TWI504103B - Hybrid power conversion system - Google Patents

Hybrid power conversion system Download PDF

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TWI504103B
TWI504103B TW102108512A TW102108512A TWI504103B TW I504103 B TWI504103 B TW I504103B TW 102108512 A TW102108512 A TW 102108512A TW 102108512 A TW102108512 A TW 102108512A TW I504103 B TWI504103 B TW I504103B
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voltage
circuit
winding
coupled inductor
capacitor
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TW102108512A
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TW201436427A (en
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Jung Tzung Wei
Lian Sheng Hong
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Univ Yuan Ze
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries

Description

混合式電力轉換系統Hybrid power conversion system
本發明乃是關於一種電力轉換系統,特別是指一種用於移動載具之混合式電力轉換系統,能夠將低壓側燃料電池與鋰電池電壓昇壓轉換成一高電壓位準直流匯流排。The present invention relates to a power conversion system, and more particularly to a hybrid power conversion system for a mobile vehicle capable of boosting a low voltage side fuel cell and a lithium battery voltage into a high voltage level DC bus.
為了改善非再生能源容量的逐漸減少及溫室效應所反映出來的問題,潔淨能源的利用成為重要的議題。潔淨能源如燃料電池、太陽光電池、風力發電機等低污染性能源,配合電力電子及自動控制等相關技術,可廣泛應用在分散式發電裝置,如新世代電力化交通工具、不斷電系統、獨立發電系統等。然而此些蓬勃發展之燃料電池、太陽能光電以及小型風力發電機等新興能源,均具直流低電壓之發電特性,並且由於潔淨能源發電特性導致輸出電壓並非固定,易隨負載變化而浮動,或是其發電量易受自然環境變化而有所限制。一般而言,潔淨能源皆無法直接應用於一般電器產品,因此由電力電子領域所發展之直流/直流電源轉換器為應用潔淨能源不可或缺之電力裝置。In order to improve the gradual reduction of non-renewable energy capacity and the problems reflected by the greenhouse effect, the use of clean energy has become an important issue. Clean energy sources such as fuel cells, solar cells, wind turbines and other low-pollution energy sources, combined with power electronics and automatic control and other related technologies, can be widely used in decentralized power generation devices, such as new generation electrified vehicles, uninterruptible power systems, Independent power generation system, etc. However, these booming fuel cells, solar photovoltaics, and small wind turbines all have emerging-source low-voltage power generation characteristics, and the output voltage is not fixed due to clean energy generation characteristics, and it is easy to float with load changes, or Its power generation is subject to changes in the natural environment. In general, clean energy cannot be directly applied to general electrical products, so the DC/DC power converter developed by the power electronics field is an indispensable power device for applying clean energy.
傳統之一組潔淨能源發電裝置均配置一組電源轉換器,用以轉換不同發電特性之各式潔淨能源。習用系統架構採用多組轉換器並聯於直流高壓匯流排,作為變流器前端電源或直接應用電路裝置,而此系統結構具有體積大、電路複雜及昂貴成本之缺失;而直流/直流電源轉換器之應用以傳統昇壓式直流/直流電源轉換器最為廣泛,可藉由調整開關之責任週期,控制輸出電壓昇壓比 例,但其最為詬病之缺點為開關切換為傳統硬性切換方式,以及輸出二極體存在反向回復電流問題,當功率半導體開關導通之暫態期間,二極體必須流過瞬間大電流以建立逆偏電壓,此電流流經功率半導體開關,引起嚴重之切換損失與低轉換效率。One of the traditional clean energy generation units is equipped with a set of power converters to convert various clean energy sources with different power generation characteristics. The conventional system architecture uses multiple sets of converters in parallel with the DC high-voltage busbars as the front-end power supply of the converter or directly applied to the circuit device, and the system structure has a large volume, complicated circuit and lack of expensive cost; and the DC/DC power converter The traditional boost DC/DC power converter is the most widely used, and the output voltage boost ratio can be controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the switch. For example, the most common drawback is that the switch is switched to the traditional hard switching mode, and the output diode has a reverse return current problem. When the power semiconductor switch is turned on, the diode must flow through the instantaneous large current to establish Reverse bias voltage, this current flows through the power semiconductor switch, causing severe switching losses and low conversion efficiency.
近年來由於溫室效應的影響,潔淨能源的發展日益受到重視,燃料電池、太陽能光電等潔淨能源,配合電力電子及自動控制等相關技術,可廣泛應用在分散式能源,但潔淨能源其輸出電壓通常為低電壓,故需要高昇壓比轉換機制以利一般負載所使用。近年各車廠皆以發展混合動力移動載具為主要選擇,部分輔以燃料電池提升續航能力,但燃料電池最大缺點為其輸出電壓易隨負載變化而浮動,且其發電量易受工作溫度變化而有所影響,因此,以現有技術而言,燃料電池無法直接應用於一般移動載具上,為了解決上述之問題,必須搭配一儲能裝置,以提供移動載具瞬間加速及爬坡時大功率之需求。In recent years, due to the influence of the greenhouse effect, the development of clean energy has been paid more and more attention. Clean energy such as fuel cells and solar photovoltaics can be widely used in decentralized energy sources, such as power electronics and automatic control. However, the output voltage of clean energy is usually For low voltages, a high boost ratio conversion mechanism is required to facilitate the use of general loads. In recent years, all car manufacturers have mainly developed hybrid mobile vehicles, and some of them are supplemented by fuel cells to improve their endurance. However, the biggest disadvantage of fuel cells is that their output voltage is easy to float with load changes, and its power generation is subject to changes in operating temperature. In terms of the prior art, the fuel cell cannot be directly applied to a general mobile vehicle. In order to solve the above problems, an energy storage device must be provided to provide a momentary acceleration of the mobile vehicle and high power when climbing the slope. Demand.
鋰電池具有高能量密度、壽命高、成本低、可提供連續高電流輸出及能夠滿足瞬間大功率能源需求之特性,因此非常適合應用於混合式移動載具上。但單單使用鋰電池供應移動載具使用,會因鋰電池體積及重量大小受限,致使移動載具行駛距離無法提升,因此利用雙輸入直流/直流轉換器,可使鋰電池解決燃料電池動態響應緩慢之問題,也可利用燃料電池對鋰電池充電增其移動載具行駛距離,雙電源可發揮互補之功效。而傳統習用之電力電子技術,一組潔淨能源發電裝置均配置一組電源轉換器,用以轉換不同發電特性之各式潔淨能源,其中以直流/直流電源轉換器應用於傳統昇壓式直流/直流電源轉換器最為廣泛,可藉由調整開關之責任週期,控制輸出電壓昇壓比例,但其最為詬病之缺點為開關切換為傳統硬性切換方式;而習用之系統架構採用多組轉換器並聯於直流高壓匯流排,作為變流器前端電源或直接應用電路裝置,此系統結構中每組電源轉換器均採用獨立控制器這不但造成 電路成本的提高,更嚴重的是使用兩套獨立系統並不能同時進行功率匹配,無法產生互補之效用,且饋入直流匯流排之能量易造成電壓突波導致電源轉換器燒毀,或需於直流匯流排上放置超額電容器以穩定電壓。Lithium batteries are ideal for hybrid mobile vehicles because of their high energy density, high lifetime, low cost, continuous high current output, and the ability to meet instantaneous high-power energy requirements. However, the use of lithium batteries for mobile vehicles alone will limit the size and weight of lithium batteries, which will make the moving distance of mobile vehicles unable to increase. Therefore, lithium batteries can solve the dynamic response of fuel cells by using dual input DC/DC converters. Slow problem, you can also use the fuel cell to charge the lithium battery to increase the distance traveled by the mobile vehicle, and the dual power supply can complement each other. Traditionally used power electronics technology, a group of clean energy power generation devices are equipped with a set of power converters to convert various types of clean energy with different power generation characteristics, in which DC/DC power converters are applied to conventional boost DC/ The DC power converter is the most extensive, and the output voltage boost ratio can be controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the switch. However, its most disadvantage is that the switch is switched to the traditional hard switching mode; and the conventional system architecture uses multiple sets of converters in parallel. DC high-voltage busbar, as a front-end power supply of the converter or a direct application circuit device, each set of power converters in this system structure uses a separate controller, which not only causes The increase in circuit cost, more serious is the use of two independent systems can not be power matching at the same time, can not produce complementary effects, and the energy fed into the DC bus is easy to cause voltage surges to cause the power converter to burn, or need to DC An excess capacitor is placed on the busbar to stabilize the voltage.
本發明實施例提供一種混合式電力轉換系統,用於移動載具之供電系統,所述混合式電力轉換系統包括第一直流電路、第二直流電路、箝制電路、中壓平衡電路、充電電路與高壓電路。第一直流電路具有一第一電壓且接收第一開關信號。第二直流電路電性連接第一直流電路,所述第二直流電路具有第二電壓且接收第二開關信號。箝制電路電性連接第一及第二直流電路,所述箝制電路透過吸收漏感能量以保護第一及第二直流電路。中壓平衡電路電性連接箝制電路,具有第一昇壓比值與第二昇壓比值,所述中壓平衡電路透過與第一直流電路之間的第一耦合感應方式以產生第三電壓或透過與第二直流電路之間的第二耦合感應方式以產生第四電壓,其中第三電壓等於第一電壓乘以第一昇壓比值,並且第四電壓等於第二電壓乘以第二昇壓比值。充電電路電性連接第二直流電路,具有第三昇壓比值,所述充電電路透過與第一直流電路之間的第一耦合感應方式產生充電電壓,其中充電電壓為第一電壓乘以第三昇壓比值。高壓電路電性連接中壓平衡電路,所述高壓電路接收第三電壓與第四電壓,以傳送輸出電壓與輸出電流來驅動負載,其中當移動載具處於第一供電模式時,混合式電力轉換系統透過第一直流電路與第二直流電路兩者之一來輸出單電源能量;當移動載具處於第二供電模式時,混合式電力轉換系統透過第一直流電路來輸出單電源能量,並且透過充電電路對第二直流電路進行充電,其中第二供電模式為當充電電壓大於第二電壓;以及當移動載具處於第三供電模式時,混合式電力 轉換系統透過第一及第二直流電路來同時輸出雙電源能量。Embodiments of the present invention provide a hybrid power conversion system for a power supply system for a mobile vehicle, the hybrid power conversion system including a first DC circuit, a second DC circuit, a clamp circuit, a medium voltage balance circuit, and a charging circuit High voltage circuit. The first DC circuit has a first voltage and receives the first switching signal. The second DC circuit is electrically connected to the first DC circuit, and the second DC circuit has a second voltage and receives the second switching signal. The clamping circuit is electrically connected to the first and second DC circuits, and the clamping circuit protects the first and second DC circuits by absorbing leakage energy. The medium voltage balance circuit is electrically connected to the clamping circuit and has a first boosting ratio value and a second boosting ratio value, and the medium voltage balancing circuit transmits a first voltage sensing manner to the first DC circuit to generate a third voltage or a second coupling induction mode with the second DC circuit to generate a fourth voltage, wherein the third voltage is equal to the first voltage multiplied by the first boost ratio value, and the fourth voltage is equal to the second voltage multiplied by the second boost ratio . The charging circuit is electrically connected to the second DC circuit and has a third boost ratio. The charging circuit generates a charging voltage through a first coupling induction manner with the first DC circuit, wherein the charging voltage is the first voltage multiplied by the third Boost ratio. The high voltage circuit is electrically connected to the medium voltage balance circuit, and the high voltage circuit receives the third voltage and the fourth voltage to transmit the output voltage and the output current to drive the load, wherein the hybrid power conversion is when the mobile vehicle is in the first power supply mode. The system outputs a single power source energy through one of the first DC circuit and the second DC circuit; when the mobile carrier is in the second power supply mode, the hybrid power conversion system outputs a single power source through the first DC circuit, and transmits The charging circuit charges the second DC circuit, wherein the second power supply mode is when the charging voltage is greater than the second voltage; and when the mobile vehicle is in the third power supply mode, the hybrid power The conversion system simultaneously outputs dual power sources through the first and second DC circuits.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,混合式電力轉換系統更包括偵測器與控制器。偵測器用以偵測移動載具之移動狀態,以判斷移動載具處於第一供電模式或第三供電模式,其中第一供電模式定義為移動載具處於穩定行駛之狀態,並且第三供電模式定義為移動載具處於加速或爬坡之狀態。控制器電性連接偵測器,所述控制器根據偵測器之判斷結果,以分別輸出第一開關信號與第二開關信號至對應的第一直流電路與第二直流電路,其中控制器為全數位化控制器。In one embodiment of the invention, the hybrid power conversion system further includes a detector and a controller. The detector is configured to detect a moving state of the mobile vehicle to determine that the mobile vehicle is in the first power supply mode or the third power supply mode, wherein the first power supply mode is defined as a state in which the mobile vehicle is in a stable driving state, and the third power supply mode Defined as the moving vehicle is in an accelerated or hill climbing state. The controller is electrically connected to the detector, and the controller outputs the first switch signal and the second switch signal to the corresponding first DC circuit and the second DC circuit respectively according to the judgment result of the detector, wherein the controller is Full digital controller.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,第一耦合感應方式與第二耦合感應方式為電感耦合感應方式,並且第一直流電路為主電源電路,第二直流電路為副電源電路。In one embodiment of the present invention, the first coupled sensing mode and the second coupled sensing mode are inductively coupled sensing modes, and the first DC circuit is a main power circuit, and the second DC circuit is a sub power circuit.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,第一直流電路包括第一直流電源、第一輸入濾波電容、第一低壓開關與第一耦合電感之一次側繞組。第一直流電源用以提供第一電壓之能量。第一輸入濾波電容之其一端連接第一直流電源之正端,第一輸入濾波電容之另一端連接接地電壓。第一低壓開關之閘極接收第一開關信號並據此決定導通或截止狀態,第一低壓開關之源極連接接地電壓。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之一端連接第一輸入濾波電容之一端且具有電壓極性點,第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端連接第一低壓開關之汲極與箝制電路。第一直流電路藉由第一低壓開關之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之能量。In one embodiment of the present invention, the first DC circuit includes a first DC power source, a first input filter capacitor, a first low voltage switch, and a primary side winding of the first coupled inductor. The first DC power source is used to provide energy of the first voltage. One end of the first input filter capacitor is connected to the positive terminal of the first DC power source, and the other end of the first input filter capacitor is connected to the ground voltage. The gate of the first low voltage switch receives the first switching signal and determines an on or off state according to which the source of the first low voltage switch is connected to the ground voltage. One end of the primary side winding of the first coupled inductor is connected to one end of the first input filter capacitor and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the primary side winding of the first coupled inductor is connected to the drain of the first low voltage switch and the clamp circuit. The first DC circuit stores or releases the energy of the primary winding of the first coupled inductor by the on or off state of the first low voltage switch.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,第二直流電路包括第二直流電源、第二輸入濾波電容、第二低壓開關與第二耦合電感之一次側繞組。第二直流電源用以提供第二電壓之能量。第二輸入濾波電容之一端連接第二直流電源之正端,第二輸入濾波電容之另一端連接接地電壓。第二低壓開關之閘極接收第二開關信號並據此決定導通或截止狀態,第二低壓開關之源極連接接地電壓。第二耦 合電感之一次側繞組之一端連接第二輸入濾波電容之一端且具有電壓極性點,第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端連接第二低壓開關之汲極與箝制電路。第二直流電路藉由第二低壓開關之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之能量。In one embodiment of the present invention, the second DC circuit includes a second DC power source, a second input filter capacitor, a second low voltage switch, and a primary side winding of the second coupled inductor. The second DC power source is used to provide energy of the second voltage. One end of the second input filter capacitor is connected to the positive end of the second DC power source, and the other end of the second input filter capacitor is connected to the ground voltage. The gate of the second low voltage switch receives the second switching signal and determines an on or off state according to which the source of the second low voltage switch is connected to the ground voltage. Second coupling One end of the primary winding of the inductor is connected to one end of the second input filter capacitor and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the primary winding of the second coupled inductor is connected to the drain of the second low voltage switch and the clamp circuit. The second DC circuit stores or releases the energy of the primary winding of the second coupled inductor by the on or off state of the second low voltage switch.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,箝制電路包括第一箝制二極體、第二箝制二極體與箝制電容。第一箝制二極體之陽極連接第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端。第二箝制二極體之陽極連接第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端,第二箝制二極體之陰極連接第一箝制二極體之陰極。箝制電容之一端連接第一箝制二極體之陰極與中壓平衡電路,箝制電容之另一端連接接地電壓,用以吸收第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之漏感能量,藉此以保護第一低壓開關與第二低壓開關。In one embodiment of the invention, the clamping circuit includes a first clamped diode, a second clamped diode, and a clamped capacitor. The anode of the first clamped diode is connected to the other end of the primary side winding of the first coupled inductor. The anode of the second clamped diode is connected to the other end of the primary winding of the second coupled inductor, and the cathode of the second clamped diode is connected to the cathode of the first clamped diode. One end of the clamp capacitor is connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode and the medium voltage balance circuit, and the other end of the clamp capacitor is connected to the ground voltage for absorbing the leakage of the primary winding of the first coupled inductor and the primary winding of the second coupled inductor Sensing energy to thereby protect the first low voltage switch and the second low voltage switch.