TWI426940B - Optimized ball bat - Google Patents

Optimized ball bat Download PDF

Info

Publication number
TWI426940B
TWI426940B TW094125595A TW94125595A TWI426940B TW I426940 B TWI426940 B TW I426940B TW 094125595 A TW094125595 A TW 094125595A TW 94125595 A TW94125595 A TW 94125595A TW I426940 B TWI426940 B TW I426940B
Authority
TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
region
bat
zone
hitting
ball striking
Prior art date
Application number
TW094125595A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
TW200609022A (en
Inventor
William B Giannetti
Dewey Chauvin
Hsing-Yen Chuang
Enemecio Hernandez
Original Assignee
Easton Sports
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10/903,493 priority Critical patent/US7115054B2/en
Priority to US11/034,993 priority patent/US7163475B2/en
Priority to US11/078,782 priority patent/US7442134B2/en
Priority to US11/152,036 priority patent/US20060025253A1/en
Priority to US11/188,146 priority patent/US7442135B2/en
Application filed by Easton Sports filed Critical Easton Sports
Publication of TW200609022A publication Critical patent/TW200609022A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of TWI426940B publication Critical patent/TWI426940B/en

Links

Description

Optimized bat
The present invention provides a bat that exhibits improved performance, flexing and/or hand characteristics due to material selection and tailoring. The bat may be a single layer spheroidal bat or a multi-wall composite bat and may include metal or other suitable material as desired.
Baseball and softball bat manufacturers are continually trying to develop bats that exhibit enhanced durability and improved performance characteristics, flexing and feel. Hollow bats having a single wall construction and (more recently) multi-layer wall construction have been developed.
A single layer squash bat typically includes a single tubular spring in the barrel section. The multi-layer wall hitting zone typically includes two or more tubular springs or similar structures in the ball striking portion, which may have the same or different material compositions. The tubular springs of the multi-layered spheroidal bats are typically: either in contact with each other such that they form a frictional engagement; or by welding or bonding adhesives to each other; or separately from each other to form a frictionless joint. If the tubular springs are bonded using a structural adhesive or other structural bonding material, the hitting zone is essentially a single wall construction.
Hollow bats typically exhibit a phenomenon known as the "trampoline effect," which essentially refers to the rate of rebound of the ball from the ball striking zone due to the dynamic coupling between the bat and the ball. It is often desirable to construct a bat with a higher "spring bed effect" to provide the bat with a higher rebound speed when in contact with a throwing ball.
Multi-layer spheroidal bats have been developed in an attempt to increase the amount of deflection in acceptable hitting areas, which is beyond the possibilities of typical single-wall and solid wood designs. These multi-wall constructions generally provide increased ball strut deflection without increasing the stress beyond the material limits of the ball striking material. Accordingly, a multi-layer wall hitting zone typically returns energy to the ball more efficiently. In general, multi-layer spheroidal bats achieve higher performance by reducing the stiffness of the ball striking zone by separating the shear interface between the layers of the ball striking zone. The lower hitting zone stiffness reduces the extremely ineffective ball deformation and increases the hitting zone deformation. The deformation of the hitting zone is more effective in transmitting the impact energy back to the ball, thus resulting in improved performance.
An example of a multi-layered wall bat 100 is illustrated in FIG. The ball striking area 102 of the bat 100 includes an inner wall 104 that is comprised of an interfacial shear control zone ("ISCZ") 108 or a layer such as an elastic layer, a frictional bond, a bond inhibiting layer, or another suitable The control zone or layer is sheared apart from an outer wall 106. Each of the inner wall 104 and the outer wall 106 typically includes one or more plies 110 of one or more fiber reinforced composite materials. Additionally or alternatively, one or both of the inner wall 104 and the outer wall 106 may comprise a metallic material such as aluminum.
One aspect of distinguishing a multi-layer spheroidal bat from a single-layer spheroidal bat is that there is no crossing of the ISCZ in the multi-walled ball striking zone (ie, passing through a shearing interface between the layers of the wall) Shear energy transfer of the region(s) between the walls of the ball striking zone separated. Due to the strain energy balance, this shear energy of shear deformation in a single wall hitting zone is converted into bending energy in a multi-wall hitting zone. Moreover, since the bending deformation is more effective in energy transfer than the shear deformation, the strain energy loss exhibited by the walls of a multi-layered wall bat is generally lower than that exhibited by a single wall design. Therefore, multi-wall hitting areas are generally preferred over single-wall hitting areas for producing effective rod-ball impact dynamics or more efficient dynamic coupling "spring bed effects."
For purposes of illustration, Figure 2 shows a graphical comparison of the relative performance characteristics of a typical wood bat hitting zone, a typical single squash bat hitting zone, and a typical double squash batting zone. As shown in Figure 2, the double-walled bats generally perform better along the length of the hitting zone than single-walled bats and wood bats. Although double-walled bats have generally produced improved results along the length of the hitting zone, these results are still reduced when the impact occurs at a "sweet spot" away from the hitting zone.
The sweet spot is the location of the impact in the hitting zone: the energy is transmitted from the bat to the ball the most and the transfer to the player's hand is minimal. The sweet spot is typically positioned at the intersection of the impact center (COP) of the bat and the first three axial basic modes of vibration of the bat. This position is typically about 4 to 8 inches from the free end of the ball striking zone (only by way of example, shown in Figure 2 as 6 from the free end of the ball striking zone) when the bat vibrates in its substantially bending mode , this location will not move. Therefore, when a ball hits a sweet spot, the bat vibration loss is minimal, and the player who swings the bat feels only a small amount of vibration or no vibration.
When a ball hits a non-primary vibration point or a position near the COP, the bat changes into its fundamental mode and harmonic mode shape. The magnitude of this deformation is a direct function between the mode excited and the distance between the vibration point and the COP to the impact location. If the acceleration of the bat into its modal shape is very high and at a particular frequency, the bat will vibrate and create a shock wave.
The shock wave travels at a higher speed and depending on its energy, it may actually sting the player's hand. The reason for the stinging is usually the displacement of the bat grip due to the rigid body rotation caused by the impact of the non-COP area, and/or the vibration of the mold due to the impact of the non-main vibration point of the bat. Such impacts are generally referred to as "out-of-center strikes" because the "sweet spot" of a bat hitting zone is typically positioned approximately at the center of its length, where the COP and the first primary vibration point are very close to each other. The sting caused by the out-of-center strike can distract the player and make them painful, so it is not what I like. In order to minimize stinging and improve the "feel" of the bat, the shock wave must be absorbed or weakened before the shock wave caused by the outer center strike reaches the bat grip.
In addition, due to the energy loss caused by the vibration and moment of inertia effects, the area of the hitting zone between the sweet spot and the free end of the hitting zone, and in particular the sweet spot and the tapered or transitional part of the bat ( The area of the hitting area between the farther and farther areas does not reveal the best performance characteristics that appear at the sweet spot. In fact, as shown in Fig. 2, in a typical bat, the performance of the hitting zone is significantly reduced as the impact position leaves the sweet spot. Therefore, the player needs to touch a thrown ball very precisely (which is often difficult to do) to achieve the best results and avoid stinging bat vibration.
Another important factor in the design of the bat is the position of the "kick point" of the bat. The turning point is the point at which the curvature of the bat is greatest due to the inertia of the bat during rotation. A low-return point bat (that is, a bat that bends just above the hand) can deliver higher energy but tends to lag, and thus causes poor overall bat performance. Conversely, a high-return point bat (meaning that the bat is closer to the hitting area) tends to lack sufficient effective recoil energy because the diameter of a typical bat is relatively large at this location, and such balls The stick is therefore extremely hard in this area.
Therefore, there is a need for a bat that exhibits improved performance, flexibility and feel, especially when the ball hits the bat outside the sweet spot. In addition, there is a need for an improved single layer spheroidal bat.
The present invention provides a bat that exhibits improved performance, flexing and/or hand characteristics due to material selection and tailoring. The bat may be a single layer spheroidal bat or a multi-wall composite bat and may include metal or other suitable material as desired.
In one aspect, since the interface shear control zone (ISCZ) in the bat area is placed at a critical position, the bat performance and/or location in the area away from the sweet spot of the hitting zone is made and/or The feel is improved. The ISCZ may additionally or alternatively be placed in a key position in the bat grip and/or the tapered portion of the bat to improve the compliance and overall performance of the portions.
In another aspect or alternative, a bat comprises a plurality of layers of one or more composite materials. One or more integrated shock absorbing (ISA) regions are provided that have axial stiffness that is significantly lower than the axial stiffness of one or more adjacent regions of the bat to attenuate shock waves caused by an "out of center" strike. The shock waves are absorbed or weakened as they enter the (their) ISA region. The ISA region can be incorporated into the transition region of the bat, the grip and/or the ball striking area to provide vibration damping, shock absorption, stiffness control, enhanced flexing, and/or improved hand feel.
In an additional or alternative aspect, a bat exhibits improved performance in these areas due to discrete layups in areas away from the sweet spot location of the bat ball hitting zone. In general, one or more layers or layers in the area of the bat hitting zone away from the sweet spot can be tailored to increase the radial compliance of the bat hitting area in the area (ie, reduce Radial stiffness) such that the improved hitting zone structure allows the zones to perform more similarly to the sweet spot of the hitting zone. Additionally or alternatively, one or more of the thinner portions of the bat grip and/or the tapered portion of the bat may be tailored to increase (or decrease) radial compliance in those regions.
In an additional aspect or alternative aspect, in a composite bat, one or more damping elements are primarily positioned at or near one or more vibration anti-nodes of the bat. To provide vibration damping and improved bat "feel". The damping elements may be made of a viscoelastic material and/or an elastic material and/or other damping material and may be positioned in the ball striking region, the grip and/or the tapered or transition region of the bat.
In an additional or alternative aspect, a concentrated deflection zone is included in the transition portion (and/or the ball striking area and/or the grip) of the bat. The concentrated deflection zone is comprised of a radially outer zone comprising a damping material having an axial modulus of elasticity that is lower than the axial modulus of elasticity of the surrounding structural material in the bat; and a path To the inner structural region, it has an outer diameter that is smaller than the outer diameter of the longitudinally adjacent structural region of the bat.
Other features and advantages of the invention will appear in the following. The above features of the invention may be used alone or together or in various combinations of one or more of them. The invention also resides in a sub-combination of the above features.
Various embodiments of the invention are now described. The following description provides specific details for a thorough understanding and description of the embodiments. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without many of these details. In addition, some well-known structures or functions may not be shown or described in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of various embodiments.
Even when such terms are used in conjunction with the detailed description of certain specific embodiments of the invention, it is so intended that the terms used in the descriptions presented below can be understood in the broadest possible manner. Some terms may be emphasized below; however, any terms that are intended to be interpreted in any limiting manner are to be disclosed and specifically defined as in the Detailed Description section.
As shown in FIG. 3, a baseball or softball bat 10 (hereinafter collectively referred to as "bat" or "stick") includes a grip 12, a ball striking area 14 and a gripping arm 12 to the hitting area. The transition zone or tapered portion 16 of 14. The free end of the grip 12 includes a knob 18 or the like. The ball striking area 14 is preferably closed by a suitable cover, plug or other end closure 20. The interior of the wand 10 is preferably hollow, which facilitates the weight of the wand 10 to be relatively light so that a relatively large bat speed can be produced when the player swings the wand 10.
The bat 10 preferably has a total length of from 20 to 40 angstroms, more preferably from 26 to 34 angstroms. The total hitting area diameter is preferably from 2.0 to 3.0 Å, more preferably from 2.25 to 2.75 Å. A typical bat has a diameter of 2.25, 2.625, or 2.75 inches. A bat having such a combination of the total length and the diameter of the hitting zone and any other suitable size is contemplated herein. A particular preferred combination of rod sizes is typically specified by the user of the stick 10 and can vary widely between different users.
