TWI424832B - Body related receiver and method thereof - Google Patents

Body related receiver and method thereof Download PDF

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TWI424832B
TWI424832B TW98143023A TW98143023A TWI424832B TW I424832 B TWI424832 B TW I424832B TW 98143023 A TW98143023 A TW 98143023A TW 98143023 A TW98143023 A TW 98143023A TW I424832 B TWI424832 B TW I424832B
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receiver
signal
module
power
data
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TW98143023A
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TW201034625A (en
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Timothy Robertson
Fataneh Omidvar
Yashar Behzadi
Lawrence Arne
Kenneth Rowberry
James Hutchison
Robert Leichner
George Savage
Andrew Thompson
Mark Zdeblick
Marc Kreidler
Hooman Hafezi
Robert Duck
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Proteus Digital Health Inc
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Priority to US16028909P priority
Priority to US24057109P priority
Priority to US25108809P priority
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Publication of TW201034625A publication Critical patent/TW201034625A/zh
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Publication of TWI424832B publication Critical patent/TWI424832B/zh

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G16INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION FIELDS
    • G16HHEALTHCARE INFORMATICS, i.e. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE HANDLING OR PROCESSING OF MEDICAL OR HEALTHCARE DATA
    • G16H20/00ICT specially adapted for therapies or health-improving plans, e.g. for handling prescriptions, for steering therapy or for monitoring patient compliance
    • G16H20/10ICT specially adapted for therapies or health-improving plans, e.g. for handling prescriptions, for steering therapy or for monitoring patient compliance relating to drugs or medications, e.g. for ensuring correct administration to patients
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
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    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • A61B5/0004Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network characterised by the type of physiological signal transmitted
    • A61B5/0006ECG or EEG signals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
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    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • A61B5/0026Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network characterised by the transmission medium
    • A61B5/0028Body tissue as transmission medium, i.e. transmission systems where the medium is the human body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0404Hand-held devices
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    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/142Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps
    • A61M5/145Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons
    • A61M5/1452Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons pressurised by means of pistons
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    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/168Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body
    • A61M5/172Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body electrical or electronic
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/168Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body
    • A61M5/172Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body electrical or electronic
    • A61M5/1723Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body electrical or electronic using feedback of body parameters, e.g. blood-sugar, pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G16INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION FIELDS
    • G16HHEALTHCARE INFORMATICS, i.e. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE HANDLING OR PROCESSING OF MEDICAL OR HEALTHCARE DATA
    • G16H40/00ICT specially adapted for the management or administration of healthcare resources or facilities; ICT specially adapted for the management or operation of medical equipment or devices
    • G16H40/60ICT specially adapted for the management or administration of healthcare resources or facilities; ICT specially adapted for the management or operation of medical equipment or devices for the operation of medical equipment or devices
    • G16H40/67ICT specially adapted for the management or administration of healthcare resources or facilities; ICT specially adapted for the management or operation of medical equipment or devices for the operation of medical equipment or devices for remote operation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B13/00Transmission systems characterised by the medium used for transmission, not provided for in groups H04B3/00 - H04B11/00
    • H04B13/005Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/02Operational features
    • A61B2560/0204Operational features of power management
    • A61B2560/0209Operational features of power management adapted for power saving
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/04Constructional details of apparatus
    • A61B2560/0406Constructional details of apparatus specially shaped apparatus housings
    • A61B2560/0412Low-profile patch shaped housings
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    • A61B2562/02Details of sensors specially adapted for in-vivo measurements
    • A61B2562/0219Inertial sensors, e.g. accelerometers, gyroscopes, tilt switches
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • A61B5/02055Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and temperature
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    • A61B5/04085Multiple electrode holders
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    • A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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Description

與身體有關的接收器及其方法Body related receiver and method thereof

依據35 U.S.C. § 119(E),本申請案主張下列申請案之申請日期之優先權:2008年12月15日提出申請之案號61/122,723之美國臨時專利申請案、2009年3月13日提出申請之案號61/160,289之美國臨時專利申請案、2009年9月8日提出申請之案號61/240,571之美國臨時專利申請案、及2009年10月13日提出申請之案號61/251,088之美國臨時專利申請案;各申請案所揭露者係以提及的方式併入本文。In accordance with 35 USC § 119(E), this application claims the priority of the filing date of the following application: US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/122,723 filed on Dec. 15, 2008, March 13, 2009 US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/160,289, filed on September 8, 2009, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/240,571, and Case No. 61/ filed on October 13, 2009 U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 251,088, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

本發明關於通訊系統中之接收器,更具體地關於一種接收器,其經由具管理電力及控制劑量能力之傳導溶液而檢測於電流中編碼之資料傳輸。The present invention relates to a receiver in a communication system, and more particularly to a receiver that detects data transmission encoded in a current via a conductive solution having power management and dose control capabilities.

有許多醫學或非醫學應用的例子,其中需要通知某人某事件,即有關特定個人之事件。醫學應用的例子其中某人希望通知特定個人之事件包括但不限於有意義的一或多項生理參數發生時,包括病症、處方管理等。非醫學應用的例子其中某人希望通知特定個人之事件包括但不限於:某類型食物之攝取(例如對飲食管制之個人而言)、運動療法之建議等。There are many examples of medical or non-medical applications in which it is necessary to notify someone of an event, that is, an event about a particular individual. Examples of medical applications where an event a person wishes to notify a particular individual includes, but is not limited to, when one or more physiological parameters of interest occur, including a condition, prescription management, and the like. Examples of non-medical applications where one wishes to notify a particular individual include, but is not limited to, intake of certain types of food (eg, for individuals who control diet), recommendations for exercise therapy, and the like.

由於有許多需要通知某人某事件的例子,已開發出許多不同的方法及技術使得該類通知得以遂行。例如,已發展出記錄簿及技術,其中例如病人及/或其看護之個人可經由例如手寫或資料輸入而記錄事件的時間及日期。然而,對於個人事件之監控則持續有改進之需要。例如,當事件發生時之人工登錄係費時且易錯。Because there are many examples of events that need to be notified to someone, many different methods and techniques have been developed to make such notifications work. For example, record books and techniques have been developed in which, for example, a patient and/or his or her caregiver can record the time and date of an event via, for example, handwriting or data entry. However, there is a continuing need for improvement in the monitoring of individual events. For example, manual logging when an event occurs is time consuming and error prone.

提供一種外部或可植入之接收器。本發明之接收器的觀點包括出現下列一或多項:高功率-低功率模組;中介模組;用以啟用或停用至高功率處理區塊之一或多個電源的電源模組;連接主塊及從塊之序列周邊介面匯流排;及多用途連接器。本發明之接收器可經配置而接收傳導傳輸信號。亦提供包括該接收器之系統,以及使用該系統之方法。An external or implantable receiver is provided. The viewpoint of the receiver of the present invention includes one or more of the following: a high power-low power module; a mediation module; a power module for enabling or disabling one or more power sources to the high power processing block; Block and slave block peripheral interface bus; and multi-purpose connector. The receiver of the present invention can be configured to receive a conductive transmission signal. A system including the receiver and a method of using the same are also provided.

提供一種可為外部或植入之接收器。本發明之接收器的觀點包括出現下列一或多項:高功率-低功率模組;中介模組;用以啟用或停用至高功率處理區塊之一或多個電源的電源模組;連接主塊及從塊之序列周邊介面匯流排;及多用途連接器。本發明之接收器可經配置而接收傳導傳輸信號。亦提供包括該接收器之系統,以及使用該系統之方法。A receiver that can be external or implanted is provided. The viewpoint of the receiver of the present invention includes one or more of the following: a high power-low power module; a mediation module; a power module for enabling or disabling one or more power sources to the high power processing block; Block and slave block peripheral interface bus; and multi-purpose connector. The receiver of the present invention can be configured to receive a conductive transmission signal. A system including the receiver and a method of using the same are also provided.

本發明之接收器為電氣裝置,包括出現於外罩中之電路及邏輯,其中該裝置係用於實施一或多項醫療功能。「醫療」乙詞係用於廣泛地指針對例如病人之活體對象健康而實施之任何功能。因此,只要裝置用於接收有關對象的一或多項參數,不論該對象處於健康或生病狀態,該裝置便被視為醫療裝置。有興趣之參數包括下列詳細描述者,例如生理參數,來自例如IEM裝置之其他醫療裝置之信號等。因此,如下列詳細描述者,有興趣之醫療裝置可用於治療應用或非治療應用。The receiver of the present invention is an electrical device comprising circuitry and logic present in the housing, wherein the device is for performing one or more medical functions. The word "medical" is used to broadly refer to any function performed on the health of a living subject such as a patient. Thus, as long as the device is used to receive one or more parameters related to the subject, the device is considered a medical device regardless of whether the subject is in a healthy or ill state. Parameters of interest include the following detailed descriptions, such as physiological parameters, signals from other medical devices such as IEM devices, and the like. Thus, as described in detail below, medical devices of interest may be used in therapeutic or non-therapeutic applications.

在本發明的某些實施例中,接收器為一種裝置,其與例如病人之活體對象相關地按一定尺寸製作,使其大體上不影響該活體對象之活動,並提供預期功能,例如長時間的信號接收功能。文中使用之「病人」乙詞廣泛地指可能或已知遭受疾病或異常之對象,以及健康之對象。依據本發明理論之接收器可經由任何方便之手段而與病人的身體結合,例如以膠帶將該裝置附著於病人的身體或衣服,或藉由夾子、線圈或皮帶。另一方面,該裝置可置於病人所著衣服的小空間內,例如病人的口袋。所需要的是,該裝置可為病人長時間使用,例如幾分鐘至幾個月。在一範例中,該裝置可持續為病人使用達一週或更久。在一些狀況下,該裝置可直接用於對象的局部皮膚。在其他方面,該裝置可植入。由於該裝置係與活體對象相關地按一定尺寸製作,使其大體上不影響該活體對象之活動,該裝置之外觀所具有之尺寸為當例如人類之對象使用時,將不致使該對象在行動能力上有何不同。因此,在該些方面,該裝置之尺寸訂為其大小及形狀不會妨礙對象身體移動的能力。本發明之裝置可具有一尺寸,其提供當應用於例如上述之身體局部時之功能性。在此狀況下,該裝置之總體積為50 cm3 或更小,例如30 cm3 或更小,包括25 cm3 或更小,例如20 cm3 或更小。在某些方面,該裝置具有小尺寸,其中在某些方面,該裝置所佔據的空間體積約5 cm3 或更小,例如約3 cm3 或更小,包括約1 cm3 或更小。本發明之裝置可具有最長之尺寸為30 cm或更短,例如20 cm或更短,包括15 cm或更短。In some embodiments of the invention, the receiver is a device that is sized to be associated with, for example, a living object of the patient such that it does not substantially affect the activity of the living subject and provides an intended function, such as a long time. Signal receiving function. The term "patient" as used herein refers broadly to a subject who is or is known to be suffering from a disease or an abnormality, as well as a subject of health. The receiver in accordance with the teachings of the present invention can be coupled to the patient's body via any convenient means, such as tape attachment of the device to the patient's body or clothing, or by clips, coils or belts. Alternatively, the device can be placed in a small space in the garment worn by the patient, such as a patient's pocket. What is needed is that the device can be used for a long time by the patient, for example from a few minutes to a few months. In one example, the device can be used for a patient for up to a week or more. In some cases, the device can be used directly on the topical skin of the subject. In other aspects, the device can be implanted. Since the device is sized to be associated with a living subject such that it does not substantially affect the activity of the living subject, the appearance of the device has dimensions such that when used by, for example, a human object, the object will not be acted upon. What is the difference in ability. Thus, in these aspects, the device is sized such that its size and shape do not interfere with the body's ability to move. The device of the present invention can have a size that provides functionality when applied to, for example, a body part as described above. In this case, the total volume of the device is 50 cm 3 or less, for example 30 cm 3 or less, including 25 cm 3 or less, for example 20 cm 3 or less. In certain aspects, the device has a small size, wherein in some aspects the device occupies a volume of space of about 5 cm 3 or less, such as about 3 cm 3 or less, including about 1 cm 3 or less. The device of the present invention can have a longest dimension of 30 cm or less, such as 20 cm or less, including 15 cm or less.

儘管接收器的尺寸小,但該裝置可長時間操作。因此,該接收器可操作一週或更長的時間,例如兩週或更長,包括一個月或更長,三個月或更長,六個月或更長,包括十二個月或更長。為提供延長時間之操作並鑑於該接收器的小尺寸,該裝置係用於低功率消耗。低功率消耗意謂該裝置24小時的平均電力消耗為1mA或更低,例如100 μA或更低,包括10 μA或更低。當該接收器處於閒置模式(以下將更詳細描述)時,其平均電流消耗為100 μA或更低,例如10 μA或更低,包括1μA或更低。當該接收器處於儲存模式(以下將更詳細描述)時,其平均電流消耗為10μA或更低,例如1μA或更低,包括0.1 μA或更低。在一些狀況下,當該接收器處於活動狀態(以下將更詳細描述)時,其電流消耗介於3μA至30 mA,例如30μA至3 mA,包括30μA至300μA。Although the size of the receiver is small, the device can be operated for a long time. Therefore, the receiver can operate for a week or longer, such as two weeks or longer, including one month or longer, three months or longer, six months or longer, including twelve months or longer. . To provide extended time operation and in view of the small size of the receiver, the device is used for low power consumption. Low power consumption means that the device has an average power consumption of 1 mA or less for 24 hours, such as 100 μA or less, including 10 μA or less. When the receiver is in idle mode (described in more detail below), its average current consumption is 100 μA or less, such as 10 μA or less, including 1 μA or less. When the receiver is in a storage mode (described in more detail below), its average current consumption is 10 μA or less, such as 1 μA or less, including 0.1 μA or less. In some cases, when the receiver is active (described in more detail below), its current draw is between 3 μA and 30 mA, such as 30 μA to 3 mA, including 30 μA to 300 μA.

