment, the power management method according to the embodiment of the present disclosure enables the device to start more functions, as explained below: when the battery is discharged along the BCC curve, the battery voltage is adjusted to a higher level due to the battery capacity reduction. The level is reduced, and the current decreases as the battery capacity decreases. It can be reasonably inferred that a battery operating in this manner has the characteristic of tolerating the occurrence of peak power, especially when the battery is near its low capacity state, its concentration polarization leads to an increase in impedance. A small current fluctuation causes a large voltage response compared to the medium capacity region. In other words, ΔV/ΔI will increase rapidly. Increasing the operating voltage (and decreasing current) of the battery at low battery capacity provides the following characteristics: When determining whether a function can be started, occasional surge power is taken into account, rather than being considered only in the prior art. The maximum peak power is used to decide whether to activate a function. Therefore, the stability of the system according to the disclosed embodiment is more robust than the prior art.
系統狀態:允許功率=2.5W(根據前面的BCC預算);功率消耗表如下所示: System status: Allowable power = 2.5W (according to the previous BCC budget); the power consumption table is as follows:
系統目前執行功能緒#2與#3,並擬啟動功能緒程#1。The system currently performs functions #2 and #3, and is scheduled to start function line #1.
步驟1102:計算較低優先順序等級(優先順序等級≧2)的功能緒的偏移功率的總和(1W+0.8W=1.8W);步驟1103:比較計算所得的1.8W(步驟1002)與允許功率(=2.5W)的總和與功能緒#1的偶爾湧動功率2.8W:1.8W+2.5W≧功能緒#1的偶爾湧動功率;步驟1104與步驟1105:決定必須被終止的低優先順序等的功能緒的最小數目。在此例子中,功能緒#3需要被終止;步驟1107:終止功能緒#3(釋放出0.8W功率+2.5W=3.3W>2.8W);步驟1108:啟動功能緒#1。(此時,系統允許功率=0.5W)。Step 1102: Calculate the sum of the offset powers of the function of the lower priority level (priority level ≧2) (1W+0.8W=1.8W); Step 1103: Compare the calculated 1.8W (step 1002) with the permission The sum of power (=2.5W) and the occasional surge power of function #1 is 2.8W: 1.8W+2.5W≧ the occasional surge power of function #1; step 1104 and step 1105: the low priority that must be terminated The minimum number of functions such as order. In this example, function #3 needs to be terminated; step 1107: terminate function #3 (release 0.8W power + 2.5W = 3.3W > 2.8W); step 1108: start function #1. (At this time, the system allows power = 0.5W).
若要再啟動功能緒#3,該裝置需要再經過上述程序。然而,功能緒#3因為功率預算不足而不能被開啟。其最終的結果是執行功能緒#1與功能緒#2。To restart function #3, the device needs to go through the above procedure. However, Function #3 cannot be turned on because of insufficient power budget. The final result is to execute function #1 and function #2.
相較之下,既有的電源管理方法只考慮最大峰值功耗,當系統電源仍然維持2.5W時,功能緒#1不能藉由關閉功能緒#2與功能緒#3去增加額外的1W+0.8W電源而被啟動。In contrast, the existing power management method only considers the maximum peak power consumption. When the system power supply still maintains 2.5W, the function #1 cannot add an additional 1W+ by turning off the function #2 and the function #3. The 0.8W power supply is activated.