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,中壓平衡電路包括第一耦合電感之二次側繞組、第一中壓電容與第一導向二極體。第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端連接第一箝制二極體之陰極且具有電壓極性點。第一中壓電容之一端連接第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之另一端。第一導向二極體之陽極連接第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端,第一導向二極體之陰極連接第一中壓電容之另一端。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之間的匝數比為第一昇壓比值,並且當第一耦合電感之二次側繞組產生第一感應電壓時,則會產生第一感應電流經由第一導向二極體向第一中壓電容之另一端進行充電,以提高第三電壓之電壓值,藉此將第一耦合電感之二次側繞組與第一中壓電容之能量傳送至高壓電路。In one embodiment of the present invention, the medium voltage balancing circuit includes a secondary side winding of the first coupled inductor, a first medium voltage capacitor, and a first guiding diode. One end of the secondary side winding of the first coupled inductor is coupled to the cathode of the first clamped diode and has a voltage polarity point. One end of the first medium voltage capacitor is connected to the other end of the secondary side winding of the first coupled inductor. The anode of the first guiding diode is connected to one end of the secondary winding of the first coupling inductor, and the cathode of the first guiding diode is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor. The turns ratio between the primary winding of the first coupled inductor and the secondary winding of the first coupled inductor is a first boost ratio, and when the secondary winding of the first coupled inductor produces a first induced voltage, then A first induced current is generated to charge the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor via the first guiding diode to increase a voltage value of the third voltage, thereby using the second side winding of the first coupled inductor and the first The energy of the medium voltage capacitor is transferred to the high voltage circuit.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,中壓平衡電路更包括第二耦合電感之二次側繞組、第二中壓電容與第二導向二極體。第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端連接第一中壓電容之另一端且具有電壓極性點。第二中壓電容之一端連接第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之 另一端。第二導向二極體之陽極連接第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端,第二導向二極體之陰極連接第二中壓電容之另一端。第二耦合電感之一次側繞組與第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之間的匝數比為第二昇壓比值,並且當第二耦合電感之二次側繞組產生第二感應電壓時,則會產生第二感應電流經由第二導向二極體向第二中壓電容之另一端進行充電,以提高第四電壓之電壓值,藉此將第二耦合電感之二次側繞組與第二中壓電容之能量傳送至高壓電路。In one embodiment of the present invention, the medium voltage balancing circuit further includes a secondary side winding of the second coupled inductor, a second medium voltage capacitor, and a second guiding diode. One end of the secondary side winding of the second coupled inductor is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor and has a voltage polarity point. One end of the second medium voltage capacitor is connected to the secondary side winding of the second coupled inductor another side. The anode of the second guiding diode is connected to one end of the secondary winding of the second coupling inductor, and the cathode of the second guiding diode is connected to the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor. a turns ratio between the primary winding of the second coupled inductor and the secondary winding of the second coupled inductor is a second boost ratio, and when the secondary winding of the second coupled inductor generates a second induced voltage, then A second induced current is generated to charge the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor via the second guiding diode to increase the voltage value of the fourth voltage, thereby using the second side winding of the second coupled inductor and the second The energy of the medium voltage capacitor is transferred to the high voltage circuit.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,充電電路包括充電二極體與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組。充電二極體之陰極連接第二直流電源之正端。第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之一端連接充電二極體之陽極且具有電壓極性點,第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之另一端連接接地電壓,其中第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之兩端的電壓為充電電壓。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之間的匝數比為第三昇壓比值,並且當充電電壓大於第二電壓時,則產生充電電流經由充電二極體對第二直流電源進行充電,以將第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之能量傳送至第二直流電路。In one embodiment of the invention, the charging circuit includes a charging diode and a tertiary side winding of the first coupled inductor. The cathode of the charging diode is connected to the positive terminal of the second DC power source. One end of the third side winding of the first coupled inductor is connected to the anode of the charging diode and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the third side winding of the first coupled inductor is connected to the ground voltage, wherein the two ends of the third side winding of the first coupled inductor are The voltage is the charging voltage. The turns ratio between the primary side winding of the first coupled inductor and the tertiary side winding of the first coupled inductor is a third boost ratio, and when the charging voltage is greater than the second voltage, a charging current is generated via the charging diode pair The second DC power source is charged to transfer energy of the third side winding of the first coupled inductor to the second DC circuit.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,高壓電路包括輸出二極體與輸出電容。輸出二極體之陽極連接第二中壓電容之另一端,所述輸出二極體用以提供能量之傳送路徑。輸出電容之一端連接輸出二極體之陰極,輸出電容之另一端連接接地電壓,用以穩定輸出電壓。輸出二極體將所接收之第三電壓與第四電壓之能量傳送至輸出電容以儲存,並且當輸出電容並聯連接負載時,則輸出電容會傳送輸出電壓與輸出電流至負載,藉此以將所儲存之能量傳送至負載。In one embodiment of the invention, the high voltage circuit includes an output diode and an output capacitor. The anode of the output diode is connected to the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor, and the output diode is used to provide a transmission path for energy. One end of the output capacitor is connected to the cathode of the output diode, and the other end of the output capacitor is connected to the ground voltage to stabilize the output voltage. The output diode transfers the received third voltage and the fourth voltage energy to the output capacitor for storage, and when the output capacitor is connected in parallel to the load, the output capacitor transmits the output voltage and the output current to the load, thereby The stored energy is transferred to the load.
在本發明其中一個實施例中,高壓準位匯流排可以作為交流器負載中之反流器之前端或移動載具中的伺服馬達所需直流電壓。In one embodiment of the invention, the high voltage level busbar can be used as the DC voltage required for the servo motor in the front end of the inverter or in the moving carrier.
綜上所述,本發明實施例所提出之混合式電力轉換系統,利用雙輸入電源之間的互補且透過第一供電模式(單輸入電源獨立供電狀態)、第二供電模式(充電狀態)與第三供電模式(雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態)之工作機制,能夠同時控制第一直流電源與第二直流電源以達到穩定輸出電壓及減小輸出電壓漣波之功效。In summary, the hybrid power conversion system proposed by the embodiment of the present invention utilizes complementary between two input power sources and transmits through the first power supply mode (single input power supply independent power supply state) and the second power supply mode (charge state). The working mechanism of the third power supply mode (the dual-input power supply combined power supply state) can simultaneously control the first DC power supply and the second DC power supply to achieve the effect of stabilizing the output voltage and reducing the output voltage ripple.
此外,主電源電路內之第一直流電源能夠對副電源電路內的第二直流電源充電以維持電量,藉此以避免混合式電力轉換系統需要多組轉換器來提供不同電壓等級輸入供電之問題,達到控制簡單、降低系統成本與提高功率密度之效用。再者,混合式電力轉換系統內的所有開關均操作於柔性切換或零電流切換,有效降低第一低壓開關與第二低壓開關之切換損失。In addition, the first DC power source in the main power circuit can charge the second DC power source in the auxiliary power circuit to maintain the power, thereby preventing the hybrid power conversion system from requiring multiple sets of converters to provide different voltage level input power supplies. The problem is to achieve simple control, reduce system cost and increase power density. Moreover, all switches in the hybrid power conversion system operate on flexible switching or zero current switching, effectively reducing switching losses of the first low voltage switch and the second low voltage switch.
據此,本揭露內容所提供之用於移動載具供電用之混合式電力轉換系統,具有高昇壓比、低切換損失、不同電壓等級輸入與低導通損失之特點,藉此能夠提高移動載具對加速與爬坡時對大功率之需求,並提升整體轉換效率與移動載具之行駛距離或續航能力。Accordingly, the hybrid power conversion system for powering mobile vehicles provided by the present disclosure has the characteristics of high step-up ratio, low switching loss, different voltage level input and low conduction loss, thereby improving the mobile vehicle. The need for high power for acceleration and climbing, and to improve the overall conversion efficiency and the driving distance or endurance of the mobile vehicle.
為使能更進一步瞭解本發明之特徵及技術內容,請參閱以下有關本發明之詳細說明與附圖,但是此等說明與所附圖式僅係用來說明本發明,而非對本發明的權利範圍作任何的限制。The detailed description of the present invention and the accompanying drawings are to be understood by the claims The scope is subject to any restrictions.
100、200‧‧‧混合式電力轉換系統100, 200‧‧‧ hybrid power conversion system
110‧‧‧第一直流電路110‧‧‧First DC circuit
120‧‧‧第二直流電路120‧‧‧second DC circuit
130‧‧‧箝制電路130‧‧‧Clamping circuit
140‧‧‧中壓平衡電路140‧‧‧Medium voltage balancing circuit
150‧‧‧充電電路150‧‧‧Charging circuit
160‧‧‧高壓電路160‧‧‧High voltage circuit
170‧‧‧負載170‧‧‧load
180‧‧‧偵測器180‧‧‧Detector
190‧‧‧控制器190‧‧‧ Controller
CO ‧‧‧輸出電容C O ‧‧‧ output capacitor
C1 ‧‧‧箝制電容C 1 ‧‧‧Clamping capacitor
C2 ‧‧‧第一中壓電容C 2 ‧‧‧First Medium Voltage Capacitor
C3 ‧‧‧第二中壓電容C 3 ‧‧‧Second medium voltage capacitor
CBT ‧‧‧第二輸入濾波電容C BT ‧‧‧second input filter capacitor
CFC ‧‧‧第一輸入濾波電容C FC ‧‧‧first input filter capacitor
DO ‧‧‧輸出二極體D O ‧‧‧ output diode
D1 ‧‧‧充電二極體D 1 ‧‧‧Charging diode
D2 ‧‧‧第一導向二極體D 2 ‧‧‧First Guided Diode
D3 ‧‧‧第二導向二極體D 3 ‧‧‧Second Guided Diode
DC1 ‧‧‧第一箝制二極體D C1 ‧‧‧First clamped diode
DC2 ‧‧‧第二箝制二極體D C2 ‧‧‧Second clamped diode
GND‧‧‧接地電壓GND‧‧‧ Grounding voltage
IO ‧‧‧輸出電流I O ‧‧‧Output current
ICA‧‧‧充電電流ICA‧‧‧Charging current
iLk1 、iLK2 ‧‧‧漏感電流i Lk1 , i LK2 ‧‧‧ leakage current
L1P ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L 1P ‧‧‧ primary winding of the first coupled inductor
L1S1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L 1S1 ‧‧‧Second-side winding of the first coupled inductor
L1S2 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L 1S2 ‧‧‧3rd side winding of the first coupled inductor
L2P ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L 2P ‧‧‧ primary winding of the second coupled inductor
L2S ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L 2S ‧‧‧second winding of the second coupled inductor
Lmp1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之一次側激磁電感L mp1 ‧‧‧ primary side inductance of the first coupled inductor
Lmp2 ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之一次側激磁電感L mp2 ‧‧‧ primary side inductance of the second coupled inductor
Lk1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之一次側漏感L k1 ‧‧‧First-side leakage inductance of the first coupled inductor
Lk2 ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之一次側漏感L k2 ‧‧‧First-side leakage inductance of the second coupled inductor
R‧‧‧負載R‧‧‧ load
RS‧‧‧判斷結果RS‧‧‧Results
S1 ‧‧‧第一低壓開關S 1 ‧‧‧First low voltage switch
S2 ‧‧‧第二低壓開關S 2 ‧‧‧second low voltage switch
T1‧‧‧第一開關信號T1‧‧‧ first switch signal
T2‧‧‧第二開關信號T2‧‧‧second switch signal
Tr1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感T r1 ‧‧‧first coupled inductor
Tr2 ‧‧‧第二耦合電感T r2 ‧‧‧Second coupled inductor
V3、V4‧‧‧電壓V3, V4‧‧‧ voltage
VO ‧‧‧輸出電壓V O ‧‧‧Output voltage
VC1 、VC2 ‧‧‧電容電壓V C1 , V C2 ‧‧‧ capacitor voltage
VBT ‧‧‧第二電壓/第二直流電源V BT ‧‧‧second voltage / second DC power supply
VCA‧‧‧充電電壓VCA‧‧‧Charging voltage
VFC ‧‧‧第一電壓/第一直流電源V FC ‧‧‧First voltage / first DC power supply
圖1為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統之區塊示意圖。1 is a block diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
圖2為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統之電路示意圖。2 is a circuit diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
圖3為對應圖2之混合式電力轉換系統之等效電路圖。3 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the hybrid power conversion system corresponding to FIG. 2.
圖4為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於單輸入電源獨立供電狀態之波形圖。4 is a waveform diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in a single input power supply independent power supply state according to an embodiment of the present invention.
圖5為對應圖4之工作模式之電路示意圖。FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the operation mode of FIG. 4.
圖6為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於充電狀態之波形圖。6 is a waveform diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in a state of charge according to an embodiment of the present invention.
圖7為對應圖6之工作模式之電路示意圖。Figure 7 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the mode of operation of Figure 6.
圖8為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態之波形圖。8 is a waveform diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in a combined power supply state of a dual input power supply according to an embodiment of the present invention.
圖9為對應圖8之工作模式之電路示意圖。Figure 9 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the mode of operation of Figure 8.
圖10為根據本發明實施例之單輸入電源獨立供電狀態之轉換效率圖。Figure 10 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of a single input power supply independent power supply state in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
圖11為根據本發明實施例之充電狀態之轉換效率圖。Figure 11 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of a state of charge according to an embodiment of the present invention.
圖12為根據本發明實施例之雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態之轉換效率圖。Figure 12 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of a dual input power supply combined power supply state in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
在下文將參看隨附圖式更充分地描述各種例示性實施例,在隨附圖式中展示一些例示性實施例。然而,本發明概念可能以許多不同形式來體現,且不應解釋為限於本文中所闡述之例示性實施例。確切而言,提供此等例示性實施例使得本發明將為詳盡且完整,且將向熟習此項技術者充分傳達本發明概念的範疇。在諸圖式中,可為了清楚而誇示層及區之大小及相對大小。類似數字始終指示類似元件。Various illustrative embodiments are described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings. However, the inventive concept may be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as being limited to the illustrative embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these exemplary embodiments are provided so that this invention will be in the In the drawings, the size and relative sizes of layers and regions may be exaggerated for clarity. Similar numbers always indicate similar components.
應理解,雖然本文中可能使用術語第一、第二、第三等來描述各種元件,但此等元件不應受此等術語限制。此等術語乃用以區分一元件與另一元件。因此,下文論述之第一元件可稱為第二元件而不偏離本發明概念之教示。如本文中所使用,術語「及/或」包括相關聯之列出項目中之任一者及一或多者之所有組合。It will be understood that, although the terms first, second, third, etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, such elements are not limited by the terms. These terms are used to distinguish one element from another. Thus, a first element discussed below could be termed a second element without departing from the teachings of the inventive concept. As used herein, the term "and/or" includes any of the associated listed items and all combinations of one or more.
〔混合式電力轉換系統的實施例〕[Embodiment of Hybrid Power Conversion System]
請參照圖1,圖1為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統 之區塊示意圖。在本實施例中,混合式電力轉換系統100具有雙輸入電源,可以將低壓側燃料電池與鋰電池電壓昇壓轉換為高電壓位準直流匯流排。如圖1所示,混合式電力轉換系統100包括第一直流電路110、第二直流電路120、箝制電路130、中壓平衡電路140、充電電路150與高壓電路160。在一實施例中,本揭露內容之混合式電力轉換系統100可以適用於一移動載具之供電系統。Please refer to FIG. 1. FIG. 1 is a hybrid power conversion system according to an embodiment of the present invention. The block diagram. In the present embodiment, the hybrid power conversion system 100 has a dual input power supply, which can convert the low voltage side fuel cell and the lithium battery voltage to a high voltage level DC bus. As shown in FIG. 1, the hybrid power conversion system 100 includes a first DC circuit 110, a second DC circuit 120, a clamp circuit 130, a medium voltage balance circuit 140, a charging circuit 150, and a high voltage circuit 160. In an embodiment, the hybrid power conversion system 100 of the present disclosure may be applied to a power supply system of a mobile vehicle.
在本實施例中,箝制電路130電性連接第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120。中壓平衡電路140電性連接箝制電路130。高壓電路160電性連接中壓平衡電路140。充電電路150電性連接第二直流電路120。In the embodiment, the clamping circuit 130 is electrically connected to the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120. The medium voltage balancing circuit 140 is electrically connected to the clamping circuit 130. The high voltage circuit 160 is electrically connected to the medium voltage balancing circuit 140. The charging circuit 150 is electrically connected to the second DC circuit 120.
