TWI508204B - High-speed signal line with bonding wire - Google Patents

High-speed signal line with bonding wire Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI508204B
TWI508204B TW103101755A TW103101755A TWI508204B TW I508204 B TWI508204 B TW I508204B TW 103101755 A TW103101755 A TW 103101755A TW 103101755 A TW103101755 A TW 103101755A TW I508204 B TWI508204 B TW I508204B
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Taiwan
Prior art keywords
bonding wire
silver
mass
gold
palladium
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TW103101755A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201444005A (en
Inventor
Yuki ANTOKU
Kazuhiko Yasuhara
Jun Chiba
Wei Chen
Junichi Okazaki
Nanako Maeda
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Tanaka Electronics Ind
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Priority to JP2013102191A priority Critical patent/JP5399581B1/en
Application filed by Tanaka Electronics Ind filed Critical Tanaka Electronics Ind
Publication of TW201444005A publication Critical patent/TW201444005A/en
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Publication of TWI508204B publication Critical patent/TWI508204B/en

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Description

High-speed signal line bonding wire

The present invention relates to a bonding wire for a high-speed signal line which is connected to a pad electrode of a semiconductor element and a lead electrode on a wiring substrate, and more particularly to a bonding wire for a high-speed signal line using a frequency of 1 to 15 GHz.

In recent years, with the development of semiconductor device manufacturing technology, the assembly of a semiconductor integrated circuit device using a high-frequency signal line of ultra-high frequency exceeding a multi-gigahertz band in a mobile phone has been increasing. In high-frequency transmission, conventionally, a high-purity gold bonding wire having a purity of 99.99% by mass or more has been continuously used. However, if the usual bonding wires are used in the range of several gigahertz to ten gigahertz, the UHF speed will be high. When the semiconductor element for the ultrahigh-speed signal line is connected to the wiring electrode or the like, since the ultra-high frequency signal flows through the skin layer of the bonding wire, the high-frequency resistance due to the ultra-high frequency signal is more increased. Therefore, the use of a high-purity gold bonding wire is a cause of a decrease in reception sensitivity or transmission output.

Therefore, the metal resist such as high-purity silver (Ag) having a resistivity value of 2.4 μΩcm of high-purity gold (Au) and a resistivity of 1.6 μΩcm and a purity of 99.99% has been studied. However, dissolve. After the post-casting cleaning, the process of re-manufacturing the bonding wires through continuous drawing is not suitable for practical use because a large amount of high-purity silver (Ag) metal wires are too soft. Further, in the atmosphere, silver (Ag) is vulcanized to form a silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film in the skin layer of the bonding wire, and the molten solder ball is hardened, so that the ball bonding property is impaired by the solder ball (FAB). Shortcomings. Therefore, the pure silver bonding wire is not directly used for high-frequency transmission through the skin layer of several μm, although a silver-palladium alloy metal wire is proposed in Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No. SHO 57-21830, but it is found in Japan. In the case of JP-A-2003-59963 (Patent Document 1 to be described later), pure silver plating is applied only to pure silver bonding wires. As described above, the reason why the pure silver bonding wire is not put into practical use is that it cannot form a stable molten solder ball before being used as a high-speed signal line for ultra-high frequency. That is, if a ball is to be used for ball bonding caused by a solder ball (FAB) to form a molten solder ball, the molten silver ball (Ag 2 S) formed on the surface of the metal wire causes the molten solder ball to be melted. Hardening, so that wafer rupture or the like will occur at the first bonding.

On the other hand, as a purpose of utilizing the electrical resistivity of silver having high conductivity, it has been developed to add 10,000 to 55,000 ppm by mass (1 to 5.5% by mass) of gold and 1 to 100 ppm by mass of silver in silver - The bond wire of the gold binary alloy does not reduce its resistivity value to 3.1 μΩcm which is the same as the currently used 99% pure gold metal wire. In addition, it has been developed to add 20,000 mass to the wire. A bonding wire of a silver-gold-palladium ternary alloy of palladium or less (Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2012-49198 (Patent Document 2)). Here, it is considered that the addition amount of palladium is set to 20,000 ppm by mass or less (2% by mass) because "the hardness of the solder ball is increased when the addition amount exceeds 20,000 ppm by mass, and the pad is broken during ball bonding. (Refer to paragraph 02031 of the same bulletin).