The bat ball striking area 14 can be a single wall structure or a multi-wall structure. The wall of the ball striking zone may be separated by one or more interfacial shear control zones (ISCZ), as detailed in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 10/903,493. Any ISCZ used preferably has a radial thickness of from about 0.001 to 0.010 Torr, more preferably from 0.004 to 0.006 Torr. Any other suitable size ISCZ can alternatively be used.
An ISCZ can include an adhesion inhibiting layer, a frictional joint, a sliding joint, an elastic joint, an interface between two different materials (eg, aluminum and a composite material), or used to separate the shot. Any other suitable element or member that is "multiple wall". If an adhesion inhibiting layer is used, it is preferably made of the following materials, such as Teflon (polyvinyl fluoride), FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene polymer), PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene) or PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) fluoropolymer materials and / or such as PMP Further suitable materials for (polymethylpentene), nylon (polyamine) or cellophane.
In one embodiment, one or more ISCZs may be integrated or embedded with the ball striking material layer such that the ball striking zone 14 acts as a single/multilayer wall construction. In this case, it is preferred that the ball striking zone layers at at least one end of the ball striking zone are blended together to form the cell/multilayer wall construction. The entire bat 10 can also be formed as a "single". A single rod design generally means that the ball striking area 14, the tapered portion 16 and the grip 12 of the rod 10 do not have any gaps, inserts, seals or may slightly thicken the wall of the hitting area. Bonding structure. In such a design, the individual laminate layers are preferably integrated into a hitting zone structure such that the layers act in concert under load conditions. To achieve this monomer design, the layers of the rod 10 are preferably co-hardened and therefore do not consist of a series of connected tubes (inserts or shields) each having a separate wall thickness at the ends of the tubes.
Blending the walls of the ball striking zones surrounding one or more ISCZs into a single unitary construction (as if the ends of the leaf springs are joined together) provides a stable, durable component, especially when When an impact occurs at the extreme of the hitting area 14. Bringing together multiple laminate layers ensures that the system acts as a combined structure, and that none of the layers can function independently of the other layers. The local stress can be reduced by redistributing the stresses to the extremes of the ball striking zone, thereby increasing the durability of the bat. In an alternative multi-wall embodiment, the bat and/or the ball striking layers are not blended together at either end.
Preferably, the one or more hitting zone walls are each comprised of one or more composite plies 25. The composite materials comprising the plies are preferably fiber reinforced and may comprise glass, graphite, boron, carbon, aromatic polyamines (eg, Kevlar) ), ceramic, metal fibers, and/or any other suitable structural fiber material, preferably in an epoxy form or another suitable form. Each composite ply preferably has a thickness of from about 0.002 to 0.060 Å, more preferably from 0.003 to 0.008 Å. Any other suitable ply thickness may alternatively be used.
In an embodiment, the bat ball striking zone 14 can comprise a mixed metal-composite structure. For example, the ball striking zone may include one or more ply walls made of composite material and one or more ply walls made of a metallic material. Alternatively, the composite and metallic materials can be dispersed within a given wall of the hitting zone. As detailed below, when the hitting zone includes a metal portion such as an aluminum portion and a composite portion, the region of the composite portion can be tailored to optimize the hitting region. In another embodiment, a nanotube such as a high strength carbon nanotube composite structure may alternatively or additionally be used in the hitting zone configuration.
Increasing the number of slabs in the hitting zone of a bat increases the acceptable deflection in the bat's hitting zone, and can also convert shear energy into bending by placing one or more ISCZs in critical positions. can. Therefore, the pilling effect of the bat is improved. However, in the existing multi-layer squash bats, the optimization result cannot be achieved throughout the length of the hitting zone because the hitting zone performance naturally deteriorates at the point where the impact farther from the sweet spot occurs.
For the purposes of this description, as shown in Figures 3-7, 16 and 17, the bat ball striking area 14 is divided into three conceptual zones or zones. The first region 21 (or "Zone 1") extends approximately from the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10 to a position adjacent to the "sweet spot" (as described above) of the bat ball striking region 14. The second region 22 (or "zone 2") extends from the free end of the bat ball striking region 14 to a position near the sweet spot. A third zone 24 (or "zone 3") extends between the first zone 21 and the second zone 22 and includes a sweet spot of the ball striking zone 14.
The actual size and location of these zones may vary, as will the total number of zones. In addition, the individual zones can have different lengths and can occupy different zones. For example, zone 1 can extend into the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10, an infinite number of zones can be defined along the length of the ball striking zone (and beyond), zone 3 can be narrower than zone 2, and the like. Accordingly, the particular zones 1-3 shown in these figures are for convenience only.
To improve the performance of the hitting zone in Zones 1 and/or 2, an independent "multi-wall" approach can be utilized by placing the ISCZ at a critical position in one or both of the zones. produce. In one of the ball striking embodiment embodiments shown in FIG. 4, a first ISCZ 30 is positioned in zone 3 of the bat ball striking zone 14. The first ISCZ 30 is preferably positioned on or near the neutral axis of the bat ball hitting zone 14, where the shear stress is greatest. In this way, an optimum amount of shear stress can be converted into a bending stress. The first ISCZ 30 can alternatively be positioned at any other radial location in zone 3 of the bat ball striking zone 14. If the hitting zone 14 is made of a homogeneous isotropic layer, the neutral axis is positioned approximately at the radial midpoint of the wall of the hitting zone. If more than one composite material is used in the ball striking zone 14, and/or if the material is not evenly distributed, the neutral axis can be located at a different radial location that is readily determinable.
For ease of illustration, it is contemplated that the (the) composite hitting zone materials used in the embodiments illustrated in Figures 4-7 are homogeneous, isotropic layers such that the neutral axis of the hitting zone 14 Approximately positioned at the radial midpoint of the wall of the hitting zone. However, in practice, the ball striking zone 14 can be constructed using any suitable combination of composite materials and/or metal materials such that the neutral axis can be positioned at other locations in the ball striking zone 14. In addition, once an ISCZ is added to the hitting zone 14, the ISCZ divides the hitting zone 14 into two hitting zones "layers", each of which has its own neutral axis, as in the US special application. As detailed in 10/712,251.
Returning to the embodiment shown in Figure 4, zone 1 comprises two ISCZs 32, 34 and zone 2 comprises two ISCZs 36, 38. Each of the ISCZs 32, 34, 36, 38 can be positioned approximately one-third, two-thirds of the thickness of the radial hitting zone or can be positioned in another manner. By positioning the two ISCZs in each of zones 1 and 2 of the bat ball striking zone 14, the zones are substantially three-wall structures and thus are substantially double-walled Compared to 3, it exhibits enhanced deflection. Thus, with respect to zone 3, the ball striking zone deflection and bounce effect of zones 1 and 2 are improved so that the two can approximate the performance of zone 3 of the bat ball hitting zone 14. Accordingly, when a ball hits the hitting zone 14 at either of zone 1 or zone 2, the ball striking zone 14 produces a pilling effect that is more closely approximated by the sweet spot of the bat. The trampoline effect.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the ISCZs 32, 34, 36, 38 are oriented in a manner that is connected to the first ISCZ 30 in zone 3. Additionally, the ISCZs 32, 34 in zone 1 are substantially symmetric with the ISCZs 36, 38 in zone 3. One or more of the ISCZs 32, 34, 36, 38 may alternatively be disconnected from the first ISCZ 30, and as may be further described below, the ISCZs 32, 34 may be associated with the zone 1 These ISCZ 36, 38 are asymmetrical in 3.
In the ball striking embodiment shown in Figures 5 and 6, the number of ISCZs positioned in zone 1 is greater than that located in zone 2. This configuration may be better due to the influence of the moment of inertia. During a typical bat swing, the moment of inertia generated in zone 1 is less than the moment of inertia generated in zone 2 because zone 1 is relatively closer to the bat grip 12 than zone 2. Accordingly, the bat performance in Zone 1 is generally inferior to the bat performance in Zone 2. To counteract this difference in performance, in the embodiment shown in Figures 5 and 6, the ISCZ included in Zone 1 is greater than in Zone 2, so that the degree of deflection of the hitting zone is greater in Zone 1. Increased in Zone 2 is large.
In the ball striking embodiment shown in Figure 5, a continuous ISCZ 40 extends through Zone 1, Zone 2 and Zone 3 approximately at the radial midpoint of the wall of the ball striking zone. Two independent discontinuous ISCZs 42, 44 are positioned in zone 1 between the ISCZ 40 and the neutral axis of the bat ball striking zone 14, and an additional discontinuous ISCZ 46 is struck by the ISCZ 40 and the bat The outer surface of the ball zone 14 is positioned within the zone 1. Thus, zone 1 comprises a total of four ISCZs such that the ball striking zone 14 essentially acts as a five-layer wall structure within zone 1. Zone 2 includes a discontinuous ISCZ 48 positioned between the ISCZ 40 and the neutral axis of the bat ball striking zone 14 and an additional discontinuity between the ISCZ 40 and the outer surface of the bat ball striking zone 14 ISCZ 50. Thus, zone 2 includes a total of three ISCZs such that ball striking zone 14 substantially acts as a four-layer wall structure within zone 2.
In the ball striking embodiment shown in Figure 6, zone 3 includes an ISCZ 60 positioned approximately at a radial midpoint of the wall of the ball striking zone. Zone 1 includes two ISCZs 62, 64 positioned between a radial midpoint of the wall of the ball striking zone and the outer surface and a radial midpoint positioned at the wall of the ball striking zone and the hitting zone 14 ISCZ 66 between the central axes. Thus, zone 1 comprises a total of three ISCZs such that the ball striking zone 14 substantially acts as a four-layer wall structure within zone 1. Zone 2 includes an ISCZ 68 positioned between the radial midpoint of the wall of the hitting zone and the outer surface and a radial midpoint positioned at the wall of the hitting zone and the center of the hitting zone 14 ISCZ 70 between the axes. Thus, zone 2 comprises a total of two ISCZs such that ball striking zone 14 essentially acts as a 3-layer wall structure within zone 2. The two ISCZs 68, 70 of the three ISCZs 62, 64, 66 and 2 in zone 1 are all connected to the ISCZ 60 in zone 3.
The ball striking zone embodiment illustrated in Figures 5 and 6 illustrates the design resilience encompassed herein. For example, one or more of the ISCZs in Zone 1 and Zone 2 may or may not be connected to one or more ISCZs in Zone 3, and one or more of the ISCZs in any of Zones 1-3 may be located at a radial midpoint between the radial midpoint of the wall of the ball striking zone and the outer surface, at or near the radial midpoint of the wall of the ball striking zone and/or the wall of the striking zone Between the central axis of the hitting area 14 of the bat and the like. In addition, Zone 1 and Zone 2 may include ISCZs that are the same or different numbers from each other.
The important point is that the end of an ISCZ does not need to be specifically present at the intersection of the two zones. In fact, an ISCZ may overlap or be located in more than one zone, and such zones may be shorter or longer than those depicted in the figures. In addition, a greater or lesser number of zones can be specified. In fact, such "zones" are for illustrative purposes only and do not provide any type of physical or theoretical limitation. Thus, the ISCZ can be positioned in the bat ball striking area 14 (and the tapered portion 16 and the grip 12) at various locations according to a myriad of designs to achieve the desired hitting area and overall bat performance characteristics. .
To this end, in some embodiments, it may be desirable to have at least one of the hitting zone regions located away from the sweet spot having an ISCZ number greater than the number of ISCZs located in a hitting zone region including the sweet spot to Improved beating zone deflection and pilling effects are provided in these areas. Additionally, in some embodiments, it may be desirable to include an ISCZ in the area between the tapered portion between the tapered portion and the sweet spot of the bat that is greater than the sweet spot of the hitting zone and the free end. Multiple ISCZs are used to compensate for differences in the effects of moments of inertia in their areas. However, it will be appreciated that any suitable number of ISCZs may be positioned in any suitable region of the ball striking zone (and other portions of the bat) in any suitable configuration depending on the design goals of a particular bat.
FIG. 7 illustrates an alternative ball striking zone embodiment wherein the bat ball striking zone 14 includes a metal outer region 80 and a composite inner region 82. The metal outer region 80 is preferably separated from the composite inner region 82 by a suitable ISCZ 86, such as an adhesion inhibiting layer. Alternatively, the unbonded interface between the metal outer region 80 and the composite inner region may itself form an ISCZ.