關於第一直流電路110,第一直流電路110具有第一電壓VFC ,其能量來源可以是太陽能、風力或其他以類似方式從大自然取得之潔淨能源。此外,在本揭露內容中,第一直流電路110作為主電源電路,並根據所接收之第一開關信號T1來進行對應之相關動作,並據此提供一第一電源電能。具體來說,第一直流電路110為根據第一開關信號T1之責任週期來進行對應的動作,並且利用第一耦合電感之一次側漏感Lk1 ,並控制第一低壓開關S1 電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低切換損失、提高轉換效率。Regarding the first DC circuit 110, the first DC circuit 110 has a first voltage V FC whose energy source may be solar energy, wind power or other clean energy source obtained from nature in a similar manner. In addition, in the disclosure, the first DC circuit 110 functions as a main power circuit, and performs corresponding operations according to the received first switch signal T1, and accordingly provides a first power source. Specifically, the first DC circuit 110 performs a corresponding action according to the duty cycle of the first switching signal T1, and utilizes the primary side leakage inductance L k1 of the first coupled inductor, and controls the current rising speed of the first low voltage switch S 1 . In order to achieve flexible switching, reduce switching loss and improve conversion efficiency.
關於第二直流電路120,第二直流電路120具有第二電壓VBT ,其能量來源為充電電池,例如鋰電池。在本實施例中,其能量來源為磷酸鋰鐵電池,但並不以本實施例為限。此外,在本揭露內容中,第二直流電路120作為副電源電路,並根據所接收之第二開關信號T2來進行對應之相關動作。具體來說,第二直流電路120為根據第二開關信號T2之責任週期來進行對應的動作,並利用第二耦合電感之一次側漏感Lk2 ,控制第二低壓開關S2 之電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低切換損失、提高轉換效率。須注意的是,在本實施例中,第一電壓VFC 與第二電壓VBT 為不同電壓等級之輸 入。Regarding the second DC circuit 120, the second DC circuit 120 has a second voltage V BT whose energy source is a rechargeable battery, such as a lithium battery. In the present embodiment, the energy source is lithium iron phosphate battery, but it is not limited to this embodiment. In addition, in the disclosure, the second DC circuit 120 functions as a secondary power supply circuit, and performs corresponding operations according to the received second switching signal T2. Specifically, the second DC circuit 120 performs a corresponding action according to the duty cycle of the second switching signal T2, and controls the current rising speed of the second low voltage switch S 2 by using the primary side leakage inductance L k2 of the second coupled inductor. In order to achieve flexible switching, reduce switching loss and improve conversion efficiency. It should be noted that in the embodiment, the first voltage V FC and the second voltage V BT are inputs of different voltage levels.
關於箝制電路130,本揭露內容利用箝制電路130來吸收漏感能量以保護第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120,藉此以避免損壞混合式電力轉換系統100之正常功能。具體來說,箝制電路130能夠避免輸入電源之漣波(Ripple)或突波(Spike)所造成之瞬間電壓變化之發生,並且能夠將電壓箝制在特定電壓範圍內。在一實施例中,箝制電路130能夠將電壓箝制在40伏特左右,故第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120不需要太高的耐壓規格,因此可避免過大的電壓突波且避免電路元件損毀。With regard to the clamp circuit 130, the present disclosure utilizes the clamp circuit 130 to absorb leakage inductance energy to protect the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120, thereby avoiding damaging the normal function of the hybrid power conversion system 100. Specifically, the clamp circuit 130 can avoid the occurrence of a transient voltage change caused by a Ripple or a Spike of the input power source, and can clamp the voltage within a specific voltage range. In an embodiment, the clamping circuit 130 can clamp the voltage to about 40 volts, so the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120 do not need too high a withstand voltage specifications, thereby avoiding excessive voltage surges and avoiding circuits. The component is damaged.
關於中壓平衡電路140,中壓平衡電路140具有第一昇壓比值與第二昇壓比值,其中第一昇壓比值相關於第一直流電路110,並且第二昇壓比值相關於第二直流電路120。中壓平衡電路140透過與第一直流電路110之間的第一耦合感應方式以產生第三電壓V3或透過與第二直流電路120之間的第二耦合感應方式以產生第四電壓V4,其中第三電壓V3等於第一電壓VFC 乘以第一昇壓比值,並且第四電壓V4等於第二電壓VBT 乘以第二昇壓比值。值得一提的是,第一耦合感應方式與第二耦合感應方式為電感耦合感應方式,並且第一耦合感應方式指示為同一耦合電感之相異側進行感應,而第二耦合感應方式指示為另一耦合電感之相異側進行感應。Regarding the medium voltage balance circuit 140, the medium voltage balance circuit 140 has a first boost ratio value and a second boost ratio value, wherein the first boost ratio value is related to the first DC circuit 110, and the second boost ratio value is related to the second DC ratio Circuit 120. The medium voltage balancing circuit 140 generates a fourth voltage V4 through a first coupling induction manner with the first DC circuit 110 to generate a third voltage V3 or a second coupling induction manner with the second DC circuit 120. The third voltage V3 is equal to the first voltage V FC multiplied by the first boost ratio value, and the fourth voltage V4 is equal to the second voltage V BT multiplied by the second boost ratio value. It is worth mentioning that the first coupled sensing mode and the second coupled sensing mode are inductively coupled sensing mode, and the first coupled sensing mode indicates that the opposite side of the same coupled inductor is sensed, and the second coupled sensing mode indicates that the other is The opposite side of a coupled inductor senses.
關於充電電路150,充電電路150具有第三昇壓比值,充電電路150透過與第一直流電路110之間的第一耦合感應方式產生充電電壓VCA,其中充電電壓VCA為第一電壓VFC 乘以第三昇壓比值,其中當充電電壓VCA大於第二電壓VBT (定義為第二供電模式)時,則充電電路150會輸出充電電流ICA以對第二直流電路120進行充電。Regarding the charging circuit 150, the charging circuit 150 has a third boosting ratio value, and the charging circuit 150 generates a charging voltage VCA through a first coupling induction manner with the first DC circuit 110, wherein the charging voltage VCA is the first voltage V FC multiplied by The third boost ratio, wherein when the charging voltage VCA is greater than the second voltage V BT (defined as the second power supply mode), the charging circuit 150 outputs the charging current ICA to charge the second DC circuit 120.
關於高壓電路160,高壓電路160接收第三電壓V3與第四電壓V4,以傳送輸出電壓VO 與輸出電流IO 來驅動負載170,其中輸出電壓VO 又稱為高壓準位匯流排,用以提供至負載170。高壓準 位匯流排可以作為交流器負載中之反流器之前端或移動載具中的伺服馬達所需直流電壓,因此本揭露內容可以達到多輸入多輸出之混合式電力轉換系統100。值得一提的是,其中第三電壓V3與第四電壓V4之產生為分別對應於第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120,並且當移動載具穩定行駛時,則混合式電力轉換系統100為處於單輸入電源獨立供電狀態,而第三電壓V3之電壓值不為零且第四電壓V4之電壓值為零;當移動載具加速或爬坡行駛時,則混合式電力轉換系統100為處於雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態,而第三電壓V3之電壓值與第四電壓V4之電壓值不為零。Regarding the high voltage circuit 160, the high voltage circuit 160 receives the third voltage V3 and the fourth voltage V4 to transmit the output voltage V O and the output current I O to drive the load 170, wherein the output voltage V O is also referred to as a high voltage level bus. To provide to the load 170. The high voltage level bus bar can be used as the DC voltage required by the servo motor in the front end of the inverter or in the moving carrier, so the present disclosure can achieve the multi-input and multi-output hybrid power conversion system 100. It is worth mentioning that the third voltage V3 and the fourth voltage V4 are generated corresponding to the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120, respectively, and when the mobile carrier runs stably, the hybrid power conversion system 100 In the single-input power supply independent power supply state, the voltage value of the third voltage V3 is not zero and the voltage value of the fourth voltage V4 is zero; when the mobile vehicle accelerates or climbs, the hybrid power conversion system 100 is In the dual input power supply state, the voltage value of the third voltage V3 and the voltage value of the fourth voltage V4 are not zero.
在本實施例中,混合式電力轉換系統100更包括一偵測器180與電性連接至偵測器180之控制器190。偵測器180用以偵測負載之功率需求狀態。此外,控制器190根據偵測器180之判斷結果分別輸出第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2至對應的第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120以分別進一步調整第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120之動作,藉此以決定混合式電力轉換系統100進入第一供電模式或第三供電模式。也就是說,依照負載之功率需求來決定混合式電力轉換系統100該進入第一供電模式或第二供電模式,其中第一供電模式定義為負載處於中功率需求之狀態,並且第三供電模式定義為負載處於高功率需求之狀態。值得一提的是,只要啟動第二供電模式之充電條件一旦成立,第二供電模式可以與第一供電模式共存於混合式電力轉換系統100,或者,第二供電模式亦可以與第三供電模式共存於混合式電力轉換系統100,因此本揭露內容能夠達到多輸入多輸出直流/直流轉換器之功效。再者,控制器190為全數位化控制器(all digital controller),藉此能夠有效控制雙電源之功率匹配,改善傳統類比控制器不易彈性修正之缺點。In this embodiment, the hybrid power conversion system 100 further includes a detector 180 and a controller 190 electrically connected to the detector 180. The detector 180 is configured to detect the power demand status of the load. In addition, the controller 190 outputs the first switching signal T1 and the second switching signal T2 to the corresponding first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120 according to the determination result of the detector 180 to further adjust the first DC circuit 110 and the respectively The action of the second DC circuit 120 thereby determines whether the hybrid power conversion system 100 enters the first power supply mode or the third power supply mode. That is, the hybrid power conversion system 100 is determined to enter the first power supply mode or the second power supply mode according to the power demand of the load, wherein the first power supply mode is defined as a state in which the load is in the medium power demand, and the third power supply mode is defined. The load is in a state of high power demand. It is worth mentioning that, as long as the charging condition for starting the second power supply mode is established, the second power supply mode may coexist with the first power supply mode in the hybrid power conversion system 100, or the second power supply mode may be combined with the third power supply mode. Coexisting in the hybrid power conversion system 100, the present disclosure can achieve the effects of a multiple input multiple output DC/DC converter. Furthermore, the controller 190 is an all digital controller, thereby effectively controlling the power matching of the dual power sources and improving the shortcomings of the conventional analog controllers that are not easily elastically corrected.
接下來要教示的,是進一步說明混合式電力轉換系統100的工作原理。同樣地,在進行下述說明前,須先說明的是,以下將 就混合式電力轉換系統100之第一供電模式、第二供電模式與第三供電模式分別進行詳細說明,並且以混合式電力轉換系統100應用於一移動載具之供電系統作為一範例說明以更瞭解本揭露內容,但本揭露內容之混合式電力轉換系統100並不以應用於移動載具為限。What is to be taught next is to further explain the working principle of the hybrid power conversion system 100. Similarly, before making the following description, it must be stated that the following will The first power supply mode, the second power supply mode, and the third power supply mode of the hybrid power conversion system 100 are respectively described in detail, and the hybrid power conversion system 100 is applied to a power supply system of a mobile vehicle as an example to further The disclosure is to be understood, but the hybrid power conversion system 100 of the present disclosure is not limited to application to mobile vehicles.
第一供電模式:移動載具處於穩定行駛狀態First power supply mode: the mobile vehicle is in stable driving state
請繼續參照圖1,當偵測器180偵測到移動載具處於一第一供電模式時,則偵測器180會將此判斷結果RS傳送至控制器190。接著,控制器190會根據所接收到之第一供電模式之判斷結果RS會分別輸出第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2至對應的第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120以調整其作動。此時,混合式電力轉換系統100處於「單輸入電源獨立供電狀態」,混合式電力轉換系統100會透過第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120兩者之一來輸出單電源能量。亦即,在本實施例中,混合式電力轉換系統100會透過第一直流電路110、箝制電路130與中壓平衡電路140,來輸出第三電壓V3至高壓電路160,藉此來傳送單輸入電源能量至負載170,具體來說,第一直流電路110與中壓平衡電路140會透過第一耦合感應方式將第一電壓VFC 昇壓至第三電壓V3。或者,在另一實施例中,混合式電力轉換系統100會透過第二直流電路120、箝制電路130與中壓平衡電路140,來輸出第四電壓V4至高壓電路160,藉此來傳送單輸入電源能量至負載170。具體來說,第二直流電路120與中壓平衡電路140會透過第二耦合感應方式將第二電壓VBT 昇壓至第四電壓V4。Referring to FIG. 1 , when the detector 180 detects that the mobile vehicle is in a first power supply mode, the detector 180 transmits the determination result RS to the controller 190 . Then, the controller 190 outputs the first switching signal T1 and the second switching signal T2 to the corresponding first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120 respectively according to the received determination result RS of the first power supply mode to adjust the same. Actuate. At this time, the hybrid power conversion system 100 is in a "single-input power supply independent power supply state", and the hybrid power conversion system 100 outputs a single power source energy through one of the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120. That is, in the present embodiment, the hybrid power conversion system 100 transmits the third voltage V3 to the high voltage circuit 160 through the first DC circuit 110, the clamp circuit 130, and the medium voltage balance circuit 140, thereby transmitting a single input. The power of the power is applied to the load 170. Specifically, the first DC circuit 110 and the medium voltage balancing circuit 140 boost the first voltage V FC to the third voltage V3 through the first coupling induction manner. Alternatively, in another embodiment, the hybrid power conversion system 100 transmits the fourth voltage V4 to the high voltage circuit 160 through the second DC circuit 120, the clamp circuit 130, and the medium voltage balance circuit 140, thereby transmitting a single input. The power is supplied to the load 170. Specifically, the second DC circuit 120 and the medium voltage balancing circuit 140 boost the second voltage V BT to the fourth voltage V4 through the second coupling induction method.
第二供電模式:充電狀態Second power supply mode: state of charge
當移動載具處於第一供電模式或第三供電模式時,作為主電源電路之第一直流電路110都會透過第一耦合感應方式傳遞能量至充電電路150,亦即提高充電電壓VCA之電壓值。因此,只要充電電路150上的充電電壓VCA大於第二直流電路120之第二電 壓VBT ,則混合式電力轉換系統100會啟動第二供電模式來進行充電。進一步來說,充電電路150會產生充電電流ICA並且對第二直流電路120進行充電,以提升第二電壓VBT 之電壓值,亦即充電電流ICA會對第二直流電路內之充電電池(例如鋰電池)進行充電。值得一提的是,不論移動載具處於穩定或加速或爬坡之行駛狀態,只要當充電電壓VCA大於第二電壓VBT 之充電條件一旦成立,則充電電路150即會對鋰電池進行充電。簡單來說,本發明實施例能夠透過電感耦合感應方式來使得燃料電池(主電源電路)先將能量感應傳送至充電電路150,再對鋰電池進行充電(當充電條件成立時)。When the mobile carrier is in the first power supply mode or the third power supply mode, the first DC circuit 110, which is the main power supply circuit, transmits energy to the charging circuit 150 through the first coupling induction mode, that is, increases the voltage value of the charging voltage VCA. Therefore, as long as the charging voltage VCA on the charging circuit 150 is greater than the second voltage V BT of the second DC circuit 120, the hybrid power conversion system 100 activates the second power supply mode for charging. Further, the charging circuit 150 generates a charging current ICA and charges the second DC circuit 120 to increase the voltage value of the second voltage V BT , that is, the charging current ICA can be a rechargeable battery in the second DC circuit (for example, Lithium battery) is charged. It is worth mentioning that the charging circuit 150 charges the lithium battery whenever the charging condition of the charging voltage VCA is greater than the second voltage V BT is established, regardless of whether the moving vehicle is in a stable or accelerated or hill climbing driving state. Briefly, the embodiment of the present invention enables the fuel cell (main power circuit) to first transmit energy to the charging circuit 150 through inductively coupled sensing, and then charge the lithium battery (when the charging condition is established).