在某些方面,本發明之接收器為信號接收器。信號接收器為用於接收另一裝置之信號的裝置,例如越體導通傳輸信號(以下將更詳細描述)。若接收器為信號接收器,該接收器可經配置而接收可攝取事件標記發射信號,以下將更詳細描述。In some aspects, the receiver of the present invention is a signal receiver. The signal receiver is a device for receiving signals from another device, such as a transconductance transmission signal (described in more detail below). If the receiver is a signal receiver, the receiver can be configured to receive an ingestible event marker transmit signal, as described in more detail below.

本發明之接收器可包括各類不同模組,其係用於例如經由硬體及/或軟體而實施該裝置的一或多項功能。模組係由共同實施特定功能之一或多個功能區塊組成,該特定功能即該模組之目的。特定模組可由硬體、軟體或其組合而予完成。以下將更詳細地檢視出現於本發明之接收器中的模組。The receiver of the present invention can include a variety of different modules for implementing one or more functions of the device, such as via hardware and/or software. A module is composed of one or more functional blocks that jointly implement a specific function, which is the purpose of the module. The particular module can be completed by hardware, software, or a combination thereof. The modules present in the receiver of the present invention will be examined in more detail below.

該裝置之觀點包括高功率-低功率模組。高功率-低功率模組為包括高功率功能區塊及低功率功能區塊之模組。低功率功能區塊意謂實施處理並需要低電流消耗及電力消耗之功能區塊。低功率功能區塊實施至少一項分立的功能─例如需要非高性能處理之功能,該等功能之範例包括維持閒置狀態、監控匯流排、等候例如中斷信號之信號發生等。有興趣之低功率功能區塊為獲得10 μA或更少電流之功能區塊,包括1 μA或更少。高功率功能區塊意謂實施較高性能處理,需要較低功率功能區塊更大電流消耗及電力消耗之功能區塊。高功率功能區塊實施至少一項分立的功能,例如處理導通傳輸信號、處理接收的生理資料等。較大計算處理可包含例如執行數位信號處理演算(例如有限脈衝響應(FIR)濾波器、快速傅立葉轉換(FFT)等)。高功率功能區塊之範例為獲得30 μA或更多電流之功能區塊,例如50 μA或更多以實施其指定之功能。The device's perspective includes high power-low power modules. The high power-low power module is a module including a high power functional block and a low power functional block. The low power functional block means a functional block that implements processing and requires low current consumption and power consumption. The low power functional block implements at least one discrete function - for example, a function that requires non-high performance processing, examples of which include maintaining an idle state, monitoring a bus, waiting for a signal such as an interrupt signal to occur. Interested low-power functional blocks are functional blocks that achieve currents of 10 μA or less, including 1 μA or less. The high power functional block means a functional block that implements higher performance processing and requires more current consumption and power consumption in lower power functional blocks. The high power functional block implements at least one discrete function, such as processing the transmitted signal, processing the received physiological data, and the like. Larger computational processing may include, for example, performing digital signal processing calculus (eg, finite impulse response (FIR) filters, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), etc.). An example of a high power functional block is a functional block that achieves 30 μA or more of current, such as 50 μA or more to perform its specified function.

低及高功率功能區塊可以不同方式完成。例如,低及高功率功能區塊可於獨立的處理器上完成,或可完成成為其他組態中系統芯片(SOC)結構之獨立電路元件。有關有興趣之硬體完成的進一步細節提供如下。有興趣之接收器包括至少一低功率功能區塊及至少一高功率功能區塊。在一些情況下,接收器將視需要包括其餘的低及/或高功率功能區塊,以完成特定接收器。Low and high power functional blocks can be done in different ways. For example, low and high power functional blocks can be implemented on separate processors or can be implemented as separate circuit components for system-on-chip (SOC) architectures in other configurations. Further details regarding the completion of the hardware of interest are provided below. The receiver of interest includes at least one low power functional block and at least one high power functional block. In some cases, the receiver will include the remaining low and/or high power functional blocks as needed to complete a particular receiver.

本發明之接收器亦可包括中介模組,其係用於在活動及不活動狀態之間循環高功率功能區塊。活動狀態意謂一種狀態,其中功能區塊係實施其指定的一或多項功能,例如解調及/或處理所接收之信號,產生生理資料等。不活動狀態意謂一種狀態,其中功能區塊未實施其指定的一或多項功能,該不活動狀態可為閒置或睡眠狀態,例如功能區塊獲得最小電流(例如1 μA或更小,包括0.1μA或更小),或為關閉狀態,其中功能區塊未獲得電流。「循環」意謂中介模組於活動及不活動狀態之間轉變高功率功能區塊。換言之,中介模組將功能區塊之狀態從活動改變為不活動,反之亦然。中介模組可依據不同輸入而使高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環,例如預定排程(例如由接收器之程式設計提供),或應用的刺激。在一些情況下,中介模組可依據預定排程而使高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環。例如中介模組可每20秒使高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環,例如每10秒,及包括每5秒。在一些情況下,中介模組可依據應用的刺激而使高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環,例如收到導通傳輸信號,回應一或多個預定生理參數,回應使用者指令(例如經由按下接收器上操作按鈕或發送指令信號予接收器而完成)等。The receiver of the present invention may also include an intermediation module for cycling high power functional blocks between active and inactive states. An active state means a state in which a functional block performs one or more of its specified functions, such as demodulating and/or processing a received signal, generating physiological data, and the like. An inactive state means a state in which a functional block does not implement its specified one or more functions, which may be an idle or sleep state, such as a functional block obtaining a minimum current (eg, 1 μA or less, including 0.1) μA or less), or in the off state, where the functional block does not receive current. "Circulation" means that the mediation module transitions high-power functional blocks between active and inactive states. In other words, the mediation module changes the state of the functional block from active to inactive, and vice versa. The mediation module can cycle high-power functional blocks between active and inactive states depending on different inputs, such as scheduled schedules (eg, provided by the programmer's programming), or application stimuli. In some cases, the mediation module can cycle the high power functional blocks between active and inactive states in accordance with a predetermined schedule. For example, the mediation module can cycle high-power functional blocks between active and inactive states every 20 seconds, such as every 10 seconds, and every 5 seconds. In some cases, the mediation module can cycle the high-power functional block between active and inactive states depending on the stimulus of the application, such as receiving a conduction signal, responding to one or more predetermined physiological parameters, and responding to the user command. (For example, by pressing an operation button on the receiver or sending a command signal to the receiver).

接收器可經配置而具有各式狀態─例如閒置狀態或一或多個活動狀態。因此,中介模組可依據裝置於特定時間之所需功能而視需要使高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環。在活動狀態下,接收器係實施一或多項主動功能,例如接收信號、處理信號、傳輸信號、獲得生理資料、處理生理資料等。在閒置狀態下,接收器獲得最小電流,例如上述。在閒置狀態下,接收器可實施最小功能以使電流消耗最小,例如維持組態、維持睡眠模式等。然而,在閒置狀態下,接收器並未實施需要超過最小電流消耗之功能。中介模組可依據不同輸入而使接收器在活動及閒置狀態之間循環,例如預定排程(例如經由接收器程式設計提供),或應用的刺激,例如上述。The receiver can be configured to have various states - such as an idle state or one or more active states. Therefore, the mediation module can cycle the high power functional blocks between active and inactive states as needed depending on the desired function of the device at a particular time. In the active state, the receiver implements one or more active functions, such as receiving signals, processing signals, transmitting signals, obtaining physiological data, processing physiological data, and the like. In the idle state, the receiver obtains a minimum current, such as the above. In the idle state, the receiver can implement a minimum function to minimize current consumption, such as maintaining configuration, maintaining sleep mode, and the like. However, in the idle state, the receiver does not implement a function that requires exceeding the minimum current consumption. The mediation module can cycle the receiver between active and idle states depending on the input, such as a predetermined schedule (eg, via receiver programming), or an applied stimulus, such as described above.

有興趣之接收器可經配置而實施越體導通信號(例如IEM或智慧型腸外裝置信號)檢測協定。該等裝置可視為信號接收器。越體導通信號檢測協定為一些程序其中信號接收器處於可接收由IEM或智慧型腸外裝置發射之信號,並視需要處理該信號,例如經由實施一或多項工作,例如下列更詳細描述之將該信號解碼、儲存打上時戳及重新傳輸。Interested receivers can be configured to implement a transconductance signal (eg, an IEM or a smart parenteral device signal) detection protocol. These devices can be considered as signal receivers. The transceiving signal detection protocol is a procedure in which the signal receiver is in a signal that can be transmitted by an IEM or a smart parenteral device and processes the signal as needed, for example by performing one or more tasks, such as described in more detail below. The signal is decoded, stored, time stamped, and retransmitted.

有興趣之接收器,例如信號接收器當處於活動狀態時亦可經配置而實施生理資料檢測協定,例如下列更詳細描述之獲得ECG資料、加速計資料、溫度資料等。Interested receivers, such as signal receivers, may also be configured to implement physiological data detection protocols when active, such as obtaining ECG data, accelerometer data, temperature data, etc., as described in more detail below.

請參照圖1、1A及1B,描繪本發明之接收器之一實施例。接收器100顯示位於活體對象102之上。接收器100顯示附著於活體對象102之左半部。然而,本發明之範圍並不侷限於活體對象102上之接收器100的位置。Referring to Figures 1, 1A and 1B, an embodiment of a receiver of the present invention is depicted. The receiver 100 is displayed above the living object 102. The receiver 100 is shown attached to the left half of the living object 102. However, the scope of the present invention is not limited to the position of the receiver 100 on the living object 102.

請參照圖1A,接收器100包括電力單元或電源200、包括電極202A之操作單元202、操作或處理單元204及記憶體單元206。接收器100亦包括電力管理模組,其控制電力消耗。接收器100可使用傳輸模組210而與其他附近裝置通訊。再者,接收器100可包括各式特徵,例如用於接收器100之方位檢測的加速計。在對象躺下或處於水平位置之狀況下,接收器100可檢測對象所保持之該位置及期間。Referring to FIG. 1A, the receiver 100 includes a power unit or power source 200, an operating unit 202 including an electrode 202A, an operation or processing unit 204, and a memory unit 206. Receiver 100 also includes a power management module that controls power consumption. Receiver 100 can communicate with other nearby devices using transmission module 210. Moreover, receiver 100 can include various features, such as an accelerometer for orientation detection of receiver 100. In the event that the subject is lying down or in a horizontal position, the receiver 100 can detect the location and duration held by the object.

此外,接收器100可進一步包括一或多項獨特的生理參數感應能力。生理參數感應能力意謂感應生理參數或生物標記之能力,但不限於:心率、呼吸速率、溫度、壓力及流體化學成分,例如血液分析檢測、流體狀態、血液流速、加速計動作資料、心電圖(IEGM)資料等。Additionally, receiver 100 can further include one or more unique physiological parameter sensing capabilities. Physiological parameter sensing capability means the ability to sense physiological parameters or biomarkers, but is not limited to: heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, pressure, and fluid chemistry, such as blood analysis, fluid status, blood flow rate, accelerometer motion data, and electrocardiogram ( IEGM) information, etc.

因此,接收器100可包括生理參數測量工具,使能判斷對象係單純的躺下或係歷經一些醫療狀況而使其待在該位置。例如,對象曾心臟病發作,而接收器100可檢測此狀況並與加速計212之資訊結合,接收器100將可判斷病人具有潛在的嚴重醫療狀況。其他的狀況將包括對象癲癇發作。加速計212將提供資訊給接收器100,且來自加速計212之該資訊與測量生理參數結合,允許接收器100判斷醫療狀況發生而需即時注意。Thus, the receiver 100 can include a physiological parameter measurement tool that enables the determination of the subject to simply lie down or to stay in that position after some medical condition. For example, if the subject has a heart attack and the receiver 100 can detect this condition and combine with the information of the accelerometer 212, the receiver 100 will be able to determine that the patient has a potentially serious medical condition. Other conditions will include subject seizures. The accelerometer 212 will provide information to the receiver 100, and the information from the accelerometer 212 is combined with the measured physiological parameters to allow the receiver 100 to determine that a medical condition has occurred with immediate attention.

請參照圖1B,電力管理模組208包括高功率操作模組300、中功率操作模組302及低功率操作模組304。電力管理模組208經由閃燈切換模組306控制供應予接收器100之組件的電力。閃燈切換模組306產生一信號,允許電力管理模組208依據接收器100之各式模組及單元所提供之資訊而將接收器之狀態從主動轉換為主動非操作以停止作業。Referring to FIG. 1B , the power management module 208 includes a high power operation module 300 , a medium power operation module 302 , and a low power operation module 304 . The power management module 208 controls the power supplied to the components of the receiver 100 via the flash switching module 306. The flash switching module 306 generates a signal that allows the power management module 208 to switch the state of the receiver from active to active non-operation to stop the operation based on the information provided by the various modules and units of the receiver 100.

如上述,在圖1之實施例中,接收器100將依據環境所提供之資訊而從一種狀態改變為另一種狀態。在閒置或不活動狀態,接收器100不實施任何主動功能並保持閒置。接收器100可依據將實施之必要功能而於不活動狀態及其他狀態之間轉換。依據該功能,中功率操作模組可使接收器100於不活動狀態(例如閒置)及活動狀態之間循環。例如,當接收器100從不活動狀態轉變為檢測或活動非操作以收集ECG及/或加速計資料時,中介模組便使接收器100從不活動(例如閒置)狀態循環為活動狀態。當接收器100完成收集ECG及加速計資料時,中介模組便使接收器100循環返回至不活動(例如閒置狀態),而接收器100便返回至不活動狀態。As described above, in the embodiment of FIG. 1, the receiver 100 will change from one state to another depending on the information provided by the environment. In an idle or inactive state, the receiver 100 does not implement any active functions and remains idle. Receiver 100 can transition between inactive and other states depending on the functions that will be implemented. According to this function, the medium power operation module can cause the receiver 100 to cycle between an inactive state (e.g., idle) and an active state. For example, when the receiver 100 transitions from an inactive state to a detected or active non-operation to collect ECG and/or accelerometer data, the mediation module cycles the receiver 100 from an inactive (eg, idle) state to an active state. When the receiver 100 completes collecting the ECG and accelerometer data, the mediation module loops the receiver 100 back to inactive (eg, idle state) and the receiver 100 returns to an inactive state.