The metal outer region 80 preferably comprises aluminum and/or another suitable metallic material. The composite inner region 82 preferably includes one or more ISCZs 84 in at least zone 1 and zone 2 of the ball striking zone 14 to provide enhanced ball strut deflection in those zones. The hybrid metal/composite construction provides enhanced durability due to the presence of the metal outer region 80, while the hybrid construction still provides enhanced due to the placement of one or more ISCZs in a particular region of the composite interior region 82. The advantage of the regional hitting area flexing. In an alternate embodiment, the ball striking zone 14 can include a composite outer region and a metallic inner region.
Figure 8 shows a typical double-walled bat hitting area (the double-wall hitting area curve in the graph of Figure 8 is the same as the double-wall hitting area curve shown in the graph of Figure 2) and one on the bat A graphical comparison of the relative performance characteristics between the "multi-wall" bat hitting zones incorporating additional ISCZ in Zone 1 and Zone 2 in the hitting zone 14. As shown in FIG. 8, by positioning an additional ISCZ in zone 1 and zone 2 of the bat ball hitting zone 14 as compared to a typical double squash bat, the effectiveness will be along the length of the ball striking zone 14. Overall improved.
9 and 10 illustrate an alternate embodiment in which a single continuous ISCZ passes through Zone 1, Zone 3, and Zone 2 of the bat zone, thereby substantially forming a double wall bat hitting zone. However, the single continuous ISCZs in these embodiments intersect more than one ply in each of Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3, that is, each of the layers of the batting zone The thickness of one varies over the entire length of the hitting zone. Accordingly, the bat hitting zone does not act as a typical double wall hitting zone having a single continuous ISCZ traveling along the length of the hitting zone at substantially the same radial position.
Figure 9 illustrates a bat ball striking zone comprising a single continuous ISCZ 90 that travels in zone 3 closer to the outer surface of the ball striking zone 14 than in zone 1 and zone 2. Figure 10 illustrates a bat ball striking zone comprising a single continuous "stepped" ISCZ 92 that travels in zone 2 closer to the outer surface of the ball striking zone 14 than in zone 3, and in zone 3 It travels closer to the outer surface of the ball striking area 14 than in zone 1. The continuous ISCZ need not be symmetrical and may be positioned in opposition to the embodiments shown in Figures 9 and 10, or may be oriented in any other suitable manner. The sweet spot of the hitting zone can be increased and/or modified by varying the position of the single continuous ISCZ throughout the hitting zone of the bat. In an alternate embodiment, the continuous ISCZ may intersect more than one ply in fewer zones or hitting zone regions such that the thickness of the striking zone wall wall varies only in those zones.
It is further contemplated that the ISCZ can be positioned in the bat grip 12 and/or the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10 (providing enhanced deformation in the outer shot of the shot) to provide enhanced in their area. Flexed. The use of ISCZ in the bat grip 12 provides enhanced grip compliance due to effective energy transfer (as opposed to shear deformation) caused by bending deformation. Additionally, by using one or more ISCZs to decouple the grip 12, the "feel" of the stick 10 is improved because more interfaces are provided to dissipate the vibrational energy.
The ball is placed in the grip 12 proximate to the tapered portion 16 as compared to the user gripping position in which the one or more ISCZs are placed closer to the grip 12. The stick 10 will "snap back" more quickly to an axial alignment during a swing. Skilled players who swing faster usually prefer this faster rebound. Placing the ISCZ closer to the grip position on the grip 12 will cause the skilled player to lose control because the recovery speed of the stick 10 is too slow to return to the axial position at or just before the impact with the ball.
However, for novice players, it may be better to position the ISCZ in the bat grip 12 closer to the user's grip, as less skilled players tend to "push" the bat through the good ball. (strike zone), and therefore does not cause the rod 10 to significantly "bend" away from axial alignment. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the specific placement of the ISCZ in the grip 12 is typically dependent on the following factors: the deflection of the remaining bat grips 12, the weight of the bat's hitting area 14, and the intended use. The level of proficiency and the materials used in the grip 12.
11-15 illustrate an embodiment of one or more integrated shock absorbing (ISA) regions included in the bat 10. Referring to Figure 11, an ISA region 130 is positioned in the transition region or tapered portion 16 of the bat 10. The ISA region 130 (and other ISA regions in the embodiments described below) includes one or more highly damped and/or low modulus materials that are effective to dissipate or weaken from entering the ISA region 130. The vibration energy of the shock wave. The one or more materials comprising the ISA region 130 preferably have a longitudinal or axial Young's mode that is adjacent to the material that is longitudinally positioned above and/or below the ISA region 130 in the bat configuration. A much lower number of longitudinal or axial Young's modulus. Thus, assuming a relatively uniform partial thickness, the ISA region 130 has a material that is positioned longitudinally above and/or below the ISA region 130 (i.e., the shot in Figure 11). The region 14 and the material of the grip 12 have a low axial stiffness (axial stiffness of the structure = axial Young's modulus of the material * section modulus).
The ISA region 130 is preferably axially Young's modulus of the adjacent material positioned longitudinally above and/or below the ISA region 130 in an axial Young's modulus bat structure having an axial configuration. 15-85%, or 30-70%, or 40-60%, or 50% of one or more materials. The ISA region 130 can be made of, for example, a material having an axial Young's modulus of about 3 to 7 msi, or 4 to 6 msi, and the adjacent region of the bat construction can have an approximate 8 to 12 msi , or an axial Young's modulus of 10 msi.
As shown in the table of Figure 15, the axial Young's modulus of a given material (for example, graphite and s-glass, a glass fiber is shown in the table) is relative to the bat 10 The orientation of the longitudinal axis 135 varies. Accordingly, the particular material selected for the ISA region 130 can vary depending on the orientation of the layers of material within the bat structure.
To satisfy the parameters outlined in the above examples, for example, the ISA region 130 can include one or more composite layers or plies comprising reinforcing fibers of s-glass, and each ply is substantially One of the bats has a longitudinal axis oriented at an angle of 10 to 20 (so that the axial Young's modulus of each ply is approximately 4.21 to 5.87 msi). Likewise, the ISA region 130 can include one or more composite layers or plies comprising reinforcing fibers of graphite, and each ply is oriented generally at an angle of 25 to 35 with respect to one of the longitudinal axes of the bat ( The axial Young's modulus of each ply is approximately 4.02 to 6.47 msi).
Other possible ISA area materials include, but are not limited to, composite layers or plies comprising: aromatic polyamines (eg, Kevila) Spectra And its analogues), PBO (Zylon Reinforced fibers of UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) and/or any other suitable material having a relatively low axial Young's modulus at various ply orientations and/or other materials having additional high damping properties . A viscoelastic material such as an elastomeric rubber can also be used in the ISA region 130. The ISA region 130 preferably further comprises a reinforcing resin such as a thermosetting, thermoplastic and/or injectable resin, or any other suitable resin.
By placing the ISA region 130 in the transition region or tapered portion 16 of the bat 10, the vibrational energy within the bat structure can be attenuated without affecting the performance power of the hitting zone. The (lower modulus, high damping) ISA layer acts as a dissipation barrier for the shock wave traveled from the ball striking zone 14 to the grip 12 of the bat 10 by a center-out strike. The ISA region 130 weakens or absorbs the shock waves and thus substantially or completely prevents the shock waves from reaching the bat grip 12 and the batter's hand. Therefore, the sting is substantially reduced or eliminated.
Referring to Fig. 12, in another embodiment, an ISA region 140 is positioned in the region of the bat 10 that the grip 12 is incorporated into the tapered portion 16 such that the ISA region 140 is simultaneously located at the bat 10 Both the grip 12 and the tapered portion 16 are in use. It is advantageous to position the ISA region 140 in this portion due to its relatively low profile modulus, which contributes to making the axial stiffness of the portion relatively low, thereby facilitating the ISA region. The vibratory motion of 140 dissipates the energy of the shock wave entering the ISA region 140.
Referring to Figure 13, in another embodiment, an ISA region 150 is formed as a sandwich construction comprising an insert 155 surrounded by one or more plies of a fiber reinforced composite material, wherein the interposer is formed It is made of one or more high damping materials. The insert 155 is preferably a viscoelastic or elastomeric rubber, urethane and/or foam material, or any other material that is effective to reduce vibrational energy. Inclusion of such an insert 155 in the ISA region 150 can increase the performance and durability of the ISA region 150, particularly where the surrounding ISA region fibers have lower compressive strength and/or poor strain energy recovery. The mezzanine ISA region 150 can be positioned in the grip 12, the tapered portion 16, and/or any other suitable region of the bat construction. In FIG. 14, by way of example only, the sandwich ISA region 150 is shown positioned in the region of the bat 10 where the grip 12 is incorporated into the tapered portion 16.
Referring to FIG. 14, in another embodiment, the striking portion of the bat hitting area 14 and the grip 12 of the bat 10 and the end cap can be used with two (or more) ISA regions 160, 170. 20 separated. The end cap 20 of a bat 10 is generally stiffer than the adjacent ball striking portion so that the end cap 20 provides sufficient durability for the open end of the bat ball striking region 14. Forging the end of the hitting zone of the bat, flipping the edge of the hitting zone to form a complete or nearly complete cover, and/or filling the hitting zone with a urethane or similar semi-rigid material A typical method for hardening the ends of the bat ball hitting zone 14.
However, the hardening of the end cap 20 may enhance the vibration response of the bat 10, but does not allow sufficient ball striking motion to effectively dissipate the vibrational energy. Positioning a first ISA region 170 adjacent the end cap 20 of the bat 10 and positioning a second ISA region 160 adjacent to the tapered portion 16 of the wand 10 The vibration induced at the striking portion is isolated from both the grip 12 and the end cap 20 such that little or no vibration can travel to the bat grip 12 (and the batter's hand) or to the A relatively stiff end cap 20. Therefore, the sting is generally reduced or eliminated.
In any of the ISA embodiments described above, in a single wall hitting zone design, the ISA region used may occupy the entire radial thickness of the bat wall ( For example, as shown in Figures 11-14) or only a portion of the radial thickness. In a multi-walled ball hitting zone design, an ISA zone may be included only in one of the wall layers of the bat layer or in two or more of the wall layers of the bat layer . Additionally, any ISA region used in a multi-walled ball striking zone may occupy all or a portion of one or more of the radial thicknesses of the wall of the bat layer. While the shock waves will generally be better attenuated when the one or more ISA regions occupy the entire radial wall thickness, the one or more ISA regions may occupy any suitable portion of the radial wall thickness.
The structural layer orientation of the one or more ISA regions can be varied to achieve a desired level of damping. The table of Figure 15 illustrates how the axial Young's modulus of the ply can be modified by changing the orientation of the ply relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10 by changing a particular material (shown by graphite and s-glass as an example). And, therefore, the axial rigidity of the ply is modified. By changing one or more ISA area slices in this way, an ISA area can be tailored to meet the needs of various players. For example, the axial stiffness of one or more ISA regions throughout a bat 10 can be treated to provide a greater elastic recoil for less skilled players or to provide a smaller for more skilled players. The elastic recoil. The ISA regions can also be positioned in specific regions of the bat 10 to provide enhanced deflection in their regions.
16-18 is an optimization of bat performance that is achieved by enhancing radial compliance in at least one of the ball striking region away from the sweet spot. In existing typical single-wall metal bars, material strength and isotropic behavior limit the range of bat stiffness that can be varied along the longitudinal axis of the bat. Reducing the stiffness of one of the ball hitting zones near the end of the ball striking zone, or at either the cap or the tapered portion, generally reduces the durability of the bat due to insufficient material strength. However, the anisotropic strength of the composite allows a bat designer to independently change the hoop and axial stiffness of a bat hitting zone along the longitudinal axis of the bat. A multi-wall composite bar provides a much smaller ball striking zone reduction than a single wall design and is therefore generally preferred. However, a single wall hitting area can also be enhanced using the following techniques.
As I know well, the performance of a typical bat will decrease with the impact of the sweet spot away from the hitting area of the bat. In general, the farther the ball hits the bat from the sweet spot, the less effective the bat is. In addition, it is well known that the moment of inertia generated by the bat swing is greater at the free end of the bat than at the tapered portion of the bat. This moment of inertia is related to the overall performance of the bat. Thus, the hitting zone performance in Zone 2 of a bat is generally better than the hitting zone in Zone 1 without discrete layup or other reinforcement.