第三供電模式:移動載具處於加速或爬坡行駛狀態Third power supply mode: the mobile vehicle is in an accelerated or hill climbing state
當偵測器180偵測到移動載具處於一第三供電模式時,則偵測器180會將此判斷結果RS傳送至控制器190。接著,控制器190會根據所接收到之第三供電模式之判斷結果RS會分別輸出第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2至對應的第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120以調整其作動。此時,混合式電力轉換系統100處於「雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態」,混合式電力轉換系統100透過第一直流電路110(亦即主電源電路)與第二直流電路120(亦即副電源電路)來同時輸出雙電源能量至負載170,以提供移動載具瞬間加速及爬坡時大功率之需求。進一步來說,主電源電路與負電源電路會分別透過第一耦合感應方式與第二耦合感應方式來提供能量至中壓平衡電路140,亦即分別將第一電壓VFC 昇壓至第三電壓V3,第二電壓VBT 昇壓至第四電壓V4。接者,高壓電路160會將所接收到之第三電壓V3與第四電壓V4傳送至高壓位準匯流排,亦即高壓電路160會傳送輸出電壓VO 與輸出電流IO 至負載170。When the detector 180 detects that the mobile vehicle is in a third power supply mode, the detector 180 transmits the determination result RS to the controller 190. Then, the controller 190 outputs the first switching signal T1 and the second switching signal T2 to the corresponding first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120 respectively according to the received determination result RS of the third power supply mode to adjust the same. Actuate. At this time, the hybrid power conversion system 100 is in a "dual input power supply state", and the hybrid power conversion system 100 transmits the first DC circuit 110 (ie, the main power circuit) and the second DC circuit 120 (ie, the sub power circuit). ) to simultaneously output dual power supply energy to the load 170 to provide the instantaneous acceleration of the mobile vehicle and the high power requirement for climbing. Further, the main power supply circuit and the negative power supply circuit respectively supply energy to the intermediate voltage balance circuit 140 through the first coupled induction mode and the second coupled induction mode, that is, respectively boosts the first voltage V FC to the third voltage. V3, the second voltage V BT is boosted to the fourth voltage V4. The high voltage circuit 160 transmits the received third voltage V3 and the fourth voltage V4 to the high voltage level bus, that is, the high voltage circuit 160 transmits the output voltage V O and the output current I O to the load 170.
據此,本發明實施例所提出之混合式電力轉換系統100,利用雙輸入電源(主電源電路與副電源電路)之間的互補且透過第一供電模式(單輸入電源獨立供電狀態)、第二供電模式(充電狀態)與第 三供電模式(雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態)之工作機制,來達到多功能混合式供電至移動載具以提升其行駛距離及滿足其瞬間大功率之需求。Accordingly, the hybrid power conversion system 100 proposed by the embodiment of the present invention utilizes a complementary input between the dual input power supply (the main power supply circuit and the auxiliary power supply circuit) and transmits the first power supply mode (single input power supply independent power supply state), Two power supply modes (charging status) and The working mechanism of the three-power mode (dual-input power supply combined power supply state) is to achieve the multi-function hybrid power supply to the mobile vehicle to increase its driving distance and meet its instantaneous high power demand.
為了更詳細地說明本發明所述之混合式電力轉換系統100的運作流程,以下將舉多個實施例中至少之一來作更進一步的說明。In order to explain in more detail the operational flow of the hybrid power conversion system 100 of the present invention, at least one of the following embodiments will be further described.
在接下來的多個實施例中,將描述不同於上述圖1實施例之部分,且其餘省略部分與上述圖1實施例之部分相同。此外,為說明便利起見,相似之參考數字或標號指示相似之元件。In the following various embodiments, portions different from the above-described embodiment of Fig. 1 will be described, and the remaining omitted portions are the same as those of the above-described embodiment of Fig. 1. In addition, for the sake of convenience, like reference numerals or numerals indicate similar elements.
〔混合式電力轉換系統的另一實施例〕[Another embodiment of a hybrid power conversion system]
請參照圖2,圖2為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統之電路示意圖。如圖2所示,與上述圖1實施例不同的是,在本實施例中,第一直流電路110包括第一直流電源VFC (亦即第一電壓)、第一輸入濾波電容CFC 、第一低壓開關S1 與第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P ,其中第一耦合電感之符號為Tr1 。第二直流電路120包括第二直流電源VBT (亦即第二電壓)、第二輸入濾波電容CBT 、第二低壓開關S2 與第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P ,其中第二耦合電感之符號為Tr2 。箝制電路130包括第一箝制二極體DC1 、第二箝制二極體DC2 與箝制電容C1 。中壓平衡電路140包括第一組昇壓電路與第二組昇壓電路。第一組昇壓電路包括第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 、第一中壓電容C2 與第一導向二極體D2 。第二組昇壓電路包括第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 、第二中壓電容C3 與第二導向二極體D3 。充電電路150包括充電二極體D1 與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 。高壓電路160包括輸出二極體DO 與輸出電容COPlease refer to FIG. 2. FIG. 2 is a schematic circuit diagram of a hybrid power conversion system according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 2, in the embodiment, the first DC circuit 110 includes a first DC power source V FC (ie, a first voltage) and a first input filter capacitor C FC. The first low-voltage switch S 1 is coupled to the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor, wherein the sign of the first coupled inductor is T r1 . The second DC circuit 120 includes a second DC power source V BT (ie, a second voltage), a second input filter capacitor C BT , a second low voltage switch S 2 and a second coupled inductor primary side winding L 2P , wherein the second coupling The sign of the inductance is T r2 . The clamping circuit 130 includes a first clamping diode D C1 , a second clamping diode D C2 , and a clamping capacitor C 1 . The medium voltage balancing circuit 140 includes a first set of boosting circuits and a second set of boosting circuits. The first group of boosting circuits includes a secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor, a first medium voltage capacitor C 2 and a first guiding diode D 2 . The second group of boosting circuits includes a secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor, a second medium voltage capacitor C 3 and a second guiding diode D 3 . The charging circuit 150 includes a charging diode D 1 is coupled to the first tertiary windings inductance L 1S2. The high voltage circuit 160 includes an output diode D O and an output capacitor C O .
在本實施例中,關於第一直流電路110,第一輸入濾波電容CFC 之其一端連接第一直流電源VFC 之正端,第一輸入濾波電容CFC 之另一端連接接地電壓GND。第一低壓開關S1 之閘極接收第一開關信號T1並根據第一開關信號T1之責任週期決定導通或截止狀 態,第一低壓開關S1 之源極連接接地電壓GND。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之一端連接第一輸入濾波電容CFC 之一端且具有電壓極性點,第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之另一端連接第一低壓開關S1 之汲極與箝制電路130,並且第一耦合電感具有一對二之電感耦合能力,將能量耦合至中壓平衡電路160與充電電路150。第一直流電路110藉由第一低壓開關S1 之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之能量,並且利用第一耦合電感之一次側漏感Lk1 ,控制第一低壓開關S1 之電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低第一低壓開關S1 之切換損失、提高混合式電力轉換系統200之轉換效率。In this embodiment, regarding the first DC circuit 110, one end of the first input filter capacitor C FC is connected to the positive terminal of the first DC power source V FC , and the other end of the first input filter capacitor C FC is connected to the ground voltage GND . A first low voltage switch S 1 of the gate electrode receiving the first signal T1 and the switching on or off state decision according to a first duty cycle of the switching signal T1, the first low voltage source of switch S 1 is connected to ground voltage GND. One end of the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor is connected to one end of the first input filter capacitor C FC and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor is connected to the first low voltage switch S 1 The poles are clamped to the circuit 130, and the first coupled inductor has a pair of inductive coupling capabilities that couple energy to the medium voltage balancing circuit 160 and the charging circuit 150. A first low voltage DC circuit 110 through the first switch S 1 is turned on or the off state, to store or to release the first coupling inductor L 1P of the primary winding of the energy, and coupled with the first inductor of the primary-side leakage inductance L k1, a first low-voltage control switch S 1 of the current increase rate to achieve soft switching, the first reduction of the low pressure switch S 1 switch loss and improve power conversion system of the hybrid conversion efficiency of 200.
關於第二直流電路120,第二輸入濾波電容CBT 之一端連接第二直流電源VBT 之正端,第二輸入濾波電容CBT 之另一端連接接地電壓GND。第二低壓開關S2 之閘極接收第二開關信號T2並根據第二開關信號T2之責任週期決定導通或截止狀態,第二低壓開關S2 之源極連接接地電壓GND。第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 之一端連接第二輸入濾波電容CBT 之一端且具有電壓極性點,第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 之另一端連接第二低壓開關S2 之汲極與箝制電路140。第二直流電路120藉由第二低壓開關S2 之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 之能量,並且利用第二耦合電感之一次側漏感Lk2 ,控制第二低壓開關S2 電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低第二低壓開關S2 之切換損失、提高混合式電路轉換系統200之轉換效率。須注意的是,在本實施例中,第一直流電源VFC 與第二直流電源VBT 為不同電壓等級之輸入。Regarding the second DC circuit 120, one end of the second input filter capacitor C BT is connected to the positive terminal of the second DC power source V BT , and the other end of the second input filter capacitor C BT is connected to the ground voltage GND . The gate of the second low voltage switch S 2 receives the second switching signal T2 and determines the on or off state according to the duty cycle of the second switching signal T2, and the source of the second low voltage switch S 2 is connected to the ground voltage GND. One end of the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor is connected to one end of the second input filter capacitor C BT and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor is connected to the second low voltage switch S 2 The pole and clamp circuit 140. The second DC circuit 120 is in an on or off state of the second low voltage switch S 2 to store or release the energy of the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor, and utilizes the primary side leakage inductance L k2 of the second coupled inductor, The second low voltage switch S 2 current rising speed is controlled to achieve flexible switching, reducing the switching loss of the second low voltage switch S 2 and improving the conversion efficiency of the hybrid circuit conversion system 200. It should be noted that, in this embodiment, the first DC power source V FC and the second DC power source V BT are inputs of different voltage levels.
接著,關於箝制電路130,第一箝制二極體DC1 之陽極連接第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之另一端。第二箝制二極體DC2 之陽極連接第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 之另一端,第二箝制二極體DC2 之陰極連接第一箝制二極體DC1 之陰極。箝制電容C1 之一端連接第一箝制二極體DC1 之陰極與中壓平衡電路140,箝制電容C1 之另一端連接接地電壓GND,用以吸收第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之漏感能量與第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 之漏感能量,藉此以保護第一低壓開關S1 與第二低壓開關S2 。進一步來說,第一箝制二極體DC1 與第二箝制二極體DC2 能夠避免逆向回復電流之產生以損害第一低壓開關S1 與第二低壓開關S2 ,因此低壓開關S1 及S2 不需要太高之耐壓規格即可大幅降低導通損失。另,本揭露內容亦能夠達到自然之零電流切換以降低切換損失進而提高電源轉換效率。Next, with respect to the clamp circuit 130, the anode of the first clamp diode D C1 is connected to the other end of the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor. The anode of the second clamp diode D C2 is connected to the other end of the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor, and the cathode of the second clamp diode D C2 is connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode D C1 . One end of the clamp capacitor C 1 is connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode D C1 and the intermediate voltage balance circuit 140, and the other end of the clamp capacitor C 1 is connected to the ground voltage GND for absorbing the primary winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor. The leakage inductance energy and the leakage inductance energy of the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor thereby protecting the first low voltage switch S 1 and the second low voltage switch S 2 . Further, the first clamping diode D C1 and the second clamping diode D C2 can avoid the generation of the reverse recovery current to damage the first low voltage switch S 1 and the second low voltage switch S 2 , thus the low voltage switch S 1 and S 2 does not require too high a withstand voltage specifications to significantly reduce conduction losses. In addition, the present disclosure can also achieve natural zero current switching to reduce switching losses and thereby improve power conversion efficiency.
關於第一組昇壓電路,其利用耦合電感之方式來達到倍壓並且具有高昇壓比例與高轉換效率之特性。進一步來說,第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之一端連接第一箝制二極體DC1 之陰極且具有電壓極性點。第一中壓電容C2 之一端連接第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之另一端。第一導向二極體D2 之陽極連接第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之一端,第一導向二極體D2 之陰極連接第一中壓電容C2 之另一端。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 與第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之間的匝數比為第一昇壓比值,並且第一昇壓比值與第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之匝數成正比。再者當第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 產生第一感應電壓時,則會產生第一感應電流經由第一導向二極體D2 向第一中壓電容C2 之另一端進行充電,以提高第三電壓V3之電壓值,藉此將第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 與第一中壓電容C2 之能量傳送至高壓電路160,其中第一導向二極體D2 能夠避免逆向回復電流之產生,以達到高轉換效率及高昇壓比例之功效。Regarding the first group of booster circuits, they utilize a coupled inductor to achieve double voltage and have a high boost ratio and high conversion efficiency. Further, one end of the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor is connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode D C1 and has a voltage polarity point. One end of the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 is connected to the other end of the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor. The anode of the first guiding diode D 2 is connected to one end of the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupling inductor, and the cathode of the first guiding diode D 2 is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 . The turns ratio between the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor and the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor is a first boost ratio, and the first boost ratio and the secondary side of the first coupled inductor The number of turns of the winding L 1S1 is proportional. When the second induced winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor generates the first induced voltage, the first induced current is generated to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 via the first guiding diode D 2 . Charging to increase the voltage value of the third voltage V3, thereby transferring the energy of the second side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 to the high voltage circuit 160, wherein the first guiding diode D 2 can avoid the generation of reverse recovery current to achieve high conversion efficiency and high boost ratio.
關於第二組昇壓電路,其亦是利用電感耦合之方式來達到高昇壓比例並且具有高轉換效率之特性。此外,第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 之一端連接第一中壓電容C3 之另一端且具有電壓極性點。第二中壓電容C3 之一端連接第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 之另一端。第二導向二極體D3 之陽極連接第二耦合電感之二次側 繞組L2S 之一端,第二導向二極體D3 之陰極連接第二中壓電容C3 之另一端。第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 與第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 之間的匝數比為第二昇壓比值,並且第二昇壓比值與第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 之匝數成正比。再者,當第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 產生第二感應電壓時,則會產生第二感應電流經由第二導向二極體D3 向第二中壓電容C3 之另一端進行充電,以提高第四電壓V4之電壓值,藉此將第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 與第二中壓電容C3 之能量傳送至高壓電路160,其中第二導向二極體D3 能夠避免逆向回復電流之產生,以達到高轉換效率之及高昇壓比例之功效。Regarding the second group of booster circuits, they are also inductively coupled to achieve high boost ratios and have high conversion efficiency. In addition, one end of the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor C 3 and has a voltage polarity point. One end of the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 is connected to the other end of the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor. The anode of the second guiding diode D 3 is connected to one end of the secondary winding L 2S of the second coupling inductor, and the cathode of the second guiding diode D 3 is connected to the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 . The turns ratio between the primary side winding L 2P of the second coupled inductor and the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor is a second boost ratio, and the second boost ratio and the secondary side of the second coupled inductor The number of turns of the winding L 2S is proportional. Furthermore, when the second induced voltage of the second coupled inductor L 2S generates a second induced voltage, a second induced current is generated to the other end of the second intermediate capacitor C 3 via the second guiding diode D 3 . Charging is performed to increase the voltage value of the fourth voltage V4, thereby transferring the energy of the second side winding L 2S and the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 of the second coupled inductor to the high voltage circuit 160, wherein the second guiding diode Body D 3 can avoid the generation of reverse recovery current to achieve high conversion efficiency and high boost ratio.
關於充電電路150,充電二極體D1 之陰極連接第二直流電源VBT 之正端。第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之一端連接充電二極體D1 之陽極且具有電壓極性點,第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之另一端連接接地電壓GND,其中第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之兩端的電壓為充電電壓VCA。第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之間的匝數比為第三昇壓比值,並且當充電電壓VCA大於第二電壓(亦即第二直流電源VBT )時,則產生充電電流ICA經由充電二極體D1 對第二直流電源VBT 進行充電,以將第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之漏感能量傳送至第二直流電路120,其中設計者能夠透過第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之間的匝數比之設計來決定充電條件。值得一提的是,在本實施例中,第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 、二次側繞組L1S1 與三次側繞組L1S2 為纏繞在同一根鐵芯,因此能夠提高鐵芯之利用率,也就是說,第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 之能量能夠透過耦合電感之方式將能量感應至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 與三次側繞組L1S2On the charging circuit 150, charging the cathode of diode D 1 is connected to the positive terminal of the second DC power source of V BT. One end of the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor is connected to the anode of the charging diode D 1 and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor is connected to the ground voltage GND, wherein the first coupled inductor The voltage across the tertiary side winding L 1S2 is the charging voltage VCA. The turns ratio between the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor is a third boost ratio, and when the charging voltage VCA is greater than the second voltage (ie, the second DC power source) When V BT ), the charging current ICA is generated to charge the second DC power source V BT via the charging diode D 1 to transmit the leakage inductance energy of the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupling inductor to the second DC circuit 120. The designer can determine the charging condition by designing the turns ratio between the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor. It is to be noted that in the present embodiment, the primary side winding L 1P , the secondary side winding L 1S1 , and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor are wound around the same core, thereby improving the utilization of the core. The rate, that is, the energy of the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor can induce energy to the secondary side winding L 1S1 and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor by means of the coupled inductor.