Further, a metal wire for ball bonding is disclosed, which is selected from the group consisting of calcium, copper, strontium (Gd), and strontium (Sm). The total amount of two or more elements is 5 to 500 ppm by weight, and is selected from the group consisting of palladium and gold. The total amount of the elements is 0.5 to 5.0% by weight, and is composed of silver and unavoidable impurities (Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No. 2012-151350 (Patent Document 3)). but, The bonding wire is a nickel/palladium/gold-coated electrode of a semiconductor element and a bonding wire (W) for a conductor wiring of a circuit wiring board by ball bonding, and is not an aluminum (Al) alloy (Al- Si-Cu, etc.) pad electrode bonder. "The joint of aluminum (Al) and silver (Ag) is easily corroded" (refer to Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2012-151350 (Patent Document 3) (paragraph 0015).

Further, a bonding wire comprising "silver (Ag) as a main component and containing gold (Au) selected from 10,000 to 90,000 ppm by mass, palladium (Pd) of 10,000 to 50,000 ppm by mass, and 10,000 to 30,000 ppm by mass) is also disclosed. At least one or more components of copper (Cu) and 10,000 to 20,000 ppm by mass of nickel (Ni), wherein the chlorine (Cl) content is less than 1 mass ppm" (Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No. 2012-99577 (Patent Document 4)) . However, since the bonding line has a reflectance of 95% or more of light having a wavelength of 380 to 560 nm, it is also effective to use a white LED that emits blue light (see paragraph 0010 of the same paragraph). Signal line with bonding wire, in the purpose. The effect is different.

[related patent documents]

[Patent Document 1] Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2003-59963

[Patent Document 2] Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2012-49198

[Patent Document 3] Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No. 2012-151350

[Patent Document 4] Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2012-99577

The object of the present invention is to provide a high-speed signal line bonding wire of a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy which is high in pure concentration by a bonding wire surface of a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy. The silver layer and the low-concentration gold alloying layer (hereinafter referred to as "high-concentration pure silver layer") are segregated, and the bonding characteristics of the solder ball (FAB) are changed due to the formation of the segregated high-concentration pure silver layer having a uniform thickness. When it is good, even if it is placed in the atmosphere, the formation of silver sulfide or its travel to the inside can be prevented for a certain period of time, and an ultra-high frequency signal such as a stable multi-gigahertz band can be transmitted.

One of the bonding wires for high-speed signal lines for solving the problem of the present invention is an Ag-Pd-Au-based alloy bonding wire containing a trace amount of an additive element, which is connected to a pad electrode for a semiconductor device by a solder ball (FAB). And the lead electrode on the wiring substrate, the bonding wire is composed of palladium (Pd) of 2.5 to 4.0% by mass, gold (Au) of 1.5 to 2.5% by mass, and the balance of silver (Ag) having a purity of 99.99% by mass or more. The surface of the bonding wire is composed of a continuous casting surface which is reduced in diameter after continuous casting, and the cross section of the bonding wire is composed of a surface segregation layer and a core material, and the surface segregation layer is gradually increased from the core material content. The high-concentration pure silver layer composed of the alloy region of the gold (Au) is gradually increased by the addition of silver (Ag).

Further, one of the bonding wires for high-speed signal lines for solving the problem of the present invention is a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire containing a trace amount of an additive element, which is a pad electrode for connecting a semiconductor element with a solder ball (FAB). And the lead electrode on the wiring substrate, the bonding wire is 2.5 to 4.0% by mass of palladium (Pd), 1.5 to 2.5% by mass of gold (Au), and rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir), ruthenium (Ru), copper. (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), indium (In), bismuth (Si), germanium (Ge), germanium (Be), germanium At least one or more of the added trace elements of (Bi), selenium (Se), cerium (Ce), cerium (Y), lanthanum (La), calcium (Ca) or cerium (Eu) is 5 to 300 ppm by mass. And the remaining part is a ternary structure composed of silver (Ag) having a purity of 99.99% by mass or more. Gold, the surface of the bonding wire is composed of a continuous casting surface which is reduced in diameter after continuous casting, and the bonding wire section is composed of a surface segregation layer and a core material, and the surface segregation layer is made of silver which is gradually increased in content compared with the core material. (Ag) A high-concentration pure silver layer composed of an alloy region of gold (Au) having a decreasing content.