Therefore, in order to optimize the performance of the hitting zone over the length of the entire hitting zone, the effectiveness of Zone 2 of the bat hitting zone 14 (especially Zone 1) must be improved. The radial compliance of reinforcement zones 1 and 2 (i.e., reducing radial stiffness) is one way to improve the performance of the zones of the bat ball hitting zone 14. The bat hitting between the tapered portion and the sweet spot and between the free end and the sweet spot can be made by virtue of radial compliance in zone 1 and zone 2 relative to zone 3. The area of zone 14 behaves more like the sweet spot of the bat hitting area 14.
Figure 16 is a diagram conceptually illustrating the effectiveness of the hitting zone over the length of the entire shot zone (i.e., the zone 1 and zone 2 are closer to the zone 3 of the hitting zone 14). (and the sweet spot) the amount of radial compliance required in Zone 1 and Zone 2 of the bat zone 14. As shown in Figure 16, the required radial compliance in zone 1 is greater than that required in zone 2 (i.e., a lower radial stiffness), as described above, due to the presence in zone 2. The greater moment of inertia than zone 1.
In an exemplary embodiment, to optimize the performance of the bat ball striking zone 14 (i.e., to substantially equalize the performance in all three ball striking zones), the radial stiffness in zone 1 is typically tailored. It is 5% to 75% of the radial stiffness in zone 3, and the radial stiffness in zone 2 is typically tailored to 10% to 90% of the radial stiffness in zone 3. In a preferred embodiment, as described in more detail below, the radial stiffness in zone 3 is tailored to approximately 3000 lbs/inch, and the radial stiffness in zone 1 is tailored to less than 1000 lbs/inch. The radial stiffness of 2 is specially made to be less than 2000 lbs/吋.
Of course, the radial stiffness in each zone can be higher or lower than these ranges, and it is not necessary to tailor each zone to meet the compliance curve shown in FIG. Although a bat hitting area that satisfies the compliance curve is ideally optimized, a bat hitting area can be designed to be radially compliant only in one area, or in two areas, or in The increase (or decrease) in all three regions, and the radial compliance in any given region can be modified to be higher or lower than the range outlined in the above exemplary embodiments.
Figure 17 illustrates an exemplary cross section of at least a portion of a shot zone layer of zones 1-3, in accordance with an embodiment. The ball striking zone 14 can include any suitable number of composite layers and/or other layers of material and can be divided into any suitable number of plies, for example, via one or more ISCZs. Alternatively, the hitting zone 14 can include a single wall that does not have an ISCZ. In addition, one or more zones may be divided into two or more plies, while one or more zones of other zones may include only a single ply wall. Of course, any existing ISCZ can terminate at any point, or extend over the entire length (or longer) of the hitting zone 14, and does not have to terminate at the meeting of the two zones of the conceptual zone. In fact, as detailed in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 10/903,493, any ISCZ may overlap with two or more zones and may terminate between zones or zones.
Increased radial compliance or reduced radial stiffness may be achieved in one or more hitting zone regions via one or more methods. In one embodiment, the individual composite layers or plies in the bat ball striking zone 14 can be oriented at various angles relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10 to increase one of the bat ball striking zones 14 or Radial compliance in multiple regions. In general, the closer the ply is oriented to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10, the stronger the radial compliance and the lower the radial stiffness. Thus, as the angular orientation of the plies (measured from the longitudinal axis of the bat) increases, the radial compliance of the ply decreases, i.e., when the ply is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10 At 90 degree orientation (eg, as shown in the table in Figure 15), its radial stiffness is greatest.
Accordingly, for example, a composite ply through the length of the ball striking zone 14 can be oriented relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat to optimize compliance of the ply: its angle in zone 1 is less than the zone The angle in 2 and the angle in zone 2 is less than the angle in zone 3. For example, layer 1 in Figure 17 (illustrated as being generally zero-degree oriented relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat for ease of illustration) may be + in zone 1 relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat /- 10°, +/- 20° in Zone 2 and +/- 60° in Zone 3. Of course, this is only one of the possible infinite layer orientation combinations.
In this example, the radial stiffness of layer 1 is less in zone 1 than in zone 2 and less than zone 3 in zone 2 (assuming layer 1 is made of the same material, has the same thickness, etc.). Accordingly, in zone 2, the radial compliance is enhanced relative to zone 3 and is enhanced more in zone 1, thereby making the performance in zone 1 and zone 2 closer to the performance of zone 3 (ie, The compliance curve shown in Figure 16 is generally satisfied).
In general, although it may be desirable to optimize only a particular area, the bat hitting area 14 needs to be optimized as a whole. Thus, although it is generally possible to follow the concept that the plies can be oriented at a smaller angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the wand 10 in the region of the bat hitting area 14 where enhanced compliance is desired, The way to direct each individual layer is to improve overall ball hitting compliance. In fact, as long as the layers are oriented at an angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10 in the area of the ball striking area where enhanced radial compliance is desired, the layers are generally smaller than in areas where less compliance or compliance is required. Angled orientation, the relative overall radial compliance of the bat ball striking zone 14 will generally be improved (assuming that the ball striking zone layers are made of the same material, have the same thickness, etc.).
In another embodiment, the thickness of one or more of the hitting zone walls in one or more of the ball striking zones may be reduced relative to the other ball striking zone regions to reduce the thickness reduction zones Radial rigidity. For example, the thickness of the wall of one of the zones 1 and/or zone 2 may be reduced relative to the thickness of the wall of the respective ball striking zone in zone 3. By reducing the thickness of the wall of one of the ball striking zones in one or both of these zones, the radial stiffness in zone 3 of the ball striking zone 14 can be reduced relative to the radial direction of the zone rigidity.
Similar to the layer oriented embodiment described above, the thickness of the hitting zone wall is reduced in zone 1 to be greater than in zone 2 in order to reduce the radial stiffness in zone 1 to a greater extent than zone 2 The degree (assuming the same hitting area material, layer orientation, etc.). Therefore, the radial compliance in Zone 1 and Zone 2 can be enhanced according to the compliance curve shown in Figure 16 to optimize the hitting zone performance.
In another embodiment, different materials having different radial stiffness characteristics can be positioned in different ball striking zone regions to optimize the ball striking zone stiffness in the entire ball striking zone 14. For example, a material having a radial stiffness (in a given orientation) that is smaller than the material positioned in other regions of the bat ball striking region 14 can be positioned in zone 1 and/or zone 2 of the ball striking zone 14. (or zone 3, if necessary) to reduce the radial stiffness in the zone relative to other zones in the ball striking zone 14. As in the previous embodiment, it is generally desirable to reduce the radial stiffness in zone 1 to a greater extent than in zone 2. Accordingly, the amount of material having a lower radial stiffness in the predetermined layer orientation in zone 1 of the bat ball striking zone 14 is preferably greater than in zone 2, so as to follow the path shown in FIG. The bat strike area is better optimized for the compliance curve.
Similarly, a portion of the zone 3 of the ball striking zone 14 can be positioned with a radial stiffness (in a given orientation) of the material positioned in a region other than the ball striking zone 14. High material to enhance radial rigidity in the region relative to other regions in the ball striking region 14. In general, any configuration in which a material having a lower radial stiffness is used in a region requiring enhanced radial compliance is contemplated herein, and/or any material having a higher radial stiffness is required for a lower diameter. The configuration in the area of compliance (for example, to meet the standards of the baseball association security).
In another embodiment, any combination of the above described ball striking zone optimization methods may be utilized to optimize the performance of the bat ball striking zone 14. For example, one or more of the zones 1 and/or zone 2 may be oriented at a smaller angle than zone 3 relative to the longitudinal axis of the bat 10, and one of zone 1 and/or zone 2 or The thickness of the wall of the plurality of hitting zones may be less than the thickness of the wall of the hitting zone in zone 3. Additionally, one or more materials positioned in portions of zone 1 and/or zone 2 may have a lower radial stiffness than the material positioned in zone 3, and/or may have a higher radial stiffness. Or a plurality of materials are positioned in zone 3. Any possible combination of these features, or any other method for increasing radial compliance away from the sweet spot of the bat, can be used to optimize shot area performance.
For ease of illustration, the area of the hitting zone that exhibits enhanced radial compliance via any of the above methods or any other suitable method is referred to hereinafter as a "radial compliance zone." Radial compliance regions may also be included in the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10 and/or the bat grip 12 to provide enhanced radial compliance and flexing in the regions.
Positioning one or more radially compliant regions in the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10 provides a higher bat deformation for the outer shot of the shot. By adding one or more radially compliant regions to the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10, the effectiveness of the rod 10 when the ball impact occurs at the tapered portion 16 is generally improved, as described above. Similar to the improvement in Zone 1 and Zone 2 of the bat hitting zone 14.
Positioning one or more radial/axial compliance regions in the bat grip 12 generally improves the "feel" of the rod 10 because there are many interfaces for dissipating vibrational energy by damping. The bat grip 12 is also stored and released in the form of bending and shear deformation. Accordingly, once acceleration is applied (ie, once the bat is swung), a higher energy transfer can be achieved by allowing the grip 12 to be deformed to a greater extent via selective placement of the radially compliant region. . The grip 12 can be adjusted to accommodate a particular player's swing style in much the same manner as described above for adjusting the "dynamically coupled" hitting zone 14.
In fact, some players may prefer to position the higher radial stiffness region (i.e., the region with lower radial compliance) of the bat grip 12 adjacent the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10. . Providing enhanced radial stiffness in this region allows the rod 10 to "bounce back" to axial alignment more quickly during a swing than to provide lower radial stiffness near the tapered portion 16. Skilled players who swing faster tend to favor this faster rebound. Therefore, positioning the radially compliant region in the grip 12 near the tapered portion 16 tends to cause the skilled player to lose control because the stick 10 recovers too slowly and is difficult to return to or just before the ball impacts. Its axial position.
However, for a novice player or a slower swinging player, it may be preferable to provide a radially compliant region adjacent the tapered portion 16 of the bat 10. Less skilled players tend to "push" the bat through the good ball and therefore do not cause the stick 10 to significantly "bend" away from axial alignment. Additionally, it is often desirable to position the radially compliant region in the bat grip 12 that is closer to the user's grip position to improve the feel of the stick 10 during the swing. Thus, those skilled in the art will recognize that the optimal positioning of the radially compliant regions of the bat grip 12 is generally dependent on the following factors: the deflection of the remaining grips 12, the bat hitting area. The weight of 14, the level of proficiency intended for the user, and the materials used in the grip 12.
Accordingly, a radially compliant region can be included in the ball striking region 14, the tapered portion 16, and/or the grip 12 of the bat 10 to improve the overall performance and feel of the bat 10. Also, for players who swing faster, radial compliance in areas that do not require enhanced radial compliance, such as at or near the sweet spot of the bat hitting area 14, can be reduced. The area and/or the area in the grip 12 of the tapered portion 16. For example, it may be desirable to reduce radial compliance in certain areas of the shot zone 14 to meet baseball association safety standards or other safety regulations.
As described above, FIG. 18 shows a typical double-walled bat hitting area (the double-wall hitting area curve in the graph of FIG. 18 is the same as the double-wall hitting area curve shown in the graph of FIG. 2) and A graphical comparison of the relative performance characteristics between the optimized baseball hitting zones 14 having radial compliance regions in zones 1 and 2 of the bat ball striking zone 14. As shown in Fig. 18, by increasing the radial compliance in zone 1 and zone 2 of the ball striking zone 14 as compared to a typical double squash bat, the overall length of the ball striking zone 14 is generally Improved.
It is important that the endpoint of any radial compliance region does not need to specifically occur at the intersection of the two regions. In fact, a radially compliant region may overlap or be located with more than one region, and such regions may be shorter or longer than those depicted in the drawings. In addition, a greater or lesser number of zones can be specified. In fact, such "zones" are for illustrative purposes only and do not provide any type of physical or theoretical limitation. Thus, the radially compliant region can be positioned, oriented, and/or formed in the bat ball striking region 14 (and in the tapered portion 16 and the grip 12) in a variety of positions according to a myriad of designs to achieve the desired The hitting area and overall bat performance characteristics.