關於高壓電路160,輸出二極體D0 之陽極連接第二中壓電容CO 之另一端,輸出二極體DO 用以提供能量之傳送路徑,能夠避免 逆向回復電流之產生。輸出電容CO 之一端連接輸出二極體DO 之陰極,輸出電容CO 之另一端連接接地電壓GND,用以穩定輸出電壓VO 。輸出二極體DO 將所接收之第三電壓V3 與第四電壓V4 之能量傳送至輸出電容CO 以儲存,並且當輸出電容CO 並聯連接負載170時,則輸出電容CO 會傳送輸出電壓VO 與輸出電流IO 至負載170,藉此以將所儲存之能量傳送至負載170。About high-voltage circuit 160, the anode of the output diode D 0 thereof connected to the other end of the second intermediate-pressure capacitance C O, the diode D O output for providing the energy transfer path, it is possible to avoid a reverse current generating reply. One end of the output capacitor C O is connected to the cathode of the output diode D O , and the other end of the output capacitor C O is connected to the ground voltage GND for stabilizing the output voltage V O . The output diode D O transfers the received energy of the third voltage V 3 and the fourth voltage V 4 to the output capacitor C O for storage, and when the output capacitor C O is connected in parallel to the load 170, the output capacitor C O The output voltage V O and the output current I O are delivered to the load 170, whereby the stored energy is transferred to the load 170.
接下來要教示的,是進一步說明混合式電力轉換系統200的工作原理。同樣地,在進行下述說明前,須先說明的是,以下將就混合式電力轉換系統200之第一供電模式、第二供電模式與第三供電模式分別進行詳細說明,並且以混合式電力轉換系統200應用於一移動載具之供電系統作為一範例說明以更瞭解本揭露內容,但本揭露內容之混合式電力轉換系統200並不以應用於移動載具為限。再者,請參照圖3,圖3為對應圖2之混合式電力轉換系統之等效電路圖。以下之說明,請同時對應圖2與圖3之間的對應關係,本領域具有通常知識者應可理解等效電路之對應關係,在此不再贅述。What is to be taught next is to further explain the working principle of the hybrid power conversion system 200. Similarly, before the following description is made, it should be noted that the first power supply mode, the second power supply mode, and the third power supply mode of the hybrid power conversion system 200 will be separately described below, and the hybrid power supply will be described. The conversion system 200 is applied to a power supply system of a mobile vehicle as an example to better understand the disclosure, but the hybrid power conversion system 200 of the present disclosure is not limited to application to a mobile vehicle. Furthermore, please refer to FIG. 3. FIG. 3 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the hybrid power conversion system corresponding to FIG. For the following description, please refer to the corresponding relationship between FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, and the corresponding relationship between the equivalent circuits should be understood by those skilled in the art, and details are not described herein again.
請同時參照圖2~圖5,圖4為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於單輸入電源獨立供電狀態之波形圖。圖5為對應圖4之工作模式之電路示意圖。首先,定義第一低壓開關S1 之責任週期為d1 ,第二低壓開關S2 之責任週期為d2 ,開關切換週期為Ts 。依照第一低壓開關S1 與第二低壓開關S2 之切換情形可分為三種狀態,並且設定第一直流電源VFC 為第一優先供應者。第一種為混合式電力轉換系統200處於單輸入電源獨立供電狀態,第二種為混合式電力轉換系統200處於充電狀態,第三種為混合式電力轉換系統200處於雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態。以下依序根據此三種狀態配合附圖以進行詳細說明。Referring to FIG. 2 to FIG. 5 simultaneously, FIG. 4 is a waveform diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in a single input power supply independent power supply state according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the operation mode of FIG. 4. First, the duty cycle of the first low voltage switch S 1 is defined as d 1 , the duty cycle of the second low voltage switch S 2 is d 2 , and the switching cycle is T s . According to the switching situation of the first low voltage switch S 1 and the second low voltage switch S 2 , the three DC states can be divided into three states, and the first DC power source V FC is set as the first priority supplier. The first is that the hybrid power conversion system 200 is in a single input power supply independent power supply state, the second is that the hybrid power conversion system 200 is in a charging state, and the third is that the hybrid power conversion system 200 is in a dual input power supply combined power supply state. The following three states will be described in detail with reference to the drawings in order to explain in detail.
須說明的是,耦合電感Tr1 可等效為一次側繞組L1P 、二次側繞組L1S1 、三次側繞阻L1S2 、一次側激磁電感Lmp1 以及一次側漏電感 為Lk1 ,其中二次側繞組L1S1 對一次側繞組L1P 之匝數比為N1 =n12 /n11 ,三次側繞阻L1S2 對一次側繞組L1P 之匝數比為N2 =n13 /n11 ;耦合電感Tr2 可等效為一次側繞組L2P 、二次側繞組L2S 、一次側激磁電感Lmp2 以及一次側漏電感為Lk2 ;其中二次側繞組L2S 對一次側繞組L2P 之匝數比為N3 =n22 /n21 ;而耦合電感Tr1 及Tr2 之耦合係數k1 及k2 亦可定義為式(1)及式(2)It should be noted that the coupled inductor T r1 can be equivalent to the primary side winding L 1P , the secondary side winding L 1S1 , the tertiary side winding L 1S2 , the primary side exciting inductance L mp1 , and the primary side leakage inductance L k1 , of which two The turns ratio of the secondary winding L 1S1 to the primary winding L 1P is N 1 =n 12 /n 11 , and the turns ratio of the tertiary winding L 1S2 to the primary winding L 1P is N 2 =n 13 /n 11 The coupled inductor T r2 can be equivalent to the primary side winding L 2P , the secondary side winding L 2S , the primary side exciting inductance L mp2 , and the primary side leakage inductance L k2 ; wherein the secondary side winding L 2S is to the primary side winding L 2P The turns ratio is N 3 =n 22 /n 21 ; and the coupling coefficients k 1 and k 2 of the coupled inductors T r1 and T r2 can also be defined as equations (1) and (2)
k 1 =L mp 1 /(L k 1 +L mp 1 )式(1) k 1 = L mp 1 /( L k 1 + L mp 1 ) Equation (1)
k 2 =L mp 2 /(L k 2 +L mp 2 )式(2) k 2 = L mp 2 /( L k 2 + L mp 2 ) Equation (2)
第一供電模式:移動載具處於穩定行駛狀態First power supply mode: the mobile vehicle is in stable driving state
在本實施例中,當偵測器180偵測到移動載具處於一第一供電模式(當移動載具處於穩定行駛狀態)時,則偵測器180會將此判斷結果RS傳送至控制器190(請配合參照圖1之偵測器180與控制器190)。接著,控制器190會根據所接收到之第一供電模式之判斷結果RS會分別輸出第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2至對應的第一低壓開關S1 與第二低壓開關S2 以調整其作動。此時,混合式電力轉換系統200處於「單輸入電源獨立供電狀態」,混合式電力轉換系統200根據模式一~模式六且透過第一直流電路110與第二直流電路120兩者之一來輸出單電源能量。在此,為了方便說明本實施例,以第一直流電源VFC 為第一優先供應者,但不以本實施例作為限制,設計者可以根據實際應用需求來作設定。以下就第一供電模式下的五種模式來進行詳細說明。In this embodiment, when the detector 180 detects that the mobile vehicle is in a first power supply mode (when the mobile vehicle is in a stable running state), the detector 180 transmits the determination result RS to the controller. 190 (please refer to the detector 180 and the controller 190 of FIG. 1). Then, the controller 190 outputs the first switch signal T1 and the second switch signal T2 to the corresponding first low-voltage switch S 1 and second low-voltage switch S 2 according to the received determination result RS of the first power supply mode. Adjust its actions. At this time, the hybrid power conversion system 200 is in a "single-input power supply independent power supply state", and the hybrid power conversion system 200 outputs one of the first DC circuit 110 and the second DC circuit 120 according to the mode 1 to mode 6. Single power supply. Here, in order to facilitate the description of the present embodiment, the first DC power source V FC is used as the first priority supplier, but the present embodiment is not limited by the embodiment, and the designer can make settings according to actual application requirements. The following is a detailed description of the five modes in the first power supply mode.
1.模式一[t0~t1]:請對應於圖5(a),第一低壓開關S1 已經導通一段時間,此時第一輸入電壓VFC 對第一耦合電感之一次側激磁電感Lmp1 激磁充電,且產生一感應電壓且依匝數比感應電壓至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1s1 ,並且繞組電壓極 性點端為正。此時,第一導向二極體D2 導通,第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 經由第一導向二極體D2 對第一中壓電容C2 進行充電,以提高其電容電壓VC2 。對應於圖5(a)1. Mode 1 [t0~t1]: Please correspond to FIG. 5(a), the first low-voltage switch S 1 has been turned on for a period of time, at which time the first input voltage V FC is opposite to the first-side magnetizing inductance L mp1 of the first coupled inductor. The magnetic charge is charged, and an induced voltage is generated and the voltage is induced to the secondary side winding L 1s1 of the first coupled inductor according to the turns ratio, and the polarity end point of the winding voltage is positive. At this time, the first guiding diode D 2 is turned on, and the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupling inductor charges the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 via the first guiding diode D 2 to increase the capacitance voltage thereof. V C2 . Corresponding to Figure 5(a)
2.模式二[t1~t2]:請對應於圖5(b),此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 截止,由於漏感能量需要釋放,此時,第一導向二極體D2 持續導通,藉此以釋放漏感能量至第一中壓電容C2 ,同時一次側漏感Lk1 需要續流,第一箝制二極體DC1 自然導通以承接漏感電流iLk1 及第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 電流之差,以等待二次側漏感續流完畢結束此模式。2. Mode 2 [t1~t2]: Please correspond to Figure 5(b). In this mode, the first low-voltage switch S 1 is turned off, and the leakage energy needs to be released. At this time, the first guiding diode D 2 continues. Turning on, thereby releasing leakage inductance energy to the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 , and the primary side leakage inductance L k1 needs to be freewheeling, and the first clamp diode D C1 is naturally turned on to receive the leakage current i Lk1 and the first The difference between the currents of the secondary side windings L 1S1 of the coupled inductor is terminated by waiting for the secondary side leakage inductance to continue.
3.模式三[t2~t3]:請對應於圖5(c),第一低壓開關S1 持續截止,此時二次側漏感已經釋放完畢,第一耦合電感Tr1 之所有繞組變換極性,非極性點為正。一次側激磁電感Lmp1 經由第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 傳送能量至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 ,此時輸出二極體DO 自然導通,將第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第一中壓電容C2 的能量一併傳送到高壓電路160之輸出端,進而傳送輸出電壓VO 至負載170或R。3. Mode 3 [t2~t3]: Please correspond to Figure 5(c), the first low-voltage switch S 1 is continuously cut off. At this time, the secondary side leakage inductance has been released, and all windings of the first coupled inductor T r1 are switched in polarity. The non-polar point is positive. The primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 transmits energy to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor via the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor, and at this time, the output diode D O is naturally turned on, and the first coupled inductor is the second The energy of the secondary winding L 1S1 and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 are collectively transmitted to the output terminal of the high voltage circuit 160, thereby transmitting the output voltage V O to the load 170 or R.
4.模式四[t3~t4]:請對應於圖5(d),第一低壓開關S1 持續截止,第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感能量對箝制電容C1 之電容電壓VC1 釋放能量完畢,此時第一箝制二極體DC1 逆偏。箝制電容C1 、第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第一中壓電容C2 ,一併對高壓電路160輸出端釋放能量。4. Mode 4 [t3 ~ t4]: Please corresponds to FIG. 5 (d), a first low voltage switch S 1 is continuously turned off, the first coupling inductor T r1 of the primary-side leakage inductance energy of the capacitor C of clamp capacitor voltage V C1 1 After the energy is released, the first clamp diode D C1 is reversely biased. The capacitor C 1 , the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor, and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 are coupled to the output of the high voltage circuit 160.
5.模式五[t4~t5]:請對應於圖5(e),第一低壓開關S1 因觸發訊號(第一開關信號T1)而導通,高壓電路160之輸出二極體DO 持續導通,此模式下,由於第一箝制二極體DC1 無逆向回復電流且第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感Lk1 限制一次側電流iL1P 上升率,致使此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 觸發訊號之導通瞬間並無法從任何路徑得到電流,形成自然的零 電流切換(Zero Current Switching,ZCS)現象,以減少切換損失,等待第一耦合電感Tr1 極性變換結束此模式完成一切換週期(Switching Cycle),緊接著工作模式則回到模式一的情形。5. Model 5 [t4 ~ t5]: Please corresponds to FIG. 5 (e), the first switch S 1 is due to low voltage trigger signal (first switching signal T1) is turned on, the output circuit 160 of the high voltage diode conducting duration D O In this mode, since the first clamp diode D C1 has no reverse return current and the primary side leakage inductance L k1 of the first coupled inductor T r1 limits the rise rate of the primary side current i L1P , the first low voltage switch is caused in this mode. When the S 1 trigger signal is turned on, the current cannot be obtained from any path, and a natural Zero Current Switching (ZCS) phenomenon is formed to reduce the switching loss. Wait for the first coupling inductor T r1 to end the polarity change. Switching Cycle, then the mode of operation returns to mode one.
關於電壓增益: 由於耦合電感Tr1 及Tr2 採三明治疊繞方式,線圈耦合效果良好,而且耦合電感之漏感能量對相對鐵粉芯容量小,只要做好電壓箝制的功效,充分吸收漏感能量,對於系統電壓影響並不會很高。為簡化數學方程式,便於理論分析,茲將耦合係數定義為1,由模式一中可以得知,在第一低壓開關S1 之導通期間,第一耦合電感Tr1 一次側激磁電感電壓V/Lmp1 可以表示成如式(3)v Lmp 1 =V FC 式(3)About voltage gain: Since the coupling inductors T r1 and T r2 adopt the sandwich winding method, the coil coupling effect is good, and the leakage inductance energy of the coupled inductor has a small capacity relative to the iron powder core. As long as the voltage clamping effect is achieved, the leakage inductance is fully absorbed. Energy, the impact on the system voltage is not very high. To simplify the mathematical equation, easy to theoretical analysis, the coupling coefficient is hereby defined as one that can be made in a pattern, a first low voltage during the switch S 1 is turned on, a first side coupled inductor T r1 primary magnetizing inductance voltage V / Lmp1 Can be expressed as equation (3) v Lmp 1 = V FC (3)
根據式(3)得知,耦合電感Tr1 一次側激磁電感電壓感應至二次側電壓,因此第一中壓電容C2 之電容電壓VC2 可以表示為如式(4)所示V C 2 =N 1 V FC 式(4)According to the formula (3), the coupled inductor T r1 is induced to the secondary side voltage on the primary side, so that the capacitor voltage V C2 of the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 can be expressed as V C as shown in the equation (4). 2 = N 1 V FC type (4)
接著,根據伏秒平衡(Volt-Second Balance)理論,週期內耦合電感Tr1 一次側激磁電感Lmp1 之平均電壓為零,其關係式可表示為如式(5)所示d 1 V FC T S +(1-d 1 )(V FC -V C 1 )T S =0 式(5)由模式四中得知一次側激磁電感電壓可表示為如式(6)所示v Lmp 1 =V FC -V C 1 =[-d 1 /(1-d 1 )]V FC 式(6)因此,二次側繞組電壓可表示為如式(7)所示v L 1s 1 =N 1 [-d 1 /(1-d 1 )]V FC 式(7)此外,模式四中,高壓電路輸出端方程式可表示為如式(6)所示V O =V C 1 -v L 1s 1 +V C 2 式(8)整理式(2)至式(8),第一直流電源VFC 至高壓電路160輸出端之昇 壓比例GV1 可計算如式(9): Then, according to the Volt-Second Balance theory, the average voltage of the primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 of the coupled inductor T r1 in the period is zero, and the relationship can be expressed as d 1 V FC T as shown in the formula (5). S +(1- d 1 )( V FC - V C 1 ) T S =0 Equation (5) It is known from Mode 4 that the primary side magnetizing inductance voltage can be expressed as v Lmp 1 = V as shown in equation (6). FC - V C 1 =[- d 1 /(1 - d 1 )] V FC (6) Therefore, the secondary winding voltage can be expressed as v L 1 s 1 = N 1 as shown in equation (7) [ - d 1 / (1- d 1 )] V FC of formula (7) Further, in mode 4, the output terminal of the high voltage circuit equation can be expressed as formula (6) V O = V C 1 - v L 1 s 1 + V C 2 (8) finishing (2) to (8), the boost ratio G V1 of the output of the first DC power source V FC to the high voltage circuit 160 can be calculated as Equation (9):
第二供電模式:充電狀態Second power supply mode: state of charge
請同時參照圖2~圖3與圖6~圖7,圖6為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於充電狀態之波形圖。圖7為對應圖6之工作模式之電路示意圖。當混合式電力轉換系統處於第一供電模式或第三供電模式時,作為主電源電路之第一直流電路110都會透過第一耦合感應方式傳遞能量至充電電路150,亦即提高充電電壓VCA之電壓值。因此,只要充電電路150上的充電電壓VCA大於第二直流電路120之第二電壓VBT ,則混合式電力轉換系統200會啟動第二供電模式,透過第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之漏感能量來對第二直流電源VBT 進行充電。以下就混合式電力轉換系統200之充電模式下的六種模式來進行詳細說明。Please refer to FIG. 2 to FIG. 3 and FIG. 6 to FIG. 7. FIG. 6 is a waveform diagram of the hybrid power conversion system in a charging state according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 7 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the mode of operation of Figure 6. When the hybrid power conversion system is in the first power supply mode or the third power supply mode, the first DC circuit 110, which is the main power supply circuit, transmits energy to the charging circuit 150 through the first coupling induction mode, that is, increases the voltage of the charging voltage VCA. value. Therefore, as long as the charging voltage VCA on the charging circuit 150 is greater than the second voltage V BT of the second DC circuit 120, the hybrid power conversion system 200 activates the second power supply mode, and transmits the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor. The leakage energy is used to charge the second DC power source V BT . The following describes the six modes in the charging mode of the hybrid power conversion system 200 in detail.