甚且,也可以根據BCC功率預算來調整CPU的工作頻率。如第十二圖所示,藉由使用已知的BCC曲線1205,隨著放電容量增大,電流與電壓被減小。能夠被減少的硬體機制是CPU的工作頻率,1200MHz、920MHz、700MH、350MHz等,如上述的功能緒功率消耗表中所示。此四個頻率可視為不同的功能緒,具有最高頻率1200MHz的為最低優先順序等級,並且具有最高優先順序等的最低頻率350MHz。CPU在較低的頻率下工作消耗更少的功率。當電池的BCC控制電流(曲線1202)和電壓(曲線1201)比在目前時刻的系統功率消耗準位更高時,該裝置開始終止最低的優先順序等級的頻率設定,並且將CPU的工作頻率為調整唯一較低的頻率。換句話說,CPU的最高工作頻率受到限制。當電池不被BCC控制時,其電壓(曲線1203)與電流(曲線1204)的行為會導致系統的工作情況少於比BCC被控制時。以下的試驗說明了從具有BCC控 制預算功率調整的裝置與不具有BCC控制預算功率調整的裝置的結果,如第十三圖中所示。由於CPU的時脈是離散的(discrete),耗電量的調整可以只是初始地與約略地遵循BCC功率預算。即使在這種有限的調整情況下,當該系統是在最後30%的發電容量時,該具有BCC控制預算功率調整的裝置(如第十一圖所示)可以延長接近20%的使用時間以及執行多出約20%功能緒的數目。Moreover, the operating frequency of the CPU can also be adjusted according to the BCC power budget. As shown in Fig. 12, by using the known BCC curve 1205, as the discharge capacity increases, the current and voltage are reduced. The hardware mechanism that can be reduced is the operating frequency of the CPU, 1200MHz, 920MHz, 700MH, 350MHz, etc., as shown in the function power consumption table above. These four frequencies can be regarded as different functions, with the highest frequency of 1200MHz being the lowest priority level, and the lowest frequency of 350MHz with the highest priority order. The CPU consumes less power when operating at lower frequencies. When the BCC control current (curve 1202) and voltage (curve 1201) of the battery are higher than the system power consumption level at the current time, the device starts to terminate the frequency setting of the lowest priority level, and the operating frequency of the CPU is Adjust the only lower frequency. In other words, the maximum operating frequency of the CPU is limited. When the battery is not controlled by BCC, its voltage (curve 1203) and current (curve 1204) behavior will cause the system to operate less than when the BCC is controlled. The following tests illustrate the control from having BCC The result of the device for adjusting the budget power and the device without the BCC control budget power adjustment, as shown in the thirteenth figure. Since the clock of the CPU is discrete, the adjustment of power consumption can only initially and approximately follow the BCC power budget. Even with this limited adjustment, when the system is at the last 30% of the generation capacity, the device with BCC control budget power adjustment (as shown in Figure 11) can extend the usage time by nearly 20% and Execute more than 20% of the number of functions.
因為BCC控制功率預算調整是一種軟限制,偏離曲線不會導致電池管理模組硬生生地切斷電池電源。Because the BCC control power budget adjustment is a soft limit, the deviation curve does not cause the battery management module to cut the battery power hard.
依據本揭露的實施例具有下列特性:(1)當電池處於低容量狀態,無法提供足夠的輸出功率時,其方法允許裝置去計算最大允許功率消耗,以及使用功能緒的優先順序等級、峰值功率、偶爾湧動功率、以及偏移功率來決定一個新的功能緒的是否可以啟動或是否應該終止正在運行的功能緒;(2)藉由此方法估計的最大允許輸出可以量化電池在低容量狀態下的最大允許率消耗,並且該裝置可以藉由控制該功能緒的執行來使用電池中的剩餘電量;以及(3)可適用於由電池驅動的任何裝置。Embodiments in accordance with the present disclosure have the following characteristics: (1) When the battery is in a low capacity state and cannot provide sufficient output power, the method allows the device to calculate the maximum allowable power consumption, and to use the priority order level of the function, peak power Occasionally, the power of the surge, and the offset power to determine whether a new function can be started or whether the function should be terminated; (2) The maximum allowable output estimated by this method can quantify the battery in a low-capacity state. The maximum allowable rate is consumed, and the device can use the remaining power in the battery by controlling the execution of the function; and (3) can be applied to any device driven by the battery.
依據本揭露之另一實施例提供了一種非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介,用於存儲一或多個程式。此一個或多個程式使一 處理單元來執行本揭露所述的方法。According to another embodiment of the present disclosure, a non-transitory computer readable recording medium for storing one or more programs is provided. One or more programs make one The processing unit performs the method of the present disclosure.
依據本揭露之另一實施例提供了一種電源管理裝置,包含一處理單元以及一存儲器。該處理單元被配置為執行上述實施例中描述的步驟。According to another embodiment of the present disclosure, a power management apparatus includes a processing unit and a memory. The processing unit is configured to perform the steps described in the above embodiments.
本揭露之另一實施例提供了一種電源管理晶片,包含一或多個積體電路,此一或多個積體電路被配置為處理在上述實施例中描述的功能。Another embodiment of the present disclosure provides a power management chip including one or more integrated circuits configured to process the functions described in the above embodiments.