當接收器100從不活動狀態轉變為活動非操作狀況之側錄狀態以掃瞄與離子發射相關之資料傳輸信號(例如使用之後將詳細說明之側錄模組)而產生具編碼為其一部分之資料傳輸的電流或與無線通訊相關之檢測時,中介模組便將接收器100從不活動(例如閒置)狀態循環為活動非操作狀態。若接收器100於此掃瞄或側錄期間接收信號,接收器100接著便進入活動操作狀態,且圖1B之高功率操作模組300便供應電力予圖1A中所有之操作單元202、處理單元204及記憶體單元206。接著接收器100便於活動操作狀態處理該信號,例如之後將詳細說明之解調、附加時間標記及儲存信號。當接收器100完成信號處理時,電力管理模組208便使接收器100循環回至不活動(例如閒置狀態),且接收器100便返回至不活動狀態。When the receiver 100 transitions from an inactive state to a side-by-side state of an active non-operational condition to scan a data transmission signal associated with the ion emission (eg, a side-recording module as will be described later), the encoding is generated as part of it. When the data is transmitted or detected in connection with wireless communication, the mediation module cycles the receiver 100 from an inactive (e.g., idle) state to an active inoperative state. If the receiver 100 receives a signal during the scanning or skimming, the receiver 100 then enters an active operating state, and the high-power operating module 300 of FIG. 1B supplies power to all of the operating units 202 and processing units of FIG. 1A. 204 and memory unit 206. The receiver 100 then facilitates processing of the signal in an active operational state, such as demodulation, additional time stamping, and storage of signals as will be described in detail later. When the receiver 100 completes the signal processing, the power management module 208 causes the receiver 100 to loop back to inactive (eg, idle) and the receiver 100 returns to an inactive state.

在一些方面,例如活動非操作狀態130對於圖1之對象102中通訊模組之資料傳輸信號的掃瞄,接收器100循環至活動非操作狀態不需高功率。在該等狀況下,在檢測解調及解碼之信號之前並無高功率需求。In some aspects, such as active non-operational state 130 for scanning of data transmission signals of communication modules in object 102 of FIG. 1, no high power is required for receiver 100 to cycle to an active inoperative state. Under these conditions, there is no high power requirement before detecting the demodulated and decoded signals.

依據本發明之理論,接收器100之信號接收器觀點可經配置而接收導通傳輸信號。導通傳輸信號可為一種信號,其係來自一裝置之導通傳輸信號,該裝置使用經由控制釋放質量從固體進入傳導溶液或流體之離子發射而導通地傳輸信號通過身體。該信號係由離子發射模組、可攝取事件標記(IEM)或智慧型腸外遞送系統產生。有興趣之可攝取事件標記包括下列文件中所描述者:公開為WO/2006/116718之案號PCT/US2006/016370之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/052136之案號PCT/US2007/082563之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/063626之案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/066617之案號PCT/US2007/022257之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/095183之案號PCT/US2008/052845之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/101107之案號PCT/US2008/053999之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/112577之案號PCT/US2008/056296之PCT申請案;公開為WO/2008/112578之案號PCT/US2008/056299之PCT申請案;及公開為WO 2009/042812之案號PCT/US2008/077753之PCT申請案;各申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。智慧型腸外遞送系統係於公開為WO 2008/008281之案號PCT/US2007/015547之PCT申請案中描述,該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。In accordance with the teachings of the present invention, the signal receiver perspective of receiver 100 can be configured to receive a conduction signal. The turn-on transmission signal can be a signal that is a conduction signal from a device that conducts a signal through the body using ion conduction through a controlled release mass from a solid into a conductive solution or fluid. The signal is generated by an ion emitting module, an ingestible event marker (IEM), or a smart parenteral delivery system. Interested ingestible event markers include those described in the following documents: PCT Application No. PCT/US2006/016370, filed as WO/2006/116, s. PCT Application; PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225 to WO/2008/063, PCT; PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/022257, the disclosure of which is WO/2008 PCT Application No. PCT/US2008/052, PCT Application No. PCT/US2008/053, PCT Application No. PCT/US2008/053 PCT Application; PCT Application No. PCT/US2008/056299, filed on PCT/US2008/ 056 299, filed on PCT/US2008/077 This is incorporated herein by reference. The intelligent parenteral delivery system is described in PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/015547, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

由於該些觀點之接收器係用於接收經由導通流體而編碼於電流中之資料,該接收器及發射信號之裝置(例如IEM)使用做為通訊媒體之活體。為使用身體作為信號之通訊媒體,體液便作為傳導流體,且病人之身體作為通訊傳導媒體。因此,信號便於離子發射裝置及任何其他信號發射裝置之間傳輸,且例如圖1之接收器100的接收器便行進通過對象102之身體。有興趣之導通傳輸信號可以導通通過身體組織之交流(a.c.)電壓信號形式傳輸通過並從對象身體之皮膚及其他身體組織接收。結果,該等接收器於發射信號之裝置與接收器之間不需任何附加電纜或硬線連接。Since the receiver of these views is for receiving data encoded in a current via a conducting fluid, the receiver and the device that transmits the signal (e.g., IEM) use the living body as a communication medium. In order to use the body as a communication medium for signals, body fluid acts as a conductive fluid, and the patient's body acts as a communication medium. Thus, the signal facilitates transmission between the ion emitting device and any other signal transmitting device, and the receiver of the receiver 100, such as FIG. 1, travels through the body of the subject 102. The conductive transmission signal of interest can be transmitted through the alternating (a.c.) voltage signal of the body tissue and received from the skin of the subject body and other body tissues. As a result, the receivers do not require any additional cable or hardwire connection between the device that transmits the signal and the receiver.

由於信號接收器係用於接收導通傳輸信號,其可包括越體導通通訊模組。越體導通通訊模組為用於接收導通傳輸信號(例如IEM發射之信號)之功能模組。例如上述,越體導通通訊模組而視需要而以高功率功能區塊完成。在一些情況下,越體導通通訊模組接收之信號為編碼信號,意即該信號業經一些方式調變(例如使用雙相移鍵控(BPSK)、頻移鍵控(FSK)、幅移鍵控(ASK)等協定)。在該等狀況下,接收器及其越體導通通訊模組係經配置而解碼所接收之編碼信號,例如可攝取事件標記發射之信號。接收器可用於解碼低信雜比(SNR)環境中之編碼信號,例如除了有興趣之信號外尚存在大量雜訊,例如具有7.7 dB或更低之SNR的環境。接收器可進一步用於解碼基本上無錯誤之編碼信號。在某些方面,信號接收器具有高編碼增益,例如範圍介於6 dB至12 dB之編碼增益,範圍介於8 dB至10 dB之編碼增益,包括9 dB之編碼增益。本發明觀點之信號接收器可解碼基本上無錯誤之編碼信號,例如具有10%錯誤或更少。Since the signal receiver is for receiving the conduction transmission signal, it may include a transconductance communication module. The transceiving communication module is a functional module for receiving a conduction signal (for example, a signal transmitted by an IEM). For example, in the above, the communication module is turned on and the high power function block is completed as needed. In some cases, the signal received by the transceiving communication module is an encoded signal, that is, the signal is modulated in some manner (for example, using dual phase shift keying (BPSK), frequency shift keying (FSK), amplitude shifting keys. Agreements such as control (ASK)). In such situations, the receiver and its transceiving communication module are configured to decode the received encoded signal, such as a signal that can be ingested by an event marker. The receiver can be used to decode coded signals in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environment, such as a large amount of noise in addition to signals of interest, such as an environment with an SNR of 7.7 dB or less. The receiver can be further used to decode a substantially error-free encoded signal. In some aspects, the signal receiver has a high coding gain, such as a coding gain ranging from 6 dB to 12 dB, with a coding gain ranging from 8 dB to 10 dB, including a coding gain of 9 dB. The signal receiver of the present invention can decode a substantially error-free encoded signal, for example with a 10% error or less.

在該些方面,所接收之信號被編碼,例如所接收之信號為編碼IEM信號,越體導通通訊模組可經配置而以至少一解調協定來處理所接收之信號,其中越體導通通訊模組可視需要而以二種或二種以上、三種或三種以上、四種或四種以上等不同解調協定經配置而處理所接收之信號。當使用二種或二種以上不同解調協定來處理特定編碼信號時,該些協定可視需要而同步或依序執行。可使用任何方便之解調協定來處理所接收之信號。有興趣之解調協定包括但不限於:科斯塔斯回路解調(例如公開為WO 2008/063626之案號PCT/US07/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文);同調解調(例如公開為WO 2008/063626之案號PCT/US07/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文);精確、低開銷疊代解調(例如公開為WO 2008/063626之案號PCT/US07/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文);非同調解調;及差分同調解調。In such aspects, the received signal is encoded, for example, the received signal is a coded IEM signal, and the transceiving communication module can be configured to process the received signal with at least one demodulation protocol, wherein the transceiving communication The module can be configured to process the received signals in two or more, three or more, four or more different demodulation protocols as needed. When two or more different demodulation protocols are used to process a particular coded signal, the protocols may be synchronized or sequentially performed as needed. The received signal can be processed using any convenient demodulation protocol. Demodulation protocols of interest include, but are not limited to, Costas loop demodulation (for example, as described in PCT Application No. PCT/US07/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. In this regard, incorporated by reference herein; the same as the PCT application of PCT/US07/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Included in the PCT Application No. PCT/US07/024225, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Incorporated herein; non-coherent demodulation; and differential coherent demodulation.

在一些情況下,使用同調解調協定。在同調解調模組可用於接收器之方面,其包括但不限於案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文。In some cases, a coherent demodulation protocol is used. The coherent demodulation module can be used in the context of a receiver, which includes, but is not limited to, those described in the PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

在一些情況下,使用差分同調解調協定。差分同調解調比較雙相移鍵控(BPSK)解調信號中鄰近位元之相位。例如11001010之8位元二進位碼將導致0101111之差分信號。由於該技術影響鄰近位元間之相位差,針對信號頻率不穩定性及偏移,其本就較同調解調方案更紮實。In some cases, a differential coherent demodulation protocol is used. Differential coherent demodulation compares the phase of adjacent bits in a dual phase shift keying (BPSK) demodulated signal. For example, an 8-bit binary code of 11001010 will result in a differential signal of 0101111. Since this technique affects the phase difference between adjacent bits, it is more solid than the coherent demodulation scheme for signal frequency instability and offset.

同調解調Coherent demodulation

在某些實施例中,實施存在加性高斯白雜訊之BPSK解調,以使使用同調解調之誤碼率(BER)最小。In some embodiments, BPSK demodulation with additive white Gaussian noise is implemented to minimize the bit error rate (BER) using coherent demodulation.

在該些實施例中,活躍的傳送器有助於接收器同調解調程序,其係於BPSK調變的每一脈衝之「前沿」發送指引載波。該協定提供全振幅之穩定載波及相應於0位元之傳輸的參考相位。前沿的存在為接收器提供有用的檢測標示以及準確估計載波頻率及相位之大量載波循環。In these embodiments, the active transmitter facilitates the receiver coherent demodulation procedure, which is coupled to the "leading edge" of each pulse of the BPSK modulation. The agreement provides a full amplitude stable carrier and a reference phase corresponding to the transmission of 0 bits. The presence of the leading edge provides the receiver with a useful detection signature and a large number of carrier cycles that accurately estimate the carrier frequency and phase.

其餘的實際運用係由載波頻率構成以簡化數據傳輸率之衍生。傳輸之信號經格式化而具有可整除載波頻率之數據時鐘頻率。此允許每當載波獲得完成時簡單快速的獲得數據時鐘。The rest of the actual application is made up of carrier frequencies to simplify the derivation of data rates. The transmitted signal is formatted to have a data clock frequency that is divisible by the carrier frequency. This allows a simple and fast data clock to be obtained each time the carrier acquisition is completed.

在某些實施例中接收器以約4倍載波頻率之速率取樣匯入信號。該信號係以直接數位合成器(DDS)混合設定為額定載波頻率以製造複合基帶(實及虛分量)。混頻器之輸出經低通濾波並整數倍降低取樣率。由於載波震盪器不確定性及躍頻顫動,低通濾波器頻寬必須夠寬以捕捉頻帶中之頻率。BPSK之頻率後續處於具有+/-20%頻率準確度之0 Hz附近。In some embodiments the receiver samples the incoming signal at a rate of about 4 times the carrier frequency. The signal is set to a nominal carrier frequency by direct digital synthesizer (DDS) mixing to produce a composite baseband (real and imaginary components). The output of the mixer is low pass filtered and reduces the sampling rate by an integer multiple. Due to carrier oscillator uncertainty and frequency jitter, the low pass filter bandwidth must be wide enough to capture the frequency in the frequency band. The frequency of BPSK is subsequently around 0 Hz with +/- 20% frequency accuracy.

接收器使複合基帶BPSK信號成方形以製造強的雙頻線路。前沿信號及後續BPSK調變均有助於該線路。成方形之複合時域信號使用快速傅立葉轉換(FFT)被轉換為頻域。峰值能量箱經判明為2×載波頻率。該頻率被除以二以使用1024點FFT而提供約0.1 %準確度之載波補償頻率的估計。The receiver squares the composite baseband BPSK signal to create a strong dual frequency line. Both the leading edge signal and subsequent BPSK modulation contribute to the line. The squared composite time domain signal is converted to the frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The peak energy box was identified as 2 x carrier frequency. This frequency is divided by two to provide an estimate of the carrier compensation frequency of approximately 0.1% accuracy using a 1024 point FFT.

複合基帶信號接著以確定的補償頻率進行第二次混頻。窄頻低通濾波後之結果為具0.1%準確度且集中於0 Hz之複合BPSK信號。窄頻低通濾波器之頻寬相應於BPSK信號之一半頻寬。The composite baseband signal is then subjected to a second mixing at a determined compensation frequency. The result of narrow-band low-pass filtering is a composite BPSK signal with 0.1% accuracy and concentrated at 0 Hz. The bandwidth of the narrowband low pass filter corresponds to one half bandwidth of the BPSK signal.