1.模式一[t0~t1]:請對應圖7(a),此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 已經導通一段時間,此時第一直流電源VFC 對第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側激磁電感Lmp1 激磁充電,產生一感應電壓且依匝數比感應電壓至第一耦合電感之二次側繞阻L1S1 ,第一耦合電感Tr1 之所有繞組電壓極性點端為正。此時,第一導向二極體D2 導通,第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 經由第一導向二極體D2 對第一中壓電容C2 充電,並經由第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 對第二直流電源VBT 進行充電。1. Mode 1 [t0~t1]: Please correspond to Figure 7(a). In this mode, the first low-voltage switch S 1 has been turned on for a period of time. At this time, the first DC power supply V FC is connected to the first coupled inductor T r1 . The primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 is magnetically charged, generates an induced voltage and induces a voltage to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor according to the turns ratio, and all the winding voltage polar point ends of the first coupled inductor T r1 are positive. At this time, the first guiding diode D 2 is turned on, and the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor charges the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 via the first guiding diode D 2 and passes through the first coupled inductor. The tertiary side winding L 1S2 charges the second DC power source V BT .
2.模式二[t1~t2]:請對應圖7(b),第一低壓開關S1 截止,由於漏感能量需要釋放,此時,第一導向二極體D2 持續導通,釋放漏感能量至第一中壓電容C2 ,同時一次側漏感Lk1 需要 續流,第一箝制二極體DC1 自然導通以承接漏感電流iLK1 及第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 之電流之差,第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 持續對第二直流電源VBT 進行充電,等待二次側漏感續流完畢結束此模式。2. Mode 2 [t1~t2]: Please correspond to Figure 7(b), the first low-voltage switch S 1 is turned off, because the leakage inductance energy needs to be released, at this time, the first guiding diode D 2 is continuously turned on, releasing the leakage inductance. The energy is to the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 , and the primary side leakage inductance L k1 needs to be freewheeling, and the first clamp diode D C1 is naturally turned on to receive the leakage current i LK1 and the secondary side winding L of the first coupled inductor. The difference between the currents of 1S1 , the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor continues to charge the second DC power source V BT , and waits for the secondary side leakage inductance to continue to complete the mode.
3.模式三[t2~t3]:請對應圖7(c),第一低壓開關S1 持續截止,此時二次側漏感已經釋放完畢,第一耦合電感Tr1 之所有繞組變換極性,非極性點為正,一次側激磁電感Lmp1 經由第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 傳送能量至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 。此時,輸出二極體DO 自然導通,將第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第一中壓電容C2 之能量一併傳送到高壓電路160輸出端(亦即輸出電壓VO ),第一耦合電感Tr1 之三次側繞組電流iL1S2 續流完畢結束此模式。3. Mode 3 [t2~t3]: Please correspond to Figure 7(c), the first low-voltage switch S 1 is continuously cut off. At this time, the secondary side leakage inductance has been released, and all the windings of the first coupled inductor T r1 change polarity. The non-polar point is positive, and the primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 transmits energy to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor via the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor. At this time, the output diode D O is naturally turned on, and the energy of the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 are collectively transmitted to the output end of the high voltage circuit 160 (ie, the output voltage V). O ), the third side winding current i L1S2 of the first coupling inductor T r1 is continuously flow-free to end this mode.
4.模式四[t3~t4]:請對應圖7(d),此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 持續截止,第一耦合電感Tr1 之三次側繞組電流iL1S2 續流完畢逕而停止對第二直流電源VBT 充電,其餘電流方向不變。接著,等待第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感電流iLK1 續流完畢結束此模式。4. Mode 4 [t3~t4]: Please correspond to Figure 7(d). In this mode, the first low-voltage switch S 1 is continuously turned off, and the third-side winding current i L1S2 of the first coupled inductor T r1 continues to flow and stops. The second DC power source V BT is charged, and the remaining current directions are unchanged. Then, waiting for the primary side leakage inductance current i LK1 of the first coupling inductor T r1 to continue to flow, the mode is ended.
5.模式五[t4~t5]:請對應圖7(e),第一低壓開關S1 持續截止,第一耦合電感Tr1 之漏感能量對箝制電容C1 之電容電壓VC1 釋放能量完畢,此時第一箝制二極體DC1 逆偏。箝制電容C1 、第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第一中壓電容C2 一併對高壓電路160輸出端釋放能量。5. Mode 5 [t4~t5]: Please correspond to Figure 7(e), the first low-voltage switch S 1 is continuously turned off, and the leakage inductance energy of the first coupled inductor T r1 releases the energy to the capacitor voltage V C1 of the clamp capacitor C 1 At this time, the first clamp diode D C1 is reverse biased. The clamp capacitor C 1 , the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor, and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 are both released to the output of the high voltage circuit 160.
6.模式六[t5~t6]:請對應圖7(f),第一低壓開關S1 觸發訊號(第一開關信號T1)導通,高壓電路160之輸出二極體DO 持續導通。在此模式下,由於第一箝制二極體DC1 並無逆向回復電流且第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感Lk1 限制一次側電流iL1P 上升率,致使此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 之觸發訊號導通瞬間無法從任何路徑得到電流,形成自然的零電流切換 (Zero Current Switching,ZCS)現象,以減少切換損失,等待第一耦合電感Tr1極性變換結束此模式完成一切換週期(Switching Cycle),緊接著工作模式則回到模式一的情形。6. Mode 6 [t5~t6]: Please correspond to FIG. 7(f), the first low voltage switch S 1 trigger signal (first switching signal T1) is turned on, and the output diode D O of the high voltage circuit 160 is continuously turned on. In this mode, since the first clamp diode D C1 has no reverse recovery current and the primary side leakage inductance L k1 of the first coupling inductor T r1 limits the primary side current i L1P rise rate, resulting in the first low voltage in this mode. switch S triggering of a signal is turned on the moment can not be obtained from any path of a current, to form a natural zero current switching (zero current switching, ZCS) phenomenon, in order to reduce the switching loss, wait for the first coupled inductor Tr1 polarity inversion end of this pattern completed a switching cycle (Switching Cycle), then the mode of operation returns to mode one.
第三供電模式:當移動載具處於加速或爬坡行駛狀態Third power supply mode: when the mobile vehicle is in an accelerated or hill climbing state
請同時參照圖2~圖3與圖8~圖9,圖8為根據本發明實施例之混合式電力轉換系統處於雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態之波形圖。圖9為對應圖8之工作模式之電路示意圖。當偵測器180偵測到移動載具處於加速或爬坡行駛狀態時,則偵測器180會將此判斷結果RS傳送至控制器190。接著,控制器190會根據所接收到之判斷結果RS會分別輸出第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2至對應的第一低壓開關S1 與第二低壓開關S2 以調整其作動,以使得混合式電力轉換系統200進入第三供電模式。此時,混合式電力轉換系統200處於「雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態」,混合式電力轉換系統200透過第一直流電路110(亦即主電源電路)與第二直流電路120(亦即副電源電路)來同時輸出雙電源能量至負載170,以提供移動載具瞬間加速及爬坡時大功率之需求。以下就混合式電力轉換系統200之第三供電模式下的八種模式來進行詳細說明。Please refer to FIG. 2 to FIG. 3 and FIG. 8 to FIG. 9. FIG. 8 is a waveform diagram of a hybrid power conversion system in a dual-input power supply state according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 9 is a circuit diagram corresponding to the mode of operation of Figure 8. When the detector 180 detects that the mobile vehicle is in an accelerated or hill-climbing state, the detector 180 transmits the determination result RS to the controller 190. Then, the controller 190 outputs the first switch signal T1 and the second switch signal T2 to the corresponding first low-voltage switch S 1 and the second low-voltage switch S 2 respectively according to the received determination result RS to adjust the actuation thereof. The hybrid power conversion system 200 is brought into a third power supply mode. At this time, the hybrid power conversion system 200 is in a "dual input power supply state", and the hybrid power conversion system 200 transmits the first DC circuit 110 (ie, the main power circuit) and the second DC circuit 120 (ie, the secondary power circuit). ) to simultaneously output dual power supply energy to the load 170 to provide the instantaneous acceleration of the mobile vehicle and the high power requirement for climbing. The eight modes in the third power supply mode of the hybrid power conversion system 200 will be described in detail below.
1.模式一[t0~t1]:請對應圖9(a),低壓開關S1 、S2 已經導通一段時間,此時第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側激磁電感Lmp1 持續激磁儲存能量,並經由第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 感應至第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 ,藉此對第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側激磁電感Lmp2 持續激磁,產生一感應電壓且依匝數比分別感應電壓至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S ,其中所有繞組電壓極性點端為正。此時,導向二極體D2 及D3 導通,第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 與第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 經由導向二極體D2 及D3 對中壓電容C2 及C3 充電。1. Mode 1 [t0 ~ t1]: Please corresponding to FIG. 9 (a), low pressure switch S 1, S 2 has been turned on for some time, this time the first coupling inductor T r1 of the primary magnetizing inductance L mp1 continuous excitation energy store, And sensing the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor via the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor, thereby continuously exciting the primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 of the second coupled inductor T r2 to generate an induced voltage and The turns ratio induces a voltage to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor and the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor, wherein all winding voltage polarity point ends are positive. At this time, the guiding diodes D 2 and D 3 are turned on, and the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor and the secondary winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor pass the centering voltage of the guiding diodes D 2 and D 3 . Capacitors C 2 and C 3 are charged.
2.模式二[t1~t2]:請對應圖9(b),此模式下,第二低壓開關S2 截止,第一耦合電感Tr1 之三次側繞組L1S2 之電流持續對第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側激磁電感Lmp2 激磁。由於漏感能量需要釋放,此時,第二導向二極體D3 持續導通,釋放漏感能量至第二中壓電容C3 ,同時第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側漏感Lk2 需要續流,故第二箝制二極體DC2 自然導通以承接漏感電流iLK2 及第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 之電流之差,等待二次側漏感續流完畢結束此模式。2. Model II [t1 ~ t2]: Please corresponding to FIG. 9 (b), in this mode, the second low pressure switch S 2 is turned off, the first three of the coupled inductor winding L T r1 1S2 current duration of a second coupled inductor The primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 of T r2 is excited. Since the leakage inductance energy needs to be released, at this time, the second guiding diode D 3 is continuously turned on, releasing the leakage inductance energy to the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 , and the primary side leakage inductance L k2 of the second coupling inductor T r2 is required. After the freewheeling, the second clamp diode D C2 is naturally turned on to receive the difference between the leakage inductance current i LK2 and the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor, waiting for the secondary side leakage inductance to continue to complete the mode. .
3.模式三[t2~t3]:請對應圖9(c),第一低壓開關S1 持續導通,而第二低壓開關S2 持續截止,第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之電流持續對第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側激磁電感Lmp2 激磁。此時,第二耦合電感Tr2 之二次側漏感已經釋放完畢,第二耦合電感Tr2 之所有繞組變換極性,非極性點為正,一次側激磁電感Lmp2 經由第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P 傳送能量至第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 。此時,輸出二極體DO 自然導通,將第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 及第二中壓電容C3 之能量一併傳送到高壓電路輸出端。3. Mode 3 [t2~t3]: Please correspond to Figure 9(c), the first low voltage switch S 1 is continuously turned on, and the second low voltage switch S 2 is continuously turned off, and the current of the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor continues. The primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 of the second coupled inductor T r2 is excited. At this time, the secondary side leakage inductance of the second coupled inductor T r2 has been released, all the windings of the second coupled inductor T r2 are switched in polarity, the non-polar point is positive, and the primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 is once through the second coupled inductor. The side winding L 2P transfers energy to the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor. At this time, the output diode D O is naturally turned on, and the energy of the secondary side winding L 2S and the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 of the second coupled inductor are collectively transmitted to the output end of the high voltage circuit.
4.模式四[t3~t4]:請對應圖9(d),第一低壓開關S1 持續導通,而第二低壓開關S2 持續截止,第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側漏感能量對箝制電容C1 之電容電壓VC1 釋放能量完畢,而第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 之電流對第二直流電源VBT 釋放能量。此時,第一箝制二極體DC1 逆偏。箝制電容C1 、第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 及第二中壓電容C3 一併對高壓電路輸出端釋放能量。4. Mode 4 [t3~t4]: Please correspond to Figure 9(d), the first low voltage switch S 1 is continuously turned on, and the second low voltage switch S 2 is continuously turned off, and the first side leakage inductance energy of the second coupled inductor T r2 The capacitor voltage V C1 of the clamp capacitor C 1 releases energy, and the current of the third side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor releases energy to the second DC power source V BT . At this time, the first clamp diode D C1 is reverse biased. The clamp capacitor C 1 , the secondary winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor, and the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 release energy to the output of the high voltage circuit.
5.模式五[t4~t5]:請對應圖9(e),此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 截止,由於漏感能量需要釋放,此時,第一導向二極體D2 持續導通,釋放漏感能量至第一中壓電容C2 ,同時第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 持續對第二直流電源VBT 釋放能 量。由於一次側漏感Lk1 需要續流,所以第一箝制二極體DC1 自然導通以承接漏感電流iLK1 及第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 電流之差,等待二次側漏感續流完畢結束此模式。5. Mode 5 [t4~t5]: Please correspond to Figure 9(e). In this mode, the first low-voltage switch S 1 is turned off, and the leakage energy needs to be released. At this time, the first guiding diode D 2 is continuously turned on. The leakage inductance energy is released to the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 , and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor continues to release energy to the second DC power source V BT . Since the primary side leakage inductance L k1 needs to be freewheeling, the first clamp diode D C1 is naturally turned on to receive the difference between the leakage inductance current i LK1 and the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor, waiting for the secondary side leakage. The continuous flow is completed and this mode is ended.
6.模式六[t5~t6]:請對應圖9(f),低壓開關S1 及S2 持續截止,此時第一耦合電感Tr1 之二次側漏感已經釋放完畢,其中第一耦合電感Tr1 之所有繞組變換極性,非極性點為正。一次側激磁電感Lmp1 經由第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 傳送能量至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 ,而輸出二極體DO 持續導通。此時,將第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 與第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 及第一中壓電容C2 及第二中壓電容C3 之能量一併傳送到高壓電路輸出端,等待第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感與第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L1S2 電流釋放完畢結束此模式。6. Mode 6 [t5~t6]: Please correspond to Figure 9(f), the low-voltage switches S 1 and S 2 are continuously cut off, at this time, the secondary side leakage inductance of the first coupled inductor Tr1 has been released, wherein the first coupling All windings of the inductor T r1 change polarity, and the non-polar point is positive. The primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 transmits energy to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor via the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor, and the output diode D O is continuously turned on. At this time, the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor and the secondary side winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor and the energy of the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 and the second medium voltage capacitor C 3 are transmitted together. To the output of the high voltage circuit, the primary side leakage inductance of the first coupled inductor T r1 and the tertiary side winding L 1S2 of the first coupled inductor are released to complete the mode.
7.模式七[t6~t7]:請對應圖9(g),此模式下,低壓開關S1 及S2 持續截止,輸出二極體DO 持續導通,第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側激磁電感Lmp1 經由第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L1P 傳送能量至第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 。箝制電容C1 、第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L1S1 及第一中壓電容C2 之能量持續對負載供電,並經由第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L2S 傳送能量至第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L2P ,藉此以對第二耦合電感Tr2 之一次側激磁電感Lmp2 激磁以及透過第二低壓開關S2 的寄生二極體對第二直流電源VBT 釋放能量。7. Mode 7 [t6~t7]: Please correspond to Figure 9(g). In this mode, the low-voltage switches S 1 and S 2 are continuously turned off, and the output diode D O is continuously turned on. The primary side of the first coupled inductor T r1 The magnetizing inductance L mp1 transmits energy to the secondary side winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor via the primary side winding L 1P of the first coupled inductor. The energy of the clamp capacitor C 1 , the secondary winding L 1S1 of the first coupled inductor, and the first medium voltage capacitor C 2 continuously supplies power to the load, and transmits energy to the second through the secondary winding L 2S of the second coupled inductor. The primary side winding L 2P of the inductor is coupled, thereby energizing the second DC power source V BT by exciting the primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 of the second coupling inductor T r2 and the parasitic diode of the second low voltage switch S 2 .