Further, one of the preferable aspects of the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire for high-speed signal lines for solving the problem of the present invention is that the high-speed signal has a frequency of 1 to 15 GHz.

Further, one of the preferable aspects of the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire for high-speed signal lines of the present invention is aluminum (Al) metal or 0.5 to 0.99% by mass or more of the pad electrode system. 2.0% by mass of bismuth (Si) or copper (Cu) and an aluminum (Al) alloy having a remaining partial purity of 99.9% by mass or more.

Further, one of preferable aspects of the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire for high-speed signal line for solving the problem of the present invention is that the pad electrode is made of gold (Au), palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt). The electrode pad formed by the surface layer.

Further, in the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire for high-speed signal lines for solving the problem of the present invention, the diamond dice is used to reduce the cross-sectional reduction rate by 99% or more in the same manner as the pure gold bonding wire. The cold drawing process is continuously performed, and then the mechanical properties of the bonding wire are adjusted by heat treatment. The heat-tempering treatment has a low temperature and a short processing time, so that the surface segregation layer of the high-concentration pure silver layer does not disappear.

(main add element)

In the present invention, silver (Ag) having a purity of 99.99% by mass or more is used in the remainder in order to uniformly form a surface segregation layer of an alloy having a large silver (Ag) content. It is formed on all edges of the metal wire. This is because when the purity is low, the thickness of the surface segregation layer of the alloy having a large content of silver (Ag) is irregular due to the influence of impurities.

In the case of a pure silver bond wire, the sulfide is more stable than the oxide, so the sulfide is less preferred. In the conventional pure silver bonding wire, silver (Ag) on the surface is ionized on the surface of high-purity silver (Ag) in the atmosphere, and is bonded to hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere to form a sulfide. Although the sulfide initially forms an unstable silver sulfide layer on the surface of the pure silver wire, the silver sulfide layer finally grows on the surface of the pure silver bonding wire to a solid silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film of about several nanometers and is determined to remain in the layer. The surface of the sterling silver bonding wire. Moreover, it is believed that the sulfur compound present in the skin layer will move along the grain boundary and further into the interior of the pure silver bond wire, expanding the strong silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film.

In the case of a large amount of silver-palladium-gold alloy in which palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) are alloyed in pure silver (Ag), the formation of a silver sulfide layer of a high-concentration pure silver layer is weaker than that of a pure silver bonding wire. Further, in the case of the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy of the present invention, the concentration of gold (Au) increases from the surface layer toward the inside of the core material, and palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) 4.0 are present in the core material. The content of 6.5 mass% causes a time delay in which the silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film formed on the surface continues to enter the inside.

In the present invention, the palladium (Pd) content of the bonding wire composed of the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy is set to be more than the content of gold (Au) because the sulfidation resistance is higher than that of the silver (Ag). The composition of the silver-palladium matrix in which the surface segregation layer caused by the higher gold (Au) is formed.

The purpose of adding a predetermined amount of palladium (Pd) in the present invention is to delay the vulcanization. When a bonding wire or the like is used in a humid atmosphere, the surface of the bonding wire is easily vulcanized, and the metal wire itself is a metal wire composed of a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy which is resistant to vulcanization. When the content of palladium (Pd) is 2.5% by mass, a strong silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film is formed on the surface of the pure silver bonding wire, so that it is delayed. On the other hand, when the amount of palladium (Pd) exceeds 2.5% by mass, the high-frequency characteristics are slightly deteriorated due to a decrease in the concentration of silver. Therefore, it is not suitable as an ultra-high-frequency signal line, but a high-concentration pure silver layer is formed. Therefore, it will have no effect until it is practically up to 4.0% by mass.