接著汲取前沿信號。經由首先計算前沿中所有取樣點之相位(phi=反正切(虛值/實值))而決定頻率補償,接著使用適於線路之最小均方值來估計phi相對於時間之斜率。線路之斜率相應於剩餘頻率補償。複合基帶信號接經第三次混頻以移除具優於0.01%準確度之頻率補償。Then take the leading edge signal. The frequency compensation is determined by first calculating the phase of all sampling points in the leading edge (phi = arctangent (virtual value / real value)), and then using the minimum mean square value suitable for the line to estimate the slope of phi with respect to time. The slope of the line corresponds to the residual frequency compensation. The composite baseband signal is subjected to a third mixing to remove frequency compensation with better than 0.01% accuracy.

接著平均複合信號前沿以決定平均虛值及實值。反正切(平均虛值/平均實值)提供前沿相位。依據此相位而計算旋轉因子以將BPSK旋轉270度至具前沿之虛軸。The composite signal front is then averaged to determine the average imaginary and real values. The arctangent (average imaginary/average real value) provides the leading edge phase. The twiddle factor is calculated based on this phase to rotate BPSK by 270 degrees to the imaginary axis with the leading edge.

接著在整個旋轉之BPSK信號上實施第二平均,以判明90度(資料=1)之重心,且BPSK以類似方式旋轉至虛軸中心。接著截割虛分量信號以汲取該資料。A second average is then performed over the entire rotated BPSK signal to determine the center of gravity of 90 degrees (data = 1), and BPSK is rotated in a similar manner to the center of the imaginary axis. The imaginary component signal is then intercepted to capture the data.

以數據時鐘選通截割之資料,該數據時鐘係源於先前決定之載波頻率及有關於載波頻率對數據時鐘頻率之整數因子的先天知識。Data is clocked by the data clock, which is derived from the previously determined carrier frequency and innate knowledge of the integer factor of the carrier frequency versus the data clock frequency.

在上述協定的實施例中,假定載波頻率在整個脈衝期間均保持頻率及相位的充分準確度。In the above-described agreed embodiment, it is assumed that the carrier frequency maintains sufficient accuracy of frequency and phase throughout the pulse period.

可用於接收器之實施例中同調解調模組之觀點包括但不限於:案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文。The views of the coherent demodulation module in the embodiment of the receiver include, but are not limited to, those described in PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. This article.

精確、低開銷疊代(overhead iterative)解碼Accurate, low overhead iterative decoding

在某些實施例中,接收器包括精確、低開銷疊代解碼器,文中亦稱為通訊解碼器。儘管由於雜訊及其他因素而存在顯著的信號失真,通訊解碼器仍以簡單、確切及有成本效益的方式提供高精確通訊。通訊解碼器使用錯誤修正碼及簡單、疊代程序而達成解碼結果。通訊解碼器可橫跨多重、多樣應用以實現低成本、高編碼增益。In some embodiments, the receiver includes an accurate, low overhead iterative decoder, also referred to herein as a communication decoder. Despite significant signal distortion due to noise and other factors, the communication decoder provides highly accurate communication in a simple, accurate and cost effective manner. The communication decoder uses the error correction code and a simple, iterative program to achieve the decoding result. Communication decoders can span multiple, diverse applications for low cost, high coding gain.

概括地說,通訊解碼器之實施例提供用於資料通訊之解碼能力。通訊解碼器之實施例提供具最小開銷之高編碼增益。在一些情況下,通訊解碼器有助於資料傳輸率接近理論最大值(向農限制)及最小處理開銷。低開銷確保成本效益的完成。本發明的各式完成包括硬體、軟體及電路。In summary, embodiments of the communication decoder provide decoding capabilities for data communication. Embodiments of the communication decoder provide high coding gain with minimal overhead. In some cases, the communication decoder helps the data transfer rate approach the theoretical maximum (to the agricultural limit) and the minimum processing overhead. Low overhead ensures cost-effective completion. Various finishes of the invention include hardware, software, and circuitry.

本發明之通訊解碼器的各式實施例使用錯誤修正碼使用簡單、獨特的程序以「驅策」錯誤中與位元相關之測量信號朝向與正確、原始位元相關之測量信號,因而改進識別符合源頭資料編碼之目的資料的可能性,並顯著地改進目的資料的準確度。簡單、獨特的程序有助於有效率的完成。與簡單、獨特的程序相關之低開銷使成本最低。經由使用本發明之疊代通訊解碼器,LDPC解碼一點也不複雜。Various embodiments of the communication decoder of the present invention use error correction codes to use a simple, unique procedure to "drive" the measurement signals associated with the bits in the error toward the measurement signals associated with the correct, original bits, thereby improving identification compliance. The source data encodes the purpose of the data and significantly improves the accuracy of the data of interest. Simple, unique procedures help to complete efficiently. The low overhead associated with simple, unique procedures minimizes costs. LDPC decoding is not at all complicated by using the iterative communication decoder of the present invention.

通常,解碼器模組經由下列技術的變化而產生解碼的資料。若無雜訊存在,對編碼資料的每一位元組而言,與編碼資料相關的一組測量信號可四捨五入至最近的最可能之測量,例如至最近的傳輸符號。該組傳輸符號被轉換為一組硬編碼決策值。在該組硬編碼決策值上實施錯誤檢查。該組測量信號係依據該組硬編碼決策值之錯誤檢查的結果而予調整。上述作業係在所有編碼資料的測量信號組之傳遞過程中實施,直至符合預定停止狀況為止。更詳細之討論如下。Typically, the decoder module produces decoded data via changes in the following techniques. If no noise is present, for each tuple of encoded data, a set of measurement signals associated with the encoded data can be rounded to the nearest most likely measurement, for example to the most recent transmission symbol. The set of transmission symbols is converted into a set of hard coded decision values. An error check is performed on the set of hard coded decision values. The set of measurement signals is adjusted based on the results of the error check of the set of hard coded decision values. The above operation is carried out during the transfer of the measurement signal groups of all coded data until the predetermined stop condition is met. A more detailed discussion is as follows.

可用於接收器之實施例的精確、低開銷疊代解碼模組之觀點包括但不限於案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案中所描述者,該申請案中所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文。The idea of an accurate, low-overhead iterative decoding module that can be used in embodiments of the receiver includes, but is not limited to, those described in the PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference. The way is incorporated herein.

前項糾錯Error correction in the preceding paragraph

在某些實施例中,接收器係連同使用前項糾錯(FEC)之體內傳送器使用而提供額外增益以對抗來自其他不希望之信號及雜訊的干擾。該糾錯在傳送器及接收器中是簡單的,並提供高編碼增益。該功能性係使用單一同位檢查產品碼及新穎軟輸入軟輸出(SISO)疊代解碼演算法而達成。In some embodiments, the receiver provides additional gain in conjunction with the use of the in-vivo transmitter of the previous item Error Correction (FEC) to combat interference from other unwanted signals and noise. This error correction is simple in the transmitter and receiver and provides high coding gain. This functionality is achieved using a single parity check product code and a novel soft input soft output (SISO) iterative decoding algorithm.

傳送器經由將信息以列及行配置而予編碼。每一列具有一附加的同位位元,每一行類似地具有一附加的同位位元。例如,100個位元信息可配置於10 x 10位元陣列中。同位位元可相加以製造最終之11 x 11位元陣列,其接著將於使用BPSK之通道上傳輸。對額外的增益而言,便可使用額外的維度,例如若係製造立方體以配置信息及同位位元則為3。The transmitter is encoded by arranging the information in columns and rows. Each column has an additional co-located bit, and each row similarly has an additional co-located bit. For example, 100 bit information can be configured in a 10 x 10 bit array. The parity bits can be added to produce a final 11 x 11 bit array that will then be transmitted over the channel using BPSK. For additional gain, additional dimensions can be used, for example, if the cube is fabricated with configuration information and the parity bit is 3.

接收器經由疊代程序而解碼信息以獲致高編碼增益。每一位元係以「軟」形式取樣及儲存。假定理想的取樣(即硬決定點)正常為-1及+1,那麼所接收之位元將介於-2.0及+2.0之間。硬決定係於所有的取樣及同位檢查上進行。若列或行具有同位誤差,該列或行之取樣將經由小差量而自其相應硬決定點剔除。若列或行不具有同位誤差,該列或行之取樣將經由小差量而被吸引至其相應硬決定點。使用適當選擇之差量,依據預期的通道信雜比(SNR),10個疊代通常足以於加性高斯白雜訊(AWGN)上獲致8至10 dB編碼增益。此方法易於以儲存之程式DSP或FPGA/ASIC邏輯完成。對前項糾錯提供特別編碼率而言,其亦進入向農限制的1或2 dB內。The receiver decodes the information via the iterative process to achieve a high coding gain. Each meta-system is sampled and stored in a "soft" form. Assuming that the ideal samples (ie hard decision points) are normally -1 and +1, then the received bits will be between -2.0 and +2.0. Hard decisions are made on all sampling and parity checks. If the column or row has a parity error, the sample of that column or row will be rejected from its corresponding hard decision point via the small amount. If the column or row does not have a parity error, the sample of that column or row will be attracted to its corresponding hard decision point via the small amount. Using an appropriately chosen difference, 10 iterations are typically sufficient to achieve an 8 to 10 dB coding gain on additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), depending on the expected channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This method is easy to implement with stored program DSP or FPGA/ASIC logic. In terms of providing a special coding rate for error correction in the preceding paragraph, it also enters 1 or 2 dB of the limit to agriculture.

可用於接收器之實施例中的前項糾錯模組之觀點包括但不限於公開為WO 2008/063626之案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案,該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。The prior art error correction module in the embodiment of the receiver includes, but is not limited to, the PCT application filed as PCT/US2007/024225 to WO 2008/063, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference. The way is incorporated herein.

閃燈(beacon)功能性模組Beacon functional module

不同的觀點可使用閃燈功能性模組。在不同的方面,閃燈功能性次模組可使用下列一或多項:閃燈喚醒模組、閃燈信號模組、波動/頻率模組、多重頻率模組及調變信號模組。Flashlight functional modules can be used for different perspectives. In different aspects, the flashing functional sub-module can use one or more of the following: a flashing wake-up module, a flashing signal module, a fluctuating/frequency module, a multi-frequency module, and a modulated signal module.

閃燈功能性模組可與閃燈通訊相關,例如閃燈通訊通道、閃燈協定等。為了揭示之目的,閃燈典型地為發送作為信息之一部分的信號或擴大信息(文中有時稱為「閃燈信號」)。閃燈可具有定義明確之特性,例如頻率。閃燈在嘈雜的環境中易於檢測,並可用於觸發側錄電路,如上述。The flash function module can be related to flash communication, such as flash communication channel, flash protocol, and the like. For purposes of disclosure, a flash lamp is typically a signal that transmits a portion of the information or an expanded information (sometimes referred to herein as a "flash signal"). The flash can have well-defined characteristics such as frequency. Flashing lights are easy to detect in noisy environments and can be used to trigger side recording circuits, as described above.

在一方面,閃燈功能性模組可包含具有喚醒功能性之閃燈喚醒模組。喚醒功能性一般包含僅於特定時間以高功率模式操作之功能性,例如接收信號等特定目的之短期間。系統之接收器部分的重要考量為其係低功率。該特徵可為已完成之接收器的優點,以提供小尺寸及維持電池供電長期運作。閃燈喚醒模組可經由使接收器於高功率模式操作達極有限的期間而啟動該些優點。此類短週期循環可提供最佳系統尺寸及能量獲取特徵。In one aspect, the flash function module can include a flash wake-up module with wake-up functionality. Wake-up functionality typically includes functionality that operates in a high power mode only at specific times, such as short periods of a particular purpose, such as receiving a signal. An important consideration in the receiver portion of the system is its low power. This feature can be an advantage of a completed receiver to provide small size and maintain long-term operation of the battery. The flash wake-up module can initiate these advantages by operating the receiver in a high power mode for a very limited period of time. Such short cycle cycles provide the best system size and energy harvesting characteristics.

實際上,接收器可經由例如側錄電路而定期「喚醒」並以低能量消耗實施「側錄功能」。為本申請案之故,「側錄功能」乙詞一般係指短暫、低功率功能以判斷傳送器是否存在。若側錄功能檢測到傳送器信號,該裝置便轉變為較高功率通訊解碼模式。若傳送器信號不存在,接收器便返回,例如立即返回睡眠模式。以此方式,當傳送器信號不存在時,能量便可保存相當長的時間,而當傳送器信號存在時,於極短時間內仍保持高功率能力以進行有效率的解碼模式操作。In fact, the receiver can periodically "wake up" via, for example, a side recording circuit and implement a "side recording function" with low energy consumption. For the purposes of this application, the term "side recording function" generally refers to a short-lived, low-power function to determine the presence of a transmitter. If the skimming function detects the transmitter signal, the device transitions to a higher power communication decoding mode. If the transmitter signal does not exist, the receiver returns, for example, immediately returns to sleep mode. In this way, energy can be stored for a significant amount of time when the transmitter signal is not present, while maintaining high power capability for efficient decoding mode operation in a very short time when the transmitter signal is present.

存在多種模式及其組合可用於操作側錄電路。經由匹配特定系統對於側錄電路組態之需要,便可達成最佳系統。閃燈功能性模組的進一步範例係於案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述,該申請案所揭露者係以提及方式併入本文。There are multiple modes and combinations thereof that can be used to operate the skimming circuit. The best system is achieved by matching the needs of a particular system for the configuration of the skimming circuit. A further example of a strobe functional module is described in the PCT Application Serial No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

躍頻(frequency hopping)功能性模組Frequency hopping functional module

不同的觀點可使用躍頻功能性模組。躍頻功能性模組可與特定通訊通道、躍頻協定等相關。因此,不同的觀點可使用一或多項躍頻協定。例如,接收器可搜尋可實施傳輸之指定的頻率範圍,例如二或多種不同頻率。當達成單一適當解碼時,體內傳送器便完成將其數位資訊負載傳達予接收器之任務。Different points of view can use the hopping functional module. The frequency function module can be related to a specific communication channel, a frequency agreement, and the like. Therefore, different views may use one or more frequency hopping protocols. For example, the receiver can search for a specified frequency range in which the transmission can be implemented, such as two or more different frequencies. When a single appropriate decoding is achieved, the in-vivo transmitter completes the task of communicating its digital information load to the receiver.