8.模式八[t7~t8]:請對應圖9(h),低壓開關S1 及S2 觸發訊號(分別對應於第一開關信號T1與第二開關信號T2)導通,並且高壓電路160之輸出二極體DO 持續導通。此模式下,由於箝制二極體DC1 及DC2 無逆向回復電流,且第一耦合電感Tr1 之一次側漏感限制一次側電流上升率,致使此模式下,第一低壓開關S1 及第二低壓開關S2 之觸發訊號導通瞬間無法 從任何路徑得到電流,形成自然的零電流切換(Zero Current Switching,ZCS)現象以減少切換損失。等待耦合電感極性變換結束此模式完成一切換週期(Switching Cycle),緊接著工作模式則回到模式一的情形。8. Mode 8 [t7~t8]: Please correspond to FIG. 9(h), the low-voltage switches S 1 and S 2 trigger signals (corresponding to the first switch signal T1 and the second switch signal T2 respectively) are turned on, and the high-voltage circuit 160 The output diode D O is continuously turned on. In this mode, since the clamp diodes D C1 and D C2 have no reverse return current, and the primary side leakage inductance of the first coupled inductor T r1 limits the primary side current rise rate, the first low voltage switch S 1 and When the trigger signal of the second low voltage switch S 2 is turned on, the current cannot be obtained from any path, and a natural Zero Current Switching (ZCS) phenomenon is formed to reduce the switching loss. Waiting for the coupled inductor polarity change to end This mode completes a switching cycle (Switching Cycle), and then the operating mode returns to mode one.
關於電壓增益:為簡化數學方程式,便於理論分析,茲將耦合係數k定義為1,由模式一中可以得知,低壓關關S1 、S2 導通期間,耦合電感Tr1 、Tr2 一次側激磁電感電壓VLmp1 、VLmp2 分別為如式(10)及式(11)所示v Lmp 1 =V FC 式(10)About voltage gain: In order to simplify the mathematical equation and facilitate theoretical analysis, the coupling coefficient k is defined as 1. It can be known from mode 1 that the low-voltage shutdown S 1 and S 2 are on, and the coupling inductors T r1 and T r2 are on the primary side. The magnetizing inductance voltages V Lmp1 and V Lmp2 are as shown in equations (10) and (11), respectively. v Lmp 1 = V FC (10)
v Lmp 2 =V BT 式(11) v Lmp 2 = V BT type (11)
根據式(10)及式(11)得知,耦合電感Tr1 、Tr2 一次側激磁電感電壓感應至二次側電壓,因此中壓電容C2與C3之電容電壓VC2 、VC3 可以表示為如式(12)及式(13)所示V C 2 =N 1 V FC 式(12)According to equations (10) and (11), the coupling inductances T r1 and T r2 are induced to the secondary side voltage on the primary side, so the capacitance voltages V C2 and V C3 of the medium voltage capacitors C2 and C3 can be expressed. V C 2 = N 1 V FC as shown in equations (12) and (13) (12)
V C 3 =N 3 V BT 式(13) V C 3 = N 3 V BT type (13)
於模式七中,耦合電感Tr1 一次側激磁電感Lmp1 能量傳送至二次側繞組L1S1 ,經由耦合電感Tr2 二次側繞組L2S 傳送至一次側繞組L2P ,致使低壓開關S2 的寄生二極體導通,耦合電感Tr2 一次側繞組L2P 電壓為VBT ,因此二次側L2S 電壓可以表示為如式(14)所示v L 2s =N 3 V BT 式(14)In mode 7, the coupled inductor T r1 primary side magnetizing inductance L mp1 energy is transmitted to the secondary side winding L 1S1 , and is transmitted to the primary side winding L 2P via the coupled inductor Tr2 secondary side winding L 2S , resulting in the low voltage switch S 2 The parasitic diode is turned on, and the coupled inductor T r2 primary winding L 2P voltage is V BT , so the secondary side L 2S voltage can be expressed as shown in equation (14) v L 2 s = N 3 V BT (14)
定義模式七區間時間為dX TS =t7- t6 及模式五與模式六區間時間為dL TS =t6- t4 ,根據伏秒平衡(Volt-Second Balance)理論,週期內耦合電感一次側激磁電感Lmp1 、Lmp2 之平均電壓為零,其關係式可表示為如式(15)及式(16)所示d 1 V FC T S +(1-d 1 )(V FC -V C 1 )T S =0 式(15)Define the mode seven interval time as d X T S =t 7- t 6 and mode five and mode six interval time is d L T S =t 6- t 4 , according to the Volt-Second Balance theory, within the period The average voltage of the primary side magnetizing inductances L mp1 and L mp2 of the coupled inductor is zero, and the relationship can be expressed as d 1 V FC T S +(1- d 1 ) ( V ) as shown in equations (15) and (16). FC - V C 1 ) T S =0 Equation (15)
(d 2 +d x )V BT T S +(1-(d 2 +d x ))(V BT -V C 1 )T S =0 式(16)( d 2 + d x ) V BT T S +(1-( d 2 + d x ))( V BT - V C 1 ) T S =0 (16)
由於耦合電感Tr2 一次側激磁電感Lmp2 從模式七開始激磁,因此Lmp2 激磁時間為d2 +dX ,其中dX =1-d1 -dL ,dL 為耦合電感Tr1 一次 側漏感續流時間,可表示為如式(17)所示d L =(t 6 -t 4 )/T s =2[(1-d 1 )/(N 1 +1)] 式(17)Since the coupled inductor T r2 primary side magnetizing inductance L mp2 is excited from mode seven, the L mp2 exciting time is d 2 +d X , where d X =1−d 1 -d L , d L is the coupling inductor T r1 primary side The leakage inductance freewheeling time can be expressed as d L = ( t 6 - t 4 ) / T s = 2 [(1 - d 1 ) / ( N 1 +1)] (17)
根據式(15)及式(16),耦合電感Tr1 、Tr2 一次側激磁電感電壓可表示為如式(17)及式(18)所示v Lmp 1 =[-d 1 /(1-d 1 )]V FC =V FC -V C 1 式(18)According to equations (15) and (16), the primary side magnetizing inductance voltages of the coupled inductors T r1 and T r2 can be expressed as v Lmp 1 =[- d 1 /(1) as shown in equations (17) and (18). d 1 )] V FC = V FC - V C 1 (18)
v Lmp 2 =[-(d 2 +d x )/(1-(d 2 +d x ))]V BT =V BT -V C 1 式(19) v Lmp 2 =[-( d 2 + d x )/(1-( d 2 + d x ))] V BT = V BT - V C 1 (19)
因此耦合電感Tr1 、Tr2 二次側繞組電壓VL1S1 、VL2S 可表示為如式(20)及式(21)所示v L 1s 1 =N 1 [-d 1 /(1-d 1 )]V FC 式(20)Therefore, the secondary winding voltages V L1S1 and V L2S of the coupled inductors T r1 and T r2 can be expressed as v L 1 s 1 = N 1 [- d 1 /(1- d ) as shown in the equations (20) and (21). 1 )] V FC type (20)
v L 2s =N 3 [-(d 2 +d x )/(1-(d 2 +d x ))]V BT 式(21)觀察模式七,高壓電路輸出端之輸出電壓VO 可表示為如式(22)所示V O =V C 1 -v L 1s 1 +V C 2 -v L 2s +V C 3 式(22)根據式(13)、式(14)及式(22),高壓電路輸出端之輸出電壓方程式可以簡化為如式(23)所示V O =V C 1 -v L 1s 1 +V C 2 式(23)整理式(12)、式(18)、式(20)及式(23),第一直流電源VFC 至高壓電路輸出端之昇壓比例GV2 可計算如式(24)所示 接著,請再觀察模式四,高壓電路160之輸出端之電壓方程式可以表示為如式(25)所示V O =V C 1 -v L 2s +V C 3 式(25)整理式(13)、式(19)、式(21)及式(25),第二直流電源VBT 至高壓輸出端VO 之昇壓比例GV3 表示為如式(26)所示 v L 2 s = N 3 [-( d 2 + d x )/(1-( d 2 + d x ))] V BT type (21) observation mode seven, the output voltage V O of the output of the high voltage circuit can be expressed As shown in the formula (22), V O = V C 1 - v L 1 s 1 + V C 2 - v L 2 s + V C 3 (22) according to the formula (13), the formula (14) and the formula (14) 22), the output voltage equation at the output of the high voltage circuit can be simplified as shown in equation (23) V O = V C 1 - v L 1 s 1 + V C 2 (23) finishing (12), (18 ), Equation (20) and Equation (23), the boost ratio G V2 of the first DC power source V FC to the output of the high voltage circuit can be calculated as shown in Equation (24) Next, please observe mode four again. The voltage equation at the output of the high voltage circuit 160 can be expressed as shown in equation (25). V O = V C 1 - v L 2 s + V C 3 (25) finishing (13 , Equation (19), Equation (21), and Equation (25), the boost ratio G V3 of the second DC power source V BT to the high voltage output terminal V O is expressed as shown in Equation (26)
接下來,請參照圖10~圖12,圖10為根據本發明實施例之單輸入電源獨立供電狀態之轉換效率圖。圖11為根據本發明實施例之充電狀態之轉換效率圖。圖12為根據本發明實施例之雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態之轉換效率圖。從圖10可知第一直流電源VFC 之獨立供電狀態之電源轉換效率,其測試條件為燃料電池電壓(第一電壓VFC )12V且高壓電路160之輸出電壓VO 為200V,昇壓比例超 過16倍,在此操作狀態下之最高轉換效率可高於96.69%,並且平均轉換效率高於93%。從圖11可知於第一直流電源VFC 之放電狀態與第二直流電源VBT 之充電狀態之電源轉換效率,其測試條件為燃料電池電壓(第一電壓VFC )12V以及蓄電池電壓(第二電壓VBT )24V與高壓電路160之輸出電壓VO 為200V,在此操作狀態下之最高轉換效率可高於96.3%,且平均轉換效率高於93%。此外,從圖12可知於第一直流電源VFC 與第二直流電源VBT 之放電狀態之電源轉換效率,其測試條件為燃料電池電壓(第一電壓VFC )12V以及蓄電池電壓(第二電壓VBT )24V與高壓電路160之輸出電壓VO 為200V,在此操作狀態下之最高轉換效率可高於96.2%,且平均轉換效率高於92%。簡言之,由圖10至圖12可得知該混合式電力轉換系統100、200具有高昇壓比例及高電源轉換效率之特性。Next, please refer to FIG. 10 to FIG. 12. FIG. 10 is a diagram showing conversion efficiency of an independent power supply state of a single input power supply according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 11 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of a state of charge according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 12 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of a dual input power supply combined power supply state in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The power conversion efficiency of the independent power supply state of the first DC power source V FC can be seen from FIG. 10, and the test condition is that the fuel cell voltage (first voltage V FC ) is 12 V and the output voltage V O of the high voltage circuit 160 is 200 V, and the boost ratio is More than 16 times, the highest conversion efficiency in this operating state can be higher than 96.69%, and the average conversion efficiency is higher than 93%. FIG. 11 shows the power conversion efficiency of the discharge state of the first DC power source V FC and the state of charge of the second DC power source V BT , and the test conditions are the fuel cell voltage (first voltage V FC ) 12V and the battery voltage (the first The output voltage V O of the two voltage V BT ) 24V and the high voltage circuit 160 is 200V, and the highest conversion efficiency in this operating state can be higher than 96.3%, and the average conversion efficiency is higher than 93%. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of the discharge state of the first DC power source V FC and the second DC power source V BT can be seen from FIG. 12, and the test conditions are the fuel cell voltage (first voltage V FC ) 12V and the battery voltage (second The voltage V BT ) 24V and the output voltage V O of the high voltage circuit 160 are 200V, and the highest conversion efficiency in this operating state can be higher than 96.2%, and the average conversion efficiency is higher than 92%. In short, it can be seen from FIGS. 10 to 12 that the hybrid power conversion system 100, 200 has characteristics of high step-up ratio and high power conversion efficiency.
〔實施例的可能功效〕[Possible effects of the examples]
綜上所述,本發明實施例所提供的混合式電力轉換系統,利用雙輸入電源之間的互補且透過第一供電模式(單輸入電源獨立供電狀態)、第二供電模式(充電狀態)與第三供電模式(雙輸入電源聯合供電狀態)之工作機制,能夠同時控制第一直流電源與第二直流電源以達到穩定輸出電壓及減小輸出電壓漣波之功效。In summary, the hybrid power conversion system provided by the embodiment of the present invention utilizes complementary between two input power sources and transmits through the first power supply mode (single input power supply independent power supply state) and the second power supply mode (charge state). The working mechanism of the third power supply mode (the dual-input power supply combined power supply state) can simultaneously control the first DC power supply and the second DC power supply to achieve the effect of stabilizing the output voltage and reducing the output voltage ripple.
在本揭露內容多個實施例中至少一實施例,主電源電路內之第一直流電源能夠對副電源電路內的第二直流電源充電以維持電量,藉此以避免混合式電力轉換系統需要多組轉換器來提供不同電壓等級輸入供電之問題,達到控制簡單、降低系統成本與提高功率密度之效用。再者,混合式電力轉換系統內的所有開關均操作於柔性切換或零電流切換,有效降低第一低壓開關與第二低壓開關之切換損失。In at least one embodiment of the present disclosure, the first DC power source in the main power circuit can charge the second DC power source in the sub power circuit to maintain the power, thereby avoiding the need for the hybrid power conversion system. Multiple sets of converters provide the problem of input power supply at different voltage levels for simple control, reduced system cost and increased power density. Moreover, all switches in the hybrid power conversion system operate on flexible switching or zero current switching, effectively reducing switching losses of the first low voltage switch and the second low voltage switch.