Further, palladium (Pd) is an alloying element which significantly increases the hardness, and when the content of palladium (Pd) is 2.5% by mass or more, when a solder ball (FAB) is formed, the hardness of the molten solder ball is increased to cause ball bonding. When the wafer is broken (refer to paragraph 0021 of Patent Document 2), by increasing the content of gold (Au) and setting a high-concentration pure silver layer having a low melting point, and the palladium (Pd) content is within the range of 4.0% by mass or less This problem has been resolved. Further, palladium (Pd) maintains a substantially fixed concentration even in a high concentration pure silver layer or in a core material.

In the present invention, the alloying element of gold (Au) has a higher specific gravity than silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), and exhibits a surface segregation effect with respect to the silver-palladium-based alloy matrix. The surface of the high concentration of pure silver layer, due to the use of the solid phase of the diluted alloy. The surface phenomenon between the gas phases is such that the high-concentration pure silver layer can uniformly form a layer of a certain width throughout the entire circumference of the bonding wire. In the high-concentration pure silver layer, when the center of the metal wire is observed, if the concentration of silver (Ag) is gradually decreased and becomes lower (the curve on the upper side of the first figure), the concentration of alloying elements of gold (Au) is gradually increased. And become higher (the curve on the lower side of the first picture). Next, there are two regions of the high-concentration pure silver layer region having a relatively high concentration of silver (Ag) and a relatively low-concentration core material region in the metal wire. Therefore, even if an unstable silver sulfide layer is formed on the surface of a high-concentration metal wire, it is used in a room temperature atmosphere accompanied by the presence of a higher-priced alloying element (pd (Pd) and gold (Au)) than silver (Ag). Bonding wire as During the placement period after the production of the signal line, the sulfur compound on the surface of the silver alloy is delayed to the inside, and the formation of a silver sulfide (Ag2S) film which is strong on the surface of the silver alloy is delayed.

Surface segregation occurs due to high purity gold (Au) relative to high purity silver-palladium alloy matrix. If high purity silver (Ag) is added to palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) during continuous casting, silver (Ag) The high concentration pure silver layer of the high concentration region and the low concentration region of gold (Au) forms a ring shape in the vicinity of the skin layer. In the manufacturing process of the bonding wire, if the state of the high-concentration layer is maintained, cooling is performed by water, or the wire is continuously drawn by cold work, the wire diameter of the high-concentration layer and the thin wire is reduced in proportion to each other. Thus, this high concentration of pure silver layer can be utilized in high frequency signals above several gigahertz (Hz).

In the case where the continuous casting metal wire having a diameter of 8 mm is reduced to a bonding wire of 20 μm (the reduction rate of the profile is 99.9% or more), the skin of the bonding wire theoretically has a high concentration of silver (Ag) from the surface of several nm or less. The layer can be actually observed from the continuous casting metal wire of 8 mm in diameter to the wire drawing of the metal wire of 20 μm in diameter, and the high concentration region of silver (Ag) as shown in the first figure (the curve of the upper side of the first figure) is observed and A high concentration of pure silver layer in the low concentration region of gold (Au) (the curve on the lower side of the first graph).

Generally, a high-frequency signal of several gigahertz is transmitted on a surface layer of about 1 μm, and the higher the frequency, the more it is transmitted near the surface. Therefore, as long as a high-concentration silver (Ag) layer exists on the surface, it does not have a high concentration in the past. The signal amount of the silver (Ag) layer is increased compared to the bonding wire, and the signal waveform can be stabilized.

When the range of palladium (Pd) is from 2.5 to 4.0% by mass, if the range of gold (Au) is in the range of 1.5 to 2.5% by mass, the molten solder ball of FAB will not cause cracking of the wafer, and it is obtained. Stable joint characteristics.