在一些情況下,隨機躍頻例如經由隨機模組而提供之傳輸頻率不確定性可製造多項優點。其中一項該等優點例如可輕易地於小晶片上完成。為予描繪,體內傳送器載波頻率震盪器可為不精確之自由運轉震盪器,其可輕易地在1 MM晶片的一小部分上完成。其可輕易地耐受+/-20之準確度。這是因為接收器使用頻率搜尋演算法。In some cases, random frequency hopping, such as transmission frequency uncertainty provided via a random module, can create a number of advantages. One such advantage can be easily accomplished, for example, on a small wafer. For purposes of illustration, the in vivo transmitter carrier frequency oscillator can be an inaccurate free running oscillator that can be easily implemented on a small portion of a 1 MM wafer. It can easily withstand +/- 20 accuracy. This is because the receiver uses a frequency search algorithm.

另一項該等優點可為延長電池壽命。為予描繪,在傳送器電池壽命方面,例如三至十分鐘,由於隨機躍頻,傳送器於可為頻率促變接收器接收之清晰通道上傳輸的可能性顯著提昇。Another such advantage can be to extend battery life. For purposes of illustration, in terms of transmitter battery life, such as three to ten minutes, the likelihood of transmission on a clear channel that can be received by a frequency-accelerated receiver is significantly increased due to random frequency hopping.

再另一項優點為在高容量環境中可使衝突事件最少化。為予描繪,即當例如可攝取事件標記之多個體內傳送器可能同步傳輸時之衝突可能性的最少化,例如在多個可攝取事件標記同時或及短時間內被吞服之狀況。換言之,若無躍頻功能性,類似的大量可攝取事件標記於相同(或幾乎相同)頻率上傳輸的可能性便很高,導致多重衝突。Yet another advantage is that conflict events can be minimized in high volume environments. To be depicted, that is, when a plurality of in vivo transmitters, such as ingestible event markers, may be synchronized, the likelihood of collision may be minimized, such as a situation in which multiple ingestible event markers are swallowed simultaneously or in a short period of time. In other words, without hopping functionality, the likelihood of similar large ingestible event markers transmitting on the same (or nearly identical) frequency is high, resulting in multiple collisions.

在某些方面,用於音量傳導應用之有用頻譜介於約3 kHz至150 kHz。經由詳細地動物研究已發現在一些環境下,上述具有介於1至100 μV接收信號位準之體內傳送器可能與相同頻譜中數百至數千μV的窄頻干擾信號競爭。為減輕干擾信號的破壞特性,可於每一傳輸輸出使用躍頻通道或協定,其中體內傳送器隨機在窄頻傳輸信號上躍頻,例如雙相移鍵控(BPSK)信號或FSK信號。In some aspects, the useful spectrum for volume conduction applications is between about 3 kHz and 150 kHz. It has been found through detailed animal studies that in some environments, the above-described in vivo transmitters having a received signal level of between 1 and 100 μV may compete with narrow-band interference signals of hundreds to thousands of μV in the same frequency spectrum. To mitigate the damaging characteristics of the interfering signal, a hopping channel or protocol can be used for each transmission output, wherein the in vivo transmitter randomly hops over the narrowband transmission signal, such as a dual phase shift keying (BPSK) signal or an FSK signal.

躍頻模組的進一步範例係於案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。A further example of a hopping module is described in the PCT Application Serial No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

衝突避免功能性模組Conflict avoidance functional module

各式觀點可使用衝突避免功能性模組。衝突避免功能性模組係與特定通訊通道衝突避免協定等相關。因此,各式觀點可利用與特定通訊通道相關之各式衝突避免協定技術。衝突避免技術在例如個人攝取多個IEM之二或更多個體內傳送器存在之環境中特別有用。在該等環境中,若各式體內傳送器持續發送其信號,其中某項之傳輸可能模糊其他體內傳送器之傳輸。結果,檢測信號失敗的狀況可能顯著增加。Conflict avoidance functional modules can be used in a variety of perspectives. The conflict avoidance functional module is related to a specific communication channel conflict avoidance agreement. Thus, various perspectives can utilize various conflict avoidance protocol techniques associated with a particular communication channel. Collision avoidance techniques are particularly useful in environments where, for example, an individual ingests two or more in vivo transmitters of multiple IEMs. In such environments, if various in vivo transmitters continue to transmit their signals, the transmission of one of them may obscure the transmission of other in vivo transmitters. As a result, the condition of detecting a signal failure may increase significantly.

各式觀點可包括單獨或各式組合之各式衝突避免方法。Various views may include various conflict avoidance methods, either alone or in combination.

其中一項該等方法係使用多重傳輸頻率。經由使用所選擇之頻率濾波器,以fl廣播之傳送器便可與以f2廣播之傳送器區隔,即使其係同步傳輸亦然。One of these methods uses multiple transmission frequencies. By using the selected frequency filter, the transmitter broadcast in fl can be distinguished from the transmitter broadcast in f2, even if it is synchronously transmitted.

衝突避免模組的進一步範例係於案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。A further example of a conflict avoidance module is described in the PCT Application Serial No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

生理感應Physiological induction

除了接收導通傳輸信號之外,例如由可攝取事件標記之識別符所發射者,信號接收器可進一步包括一或多項獨特的生理參數感應能力。生理參數感應能力意即感應生理參數或生物標記之能力,包括但不限於例如:心肺數據,包括心率、心電圖(ECG)等;呼吸速率;溫度;壓力;流體化學成分,例如血液分析檢測、流體狀態、血液流速、加速計動作資料等。當信號接收器具有生理參數或生物標記感應能力時,信號接收器可感應之獨特的參數或生物標記數量可能不同,例如1或更多、2或更多、3或更多、4或更多、5或更多、10或更多等。「生物標記」係指與特定疾病狀態之存在與嚴重性相關之組織、生理、生化、或分子參數。生物標記可以多種方法加以檢測及測量,包括身體檢查、實驗室檢測及醫學成像。依據特定實施例,信號接收器可使用信號接收元件而完成一或多項該些感應功能,例如使用接收器之電極用於信號接收及感應應用,或信號接收器可包括與信號接收元件不同的一或多項獨特的感應元件。可出現於信號接收器(或至少與其耦合)之獨特的感應元件數量可能不同,例如1或更多、2或更多、3或更多、4或更多、5或更多、10或更多等。In addition to receiving the conductive transmission signal, such as by the identifier of the ingestible event marker, the signal receiver may further include one or more unique physiological parameter sensing capabilities. Physiological parameter sensing ability means the ability to sense physiological parameters or biomarkers, including but not limited to, for example, cardiopulmonary data, including heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG), etc.; respiratory rate; temperature; pressure; fluid chemical composition, such as blood analysis, fluid Status, blood flow rate, accelerometer action data, etc. When the signal receiver has physiological parameters or biomarker sensing capabilities, the number of unique parameters or biomarkers that the signal receiver can sense may vary, such as 1 or more, 2 or more, 3 or more, 4 or more. , 5 or more, 10 or more, etc. "Biomarker" means a tissue, physiological, biochemical, or molecular parameter associated with the presence and severity of a particular disease state. Biomarkers can be detected and measured in a variety of ways, including physical examinations, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. According to a particular embodiment, the signal receiver may perform one or more of the sensing functions using the signal receiving component, such as using the electrodes of the receiver for signal reception and sensing applications, or the signal receiver may comprise a different one than the signal receiving component Or a number of unique sensing elements. The number of unique sensing elements that may be present at (or at least coupled to) the signal receiver may vary, such as 1 or more, 2 or more, 3 or more, 4 or more, 5 or more, 10 or more Wait a minute.

在某些實施例中,信號接收器包括一套2或更多個電極,例如2或3個,其提供信號接收及感應的雙重功能。例如,除了接收信號之外,該些電極亦可用於其餘的感應功能。在某些實施例中,該些電極用於產生心電圖資料。從該資料,可進行許多類型的處理,例如檢測各種心臟事件,例如心跳過速、纖維性顫動、心率等。所獲得之心電圖資料可用於滴定治療,或當檢測到心率或節律之重大改變或顯著異常時,可用於警示。該資料在某些實施例亦有所助益,用以監控不具起搏器之病人的心率,或做為通常需要動態心電圖監護儀或心臟事件監控器等24小時持續監控心臟電活動之可攜式裝置或其他裝置之病人的替代品。延長的記錄時間對於獲得較短期間難以判明之偶發性心律不整有所助益。In some embodiments, the signal receiver includes a set of 2 or more electrodes, such as 2 or 3, which provide dual functions of signal reception and sensing. For example, in addition to receiving signals, the electrodes can be used for the remaining sensing functions. In some embodiments, the electrodes are used to generate electrocardiographic data. From this data, many types of treatments can be performed, such as detecting various cardiac events such as tachycardia, fibrillation, heart rate, and the like. The obtained ECG data can be used for titration therapy or for warning when a significant change or significant abnormality in heart rate or rhythm is detected. This information may also be useful in some embodiments to monitor the heart rate of patients without pacemakers or as a portable device that typically monitors cardiac electrical activity for 24 hours, such as a Holter monitor or cardiac event monitor. A substitute for a patient of a device or other device. Extended recording time is useful for obtaining sporadic arrhythmias that are difficult to identify in a relatively short period of time.

如上述,二或更多種不同解調協定可用以解碼特定接收信號。在一些情況下,可使用同調解調協定及差分同調解調協定。圖2提供依據本發明之一觀點,接收器如何完成同調解調協定之功能方塊圖。應注意的是,圖2中僅顯示部分接收器。圖2描繪一旦確定載波頻率(及向下混合至載波補償之載波信號),將信號向下混合至基頻之處理。載波信號221與第二載波信號222於混頻器223混合。窄低通濾波器220應用適當頻寬以降低界限外雜訊之影響。依據本發明之同調解調方案而於功能區塊225進行解調。決定複合信號之展開階段230。可應用選擇的第三混頻器級,其中階段演化係用於估計計算的及實際的載波頻率之間的頻率差異。接著於區塊240利用封包之結構以判斷BPSK信號之編碼區的開端。主要地,出現做為複合解調信號之振幅信號中FM入口之同步報頭的存在,用於判斷封包之起始界限。一旦確定封包的起始點,信號便於IQ平面上之區塊250旋轉,並於區塊260進行標準位元識別及最終解碼。As mentioned above, two or more different demodulation protocols can be used to decode a particular received signal. In some cases, a coherent demodulation protocol and a differential coherent demodulation protocol may be used. 2 provides a functional block diagram of how a receiver performs a coherent demodulation protocol in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. It should be noted that only a portion of the receiver is shown in FIG. Figure 2 depicts the process of downmixing the signal to the base frequency once the carrier frequency is determined (and the carrier signal downmixed to carrier compensation). The carrier signal 221 and the second carrier signal 222 are mixed at the mixer 223. The narrow low pass filter 220 applies the appropriate bandwidth to reduce the effects of out-of-bounds noise. Demodulation is performed at functional block 225 in accordance with the coherent demodulation scheme of the present invention. The expansion phase 230 of the composite signal is determined. A selected third mixer stage can be applied, wherein the stage evolution is used to estimate the frequency difference between the calculated and actual carrier frequencies. The structure of the packet is then utilized at block 240 to determine the beginning of the coding region of the BPSK signal. Primarily, the presence of a sync header of the FM entry in the amplitude signal of the composite demodulated signal appears to determine the starting limit of the packet. Once the starting point of the packet is determined, the signal facilitates block 250 rotation on the IQ plane and standard bit identification and final decoding is performed at block 260.

除了解調之外,越體通訊模組可包括前項糾錯模組,該模組提供額外增益以對抗來自其他不需要之信號及雜訊的干擾。有興趣之前項糾錯功能模組包括案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案中描述者;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。在一些情況下,前項糾錯模組可使用任何方便的協定,例如里德所羅門(Reed-Solomon)、格雷(Golay)、海明(Hamming)、BCH及Turbo協定以識別及修正(界限內)解碼錯誤。In addition to demodulation, the Transceiver Communication Module can include an error correction module in the front, which provides additional gain to combat interference from other unwanted signals and noise. The prior art error correction function module is described in the PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. In some cases, the former error correction module can use any convenient protocol, such as Reed-Solomon, Golay, Hamming, BCH, and Turbo protocols to identify and correct (within boundaries) Decoding error.

本發明之接收器可進一步使用閃燈功能性模組。在各式方面,閃燈切換模組306可使用下列一或多項:閃燈喚醒模組、閃燈信號模組、波動/頻率模組、多重頻率模組及調變信號模組。The receiver of the present invention can further utilize a flash lamp functional module. In various aspects, the flash switching module 306 can use one or more of the following: a flashing wake-up module, a flashing signal module, a wave/frequency module, a multiple frequency module, and a modulated signal module.

圖1B之閃燈切換模組306可與閃燈通訊相結合,例如閃燈通訊通道、閃燈協定等。為予揭露,閃燈為典型信號僅發送做為部分信息或增大信息(文中有時稱之為「閃燈信號」)。閃燈可具有定義明確之特性,例如頻率。閃燈可輕易地於吵雜環境中檢測,亦可用於觸發側錄電路,如下述。The flash switch module 306 of FIG. 1B can be combined with flash communication, such as a flash communication channel, a flash protocol, and the like. To reveal, the flash is only sent as part of the information or increased information (sometimes referred to herein as "flash signal"). The flash can have well-defined characteristics such as frequency. The flash can be easily detected in noisy environments and can also be used to trigger a side recording circuit, as described below.