在本揭露內容多個實施例中至少一實施例,用於移動載具供電用之混合式電力轉換系統,具有高昇壓比、低切換損失、不同電壓等級輸入與低導通損失之特點,藉此能夠提高移動載具對加 速與爬坡時對大功率之需求,並提升整體轉換效率與移動載具之行駛距離或續航能力。以上所述僅為本發明之實施例,其並非用以侷限本發明之專利範圍。In at least one of the embodiments of the present disclosure, a hybrid power conversion system for powering a mobile vehicle has a high boost ratio, low switching loss, different voltage level inputs, and low conduction loss characteristics. Able to improve mobile vehicle pairing Speed and the need for high power when climbing, and improve the overall conversion efficiency and the distance traveled or the endurance of the mobile vehicle. The above description is only an embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
200‧‧‧混合式電力轉換系統200‧‧‧Hybrid power conversion system
110‧‧‧第一直流電路110‧‧‧First DC circuit
120‧‧‧第二直流電路120‧‧‧second DC circuit
130‧‧‧箝制電路130‧‧‧Clamping circuit
140‧‧‧中壓平衡電路140‧‧‧Medium voltage balancing circuit
150‧‧‧充電電路150‧‧‧Charging circuit
160‧‧‧高壓電路160‧‧‧High voltage circuit
170‧‧‧負載170‧‧‧load
CO ‧‧‧輸出電容C O ‧‧‧ output capacitor
C1 ‧‧‧箝制電容C 1 ‧‧‧Clamping capacitor
C2 ‧‧‧第一中壓電容C 2 ‧‧‧First Medium Voltage Capacitor
C3 ‧‧‧第二中壓電容C 3 ‧‧‧Second medium voltage capacitor
CBT ‧‧‧第二輸入濾波電容C BT ‧‧‧second input filter capacitor
CFC ‧‧‧第一輸入濾波電容C FC ‧‧‧first input filter capacitor
DO ‧‧‧輸出二極體D O ‧‧‧ output diode
D1 ‧‧‧充電二極體D 1 ‧‧‧Charging diode
D2 ‧‧‧第一導向二極體D 2 ‧‧‧First Guided Diode
D3 ‧‧‧第二導向二極體D 3 ‧‧‧Second Guided Diode
DC1 ‧‧‧第一箝制二極體D C1 ‧‧‧First clamped diode
DC2 ‧‧‧第二箝制二極體D C2 ‧‧‧Second clamped diode
GND‧‧‧接地電壓GND‧‧‧ Grounding voltage
ICA‧‧‧充電電流ICA‧‧‧Charging current
L1P ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之一次側繞組L 1P ‧‧‧ primary winding of the first coupled inductor
L1S1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之二次側繞組L 1S1 ‧‧‧Second-side winding of the first coupled inductor
L1S2 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感之三次側繞組L 1S2 ‧‧‧3rd side winding of the first coupled inductor
L2P ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之一次側繞組L 2P ‧‧‧ primary winding of the second coupled inductor
L2S ‧‧‧第二耦合電感之二次側繞組L 2S ‧‧‧second winding of the second coupled inductor
R‧‧‧負載R‧‧‧ load
S1 ‧‧‧第一低壓開關S 1 ‧‧‧First low voltage switch
S2 ‧‧‧第二低壓開關S 2 ‧‧‧second low voltage switch
T1‧‧‧第一開關信號T1‧‧‧ first switch signal
T2‧‧‧第二開關信號T2‧‧‧second switch signal
Tr1 ‧‧‧第一耦合電感T r1 ‧‧‧first coupled inductor
Tr2 ‧‧‧第二耦合電感T r2 ‧‧‧Second coupled inductor
VBT ‧‧‧第二電壓/第二直流電源V BT ‧‧‧second voltage / second DC power supply
VCA ‧‧‧充電電壓V CA ‧‧‧Charging voltage
VFC ‧‧‧第一電壓/第一直流電源V FC ‧‧‧First voltage / first DC power supply

Claims (10)

  1. 一種混合式電力轉換系統,包括:一第一直流電路,具有一第一電壓,接收一第一開關信號並據此提供一第一電源電能;一第二直流電路,電性連接該第一直流電路,該第二直流電路具有一第二電壓且接收一第二開關信號並據此提供一第二電源電能;一箝制電路,電性連接該第一及該第二直流電路,透過吸收漏感能量以保護該第一及該第二直流電路;一中壓平衡電路,具有一第一昇壓比值與一第二昇壓比值,該中壓平衡電路透過與該第一直流電路之間的一第一耦合感應方式以產生一第三電壓或透過與該第二直流電路之間的一第二耦合感應方式以產生一第四電壓,其中該第三電壓等於該第一電壓乘以該第一昇壓比值,並且該第四電壓等於該第二電壓乘以該第二昇壓比值,其中該中壓平衡電路之輸入端電性連接於該箝制電路之輸出端;一充電電路,電性連接該第二直流電路,具有一第三昇壓比值,該充電電路透過與該第一直流電路之間的該第一耦合感應方式產生一充電電壓,其中該充電電壓為該第一電壓乘以該第三昇壓比值;以及一高壓電路,電性連接該中壓平衡電路,該高壓電路接收該第三電壓與該第四電壓,以傳送一輸出電壓與一輸出電流來驅動一負載,其中當該負載處於一第一供電模式時,該混合式電力轉換系統透過該第一直流電路與該第二直流電路兩者之一來輸出單電源能量;當該負載處於一第二供電模式時,該混合式電力轉換系統透過該第一直流電路來輸出 單電源能量,並且透過該充電電路對該第二直流電路進行充電,其中該第二供電模式為當該充電電壓大於該第二電壓;以及當該負載處於一第三供電模式時,該混合式電力轉換系統透過該第一及該第二直流電路來同時輸出雙電源能量,其中該輸出電壓為一高壓準位匯流排。 A hybrid power conversion system includes: a first DC circuit having a first voltage, receiving a first switching signal and providing a first power source according to the power supply; and a second DC circuit electrically connecting the first DC a second DC circuit having a second voltage and receiving a second switching signal and providing a second power supply; a clamping circuit electrically connecting the first and second DC circuits to absorb leakage inductance Energy to protect the first and the second DC circuit; a medium voltage balance circuit having a first boost ratio and a second boost ratio, the medium voltage balance circuit transmitting a signal between the first DC circuit and the first DC circuit The first coupled sensing mode generates a third voltage or a second coupling induction mode with the second DC circuit to generate a fourth voltage, wherein the third voltage is equal to the first voltage multiplied by the first a voltage boosting ratio, and the fourth voltage is equal to the second voltage multiplied by the second boosting ratio value, wherein an input end of the medium voltage balancing circuit is electrically connected to an output end of the clamping circuit; a charging circuit, electricity Connecting the second DC circuit to have a third boost ratio, the charging circuit generates a charging voltage through the first coupling induction manner with the first DC circuit, wherein the charging voltage is the first voltage multiplied by The third boosting ratio value; and a high voltage circuit electrically connected to the medium voltage balancing circuit, the high voltage circuit receiving the third voltage and the fourth voltage to transmit an output voltage and an output current to drive a load, wherein When the load is in a first power supply mode, the hybrid power conversion system outputs a single power source energy through one of the first DC circuit and the second DC circuit; when the load is in a second power supply mode, The hybrid power conversion system outputs through the first DC circuit a single power source, and charging the second DC circuit through the charging circuit, wherein the second power supply mode is when the charging voltage is greater than the second voltage; and when the load is in a third power supply mode, the hybrid The power conversion system simultaneously outputs dual power sources through the first and second DC circuits, wherein the output voltage is a high voltage level bus.
  2. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,更包括:一偵測器,用以偵測該負載之功率需求狀態;以及一控制器,電性連接該偵測器,該控制器根據該偵測器之判斷結果,分別輸出該第一開關信號與該第二開關信號至對應的該第一直流電路與該第二直流電路,藉此決定該混合式電力轉換系統進入該第一供電模式或該第三供電模式,其中該第一供電模式定義為該負載處於中功率需求之狀態,並且該第三供電模式定義為該負載處於高功率需求之狀態,其中該高壓準位匯流排可以作為交流器負載中之反流器之前端或該移動載具中的伺服馬達所需直流電壓。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 1, further comprising: a detector for detecting a power demand status of the load; and a controller electrically connected to the detector, the control According to the judgment result of the detector, the first switch signal and the second switch signal are respectively outputted to the corresponding first DC circuit and the second DC circuit, thereby determining that the hybrid power conversion system enters the first a power supply mode or a third power supply mode, wherein the first power supply mode is defined as a state in which the load is in a medium power demand, and the third power supply mode is defined as a state in which the load is in a high power demand, wherein the high voltage level convergence The row can be used as the DC voltage required by the servo motor in the front end of the inverter or in the moving carrier.
  3. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該第一耦合感應方式與該第二耦合感應方式為電感耦合感應方式,並且該第一直流電路為主電源電路,該第二直流電路為副電源電路。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 1, wherein the first coupled sensing mode and the second coupled sensing mode are inductively coupled sensing mode, and the first DC circuit is a main power circuit, and the second The DC circuit is a sub power supply circuit.
  4. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該第一直流電路包括:一第一直流電源,用以提供該第一電壓之能量;一第一輸入濾波電容,其一端連接該第一直流電源之正端,其另一端連接一接地電壓;一第一低壓開關,其閘極接收該第一開關信號並據此決定導通 或截止狀態,其源極連接該接地電壓;以及一第一耦合電感之一次側繞組,其一端連接該第一輸入濾波電容之一端且具有電壓極性點,其另一端連接該第一低壓開關之汲極與該箝制電路,其中該第一直流電路藉由該第一低壓開關之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放該第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之能量,並且該第一直流電路利用該第一耦合電感之一次側漏感,控制該第一低壓開關之電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低該第一低壓開關之切換損失、並提高該混合式電力轉換系統之轉換效率。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 1, wherein the first DC circuit comprises: a first DC power source for providing energy of the first voltage; and a first input filter capacitor, one end thereof Connecting the positive end of the first DC power source, the other end of which is connected to a ground voltage; a first low voltage switch, the gate receiving the first switch signal and determining the conduction according to the first low voltage switch Or an off state, the source is connected to the ground voltage; and a primary side winding of the first coupled inductor, one end of which is connected to one end of the first input filter capacitor and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end of which is connected to the first low voltage switch a drain circuit and the clamping circuit, wherein the first DC circuit is in an on or off state of the first low voltage switch to store or release energy of a primary side winding of the first coupled inductor, and the first DC circuit utilizes the The primary side leakage inductance of the first coupled inductor controls the current rising speed of the first low voltage switch to achieve flexible switching, reduces switching loss of the first low voltage switch, and improves conversion efficiency of the hybrid power conversion system.
  5. 如申請專利範圍第4項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該第二直流電路包括:一第二直流電源,用以提供該第二電壓之能量;一第二輸入濾波電容,其一端連接該第二直流電源之正端,其另一端連接該接地電壓;一第二低壓開關,其閘極接收該第二開關信號並據此決定導通或截止狀態,其源極連接該接地電壓;以及一第二耦合電感之一次側繞組,其一端連接該第二輸入濾波電容之一端且具有電壓極性點,另一端連接該第二低壓開關之汲極與該箝制電路,其中該第二直流電路藉由該第二低壓開關之導通或截止狀態,以儲存或釋放該第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之能量,並且該第一直流電源透過第一耦合感應方式對該第二直流電源提供能量,並且該第二直流電路利用該第二耦合電感之一次側漏感,控制該第二低壓開關之電流上升速度以達成柔性切換,降低該第二低壓開關之切換損失、提高該混 合式電力轉換系統之轉換效率。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 4, wherein the second DC circuit comprises: a second DC power source for providing energy of the second voltage; and a second input filter capacitor connected at one end a positive terminal of the second DC power source, the other end of which is connected to the ground voltage; a second low voltage switch, the gate receives the second switch signal and determines an on or off state according to the source, and the source is connected to the ground voltage; a primary winding of the second coupled inductor, one end of which is connected to one end of the second input filter capacitor and has a voltage polarity point, and the other end is connected to the drain of the second low voltage switch and the clamp circuit, wherein the second DC circuit borrows The second low voltage switch is turned on or off to store or release energy of the primary side winding of the second coupled inductor, and the first direct current power source supplies energy to the second direct current power source through the first coupled induction manner, And the second DC circuit controls the current rising speed of the second low voltage switch to achieve flexible switching by using the primary side leakage inductance of the second coupled inductor. Low switching loss of the second low voltage switch, improving the mixing Conversion efficiency of the combined power conversion system.
  6. 如申請專利範圍第5項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該箝制電路包括:一第一箝制二極體,其陽極連接該第一耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端;一第二箝制二極體,其陽極連接該第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之另一端,其陰極連接該第一箝制二極體之陰極,其中該第一及該第二箝制二極體用以避免逆向回復電流之產生,進而使得該第一及該第二低壓開關達到柔性切換;以及一箝制電容,其一端連接該第一箝制二極體之陰極與該中壓平衡電路,其另一端連接該接地電壓,用以吸收該第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與該第二耦合電感之一次側繞組之漏感能量,藉此以保護該第一低壓開關與該第二低壓開關,並且將漏感能量釋放至該高壓電路之輸出端以提高昇壓比例。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 5, wherein the clamping circuit comprises: a first clamping diode having an anode connected to the other end of the primary winding of the first coupled inductor; a second clamping a diode having an anode connected to the other end of the primary winding of the second coupled inductor, a cathode connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode, wherein the first and second clamp diodes are used to avoid reverse recovery Generating, thereby causing the first and second low-voltage switches to achieve flexible switching; and a clamp capacitor having one end connected to the cathode of the first clamp diode and the medium voltage balance circuit, and the other end connected to the ground voltage Absorbing leakage inductance energy of the primary side winding of the first coupled inductor and the primary side winding of the second coupled inductor, thereby protecting the first low voltage switch and the second low voltage switch, and releasing leakage energy To the output of the high voltage circuit to increase the boost ratio.
  7. 如申請專利範圍第5項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該中壓平衡電路包括:一第一耦合電感之二次側繞組,其一端連接該第一箝制二極體之陰極且具有電壓極性點;一第一中壓電容,其一端連接該第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之另一端;一第一導向二極體,其陽極連接該第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端,其陰極連接該第一中壓電容之另一端,用以避免逆向回復電流之產生,其中該第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與該第一耦合電感之二次側繞組之間的匝數比為該第一昇壓比值,並且透過該第一 耦合感應方式使得第一耦合電感之二次側繞組產生一第一感應電壓時,接著產生一第一感應電流經由該第一導向二極體向該第一中壓電容之另一端進行充電,以提高該第三電壓之電壓值,藉此將該第一耦合電感之二次側繞組與該第一中壓電容之能量傳送至該高壓電路以提高昇壓比例。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 5, wherein the medium voltage balancing circuit comprises: a secondary winding of a first coupled inductor, one end of which is connected to the cathode of the first clamped diode and has a voltage a first medium voltage capacitor having one end connected to the other end of the secondary winding of the first coupled inductor; a first guiding diode having an anode connected to the secondary winding of the first coupled inductor One end of which is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor to avoid the generation of a reverse return current, wherein the first side winding of the first coupled inductor and the secondary side winding of the first coupled inductor are connected to each other. The ratio is the first boost ratio and is transmitted through the first The coupling induction mode is such that when the secondary winding of the first coupled inductor generates a first induced voltage, a first induced current is generated to charge the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor via the first guiding diode. And increasing the voltage value of the third voltage, thereby transmitting the energy of the second side winding of the first coupled inductor and the first medium voltage capacitor to the high voltage circuit to increase the boost ratio.
  8. 如申請專利範圍第5項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該中壓平衡電路更包括:一第二耦合電感之二次側繞組,其一端連接該第一中壓電容之另一端且具有電壓極性點;一第二中壓電容,其一端連接該第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之另一端;一第二導向二極體,其陽極連接該第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之一端,其陰極連接該第二中壓電容之另一端,用以避免逆向回復電流之產生,其中該第二耦合電感之一次側繞組與該第二耦合電感之二次側繞組之間的匝數比為該第二昇壓比值,並且透過該第二耦合感應方式使得該第二耦合電感之二次側繞組產生一第二感應電壓時,接著產生一第二感應電流經由該第二導向二極體向該第二中壓電容之另一端進行充電,以提高該第四電壓之電壓值,藉此將該第二耦合電感之二次側繞組與該第二中壓電容之能量傳送至該高壓電路以提高昇壓比例。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 5, wherein the intermediate voltage balancing circuit further comprises: a secondary winding of a second coupled inductor, one end of which is connected to the other end of the first medium voltage capacitor and Having a voltage polarity point; a second medium voltage capacitor having one end connected to the other end of the second side winding of the second coupled inductor; and a second guiding diode having an anode connected to the second side of the second coupled inductor One end of the winding, the cathode of which is connected to the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor to avoid the generation of a reverse recovery current, wherein the primary side winding of the second coupled inductor and the secondary winding of the second coupled inductor The turns ratio is the second boost ratio, and when the second coupled inductor generates a second induced voltage through the second coupled sensing manner, a second induced current is generated via the second The guiding diode charges the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor to increase the voltage value of the fourth voltage, thereby the second side winding of the second coupled inductor and the second medium voltage capacitor Energy transfer to this high Press the circuit to increase the boost ratio.
  9. 如申請專利範圍第5項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該充電電路包括:一充電二極體,其陰極連接該第二直流電源之正端;以及一第一耦合電感之三次側繞組,其一端連接該充電二極體之陽 極且具有電壓極性點,其另一端連接該接地電壓,其中透過該第一耦合感應方式使得該第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之兩端的電壓為該充電電壓,其中該第一耦合電感之一次側繞組與該第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之間的匝數比為該第三昇壓比值,並且當該充電電壓大於該第二電壓時,則產生一充電電流經由該充電二極體對該第二直流電源進行充電,以將該第一耦合電感之三次側繞組之能量傳送至該第二直流電路。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 5, wherein the charging circuit comprises: a charging diode having a cathode connected to a positive terminal of the second DC power source; and a tertiary side winding of the first coupling inductor , one end of which is connected to the anode of the charging diode The pole has a voltage polarity point, and the other end is connected to the ground voltage, wherein the voltage of the two ends of the third side winding of the first coupling inductor is the charging voltage, wherein the first coupling inductor is once a turns ratio between the side winding and the third side winding of the first coupled inductor is the third boost ratio, and when the charging voltage is greater than the second voltage, generating a charging current via the charging diode pair The second DC power source is charged to transfer energy of the third side winding of the first coupled inductor to the second DC circuit.
  10. 如申請專利範圍第8項所述之混合式電力轉換系統,其中該高壓電路包括:一輸出二極體,其陽極連接該第二中壓電容之另一端,該輸出二極體用以提供能量之傳送路徑;以及一輸出電容,其一端連接該輸出二極體之陰極,其另一端連接該接地電壓,用以穩定該輸出電壓,其中該輸出二極體將所接收之該第三電壓與該第四電壓之能量傳送至該輸出電容以儲存,並且當該輸出電容並聯連接該負載時,則該輸出電容會傳送該輸出電壓與該輸出電流至該負載,藉此以將所儲存之能量傳送至該負載。 The hybrid power conversion system of claim 8, wherein the high voltage circuit comprises: an output diode having an anode connected to the other end of the second medium voltage capacitor, the output diode being used to provide An energy transmission path; and an output capacitor having one end connected to the cathode of the output diode and the other end connected to the ground voltage for stabilizing the output voltage, wherein the output diode receives the third voltage The energy of the fourth voltage is transferred to the output capacitor for storage, and when the output capacitor is connected in parallel to the load, the output capacitor transmits the output voltage and the output current to the load, thereby storing the Energy is transferred to the load.
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