(trace added elements)

The silver-palladium-gold-based alloy of the present invention, wherein a total of 5 to 300 ppm by mass of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron ( Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), indium (In), antimony (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), antimony (Be), antimony ( Bi), at least one element selected from the group consisting of selenium (Se), cerium (Ce), titanium (Ti), cerium (Y), calcium (Ca), lanthanum (La), cerium (Eu) or cerium (Sb). Although the trace addition elements do not change the surface segregation layer of the Ag-Pd-Au-based alloy, the bonding characteristics are more effective than the Ag-Pd-Au-based alloy having no high-concentration pure silver layer, so the present invention is It has also been adopted in the Ag-Pd-Au based alloy. Specifically, the adhesion of the molten solder ball to the pad electrode of an aluminum (Al) metal or an aluminum (Al) alloy, particularly in terms of stability over a long period of time, is effective. Further, rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (lr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and the like are added to the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy within a predetermined range. Zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), indium (In), bismuth (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), bismuth (Be), bismuth (Bi), selenium (Se), When the elements of cerium (Ce), titanium (Ti), yttrium (Y), calcium (Ca), lanthanum (La), lanthanum (Eu) or yttrium (Sb) are added, the bonding wire can be increased without damaging the shape of FAB. Resilience. However, if the total of these elements is less than 5 ppm by mass, the effect after the addition will not occur, and when it exceeds 300 ppm by mass, the crystal grains of the molten solder balls will become too hard to form a wafer crack when FAB is formed. Therefore, the present invention is made of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al). , manganese (Mn), indium (In), antimony (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), antimony (Be), antimony (Bi), selenium (Se), antimony (Ce), titanium (Ti) The total amount of at least one of yttrium (Y), calcium (Ca), lanthanum (La), lanthanum (Eu) or cerium (Sb) is in the range of 5 to 300 ppm by mass. Generally, the trace addition elements in the bonding wire are made up to 100 mass ppm or less in total. There are many users, and therefore these trace addition elements are preferably from 5 to 100 ppm by mass.

Further, the pad electrode is preferably an electrode pad composed of a surface layer of aluminum (Al), palladium (Pd) or gold (Au) or platinum (Pt). Since the bonding wires of the silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy and the silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy of the present invention have a high-concentration pure silver layer having a low melting point, the electrode pads are excellent in adhesion to FAB.

The silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy of the present invention and the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire of the silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy can reliably make high-concentration silver (Ag) suitable for high-speed signal transmission. The high-concentration pure silver layer is formed, and the core material of the silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy and the silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy has a high-concentration pure silver layer and a low-concentration gold (Au) layer, so the bonding with the bonding pad It is better than the conventional bonding wires, and can form a signal layer of a silver-rich alloy suitable for stably transmitting high-frequency signals of several gigahertz to tens of gigahertz.

Further, since the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire of the present invention has a small thickness of the high-concentration pure silver layer, it has a large mechanical strength of the metal wire itself and has excellent loop characteristics similar to those of the conventional bonding wire.

In addition, since the high-concentration pure silver layer having a low melting point is located on the surface layer, the bonding property of the FAB characteristics and the like is superior to the conventional bonding wire in terms of the bonding property and the secondary bonding property between the molten solder ball and the pad electrode. effect. In particular, in the case where the surface layer of the pad electrode is an electrode pad composed of aluminum (Al), palladium (Pd) or gold (Au) or platinum (Pt), the bonding strength is stable.

Further, in the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire of the present invention, the amount of palladium (Pd) added to the mechanical strength of the bonding wire is 4.0% by mass or less and the amount of gold (Au) added is Since it is 2.5 mass% or less, there is no case where the crystal grain of the molten solder ball becomes too hard when FAB is formed due to the surface segregation layer of a low melting point. Further, the silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire of the present invention has a purity of 99.9% by mass or more of aluminum (Al) metal or 0.5 to 2.0% by mass of bismuth (Si) or copper (Cu) and the remaining partial purity. In the case of a soft aluminum pad composed of an aluminum (Al) alloy of 99.9% by mass or more, there is no case where wafer cracking or shim warping eversion occurs due to a surface layer having a low melting point. As a result, even if it is left in the atmosphere at room temperature for a certain period of time, no displacement occurs at the joint interface, and there is an effect that the high-frequency signal can be stably transmitted.