在一方面,閃燈切換模組306可包含具有喚醒功能之閃燈喚醒模組。喚醒功能通常包含僅於特定時間,例如特定目的之短期間,以高功率模式作業而接收信號之功能等。系統之接收器部分的一項重要考量係其為低功率。該特性在植入之接收器中具有優勢,可提供小尺寸並避免長時間以電池電力運作。閃燈切換模組306藉由使接收器於極短期間以高功率模式操作,而落實該些優點。此類短工作週期可提供最佳的系統尺寸及能源運用特性。In one aspect, the flash switch module 306 can include a flash wake-up module with a wake-up function. The wake-up function usually includes a function of receiving a signal in a high-power mode only for a specific time, such as a short period of a specific purpose, and the like. An important consideration in the receiver portion of the system is its low power. This feature has the advantage of being implanted in a receiver that provides a small size and avoids long periods of battery power operation. The flash switching module 306 implements these advantages by operating the receiver in a high power mode for a very short period of time. These short duty cycles provide the best system size and energy handling characteristics.

實際上,接收器100可以低能量消耗而定期「喚醒」,以經由例如側錄電路而實施「側錄功能」。為了本申請案,「側錄功能」乙詞通常係指短期、低功率功能來判斷傳送器是否存在。若側錄功能檢測到傳送器信號,裝置便可轉變為較高功率的通訊解碼模式。若傳送器信號不存在,接收器便返回,例如立即返回,至睡眠模式。以此方式,能量便可於傳送器信號不存在的相當長時間保存,同時高功率能力於傳輸信號存在的相當短期間仍可進行有效率之解碼模式操作。許多模式及其組合可用以操作側錄電路。經由滿足特定系統對於側錄電路組態之需求,便可達成最佳化之系統。In fact, the receiver 100 can periodically "wake up" with low energy consumption to implement a "side recording function" via, for example, a side recording circuit. For the purposes of this application, the term "side recording function" generally refers to short-term, low-power functions to determine the presence of a transmitter. If the side recording function detects the transmitter signal, the device can be converted to a higher power communication decoding mode. If the transmitter signal does not exist, the receiver returns, for example, immediately returns to sleep mode. In this way, energy can be preserved for a relatively long period of time in which the transmitter signal is absent, while high power capability can still perform efficient decoding mode operations for a relatively short period of time in which the transmitted signal is present. Many modes and combinations thereof can be used to operate the skid circuit. An optimized system can be achieved by meeting the needs of a particular system for the configuration of the skimming circuit.

請參閱圖3A,描繪閃燈切換模組306,其中側錄週期301較發射信號重複週期303長。x軸提供時間功能。如圖所示,傳輸信號定期重複,連帶側錄功能執行。實際上,側錄週期301可有效地較發射信號重複週期303長。在不同方面,在側錄週期之間可能存在相當長的期間。如此一來,便可確保側錄功能例如已完成為側錄電路至少具有一次傳輸於每當側錄電路被啟動時進行。Referring to FIG. 3A, a flash switching module 306 is depicted in which the side recording period 301 is longer than the transmitted signal repetition period 303. The x-axis provides time functionality. As shown in the figure, the transmission signal is repeated periodically, with the side recording function being executed. In fact, the side recording period 301 can be effectively longer than the transmitted signal repetition period 303. In different respects, there may be a considerable period of time between the skimming cycles. In this way, it can be ensured that the side recording function, for example, has been completed for the side recording circuit to have at least one transmission every time the side recording circuit is activated.

請參閱圖3B,描繪閃燈切換模組306,其中提供短但頻繁側錄週期305及長發送封包307。側錄電路將於傳輸期間的一些時點上啟動。以此方式,側錄電路可檢測傳輸信號並切換為高功率解碼模式。Referring to FIG. 3B, a flash switching module 306 is depicted in which a short but frequent side recording period 305 and a long transmission packet 307 are provided. The skimming circuit will start at some point during the transmission. In this way, the skimming circuit can detect the transmitted signal and switch to the high power decoding mode.

其餘的閃燈喚醒觀點係提供連續模式之「側錄」功能。相較於上述提供之方法,越體閃燈傳輸通道之觀點係利用總能量消耗為平均電力消耗與時間之乘積的現象。在此方面,該系統可藉由具有極短的活動期間而使總能量消耗最小,活動期間被平均降至一個小的數字。另一方面,提供低度持續側錄活動。在此例中,組態提供充分低功率使得傳輸接收器持續運作且總能量消耗達特定系統之參數的適當位準。The rest of the flash waking views provide a "side recording" function for continuous mode. Compared to the method provided above, the idea of the over-flashing transmission channel utilizes the phenomenon that the total energy consumption is the product of the average power consumption and time. In this regard, the system minimizes total energy consumption by having a very short period of activity, and the activity period is reduced to a small number on average. On the other hand, provide low-level continuous recording activities. In this example, the configuration provides sufficient low power to allow the transmission receiver to operate continuously and the total energy consumption to the appropriate level of the parameters of the particular system.

圖3C中顯示圖1B之閃燈切換模組306的功能流程圖。在圖3C中,閃燈切換模組顯示為側錄模組310。側錄模組310係用於掃瞄離子發射所產生之電流中的資料編碼。資料係於接收器接收做為設定排程之導通信號,例如每20秒。在階段315,啟動側錄之期間是有限的,例如300 msec。此相對地的工作週期允許較低平均功率功能性,以延長系統壽命。在階段320,接收器依信號是否具有有效ID,而判斷信號是否存在。若在啟動側錄期間未檢測到具有有效ID之信號(如箭頭320所描繪),程序便回至階段315,作用側錄便被關閉直至下一預定作用期間為止。若階段320接收到具有有效ID之信號,程序便移至階段322。在階段322,接收器判斷所接收之信號是否來自先前檢測之離子傳送器。若信號係來自先前檢測之離子傳送器,程序便移至階段326。在階段326,接收器判斷電流喚醒週期(自從上一報告ID起之特定時間,例如10分鐘)中之總數(換言之,相同ID之個別有效)是否大於閾值計數器所測量之特定數量(例如50)。若總數超過閾值計數器所決定之閾值,接收器便回至側錄模式。若總數未超過閾值,程序便移至階段330,且接收器以100%檢測模式作業,以分析所接收之經由離子發射之電流中的資料編碼。一旦所接收之資料經解碼及分析,程序便回至階段315。若在階段322,接收器判斷電流中之資料編碼係來自於非先前檢測之不同的有效源,程序便移至階段328。在階段328,閾值計數器被重置。A functional flow diagram of the flash switching module 306 of FIG. 1B is shown in FIG. 3C. In FIG. 3C, the flash switching module is displayed as a skimming module 310. The side recording module 310 is used to scan the data code in the current generated by the ion emission. The data is received by the receiver as a turn-on signal for the set schedule, for example every 20 seconds. At stage 315, the period during which the side recording is initiated is limited, for example 300 msec. This relative duty cycle allows for lower average power functionality to extend system life. At stage 320, the receiver determines if the signal is present based on whether the signal has a valid ID. If a signal with a valid ID is not detected during the start-up recording (as depicted by arrow 320), the program returns to stage 315 and the active side recording is closed until the next predetermined active period. If stage 320 receives a signal with a valid ID, the program moves to stage 322. At stage 322, the receiver determines if the received signal is from a previously detected ion conveyor. If the signal is from a previously detected ion conveyor, the program moves to stage 326. At stage 326, the receiver determines whether the total of the current wake-up period (from a particular time since the last report ID, such as 10 minutes) (in other words, the individual validity of the same ID) is greater than a certain amount (eg, 50) measured by the threshold counter. . If the total exceeds the threshold determined by the threshold counter, the receiver returns to the skimming mode. If the total does not exceed the threshold, the program moves to stage 330 and the receiver operates in the 100% detection mode to analyze the data encoded in the received current through the ion emission. Once the received data has been decoded and analyzed, the program returns to stage 315. If, at stage 322, the receiver determines that the data encoding in the current is from a different valid source than the previous one, the program moves to stage 328. At stage 328, the threshold counter is reset.

圖3D中所示之功能方塊圖中提供閃燈模組的另一觀點。圖3D中所描繪之方案係描繪用以識別有效閃燈的一種技術。匯入信號360代表電極所接收之信號,其經由高頻信令鏈(包含載波頻率)帶通濾波(例如從10 KHz至34 KHz),並從類比轉換為數位。信號360接著於區塊361中整數倍降低取樣率並於混頻器362中混以額定驅動頻率(例如12.5 KHz、20 KHz等)。結果之信號於區塊364中整數倍降低取樣率,並於區塊365進行低通濾波(例如5 KHz BW),以產生向下混合至載波補償信號369之載波信號。信號369進一步經由區塊367處理(快速傅力葉轉換及接著之兩最強峰值之檢測),以提供真實載波頻率信號368。該協定允許傳輸閃燈之載波頻率的正確判斷。Another view of the flash module is provided in the functional block diagram shown in Figure 3D. The scheme depicted in Figure 3D depicts a technique for identifying an active flash. The incoming signal 360 represents the signal received by the electrode, which is bandpass filtered (eg, from 10 KHz to 34 KHz) via a high frequency signaling chain (including carrier frequency) and converted from analog to digital. Signal 360 then reduces the sampling rate by an integer multiple of block 361 and mixes the nominal drive frequency (e.g., 12.5 KHz, 20 KHz, etc.) in mixer 362. The resulting signal is reduced by an integer multiple of the sample rate in block 364 and low pass filtered (e.g., 5 KHz BW) at block 365 to produce a carrier signal that is downmixed to carrier compensation signal 369. Signal 369 is further processed via block 367 (fast Fourier transform and subsequent detection of the two strongest peaks) to provide a true carrier frequency signal 368. This agreement allows the correct determination of the carrier frequency of the flash light to be transmitted.

圖4描繪閃燈功能性,其中閃燈係與一頻率結合,例如閃燈通道,且信息係與另一頻率結合,例如信息通道。該組態於例如系統處理多個傳輸信號時是有利的。實線代表來自傳輸信號1之閃燈。虛線代表來自傳輸信號2之閃燈。如圖所繪,在不同傳輸情況下,傳輸信號2之閃燈可能與傳輸信號1之閃燈重疊。信息信號1及信息信號2可為來自其個別閃燈之不同頻率。一個優點就是來自傳輸信號2之閃燈一點都不會干擾來自傳輸信號1之信息,即使其係同時傳輸亦然。雖然圖4顯示具有兩個傳送器,但本技藝一般技術之人士顯然可依比例修改系統為更多個傳送器。特定系統之要求在某種程度上規定了該系統之特定架構。Figure 4 depicts flash functionality, where the flash is combined with a frequency, such as a flash channel, and the information is combined with another frequency, such as an information channel. This configuration is advantageous, for example, when the system processes multiple transmission signals. The solid line represents the flash from the transmission signal 1. The dashed line represents the flash from the transmission signal 2. As shown in the figure, the flash of the transmission signal 2 may overlap with the flash of the transmission signal 1 under different transmission conditions. Information signal 1 and information signal 2 may be different frequencies from their individual flashes. One advantage is that the flash from the transmitted signal 2 does not interfere with the information from the transmitted signal 1 at all, even if it is transmitted simultaneously. Although Figure 4 shows two transmitters, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the system can be modified to more than one transmitter. The requirements of a particular system dictate to some extent the specific architecture of the system.

案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述了閃燈功能性模組之進一步範例;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。Further examples of flashing functional modules are described in PCT Application No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

各式觀點可使用躍頻功能性模組。躍頻功能性模組可與特定通訊通道、躍頻協定等結合。因此,各式觀點可使用一或多項躍頻協定。例如,接收器可搜尋其中可實施傳輸之所指定的頻率範圍,例如二或更多個頻率。當獲得單一適當解碼時,體內傳送器已完成其將數位資訊負載傳輸予接收器之任務。A hopping functional module can be used for various viewpoints. The hopping functional modules can be combined with specific communication channels, frequency hopping protocols, and the like. Therefore, various views can use one or more frequency hopping protocols. For example, the receiver can search for a specified range of frequencies in which transmission can be implemented, such as two or more frequencies. When a single suitable decoding is obtained, the in vivo transmitter has completed its task of transmitting the digital information payload to the receiver.

在一些情況下,例如經由隨機模組之隨機躍頻所提供之傳輸頻率不確定性可製造多項優點。其中一項該等優點,例如可輕易地在小晶片上完成。為予描繪,體內傳送器載波頻率震盪器可為不精確之自由運作震盪器,其可輕易地於1 mm晶片的小部分上完成。由於接收器使用頻率搜尋演算法,故輕易地容許+/-20之準確性。In some cases, transmission frequency uncertainty, such as provided by random frequency hopping of random modules, can create a number of advantages. One such advantage, for example, can be easily accomplished on a small wafer. For purposes of illustration, the in vivo transmitter carrier frequency oscillator can be an inaccurate free-running oscillator that can be easily implemented on a small portion of a 1 mm wafer. Since the receiver uses a frequency search algorithm, the accuracy of +/- 20 is easily tolerated.

另一該等優點為可延長電池壽命。為予描繪,在傳送器電池壽命期間,例如三至十分鐘,由於隨機躍頻,傳送器於可為頻率促變接收器接收之清晰通道上傳輸的可能性可顯著地提升。Another such advantage is that battery life can be extended. To illustrate, during a transmitter battery life, such as three to ten minutes, the likelihood of a transmitter transmitting on a clear channel that can be received by a frequency-accelerating receiver can be significantly increased due to random frequency hopping.

再另一項優點為可使高音量環境中衝突事件最少。為予描繪,係指當例如可攝取事件標記之多個體內傳送器可能同步傳輸時,例如多個可攝取事件標記被同時或及接近時間內攝取之衝突可能性最少化。換言之,若無躍頻功能性,類似的很多可攝取事件標記將有極高可能性於相同(或幾乎相同)頻率上傳輸,而導致多個衝突。Yet another advantage is that it minimizes conflict events in high volume environments. By way of illustration, it is meant that when multiple in vivo transmitters, such as ingestible event markers, may be transmitted synchronously, for example, the likelihood of collision of multiple ingestible event markers being taken simultaneously or in close proximity is minimized. In other words, without hopping functionality, many similar ingestible event markers will have a very high probability of being transmitted on the same (or nearly identical) frequency, resulting in multiple collisions.