To this end, the embodiments illustrated in Figures 16-18 generally have enhanced radial compliance for optimizing a ball in at least one hitting zone region positioned away from the sweet spot of the hitting zone. A bat with a great performance. In addition, in an embodiment, it is preferred that the radial compliance in the region of the hitting zone between the tapered portion of the bat and the sweet spot is increased to be greater than the sweet spot and the free end of the hitting zone. The extent of the area between the hitting zones to compensate for the different effects of the moment of inertia in their zones. However, it will be appreciated that depending on the design goal of a particular bat, the diameter in any area of the hitting zone (and/or other portions of the bat) may be increased (or decreased) in any suitable configuration. Towards compliance.
Figures 19-22 are directed to a bat that includes a forced layer damping function. 20 illustrates an interior portion of one embodiment of a bat ball striking zone 14 that includes one or more damping elements or dampers 230 incorporated within a composite layer 232 of the bat ball striking zone 14. The one or more dampers 230 can be made of any suitable vibration attenuating or inhibiting material (i.e., having a material having an axial elastic modulus that is less than the axial elastic modulus of the adjacent or surrounding material of the bat). to make. In one embodiment, one or more of the dampers 230 may have 0.01 to 50%, or 0.02 to 25%, or 0.05 of the axial elastic modulus of adjacent or surrounding materials in the tie bar 10 An axial elastic modulus of up to 10%, or 0.10 to 5.0%, or 0.50 to 2.5%, or 0.75 to 1.25%. However, any material having a modulus of elasticity that is less than the modulus of elasticity of the adjacent or surrounding material in the bat 10 can be used.
In one embodiment, one or more of the dampers 230 are made of one or more viscoelastic and/or elastic materials such as elastomeric rubber, silicone, gel foam or the like. Made of materials. The dampers 230 may alternatively or additionally be made of any other suitable damping material including, but not limited to, PBO (polyphenylphthalide) Oxazole), UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, for example, Dyneema ), fiberglass, dacron ("Polyethylene terephthalate" - PET or PETE), nylon (polyamide), certran Pentex Zylon Vectran And/or an aromatic polyamide, the materials are capable of effectively dissipating or weakening the vibrational energy relative to adjacent or surrounding materials in the bat 10.
Thus, depending on the material or materials used to form the structural layer of the bat 10, a plurality of damping materials (relative to their adjacent or surrounding structural materials) can be used in the bat 10. For example, a soft rubber damping material can have an axial modulus of elasticity of about 10,000 psi, while a "damping" material such as an aromatic polyamide can have an axial modulus of elasticity of about 12,000,000 psi. Although the damping effect of aromatic polyamine is significantly lower than that of a typical soft rubber material, it still has a significant damping effect on a surrounding or adjacent axial structural bat material having a higher axial elastic modulus. And it provides enhanced durability relative to softer materials. Therefore, in some bat structures, a material having a relatively high axial elastic modulus such as aromatic polyamine can be used as an effective damper.
Each damper 230 may form part of one or more of the composite layers in the bat 10 or may be included as a separate layer. As shown in Figure 21A, each damper 230 can also be sandwiched between adjacent composite layers as desired. Each damper 230 is preferably bonded, fixed or joined or fused to the surrounding composite material in the bat 10. The composite material at one or both ends of the bat 10 and/or adjacent one or both ends of the damper 230 may also be fused or mixed together to be between the bat structure and the damper 230 Provide a continuous load path.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 21A, by way of example only, the damper 230 is shown as being positioned generally at the mid-plane of the wall of a ball striking zone where the shear stress is greatest. One or more dampers 230 may alternatively or additionally be positioned at any of the radial thicknesses of the one or more hitting zone walls that make up the bat ball striking zone 14, or positioned on the ball In any of the other areas of the stick 10. For example, Figure 21B illustrates an embodiment in which a damper 230 is positioned at an interior portion of a wall of a ball striking zone. In this embodiment, at least one composite inner layer preferably limits the damper 230 to the hitting zone structure and preferably extends beyond each end of the damper 230 by at least one turn or more. In another embodiment, one or more dampers 230 may alternatively or additionally be positioned in the same manner at one of the outer portions of one or more of the hitting zone walls or other bat regions.
Figure 21C shows an embodiment in which a plurality of dampers 230 are positioned in series within a single layer on the inner portion of the wall of the ball striking zone. In another embodiment, the plurality of dampers 230 may additionally or alternatively be positioned in parallel (ie, approximately at the same longitudinal position of the bat 10) within the ball striking zone 14 or other bat region. At different radial positions. If the bat 10 includes a multi-wall wall hitting zone 14 and/or one or more ISCZs, the damper 230 can be positioned in one or more of the wall layers of the ball striking zone in any suitable position. The appropriate locations include planes between adjacent hitting zone walls and/or planes that are against one side or both sides of an ISCZ. Thus, one or more dampers 230 can be positioned at the ball striking area 14, the transition region 16, and/or any position in the grip 12 of the bat 10 to achieve a desired response, It will be further described.
The one or more dampers 230 can each have any suitable length and/or thickness. For example, a damper 230 can be 0.25 to 5.00 inches long (or longer if necessary) and can be 0.004 to 0.100 吋 thick (or any other suitable thickness). In an embodiment, each damper has a thickness of from 0.008 to 0.020 。. While the dampers 230 can have any possible dimensions and can theoretically pass through the entire length of the bat 10, it is preferred to incorporate one or more discrete dampers of smaller dimensions at one or more critical locations. In order to selectively suppress damping without increasing the substantial weight of the bat 10 or significantly reducing its durability.
Figure 22 illustrates an embodiment of a 34 bat bat 10 that includes the location of the primary vibrational antinode of the bat 10. The antinode is the point with the largest amplitude in the standing wave. Thus, under impact conditions, the vibrational undulations of the bat 10 are positioned over the area of the bat 10 where the deflection is greatest (for the modal shape of the vibrating bat). As used herein, "vibration antinode" generally refers to the bending mode of the bat 10 and/or the antinode of the hoop mode. The position of one or more of these vibrational antinodes may vary depending on the overall size and configuration of the bat 10, which can be readily determined by those skilled in the art. Thus, the particular antinode position shown in Figure 22 is shown by way of example only.
In one embodiment, one or more vibration dampers 230 are positioned at one or more antinodes of the vibrational antinodes in the bat 10 and are generally centered at the antinodes as needed. In order to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations excited by the center-out striking at their positions. Alternatively, one or more dampers 230 can be positioned adjacent to or substantially adjacent one or more of the vibrational antinodes because the amount of deflection on the bat region adjacent the antinodes is relatively high. The terms and phrases used herein to describe the position of the damper (such as "substantially at" or "at or near") generally refer to the concept that a damper system is ideally positioned directly at An antinode position, but a damper may alternatively or additionally be positioned near a heel to create a dampening effect. Therefore, we would like this term to mean that a damper can be positioned directly on or near the antinode.
The one or more dampers 230 reduce the amplitude of the impact reaction and the modal vibration by absorbing significant shear strain energy and dissipating it to the surrounding environment in the form of thermal energy. For example, a damper 230 made of a viscoelastic material dissipates energy at a rate lower than a typical elastic material (due to hysteresis), so that the dissipation of impact energy is relatively slow, thus The shock pulse produces a higher damping effect.
A preferred position of a damper 230 is located at or near the antinode of the first bending mode (i.e., the fundamental harmonic) of the bat 10, and is indicated by "1" in FIG. The antinode of the first bending mode exhibits maximum deformation and maximum strain energy of all the antinodes of the main mode. Thus, by positioning one or more dampers 230 at or near the antinode of the first bending mode, that is, about 19 to 21 from the end of the cap of the bat 10 shown in FIG. The squat can dissipate or weaken a large amount of vibration energy caused by the center-out strike.
One or more dampers 230 may also be positioned in the second and/or third bending modes of the bat 10 (the amount of deformation exhibited is not greater than the antinode of the first bending mode, but it is still It is helpful to contribute to the vibration effect) at or near the antinode (indicated by the numbers "2" and "3" in Fig. 22, respectively) in order to suppress the second bending mode and/or the third bending mode. For example, to suppress the second bending mode of the bat 10 shown in FIG. 22, one or more dampers 230 may be positioned about 8 to 10 inches from the end of the top of the bat 10 and/or Or 26 to 28 miles.
In another embodiment, a damper 230 is additionally or alternatively positioned at or near the antinode of the substantially or first annular mode of the bat 10, indicated by the letter "A" in FIG. Because the antinode (which is positioned about 4 to 8 inches from the end of the top of the bat 10 shown in FIG. 22) is generally positioned at the intersection of the COP and the first harmonic and the second harmonic bending point ( That is, it is positioned at the "sweet spot" of the bat, so the vibration (if any) present at this position is minimal. Therefore, only a minimum amount of damping (if any) is needed at this location to prevent stinging. However, by adding one or more dampers 230 at or near the "sweet spot" position, the perceived size of the sweet spot generally increases, providing the batter with an improved feel.
A plurality of dampers 230 can be positioned throughout or adjacent the bat structure, at any combination of the antinodes, to minimize vibration in the bat 10. Each of the dampers 230 is preferably discrete and discontinuous relative to the other dampers 230 and is primarily positioned at or near a single antinode. However, it is contemplated that one or more of the respective dampers 230 may overlap with two or more antinodes.
For example, a single damper 230 can be positioned to align with the antinode "1" of the first bending mode and the antinode "3" of the third bending mode in the transition region of the bat. Overlap (e.g., approximately 19-22 距 from the end of the cap of the bat 10 shown in Figure 22). However, in order to minimize overall weight and maintain adequate bat structural durability, it is generally preferred that each of the dampers 230 be discrete and critically positioned at or near a single vibrational antinode. . As mentioned above, the plurality of dampers can be positioned in parallel (i.e., at different radial positions) at or near a given antinode.
Figures 23 and 24 are directed to a bat comprising one or more concentrated flexure zones. FIG. 23 illustrates an embodiment of a bat 10 that includes a concentrated flexure zone 330. The concentrated flexure region 330 includes a radially inner region 331 that includes one or more structural composite materials, such as the materials described above, and a radially outer region 333 that includes adjacent ones of the bats 10 One or more "non-structural" materials having a low axial modulus of elasticity of the structural composite. The concentrated flexure zone 330 is preferably primarily or fully positioned in the transition region 16 of the bat, but may additionally or alternatively be partially or completely positioned on the grip 12 of the bat 10 and/or the strike In the ball zone 14. Additionally, more than one concentrated flexure zone 330 can be included in the bat 10.
The structural radially inner region 331 of the concentrated flexure region 330 can be coupled to adjacent structural material 335 in the bat 10 or can be a separate region having a defined starting and/or ending position. The thickness of the radially inner region 331 can be substantially equal to the thickness of the structural material or layer 335 in the adjacent regions, including the entire grip, the ball striking region, and/or the transition portion (ie, the structure) The "tube" may have a relatively uniform thickness throughout the bat 10, or the thickness of the radially inner region 331 may vary relative to one or more other structural regions of the bat 10.
By including a "recessed" concentrated flexure zone 330, the outer and inner diameters of the structural layers or the "tubes" in the radially inner region 331 can be relative to the bat The neighborhood in 10 is reduced. At a given position of the bat 10, the axial stiffness (EI) of the material when the material region is bent is the outer diameter D 0 of the material region, the thickness of the material (D 0 -D i ), and the axis of the material. a function of the modulus of elasticity E, which is determined by the following equation: the stiffness of the curved tube structure = EI = In the figures, reference symbols D 0 , D 0 ', D i and D i ' indicate the position of the respective diameters in the bat 10 . For example, D 0 refers to the position at which the outer diameter of the bat 10 is measured. D i refers to the position at which the inner diameter of the wall or tube of the bat 10 is measured in any region other than the concentrated deflection region 330. Thus, D 0 and D i will typically vary (or in) between the grip 12, the transition portion 16 and/or the hitting zone 14. D 0 'and D i ' refer to the positions of the outer and inner diameters of the radially inner region 331 of the concentrated flexure region 330 in the bat 10, respectively.