The first figure is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the distribution of the high-concentration pure silver layer of the present invention, the upper curve shows the silver (Ag) concentration, and the lower curve shows the gold (Au) concentration.

The second graph is a graph of a voltage change pattern (L-shaped curve and stepped curve) accompanying the time of the product 1 and the comparative product 22.

The third graph shows the results of qualitative analysis near the outermost surface of the article 1.

[Examples]

A silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy having a composition shown in Table 1 and a silver-palladium-gold ternary alloy were prepared (the purity of both palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) was 99.99% by mass or more, The purity of silver (Ag) is 99.999 mass% or more, and as a trace additive element, rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium is used. (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), indium (In), bismuth (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), bismuth (Be), bismuth (Bi), selenium (Se), cerium (Ce), titanium (Ti), yttrium (Y), calcium (Ca), lanthanum (La), lanthanum (Eu), yttrium (Sb) in total 5 to 300 ppm). Moreover, the manufacturing method is carried out in the same manner as a general pure gold bonding wire. Dissolved and continuously cast to a diameter of 8 mm under an inert gas atmosphere. Then, the continuously cast thick wire is continuously drawn to a final wire diameter of 20 μm by a diamond die with a reduction ratio of 99.99% or more, and a continuous cold drawing of a profile reduction rate of 99.99% or more is performed by a wet cold method. In the line, a predetermined heat treatment is applied to produce a bonding wire (hereinafter referred to as "implemented product") 1 to 21 of the present invention having a wire diameter of 20 μm.

Examples 1 to 9 relate to the articles of the first aspect of the patent application, and the examples 10 to 21 relate to the articles of the second aspect of the patent application.

[Table 1]

[Comparative example]

Bonding wires 22 to 25 (hereinafter referred to as "comparative products") of comparative articles having the composition shown in Table 1 which are not in the composition range of the present invention were produced in the same manner as in the examples.

Further, in the same manner as in the example, the comparative product 25 was subjected to continuous drawing (reduction in diameter) of a wire obtained by pickling continuously drawn 8 mm thick wire with dilute nitric acid at 80 ° C, and forming a surface layer having no surface segregation layer. Bonding wire. Therefore, although the composition range of the comparative product 25 is within the scope of the present invention, it is different from the embodiment in pickling.

Further, in the present invention and the comparative examples, the heat-tempering treatment is the same as in the case of the gold wire, which is performed by adjusting the temperature and the speed of the tubular furnace to adjust the measurement by the tensile fracture tester to extend the heat treatment to a predetermined value. In the heat-tempering treatment, the annular high-concentration pure silver layer segregated on the surface of the product did not disappear.

[Confirmation of high concentration sterling silver layer]

The silver-palladium-gold-based alloy having the composition of the product 1 was continuously cast into a thick line having a diameter of 8 mm under an inert atmosphere. The thick wire was continuously drawn in cold water, and subjected to heat-tempering treatment to have an elongation of 4% to obtain a bonding wire having a diameter of 20 μm. For the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) elements of the bonding wire, an Auger analysis in the depth direction from the surface layer to the center direction was performed. The result is a curve and a curve on the lower side as shown in the schematic diagram on the upper side of the first figure.

As shown in the schematic diagram of the first figure, there is a decreasing layer of high concentration silver (Ag) from the surface to the vicinity of 10 nm. In contrast, the alloying element of gold (Au) has an opposite concentration layer of a lower concentration. Further, although the palladium (Pd) concentration is not shown, it is substantially fixed even in the high-concentration pure silver layer or in the core material.

[Confirmation of Silver Sulfide]

The bonding wire of the article 1 was allowed to stand in the atmosphere at room temperature for 30 days, and the outermost layer of silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) was measured by a continuous electrochemical reduction method using a vulcanization film thickness measuring machine (QC-200 manufactured by CERMA PRECISION Co., Ltd.). Film thickness. As a result, no silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film was detected. This result is shown in the red line (L-shaped curve) of the second figure.