在某些方面,有用的頻譜係用於範圍約3 kHz至150 kHz之音量傳導應用。經由詳細的動物研究,已發現在一些環境中,上述具有範圍為1至100 μV接收信號位準之體內傳送器可對抗相同頻譜中數百至數千μV之窄頻干擾信號。為減輕干擾信號之破壞特性,可使用躍頻通道或協定,其中體內傳送器於每一傳輸輸出之窄頻傳輸信號隨機躍頻,例如二元相移鍵控(BPSK)信號或FSK信號等調變信號。In some aspects, useful spectrum is used for volume conduction applications ranging from approximately 3 kHz to 150 kHz. Through detailed animal studies, it has been found that in some environments, the above-described in vivo transmitter having a received signal level ranging from 1 to 100 μV can counter the narrow-band interference signals of hundreds to thousands of μV in the same frequency spectrum. In order to mitigate the destructive characteristics of the interfering signal, a frequency hopping channel or protocol may be used, wherein the in-vivo transmitter randomly hops at a narrow frequency transmission signal of each transmission output, such as a binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal or an FSK signal. Change the signal.

案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述躍頻模組的進一步範例;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。Further examples of hopping modules are described in PCT Application No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

接收器之各式觀點可使用衝突避免功能性模組。衝突避免功能性模組可與特定通訊通道、衝突避免協定等相結合。因此,各式觀點可利用與特定通訊通道結合之各式衝突避免協定技術。衝突避免技術在例如某人攝取多個IEM之存在二個或更多體內傳送器之環境中特別有用。在該等環境中,若各式體內傳送器持續發送其信號,其中一個之傳輸便可混淆其他所有體內傳送器之傳輸。結果,無法檢測信號之狀況可能愈加增加。Various aspects of the receiver can use conflict avoidance functional modules. The conflict avoidance functional module can be combined with specific communication channels, conflict avoidance agreements, and the like. Thus, various perspectives can utilize a variety of conflict avoidance protocol techniques combined with a particular communication channel. Collision avoidance techniques are particularly useful in environments where, for example, someone ingests multiple IEMs in the presence of two or more in vivo transmitters. In such environments, if the various body transmitters continue to transmit their signals, one of the transmissions can confuse the transmission of all other in vivo transmitters. As a result, the condition of the inability to detect the signal may increase.

各式觀點可包括各式衝突避免方法及其組合。Various perspectives may include various conflict avoidance methods and combinations thereof.

其中一種該等方法使用多個傳輸頻率。經由使用頻率選擇濾波,以f1廣播之傳送器便可與以f2廣播之傳送器區隔,即使它們同步傳輸亦然。One of these methods uses multiple transmission frequencies. By using frequency selective filtering, the transmitter broadcast at f1 can be distinguished from the transmitter broadcast at f2, even if they are transmitted synchronously.

案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案中描述衝突避免模組之進一步範例;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。Further examples of conflict avoidance modules are described in PCT Application No. PCT/US08/85048, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

可包括於本發明之接收器的越體通訊模組中之其餘功能模組包括時鐘功能性模組,其將特定時間與特定信號結合,例如下列一或多項中所描述的:案號PCT/US08/85048之PCT申請案;公開為WO 2008/095183之案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案;及公開為WO 2008/063626之案號案號PCT/US2007/024225之PCT申請案;各申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。The remaining functional modules that may be included in the body communication module of the receiver of the present invention include a clock functional module that combines a particular time with a particular signal, such as described in one or more of the following: Case Number PCT/ PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225 to WO 2008/095183; and PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/024225 to WO 2008/063 626; The disclosure of the application is incorporated herein by reference.

如上述,越體導通信號亦可為智慧型腸外遞送系統所產生之信號,例如公開為WO 2008/008281之案號PCT/US2007/015547之PCT申請案中所描述者;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。在該些範例中,與身體結合之醫療裝置可經配置而從所接收之信號取得大量與流體遞送事件有關之不同類型的資訊。可取得之資訊類型包括但不限於:將發生或已發生之遞送事件、將給予多少流體、所給予流體之特性等。對於接收器用於判斷係給予多少流體之該些範例而言,該裝置可經配置而接收可變數量之管理資料,使其用於接收該資料欄位的不同值。As described above, the transceiving signal can also be a signal generated by a smart parenteral delivery system, such as those described in PCT Application No. PCT/US2007/015547, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. The disclosure is incorporated herein by reference. In these examples, the body-associated medical device can be configured to take a large amount of different types of information related to fluid delivery events from the received signals. Types of information that may be obtained include, but are not limited to, delivery events that will occur or have occurred, how much fluid will be administered, characteristics of the fluid being administered, and the like. For those examples where the receiver is used to determine how much fluid is being administered, the device can be configured to receive a variable amount of management data for receiving different values for the data field.

接收器可提供進一步的通訊路徑,經此所收集之資料可從接收器傳輸至另一裝置,例如但不限於智慧型電話、醫院資訊系統等。此進一步通訊路徑係經由「體外通訊」模組提供。此體外通訊模組可使用多種不同協定。有興趣之協定包括有線及無線通訊協定。例如,接收器可包括習知射頻(RF)電路(例如於405-MHz醫療裝置頻帶操作),藉此醫生可藉由使用例如條碼閱讀機或類似裝置等資料檢索裝置進行通訊。在一些方面有興趣者為低功率無線通訊協定,例如藍牙(BLUETOOTHTM )無線通訊協定。亦有興趣者為使用多用途連接器之通訊協定,例如下列將詳細描述者。The receiver can provide a further communication path through which the collected data can be transmitted from the receiver to another device such as, but not limited to, a smart phone, a hospital information system, and the like. This further communication path is provided via the "External Communication" module. This in vitro communication module can use a variety of different protocols. Interested agreements include wired and wireless communication protocols. For example, the receiver can include conventional radio frequency (RF) circuitry (e.g., operating in a 405-MHz medical device band) whereby the physician can communicate by using a data retrieval device such as a bar code reader or the like. Interested in some fields such as low-power wireless communication protocol, such as Bluetooth (BLUETOOTH TM) wireless protocol. Also interested are those that use multi-purpose connectors, such as those described in more detail below.

接收器至少包括使用期間於活體外部的一部分,該部分可具有輸出裝置以提供例如聲音及/或視覺回饋;範例包括聲音警報、發光二極體(LED)、顯示幕等。外部部分亦可包括一介面部,經此組件可連接至電腦以讀出其中儲存之資料。此外,外部部分可包括一或多個操作元件,例如按鈕或類似結構,其允許使用者以某種方式人工和與身體結合之醫療裝置互動,例如測試可操作性、啟動裝置、重置裝置等。The receiver includes at least a portion of the exterior of the living body during use, the portion having an output device to provide, for example, sound and/or visual feedback; examples include an audible alarm, a light emitting diode (LED), a display screen, and the like. The external portion may also include a face portion through which the component can be connected to the computer to read the data stored therein. In addition, the outer portion may include one or more operating elements, such as buttons or the like, that allow the user to manually interact with the body-attached medical device in some manner, such as testing operability, activation devices, reset devices, etc. .

]在一些情況下,體外通訊模組被用於重新配置接收器之各式參數。因此,通訊模組可為雙向通訊模組。可重新配置之參數包括資料獲得之「工作週期」,例如接收器多久側錄IEM一次、接收器多久收集ECG或活動資料一次及收集多久等。In some cases, an external communication module is used to reconfigure various parameters of the receiver. Therefore, the communication module can be a two-way communication module. The reconfigurable parameters include the "work cycle" of the data acquisition, such as how often the receiver records the IEM once, how often the receiver collects the ECG or activity data, and how long it is collected.

在一方面,體外通訊模組可完成而具有其本身電源,使其可獨立於該裝置的其他組件而被開啟或關閉,例如經由微處理器。In one aspect, the external communication module can be completed with its own power source that can be turned on or off independently of other components of the device, such as via a microprocessor.

依據本發明之理論的接收器可包括一或多個獨特的生理感應模組。生理感應模組意即感應一或多項有興趣之生理參數或生物標記的能力或功能性,例如但不限於:心肺數據,包括心率、心電圖(ECG)等;呼吸速率、溫度、壓力;流體之化學成分,例如血液之分析檢測、流體狀態、血液流速、加速計動作資料等。若接收器具有生理參數或生物標記感應能力,信號接收器可感應之獨特的參數或生物標記之數量可有所不同,例如一或多項、二或多項、三或多項、四或多項、五或多項、十或多項等。「生物標記」乙詞係指與例如特定疾病狀態之健康狀態的存在或嚴重性相關之組織的、生理、生化或分子參數。依此特定觀點,裝置可使用其信號接收元件而完成一或多項該些感應功能,例如經由使用接收器之電極進行信號接收及感應應用,或接收器可包括不同於信號接收元件之一或多項獨特的感應元件(例如下述顯微針)。存在於(或至少耦合至)信號接收器之獨特的感應元件之數量可有所不同,可為一或多項、二或多項、三或多項、四或多項、五或多項、十或多項等。A receiver in accordance with the teachings of the present invention can include one or more unique physiological sensing modules. The physiological sensing module means the ability or functionality to sense one or more physiological parameters or biomarkers of interest, such as but not limited to: cardiopulmonary data, including heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG), etc.; respiratory rate, temperature, pressure; fluid Chemical components, such as blood analysis, fluid status, blood flow rate, accelerometer action data, etc. If the receiver has physiological parameters or biomarker sensing capabilities, the number of unique parameters or biomarkers that the signal receiver can sense may vary, such as one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or Multiple, ten or more. The term "biomarker" refers to a tissue, physiological, biochemical or molecular parameter associated with the presence or severity of, for example, a state of health of a particular disease state. In accordance with this particular aspect, the device may perform one or more of the sensing functions using its signal receiving components, such as via signal reception and sensing applications using the electrodes of the receiver, or the receiver may include one or more of the signal receiving components. A unique sensing element (such as the microneedle described below). The number of unique sensing elements present in (or at least coupled to) the signal receiver may vary, and may be one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, ten or more, and the like.

在某些方面,接收器包括一組兩或更多,例如兩或三個電極,其提供信號接收及感應雙功能。例如,除了接收信號外,電極亦可用於其餘感應功能。在某些方面,電極被用於產生心電圖資料。從該資料,便可進行許多類型的處理,例如,檢測各種心臟事件,例如心跳過速、纖維性顫動、心率等;檢測神經狀況,例如癲癇發作(參照下列詳細描述之用於癲癇發作檢測的裝置及模組)等。所獲得之心電圖資料可用於滴定治療,或當檢測到心率或節律之重大改變或顯著異常時,可用於警示。該資料在某些方面亦有所助益,用以監控不具起搏器之病人的心率,或做為通常需要動態心電圖監護儀或心臟事件監控器等24小時持續監控心臟電活動之可攜式裝置或其他裝置之病人的替代品。延長的記錄時間對於獲得較短期間難以判明之偶發性心律不整有所助益。In some aspects, the receiver includes a set of two or more, such as two or three electrodes that provide both signal reception and inductive dual functions. For example, in addition to receiving signals, the electrodes can be used for the remaining sensing functions. In some aspects, electrodes are used to generate electrocardiographic data. From this data, many types of treatments can be performed, for example, detecting various cardiac events, such as tachycardia, fibrillation, heart rate, etc.; detecting neurological conditions, such as seizures (refer to the following detailed description for seizure detection) Devices and modules). The obtained ECG data can be used for titration therapy or for warning when a significant change or significant abnormality in heart rate or rhythm is detected. This information is also useful in some areas to monitor the heart rate of patients without pacemakers or as a portable 24 hour continuous monitoring of cardiac electrical activity, such as a dynamic ECG monitor or cardiac event monitor. A substitute for a patient of a device or other device. Extended recording time is useful for obtaining sporadic arrhythmias that are difficult to identify in a relatively short period of time.

如上述,接收器中可包括與電極不同之一或多項其餘的生理感應器。例如,溫度感應器(熱阻器、CMOS溫度感應器、電阻性溫度裝置(RTD))可用於獲得精確的溫度測量。其餘的生理感應器可包括結合於脈搏血氧計中之LED及光二極體,其可用於測量血液氧合,亦提供有關脈壓之資訊。此外,信號接收器之觀點包括壓力感應器,例如信號接收器被植入動脈邊以測量動脈血壓。在某些方面出現檢壓計以測量壓力偏轉,其接著附著於信號接收器。As mentioned above, one or more of the remaining physiological sensors may be included in the receiver. For example, temperature sensors (thermal resistors, CMOS temperature sensors, resistive temperature devices (RTDs)) can be used to obtain accurate temperature measurements. The remaining physiological sensors can include LEDs and photodiodes incorporated in a pulse oximeter that can be used to measure blood oxygenation and also provide information about pulse pressure. In addition, the signal receiver perspective includes a pressure sensor, such as a signal receiver that is implanted into the artery to measure arterial blood pressure. In some aspects a pressure gauge is present to measure the pressure deflection, which is then attached to the signal receiver.