By reducing the outer diameter D 0 ' of the structural material in the radially inner region 331 of the concentrated flexure region 330, the axial stiffness of the structural "tube" is significant relative to the adjacent region in the bat 10 reduce. Accordingly, the concentrated flexure zone 330 generally coincides with the "return point" of the bat 10. The turning point refers to the point in the bat 10 that has the greatest curvature due to the inertia of the rod 10 during rotation.
One of the concentrated flex regions 330 may be located in the transition portion 16 proximate the main fundamental vibrational antinode of the bat 10. Typically, this position is at or near the end of the grip 12 and the outer diameter (D 0 ) of the bat begins to increase just above it. This region experiences the highest axial deflection during a single swing and, therefore, can be adjusted to accommodate a player's particular swing style by utilizing the natural bending tendency of the stick 10 in this particular region. Some advantages of this position are: the outer diameter (D 0 ) of a typical bat 10 is not so large here that it will significantly increase the section rigidity; and there is still enough hitting area quality outside this part to withstand the swing acceleration The inertial load that causes the bat to bend during the period. In addition, the ball typically rarely impacts this position and will therefore not significantly adversely affect the durability of the bat by axially flexing the bat in this position.
For example, for a particular homogeneous material such as aluminum (E = 10 6 psi), a bend of a wall or structural tube having an outer diameter D 0 of 1.50 吋 and a thickness (D 0 -D i ) of 0.10 吋The rigid system has the same thickness and the outer diameter D 0 'is 1.15 Å of the wall or tube of about 235%. Therefore, to bend a tube having a diameter of 1.50 相同 into the same deflection as a tube having a diameter of 1.15 ,, the load required by the former is about 2.35 times that of the latter. In other words, for a fixed energy swing, a structural area of a bat 10 having a diameter of 1.15 将 will deflect and rebound with approximately 235% of the potential energy of a structural region having a diameter of 1.50 ( (actually The difference will vary depending on the material properties of the radially outer region 333 of the concentrated flexure region 330).
Therefore, by slightly changing the partial diameter (D 0 ') of the structural material in the radially inner region 331 of the concentrated flexure region 330, the local axial rigidity of the bat 10 can be significantly reduced or changed. And flexibility. To achieve the desired effect of such diameter variations in the structural material, the radially outer region 333 of the concentrated flexure region 330 preferably has a ratio of one or more adjacent to the bat 10 The structural material 335 is made of one or more materials of the axial elastic modulus of the axial elastic modulus.
Materials of lower axial elastic modulus referred to herein as "damping materials" may include one or more viscoelastic and/or elastomeric materials (such as elastomeric rubber, silicone resin, foam gel) or axial elastic modulus. Relatively low other similar materials. Any other material having a lower modulus of elasticity than the adjacent structural material 335 in the bat may additionally or alternatively be used in the radially outer region 333, including but not limited to PBO (polybenzoquinone) Oxazole), UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, such as Dyneema ), fiberglass, dacron ("Polyethylene terephthalate" - PET or PETE), nylon (polyamide), certran Pentex Zylon Vectran And / or aromatic polyamine.
Thus, depending on one or more materials used to form the structural layers 335 of the bat 10, a plurality of damping materials (relative to the adjacent or surrounding structural material 335) can be used for the concentrated flexure region 330. In the radially outer region 333. For example, a soft rubber damping material can have an axial modulus of elasticity of about 10,000 psi, while a "damping" material such as an aromatic polyamide can have an axial modulus of elasticity of about 12,000,000 psi. Although the axial elastic modulus of aromatic polyamines is significantly greater than that of a typical soft rubber material, aromatic polyamines still have significant damping effects on surrounding or adjacent structural bat materials having a higher axial elastic modulus. And it provides enhanced durability relative to softer materials. Thus, materials such as aromatic polyamines having a relatively high axial modulus of elasticity can be used as effective dampers in some bat configurations.
Although any other shape or configuration suitable for providing reduced axial stiffness in the concentrated flexure zone 330 may alternatively be used, FIG. 24 illustrates one possible configuration of the concentrated flexure zone 330. The radially outer region 333 of the concentrated flexure region 330 preferably has a depth of about 0.060 to 0.250 吋 or 0.080 to 0.120 ( (approximately equal to D 0 -D 0 '). Any other depth can be used instead. If an ISCZ or similar area is included in the bat 10 (eg, included in a multi-layered wall bat), the radially outer region 333 can have an extension to the ISCZ (or through the ISCZ) The depth of one opening).
The bottom of the radially outer region 333 preferably has a length of 0.20 to 1.50 吋 or 0.40 to 0.80 ,, and the outer surface of the radially outer region 333 (corresponding to the outer surface of the bat 10) preferably has an approximate 0.25 to 2.50 吋 or a length of 0.50 to 1.50 。. The radially outer region 333 can have any other suitable size and may or may not have a tapered end region 334 (eg, as shown in FIG. 24).
In one embodiment, the depth of the radially outer region 333 is from 60% to 150%, or from 80% to 120%, of the thickness of the radially inner region 331. Additionally or alternatively, the outer diameter D 0 ' of the radially inner region 331 is 60% to 95%, or 70% to 85%, of the outer diameter D 0 of the adjacent longitudinal region of the bat 10. Additionally or alternatively, the concentrated flexure zone 330 is adjusted such that its axial stiffness is 10% to 90%, or 30% to 70%, or 40% of the axial stiffness of the adjacent longitudinal regions of the bat 60%. This axial rigidity is reduced because the material in the radially outer region 333 has a lower axial modulus of elasticity than the adjacent region of the bat 10 and/or because the radially inner region 331 There is an outer diameter D 0 ' and/or a thickness (D 0 - D 0 ') that is smaller than the adjacent longitudinal region of the bat 10. One or more of these relative percentages may vary outside of the limits described herein, depending on the specifications of a given bat design.
The position, shape and configuration of the one or more concentrated flexure regions 330 may vary based on the structural requirements of a given bat 10. For example, by positioning the concentrated flexure zone 330 in the transition portion 16, the bat flexing can be enhanced and the vibrational energy in the bat structure can be weakened, thereby enhancing the performance power of the hitting zone. The axial stiffness and position of the concentrated flexure zone 330 can be adjusted to provide a specific kickback for different styles of hitting (e.g., push or quick strike style). For example, the concentrated flexure zone 330 can be positioned closer to the hitting zone 14 in a typical baseball bat, or closer to the grip 12 in a typical fastball bat.
In general, a concentrated flexure zone 330 can be positioned toward the tapered portion 16 of the ball striking zone 14 to provide an enhanced "bounce" during a swing, but it can also be positioned toward the grip 12 The tapered portion 16 is considered to provide a smaller "bounce" for players who tend to "push" the bat during a swing. Thus, depending on the requirements of a given bat design, one or more of the concentrated flex regions 330 can be positioned anywhere in the bat structure.
The various bat embodiments described herein can be constructed in any suitable manner. In one embodiment, the bat 10 is constructed by winding the various layers of the rod 10 onto a mandrel or similar structure having the desired bat shape. As described in the above embodiments, any ISCZ, ISA region, radial compliance region, damping element, and/or concentrated flexure region are preferably formed, placed, positioned, and/or oriented at key locations.
The ends of the layers of material are preferably "clocked" or offset from each other such that they do not terminate at the same location prior to curing. Additionally, if varying layer orientations and/or wall thicknesses are used, the layers may be staggered, feathered or otherwise angled or treated to form the desired bat shape. Accordingly, when heat and pressure are applied to cure the rod 10, the various layers are mixed together into a particular "single" or unitary construction. Moreover, during heating and curing of the composite layers, any damper 230 and/or damping material used in the radially outer region 333 of a concentrated deflection region 330 is preferably fused with the surrounding composite material to form the entire ball. An integral part of the rod structure.
In other words, all layers of the bat are "co-cured" in a single step and blended or gathered together on at least one end to form a monolithic structure (at the at least one end) without gaps, such that the shot The ball zone 14 is not comprised of a series of tubes each having a thickness of a separate layer wall terminating at the end of the tube. Therefore, all of these layers behave consistently under load conditions, such as during a shot. One or both ends of the ball striking zone 14 may be brought together in such a manner as to form a single ball striking zone 14 that includes one or more striking zone walls (depending on whether any ISCZ is used). In an alternative design, either end of the ball striking zone is not blended together, thereby forming a multi-piece construction.
Accordingly, while a number of embodiments have been shown and described, various changes and substitutions may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Therefore, the invention should not be limited by the scope of the following claims and their equivalents.
1. . . Antinode of the first bending mode
2. . . Antinode of the second bending mode
3. . . Antinode of the third bending mode
10. . . Bat
12. . . Grip
14. . . Batting area
16. . . Tapered part (transition area)
18. . . handle
20. . . End cap
twenty one. . . First area or "Zone 1"
twenty two. . . Second area or "Zone 2"
twenty four. . . Third area or "Zone 3"
25. . . Composite layer
30. . . First ISCZ
32, 34, 36, 38, 40. . . ISCZ
42,44,46,48,50. . . Discontinuous ISCZ
60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70. . . ISCZ
80. . . Metal exterior area
82. . . Composite interior area
84,86. . . ISCZ
90. . . Continuous ISCZ
92. . . Continuous "stepped" ISCZ
100. . . Bat
102. . . Batting area
104. . . Inner wall
106. . . Outer wall
108. . . Interface Shear Control Area (ISCZ)
110. . . Layer
130,140,150,160,170. . . ISA area
135. . . Longitudinal axis of the bat
155. . . Insert
230. . . Damping element or damper
232. . . Composite layer
330. . . Concentrated flexing area
331. . . Radial inner region
333. . . Radial outer zone
334. . . Tapered end region
335. . . Structural materials
A. . . Basic or first toroidal mode
Figure 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of a multi-layered bat.
Figure 2 is a graph comparing the relative performance characteristics of a typical wooden bat hitting area, a typical single squash bat hitting area, and a typical double squash bat hitting area.
Figure 3 is a side view of a bat.
4-7 are cross sections of zones 1-3 of the bat ball striking zone shown in Fig. 3, according to four separate "multiwall" embodiments.
Figure 8 is a graph comparing the relative performance characteristics of a typical double-walled bat hitting area with a bat hitting area using a plurality of interfacial shear control zones to form a "multi-wall" bat.
Figures 9-10 are cross-sections of zones 1-3 of the bat ball striking zone shown in Figure 3, in accordance with two alternative embodiments.
Figure 11 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a bat comprising an ISA region necessarily located in the tapered portion of the bat.
Figure 12 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a bat comprising an ISA region that is necessarily located within the bat grip and that extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
Figure 13 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a bat comprising a sandwich construction ISA region that is necessarily located within the bat grip and that extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
Figure 14 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a bat comprising a plurality of ISA regions positioned in the ball striking region of the bat.
Figure 15 is a table showing the axial and radial Young's modulus of a layer of a graphite layer and an s-type glass layer when oriented at various angles relative to the longitudinal axis of a bat.
Figure 16 is a graph conceptually illustrating the amount of radial compliance required in each of a typical bat hitting zone to optimize the performance of the bat hitting zone.
Figure 17 is a cross-sectional view of at least a portion of the zone 1-3 of the bat ball striking zone shown in Figure 3.
Figure 18 is a graph comparing the relative performance characteristics of a typical double-walled bat hitting area with an optimized bat hitting area using discrete thin-layer cuts.
Figure 19 is a side view of a bat.
Figure 20 is a partial cross-sectional view showing a portion X of Figure 19.
Figure 21A is an enlarged view of a portion Y of Figure 20, in accordance with an embodiment.
Figure 21B is an enlarged view of a portion Y of Figure 20 in accordance with another embodiment.
Figure 21C is an enlarged view of a portion Y of Figure 20 in accordance with yet another embodiment.
Figure 22 is a side elevational view of a bat showing the conceptual position of the main vibrational antinode of the bat in accordance with an embodiment.
Figure 23 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a bat comprising a concentrated flexure zone.
Figure 24 is a partial side cross-sectional view of one of the possible configurations of the concentrated flexure zone.
1. . . Antinode of the first bending mode
2. . . Antinode of the second bending mode
3. . . Antinode of the third bending mode
10. . . Bat
A. . . Basic or first toroidal mode