The bonding wire of Comparative Product 22 was placed in an atmosphere at room temperature for 30 days in the same manner as in Example 1, and the film thickness of silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) was measured. As a result, a silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film was detected. Let it be as shown in the green line (step curve) of the second figure.

In detail, the second figure is a graph that changes the voltage change with time. In the case of the comparative product 22 in which silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) is formed, even in the case where the voltage changes with time in the interval of -0.25 to -0.80 V, as shown by the green line (stepped curve) of the second figure, In the range where the silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film is present, there is a phenomenon that the voltage does not change. On the other hand, in the bonding wire of the article 1, the above-described stepped phenomenon is not observed in the above-described voltage range, and as shown by the red line (L-shaped curve) of the second figure, it is generated as time passes. Voltage changes. Since there was no region where the voltage did not change, it was found that the silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film was not formed on the outermost surface of the bonding wire of the article 1.

Further, sulfur (S) was detected by qualitative analysis of the surface of the product 1 by a scanning type Auger analyzer (MICLAB-310D manufactured by VG Corporation). The qualitative analysis results are shown in the third figure.

As shown in the third figure, it is understood that sulfur (S) is present on the outermost surface of the bonding wire of the article 1. However, since the silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film was not detected as a result of the second graph, the sulfur (S) of the bonding wire of the article 1 reacted with the silver (Ag) present on the outermost surface did not form a strong Silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) film, but a state of physically adsorbed unstable silver sulfide layer. Further, as apparent from the third graph, the metal element on the outermost surface of the bonding wire of the article 1 does not detect palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) other than silver (Ag), and is substantially only a high concentration of silver ( The Ag) layer is the most suitable structure for the high-speed signal layer.

[Aluminum Splash Test]

These implements 1 to 21 and the comparative products 22, 23, 24, and 25 are set in a general-purpose wire bonding machine, and the dummy semiconductor IC (the test pattern is implanted into the wafer, referred to as "test component group (TEG; Test) Element Group)") 70μm 2 aluminum pad on the surface (made of aluminum (Al) - 1.0% by mass Si - 0.5% by mass of Cu alloy, and 20nm gold (Au) layer deposited on the surface) A solder ball (FAB) was produced with a target of 38 μm under a nitrogen atmosphere, and ball bonding was performed under the following conditions: heating temperature of the substrate: 200 ° C; loop length: 5 mm; loop height: 220 μm; crimp ball diameter : 50 μm; crimp ball height: 10 μm. The measurement method of the aluminum spatter amount is to observe the crimped solder balls of the respective wires from above by using a general-purpose scanning electron microscope (SEM), and measure the aluminum from the peripheral portion of the crimped solder balls as a base point. The crimped solder balls are splashed to the farthest position. The case where the amount of splashed aluminum is less than 2 μm is judged as ○; when it exceeds 2 μm, the case where it is less than 4 μm is Δ; and when it exceeds 4 μm, it is X. The evaluation results of the aluminum splash test are shown in Table 2.

.

[wafer damage test]

Further, the wafer damage of the test piece was observed. The wafer damage test was performed by dissolving the aluminum pad with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and observing the wafer with a solid microscope. In the "wafer damage test" in Table 2, the case where there are some minor damages and cracks is X; the case where there is no damage and cracks at all is ○, which are shown in Table 2, respectively.

[Degradation test of signal waveform]

Next, the deterioration test of the signal waveform was measured by a four-point probe measurement method. The test piece is used as an implement. The wire of the comparative product (20 μm in diameter and 100 mm in length). The measurement system uses a general-purpose function generator to transmit a 10 GHz, 2 V pulse waveform to the implementation wire and the comparison product wire, and measure the signal waveform with a predetermined universal digital oscilloscope and probe that can test the pulse waveform of the 10 GHz band frequency. . The measurement probe spacing is 50 mm. The degree of deterioration of the signal waveform is measured when the delay of the "output signal waveform sent to the wire reaches the input voltage value" between. Here, from the experimental results, it was confirmed that the signal delay time of the conventional wire (Ca 15 ppm, Eu 20 ppm, and the remainder is 99.999 mass % Au) was 20%. Therefore, the signal delay time is determined such that the delay time is ○ less than 20% of the conventional wire material and X when the retardation is more than 20%. Implementation of the degradation test for signal waveforms. The evaluation results of the wire of the comparative product are shown in Table 2.