以上所述者僅為依據本揭露的實施範例,當不能依此限定本揭露實施之範圍。即大凡發明申請專利範圍所作之均等變化與修飾,皆應仍屬本揭露專利涵蓋之範圍。The above is only the embodiment according to the disclosure, and the scope of the disclosure is not limited thereto. That is, the equivalent changes and modifications made by the scope of the patent application should remain within the scope of the disclosure.
301‧‧‧獲取電池資訊301‧‧‧Get battery information
302‧‧‧藉由檢測電壓的相對於電流變化,並且更新一電池特徵曲線(BCC)302‧‧‧ by detecting the change in voltage with respect to current and updating a battery characteristic curve (BCC)
303‧‧‧使用此BCC曲線作為功率預算來控制裝置功能緒的開啟/關閉303‧‧‧ Use this BCC curve as the power budget to control the on/off of the device function
304‧‧‧確定是否達到一最低電池容量與一控制限制304‧‧‧ Determine whether a minimum battery capacity and a control limit are reached
305‧‧‧以一正常關機程序關閉電池305‧‧‧ Turn off the battery with a normal shutdown procedure

Claims (13)

  1. 一種電源管理方法,適應於一種包含一記憶體的電子裝置在一低容量狀態的多個電化學電池,該電子裝置能執行多個功能緒,並且該多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池具有一最低容量,包含:獲取多筆電池資訊,該多筆電池資訊包括當該至少一個電化學電池在該低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用該電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。 A power management method adapted to a plurality of electrochemical cells including a memory electronic device in a low capacity state, the electronic device capable of performing a plurality of functions, and at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells Having a minimum capacity, comprising: obtaining a plurality of battery information, wherein the plurality of battery information includes a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power when the at least one electrochemical battery is in the low capacity state; a change in current, updating a battery characteristic curve; determining, by the battery characteristic curve, whether any one of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and controlling to terminate or continue the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device And when the minimum battery capacity is reached and no function can be terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
  2. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之方法,其中該多個功能緒的每一功能緒的功率消耗用一功能緒峰值功率、至少一偶爾湧動功率、以及一偏移功率來表示;其中,該功能緒峰值功率係執行該功能緒程時的一最高的功率使用,該至少一偶爾湧動功率係指執行該功能緒時發生的至少一偶爾峰值,該偏移功率係參考停止執行該功能緒時的一功率偏移量。 The method of claim 1, wherein the power consumption of each function of the plurality of functions is represented by a function peak power, at least one occasional surge power, and an offset power; wherein The peak power of the function is a highest power usage when the function is executed, and the at least one occasional surge power refers to at least one occasional peak occurring when the function is executed, and the offset power is a reference to stop performing the function. A power offset of the time.
  3. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之方法,其中該電池特徵曲線係表示於一電壓相對於放電容量域、一電流相對於放電容量域、以及一功率相對於放電容量域。 The method of claim 1, wherein the battery characteristic curve is expressed in a voltage versus discharge capacity domain, a current versus discharge capacity domain, and a power versus discharge capacity domain.
  4. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之方法,其中該多個功能緒的每一功能緒有一優先順序等級,並且該方法藉由終止一個正在運行的具有較低優先順序等級的功能緒來釋放電源,以啟動具有更高的優先順序等級的一功能緒。 The method of claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of functions has a priority level, and the method releases the power by terminating a running function having a lower priority level To initiate a function with a higher priority level.
  5. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之方法,其中利用該電池特徵曲線,決定是否該多個功能緒中有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行該多個功能緒的步驟還包括:決定一當前功率容量是否足以啟動一具有一優先順序等級的第一功能緒,並且當一當前功率容量是足夠的,啟動該第一功能緒,否則,搜索具有比該第一功能緒低優先順序等級的一第二功能緒,並終止該第二功能緒以釋放功率;以及重複上一步驟,直到該當前的功率容量足以啟動該第一功能緒,或是低於該第一功能緒的優先順序等級的所有功能緒已被終止。 The method of claim 1, wherein the battery characteristic curve is used to determine whether any one of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and the control terminates or continues to execute the plurality of functions on the electronic device. The step of the function further includes: determining whether a current power capacity is sufficient to initiate a first function with a priority level, and when a current power capacity is sufficient, starting the first function, otherwise, the search has The first function lowers a second function of the priority level and terminates the second function to release power; and repeats the previous step until the current power capacity is sufficient to activate the first function or is lower than All functions of the priority level of the first function have been terminated.