Claims (28)

  1. A bat comprising a ball area, a grip and a tapered portion joining the ball striking region to the grip, comprising: a first region adjacent to the tapered portion in the ball striking region And comprising at least one interface shear control zone; a second zone adjacent to a free end of the ball striking zone in the ball striking zone, comprising at least one interface shear control zone; and a hitting zone a third region between the first region and the second region that includes at least one interface shear control region less than at least one of the first region and the second region; wherein the hitting region At least one of the interface shear control regions of the interface includes an adhesion suppression layer.
  2. The bat of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first region and the second region comprises at least one interface shear control region associated with at least one interface shear control region of the third region.
  3. The bat of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first region and the second region comprises at least one interface shear control region that is not connected to at least one interface shear control region of the third region.
  4. The bat of claim 1, wherein at least one of the interface shear control regions in the hitting zone comprises an elastic layer.
  5. The bat of claim 1, wherein the hitting zone has a substantially uniform thickness, and wherein the third zone comprises a single interface shear control positioned substantially at a radial midpoint of the ball striking zone Area.
  6. The bat of claim 1, wherein the hitting zone has a substantially uniform Thickness, and wherein the first region comprises two interfacial shear control regions positioned substantially at one-third and two-thirds of the thickness of the shot zone.
  7. The bat of claim 1, wherein the ball striking zone comprises at least one composite material selected from the group consisting of glass, graphite, boron, carbon, aromatic polyamines, and ceramics.
  8. The bat of claim 1, wherein the hitting zone comprises a plurality of plies that are co-molded with the interfacial shear control zones to create an integrated multi-layer wall hitting zone structure.
  9. The bat of claim 1 wherein the ball striking region comprises an outer or inner metal layer and a corresponding inner or outer composite layer, wherein at least one of the interface shear control regions is positioned at the composite layer Inside.
  10. The bat of claim 1, wherein the first area includes at least one interface control area more than the second area.
  11. The bat of claim 1, further comprising at least one interface shear control zone in at least one of the grip and the tapered portion.
  12. The bat of claim 11, wherein at least one of the interface shear control zones of the grip is positioned adjacent to the tapered portion.
  13. A bat of claim 1 wherein the first region of the ball striking region extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
  14. A bat comprising a ball striking area, a grip and a tapered portion joining the hitting area to the grip, comprising: a first in the hitting zone adjacent to the tapered portion a region; a second region in the hitting zone adjacent to a free end of the hitting zone; a third region between the first region and the second region in the hitting zone, comprising a sweet spot of the hitting zone; wherein the second zone and the third zone each comprise at least one interface Cutting the control zone, and the first zone comprises at least one interface shear control zone more than the third zone; wherein at least one of the interface shear control zones in the ball striking zone comprises an adhesion suppression layer.
  15. The bat of claim 14, wherein the second region comprises at least one interface shear control region more than the third region.
  16. The bat of claim 14, wherein the first region comprises at least one interface shear control region more than the second region.
  17. The bat of claim 14, wherein at least one of the first region and the second region comprises at least one interface shear control region coupled to at least one interface shear control region of the third region.
  18. The bat of claim 14, wherein at least one of the first region and the second region comprises at least one interface shear control region that is not connected to at least one of the interface shear control regions of the third region.
  19. The bat of claim 14, further comprising at least one interfacial shear control zone in at least one of the grip and the tapered portion.
  20. The bat of claim 19, wherein at least one of the interface shear control zones of the grip is positioned adjacent to the tapered portion.
  21. The bat of claim 14, wherein the first region of the ball striking region extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
  22. One includes a ball striking area, a grip, and a binding of the hitting area to the grip a tapered portion of the bat comprising: a first region in the hitting zone adjacent to the tapered portion; a first in the hitting zone adjacent to a free end of the hitting zone a second region; a third region between the first region and the second region in the hitting zone; wherein at least one of the first region and the second region includes at least two interface shear controls And the third region includes at least one interface shear control region; wherein at least one of the interface shear control regions in the ball striking region comprises an adhesion suppression layer.
  23. The bat of claim 22, wherein the at least one of the first region and the second region is divided into at least three hitting regions of substantially equal thickness via the at least two interface shear control regions a wall, and the third region is divided into at least two layers of substantially equal thickness via the at least one interfacial shear control region.
  24. The bat of claim 22, wherein the first region of the ball striking region extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
  25. a bat comprising: a ball striking zone; a grip comprising a plurality of composite layers, and having at least one interfacial shear control zone separating at least two of the composite layers in the grip; and The ball striking area is joined to the tapered portion of the grip.
  26. One includes a ball striking area, a grip, and a binding of the hitting area to the grip a tapered portion of the bat comprising: a first region in the hitting zone adjacent to the tapered portion, comprising a plurality of layers; and in the hitting zone adjacent to the hitting ball a second region at one of the free ends of the region, comprising a plurality of layers; a third region in the ball striking region between the first region and the second region, comprising a plurality of layers; and a crossing a continuous interface shear control region of the first region, the third region, and the second region, wherein the continuous interface shear control region and at least the first region, the third region, and the second region A plurality of such layers in one intersect.
  27. The bat of claim 26, wherein the continuous interfacial shear control region is stepped between at least two of the first region, the third region, and the second region.
  28. The bat of claim 26, wherein the first region of the ball striking region extends into the tapered portion of the bat.
TW094125595A 2004-07-29 2005-07-28 Optimized ball bat TWI426940B (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/903,493 US7115054B2 (en) 2004-07-29 2004-07-29 Ball bat exhibiting optimized performance via selective placement of interlaminar shear control zones
US11/034,993 US7163475B2 (en) 2004-07-29 2005-01-12 Ball bat exhibiting optimized performance via discrete lamina tailoring
US11/078,782 US7442134B2 (en) 2004-07-29 2005-03-11 Ball bat including an integral shock attenuation region
US11/152,036 US20060025253A1 (en) 2004-07-29 2005-06-14 Composite ball bat with constrained layer dampening
US11/188,146 US7442135B2 (en) 2004-07-29 2005-07-22 Ball bat including a focused flexure region