[Crimping Strength Test of Crimp Welding Balls]

Using the same member and evaluation device as the aluminum splash test, the dedicated IC chip is bonded to the wire and the wire of the comparative product by a wire bonder, and the universal joint tester (made by Dage) is used as a reference. BT) (type 4000)" (trade name), which evaluates the shear strength of the crimped solder balls during ball bonding. The shear evaluation results of the crimped solder balls are shown in Table 2.

In Table 2, "bump ball shear" shows the shear load value in the first joining, ○ is 12 kg/mm 2 or more, Δ is 10 kg/mm 2 or more and less than 12 kg/mm 2 , and × means less than 10 kg/mm. 2 or the case of ball peeling.

As is apparent from the results of Table 2, in the deterioration test of the signal waveform, none of the inventive products 1 to 21 was observed to be deteriorated, whereas the comparative products 22 to 25 were inferior.

Moreover, in the aluminum splash test, the wafer damage test, and the shear strength test of the crimped solder ball, the embodiments 1 to 21 of the present invention are all good, whereas the shear strength test of the comparative product 22 crimped solder ball is tested. Comparable products 23 and 24 aluminum splash test and wafer damage test are poor.

[Industrial availability]

The bonding wire of the present invention is an optimum bonding wire for transmission of ultra-high frequency signals of several gigahertz or even ten gigahertz, and is suitable for use of a signal bonding wire for transmission of a wide range of high-frequency signals.

Claims (6)

  1. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line, which is a solder ball (FAB) for connecting a pad electrode of a semiconductor element and a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire for a lead electrode on a wiring substrate, characterized in that the bonding wire is a ternary alloy composed of silver (Ag) having a palladium (Pd) of 2.5 to 4.0% by mass, a gold (Au) of 1.5 to 2.5% by mass, and a remaining partial purity of 99.99% by mass or more. The surface of the bonding wire is formed by continuous casting. The continuous casting surface of the reduced diameter is composed of a surface segregation layer composed of a surface segregation layer and a core material, wherein the surface segregation layer is gradually reduced from the outermost surface toward the core material, and the gold (Au) content is gradually decreased. The alloy area is increased.
  2. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line, which is characterized in that a solder ball (FAB) is used to connect a pad electrode of a semiconductor element and a silver-palladium-gold-based alloy bonding wire containing a trace additive element for a lead electrode on a wiring substrate, and is characterized in that The bonding wire contains palladium (Pd) of 2.5 to 4.0% by mass, gold (Au) of 1.5 to 2.5% by mass, and rhenium (Rh), iridium (Ir), ruthenium (Ru), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), indium (In), bismuth (Si), germanium (Ge), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), selenium (Se), At least one of cerium (Ce), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), calcium (Ca) or cerium (Eu) is 5 to 300 ppm by mass in total of added trace elements and 99.99% by mass or more in excess a ternary alloy composed of silver (Ag), the surface of the bonding wire is composed of a continuous casting surface which is reduced in diameter after continuous casting, and the bonding line profile is composed of a surface segregation layer and a core material, the surface The segregation layer is composed of an alloy region in which the content of silver (Ag) is gradually decreased from the outermost surface toward the core material, and the gold (Au) content is gradually increased.
  3. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the silver (Ag) of the bonding wire is 99.999 mass% or more.
  4. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the high-speed signal is a frequency of 1 to 15 GHz.
  5. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the pad electrode is aluminum (Al) metal having a purity of 99.9% by mass or more or 0.5 to 2.0% by mass of bismuth (Si) or copper (Cu). And the remainder is an aluminum (Al) alloy having a purity of 99.9% by mass or more.
  6. A bonding wire for a high-speed signal line according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the pad electrode is an electrode pad composed of a surface layer of gold (Au), palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt).
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JP6343197B2 (en) * 2014-07-16 2018-06-13 タツタ電線株式会社 Bonding wire
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