  6. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之方法,其中藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化來更新該電池特徵曲線的步驟還包括尋找一膝點,其中尋找該膝點還包括:在一當前的放電過程的一中間容量區中,尋找相對於電流 的電壓變化;以及尋找一對應點,該對應點之相對於電流的電壓變化超過一閾值的點,其中該對應點成為一目前發現的膝點。 The method of claim 1, wherein the step of updating the battery characteristic curve by detecting a change in voltage with respect to the current further comprises finding a knee point, wherein the finding the knee point further comprises: at a current Looking for a current in an intermediate capacity region of the discharge process a change in voltage; and finding a corresponding point at which the voltage change with respect to the current exceeds a threshold, wherein the corresponding point becomes a knee point that is currently found.
  7. 如申請專利範圍第6項所述之方法,其中該中間容量區域為一電池完全充電狀態的20%-80%。 The method of claim 6, wherein the intermediate capacity region is between 20% and 80% of a fully charged state of the battery.
  8. 如申請專利範圍第6項所述之方法,其中該該閾值至少為電池完全充電狀態的10%。 The method of claim 6, wherein the threshold is at least 10% of a fully charged state of the battery.
  9. 如申請專利範圍第6項所述之方法,其中該目前發現的膝點被連接到一先前發現的膝點,用來更新該電池特徵曲線,以接續地控制該多個功能緒。 The method of claim 6, wherein the currently found knee point is connected to a previously discovered knee point for updating the battery characteristic curve to successively control the plurality of functions.
  10. 如申請專利範圍第9項所述之方法,其中一電流預算是根據連接該目前發現的膝點到該先前發現的膝點的該電池特徵曲線來決定。 The method of claim 9, wherein the current budget is determined based on the battery characteristic curve connecting the currently found knee point to the previously found knee point.
  11. 一種非暫態之電腦可讀取記錄媒介,用於存儲一或多個程式,該一或多個程式使一處理單元來執行:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,該多筆電池資訊包括當該至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用該電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及 當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。 A non-transitory computer readable recording medium for storing one or more programs, the one or more programs causing a processing unit to perform: acquiring a plurality of batteries of at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells Information, the plurality of battery information includes a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power when the at least one electrochemical cell is in a low capacity state, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; Updating a battery characteristic curve with respect to a change in current; determining, by the battery characteristic curve, whether any one of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and controlling to terminate or continue the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device Function; and When the minimum battery capacity is reached and no function can be terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
  12. 一種電源管理裝置,包含一處理單元以及一記憶體,該處理單元被配置來執行:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,該多筆電池資訊包括當該至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線;利用該電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。 A power management device includes a processing unit and a memory, the processing unit configured to: acquire a plurality of battery information of at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells, the plurality of battery information including when the at least one The electrochemical cell has a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power in a low capacity state, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; and a battery characteristic curve is updated by detecting a change in voltage with respect to the current; Using the battery characteristic curve, determining whether any of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and controlling to terminate or continue the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached, and When no function can be terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
  13. 一種電源管理晶片,包含一或多個積體電路以及一記憶體,該一或多個積體電路被配置來處理:獲取多個電化學電池中至少一個電化學電池的多筆電池資訊,該多筆電池資訊包括當該至少一個電化學電池在一低容量狀態時,一最大允許電流與一最大允許功率,並且該至少一個電化學電池具有一最低電池容量;藉由偵測電壓相對於電流的變化,更新一電池特徵曲線; 利用該電池特徵曲線,決定該多個功能緒中是否有任一功能緒可以被終止,並且控制終止或繼續在該電子裝置上執行的該多個功能緒;以及當達到該最低電池容量,並且沒有任一功能緒可以被終止時,關閉該至少一電化學電池;否則,返回獲取該多個電池資訊的步驟。 A power management chip comprising one or more integrated circuits and a memory, the one or more integrated circuits configured to: acquire a plurality of battery information of at least one of the plurality of electrochemical cells, The plurality of battery information includes a maximum allowable current and a maximum allowable power when the at least one electrochemical cell is in a low capacity state, and the at least one electrochemical cell has a minimum battery capacity; by detecting the voltage with respect to the current Change, update a battery characteristic curve; Using the battery characteristic curve, determining whether any of the plurality of functions can be terminated, and controlling to terminate or continue the plurality of functions performed on the electronic device; and when the minimum battery capacity is reached, and When no function can be terminated, the at least one electrochemical cell is turned off; otherwise, the step of obtaining the plurality of battery information is returned.
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