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
TW200609022A TW200609022A (en) 2006-03-16
TWI426940B true TWI426940B (en) 2014-02-21

Family

ID=47290352

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
TW094125595A TWI426940B (en) 2004-07-29 2005-07-28 Optimized ball bat

Country Status (3)

Country Link
JP (3) JP5613949B2 (en)
HK (1) HK1108661A1 (en)
TW (1) TWI426940B (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP6762288B2 (en) * 2017-11-02 2020-09-30 株式会社アシックス Bat and bat design method

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5482270A (en) * 1994-09-30 1996-01-09 Smith; J. Al Handgrip for a bat
US6042493A (en) * 1998-05-14 2000-03-28 Jas. D. Easton, Inc. Tubular metal bat internally reinforced with fiber and metallic composite

Family Cites Families (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4714251A (en) * 1986-01-06 1987-12-22 Thomas O. Cook Ball bat
US4848745A (en) * 1986-06-04 1989-07-18 Phillips Petroleum Company Fiber reinforced article
JPH0737647Y2 (en) * 1988-11-08 1995-08-30 日本圧研スエーヂ工業有限会社 Metal bat
JPH0420372U (en) * 1990-06-11 1992-02-20
CA2042484C (en) * 1991-05-13 1996-06-25 Chin-San You Ball bat
JPH04133863U (en) * 1991-06-04 1992-12-14
JP2905791B2 (en) * 1994-10-24 1999-06-14 株式会社アシックス Baseball bat
US5516097A (en) * 1995-04-13 1996-05-14 Huddleston; Allen D. Flexible section baseball bat
US20020198071A1 (en) * 1998-07-22 2002-12-26 Michael L. Snow Ball bat
JP3474793B2 (en) * 1999-01-20 2003-12-08 美津濃株式会社 FRP bat for baseball or softball
JP2001269427A (en) * 2000-03-24 2001-10-02 Sumitomo Rubber Ind Ltd Metal bat
US6398675B1 (en) * 2000-07-03 2002-06-04 Wilson Sporting Goods Co. Bat with elastomeric interface
US6500080B2 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-12-31 Wilson Sporting Goods Co. Game racquet with separate head and handle portions for reducing vibration
JP2003284799A (en) * 2002-03-28 2003-10-07 Mizuno Corp Bat for practice
JP4017429B2 (en) * 2002-03-29 2007-12-05 美津濃株式会社 Baseball or softball bat
US6743127B2 (en) * 2002-04-02 2004-06-01 Wilson Sporting Goods Co. Bat with composite handle

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5482270A (en) * 1994-09-30 1996-01-09 Smith; J. Al Handgrip for a bat
US6042493A (en) * 1998-05-14 2000-03-28 Jas. D. Easton, Inc. Tubular metal bat internally reinforced with fiber and metallic composite

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP5613949B2 (en) 2014-10-29
HK1108661A1 (en) 2008-05-16
JP5764586B2 (en) 2015-08-19
JP5859498B2 (en) 2016-02-10
JP2013135867A (en) 2013-07-11
JP2013135868A (en) 2013-07-11
JP2014012197A (en) 2014-01-23
TW200609022A (en) 2006-03-16

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
AU2005267885B2 (en) Optimized ball bat
US7442134B2 (en) Ball bat including an integral shock attenuation region
JP5393721B2 (en) Optimized ball bat
US8795108B2 (en) Ball bat with governed performance
CA2319634C (en) Ball bat
US20040132563A1 (en) Ball bat with a strain energy optimized barrel
WO2011100349A1 (en) Ball bat having a segmented barrel
CA2509448C (en) Ball bat with a strain energy optimized barrel
US20200338417A1 (en) Ball bat with decoupled barrel
TWI426940B (en) Optimized ball bat

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
MM4A Annulment or lapse of patent due to non-payment of fees