接收器亦可包括分析物檢測感應器。例如,特定化學感應器可併入信號接收器,以檢測各式劑質的存在,例如酒精、葡萄糖、BNP(B型利尿納肽,其與心臟疾病有關)等。有興趣之感應器包括用於檢測生物學流體樣本中化學分析物之存在者,有興趣之分析物包括但不限於:血糖(葡萄糖)、膽固醇、膽紅素、肌氨酸、各式代謝酶、血紅蛋白、肝磷脂、血球密度、維生素K或其他凝血因子、尿酸、癌胚抗原或其他腫瘤抗原、例如與排卵或懷孕相關之各式生殖激素、藥物濫用及/或其代謝產物、血液中酒精濃度等。在某些方面,接收器經配置而檢測之物質或屬性包括乳酸(對運動員重要)、氧、酸鹼度(pH)、酒精、煙草代謝產物、及非法藥物(對醫療診斷及執法均重要)。若接收器包括分析物檢測感應元件,該感應元件可以許多不同方式用於接收器中。例如,可提供一感應器,其包括可滲透至吾人希望檢測之劑質的選擇性可滲透薄膜,其中有一隔離單元置於該薄膜之後,且該劑質穿過該薄膜。接著測量該單元之屬性(例如電屬性)之變化。在某些方面,在接收器端使用具有薄膜橫越之小儲液囊,並測量其後之電路。亦有興趣者為化學場效電晶體(ChemFET)感應器,其係依據分析物對於感應器之鍵聯,引發傳導性改變。在某些方面,當材料鍵聯至所使用之例如蛋白質分析物時,該材料之電屬性(或其他屬性)便改變。血液中酒精濃度可以多種方式加以判斷,包括但不限於:分析流體樣本之感應器,例如汗水、光譜感應器等。The receiver can also include an analyte sensing sensor. For example, a particular chemical sensor can be incorporated into a signal receiver to detect the presence of various agents, such as alcohol, glucose, BNP (type B diuretic peptide, which is associated with heart disease), and the like. Sensors of interest include those used to detect the presence of chemical analytes in biological fluid samples. Interested analytes include, but are not limited to, blood glucose (glucose), cholesterol, bilirubin, sarcosine, various metabolic enzymes. , hemoglobin, heparin, hematocrit, vitamin K or other coagulation factors, uric acid, carcinoembryonic antigen or other tumor antigens, such as various reproductive hormones associated with ovulation or pregnancy, drug abuse and/or its metabolites, alcohol in the blood Concentration, etc. In some aspects, the substance or attributes that the receiver is configured to detect include lactic acid (important to athletes), oxygen, pH (pH), alcohol, tobacco metabolites, and illicit drugs (important for medical diagnosis and enforcement). If the receiver includes an analyte sensing sensing element, the sensing element can be used in the receiver in many different ways. For example, an inductor can be provided that includes a selectively permeable membrane that is permeable to the agent that one wishes to detect, with an isolation unit disposed behind the film and the agent passing through the film. The change in the properties (eg, electrical properties) of the cell is then measured. In some aspects, a small reservoir with a film traverse is used at the receiver end and the circuitry behind it is measured. Also of interest are chemical field effect transistor (ChemFET) sensors that initiate conductivity changes based on the analyte's linkage to the sensor. In some aspects, when a material is bonded to a protein analyte, such as a protein analyte, the electrical properties (or other properties) of the material change. The concentration of alcohol in the blood can be determined in a variety of ways, including but not limited to: sensors that analyze fluid samples, such as sweat, spectral sensors, and the like.

有興趣者為至少包括一心電圖(ECG)感應器模組之接收器。ECG感應器模組為一種模組,用於獲得ECG資料,若需要則以某方式額外實施一或多項資料處理,儲存該資料,及重新傳輸該資料。ECG資料可為接收器使用,以取得多項不同度量,包括但不限於:R波、心率、心率變化、呼吸速率等。若接收器包括一或多項生理感應功能,該裝置可進一步包括感應模組,其係用於從該些感應功能獲得及處理資料。例如,若接收器包括ECG感應功能性,該裝置可包括適當的功能模組(例如以程式設計之形式),其可掌控並處理來自該些感應器之原始資料。有興趣之生理感應模組的範例為圖5中所示之ECG感應模組。Interested parties are receivers that include at least one electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor module. The ECG sensor module is a module for obtaining ECG data, and if necessary, additionally performs one or more data processing in a manner, stores the data, and retransmits the data. ECG data can be used by the receiver to achieve a number of different metrics including, but not limited to, R wave, heart rate, heart rate change, respiration rate, and the like. If the receiver includes one or more physiological sensing functions, the device can further include a sensing module for obtaining and processing data from the sensing functions. For example, if the receiver includes ECG sensing functionality, the device can include appropriate functional modules (eg, in the form of a program) that can control and process the raw data from the sensors. An example of a physiological sensing module of interest is the ECG sensing module shown in FIG.

請參閱圖5,顯示完成修改之漢米爾頓(Hamilton)及湯普金斯(Tompkins)演算法之ECG感應模組的描繪。圖5表示依據本發明之一觀點的R波檢測演算法的可能完成。如圖5中所描繪,ECG感應模組經由電極接收信號,並於在類比數位轉換器502將該些信號轉換為數位信號之前,在濾波器501帶通該些信號(例如0.3至150 Hz)。信號接著被發送至微處理器503及前進至數位信號處理器504進行處理。例如,DSP 504所接收之資料信號於區塊505帶通濾波(例如以10-30 Hz),於區塊510加以區分,及於區塊515進一步濾波以強調及最終確定視窗,其中QRS複合體於區塊520存在。邏輯接著應用於確定每一視窗內之R波。在邏輯區塊525,判斷視窗寬度是否例如大於140ms。如邏輯區塊530所示,判斷視窗中之峰值及傾角。若峰值大於傾角兩倍,R波便等於峰值。若傾角大於峰值兩倍,R波便等於傾角。否則,R波便等於峰值相對於首次產生之傾角的比例。以上如邏輯區塊535所示。之後,如邏輯區塊540所示,R波振幅及時間對峰值被發送至記憶體(例如快閃記憶體)。Referring to Figure 5, a depiction of the modified ECG sensing module of the Hamilton and Tompkins algorithms is shown. Figure 5 illustrates the possible completion of an R-wave detection algorithm in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. As depicted in FIG. 5, the ECG sensing module receives signals via the electrodes and passes the signals (eg, 0.3 to 150 Hz) at filter 501 before converting the signals to digital signals by analog to digital converter 502. . The signal is then sent to microprocessor 503 and forwarded to digital signal processor 504 for processing. For example, the data signals received by DSP 504 are bandpass filtered (e.g., at 10-30 Hz) at block 505, and separated at block 510, and further filtered at block 515 to emphasize and finalize the window, where the QRS complex Presented at block 520. The logic is then applied to determine the R waves within each window. At logic block 525, it is determined if the window width is, for example, greater than 140 ms. As indicated by logic block 530, the peaks and dips in the window are determined. If the peak is greater than twice the tilt angle, the R wave is equal to the peak value. If the angle of inclination is greater than twice the peak value, the R wave is equal to the angle of inclination. Otherwise, the R wave is equal to the ratio of the peak to the first angle of inclination. The above is shown as logical block 535. Thereafter, as indicated by logic block 540, the R-wave amplitude and time-to-peak values are sent to a memory (eg, a flash memory).

亦有興趣者為加速計模組。加速計模組為一種模組,用於獲得加速計資料,若需要則以某方式額外實施一或多項資料處理,儲存該資料,及重新傳輸該資料。加速計模組可為接收器使用,以取得多項不同度量,包括但不限於:有關病人活動之資料、平均活動、病人的位置及角度、活動類型,例如走路、坐著、休息(該項資料可藉由3軸加速計獲得);接著將所獲得之資料儲存。有興趣者為類比加速計及數位加速計。圖6中顯示有興趣之加速計模組。Also interested are accelerometer modules. The accelerometer module is a module for obtaining accelerometer data and, if necessary, additionally performing one or more data processing in a manner, storing the data, and retransmitting the data. The accelerometer module can be used by the receiver to obtain a number of different metrics, including but not limited to: information about patient activity, average activity, patient location and angle, type of activity, such as walking, sitting, rest (this information) It can be obtained by a 3-axis accelerometer; then the obtained data is stored. Interested parties are analog accelerometers and digital accelerometers. An accelerometer module of interest is shown in FIG.

請參閱圖6,顯示依據本發明之一觀點的3軸加速計模組之功能方塊圖,其係用於從三條不同軸線獲得及處理加速計資料。加速計的每一軸經處理而判斷平均值(如區塊601所示)、標準偏差(如區塊602所示)、並自動相關(如區塊603所示)。平均為加速計之方位相對於重力之反映,其中標準偏差及自動相關為描述所觀察動作之振幅及頻率的重要度量,例如峰值相關性、相關頻率及軸間相關性。為實施逐步計數,三軸線於區塊630相結合並於區塊635濾波。如區塊640所示,建構總加速。總加速的使用使得系統針對相對於對象之接收器的不同方位變得紮實。如區塊645中所示,一旦計算總加速,便得以計算標準偏差及自動相關。如區塊650中所示,該些值接著經閾值比對(例如標準偏差>0.1及自動相關>0.25)以判斷顯著的、週期性的動作是否存在。接著,如區塊655中所示,若超過閾值,步數便被判斷為平均修正總加速之零交越數量。Referring to Figure 6, a functional block diagram of a 3-axis accelerometer module in accordance with one aspect of the present invention is shown for obtaining and processing accelerometer data from three different axes. Each axis of the accelerometer is processed to determine an average (as indicated by block 601), a standard deviation (as indicated by block 602), and automatically correlated (as indicated by block 603). The average is the reflection of the orientation of the accelerometer relative to gravity, where the standard deviation and the autocorrelation are important metrics that describe the amplitude and frequency of the observed motion, such as peak correlation, correlation frequency, and inter-axis correlation. To implement stepwise counting, the three axes are combined at block 630 and filtered at block 635. As indicated by block 640, the construction is always accelerated. The use of total acceleration makes the system solid for different orientations relative to the receiver of the object. As shown in block 645, once the total acceleration is calculated, the standard deviation and autocorrelation are calculated. As shown in block 650, the values are then compared by a threshold (e.g., standard deviation > 0.1 and autocorrelation > 0.25) to determine if a significant, periodic action exists. Next, as shown in block 655, if the threshold is exceeded, the number of steps is determined to be the zero-crossing number of the average corrected total acceleration.

在一些接收器中,裝置可包括環境功能模組。環境功能模組為經配置而獲得有關接收器之環境資料的模組,例如環境狀況、接收器是否連接至皮膚表面等。例如,環境功能模組可經配置而獲得接收器周遭溫度資料。環境功能模組可經配置而例如經由阻抗測量而判斷電極連接。環境功能模組可經配置而判斷電池電壓。上述環境功能模組之特定功能僅係描繪而非予以限定。In some receivers, the device may include an environmental function module. The environmental function module is a module configured to obtain environmental information about the receiver, such as environmental conditions, whether the receiver is connected to the skin surface, and the like. For example, the environmental function module can be configured to obtain ambient temperature data of the receiver. The environmental function module can be configured to determine electrode connections, for example, via impedance measurements. The environmental function module can be configured to determine the battery voltage. The specific functions of the above environmental function modules are merely depicted and not limited.

接收器可經配置而以各式方式掌控所接收之資料。在一些方面,接收器簡單地將資料重新傳輸至外部裝置(例如使用習知RF通訊)。在其他方面,接收器處理所接收之資料以判斷是否採取一些行動,例如在其控制下操作效應器、啟動視覺或聲音警示、將控制信號傳輸至置於身體任何地方之效應器等。在仍其他方面,接收器儲存所接收之資料以便後續重新傳輸至外部裝置,或用於處理後續資料(例如檢測一些參數隨時間之改變)。接收器可實施該些及/或其他使用所接收資料之操作的組合。The receiver can be configured to control the received data in a variety of ways. In some aspects, the receiver simply retransmits the data to an external device (eg, using conventional RF communication). In other aspects, the receiver processes the received data to determine whether to take some action, such as operating an effector under its control, initiating a visual or audible alert, transmitting a control signal to an effector placed anywhere in the body, and the like. In still other aspects, the receiver stores the received data for subsequent retransmission to an external device, or for processing subsequent data (eg, detecting changes in some parameters over time). The receiver can implement these and/or other combinations of operations that use the received data.

在某些方面,接收器為IEM信號接收器,記錄於資料儲存元件之資料包括至少一項下列資料:時間、日期及每一項對於病人管理之IEM的識別符(例如全球唯一案號),其中識別符可為成分之共同名稱或其編碼版本。記錄於接收器之資料儲存元件上的資料可進一步包括與接收器相關例如識別資訊之對象的醫療記錄資訊,例如但不限於:姓名、年齡、治療記錄等。在某些方面,有興趣之資料包括血液動力學測量。在某些方面,有興趣之資料包括心臟組織屬性。在某些方面,有興趣之資料包括壓力或音量測量、溫度、活動、呼吸速率、pH等。In some aspects, the receiver is an IEM signal receiver, and the data recorded in the data storage component includes at least one of the following: time, date, and an identifier for each patient-managed IEM (eg, a globally unique case number), The identifier may be the common name of the component or its encoded version. The data recorded on the data storage component of the receiver may further include medical record information relating to the receiver, such as an object identifying the information, such as, but not limited to, name, age, treatment record, and the like. In some respects, information of interest includes hemodynamic measurements. In some respects, information of interest includes cardiac tissue attributes. In some aspects, information of interest includes pressure or volume measurements, temperature, activity, respiratory rate, pH, and the like.

接收器可包括多種不同類型之電源,其以某種方式提供操作電力予裝置。電力區塊模組之特性可有所不同。在一些情況下,電力區塊可包括電池。當存在時,電池可為一次性電池或可充電電池。對可充電電池而言,電池可使用任何方便的協定加以充電。有興趣者為可使接收器之元件產生多工之協定。例如,本發明之接收器可包括一或多個用於多種功能之電極,例如接收導通傳輸信號、感應生理資料等。當一或多個電極存在時,亦可用做電力接收器,其可用於充電可充電電池,例如下列多功能連接模組部分中的進一步描述。另一方面,電力區塊可經配置而接收電力信號,例如電力區塊包含一繞組,其可於適當磁場施予接收器時將電力給予該裝置。在又其他狀況下,裝置可包括身體供電電力區塊,例如案號11/385,986之美國專利申請案中所描述者,該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。The receiver can include a plurality of different types of power supplies that provide operational power to the device in some manner. The characteristics of the power block module can vary. In some cases, the power block can include a battery. When present, the battery can be a disposable battery or a rechargeable battery. For rechargeable batteries, the battery can be charged using any convenient protocol. Interested parties are agreements that can result in multiplexing of components of the receiver. For example, the receiver of the present invention may include one or more electrodes for multiple functions, such as receiving a conductive transmission signal, sensing physiological data, and the like. When one or more electrodes are present, it can also be used as a power receiver that can be used to charge a rechargeable battery, such as described further in the Multi-Function Connection Module section below. In another aspect, the power block can be configured to receive a power signal, such as the power block including a winding that can impart power to the device when the appropriate magnetic field is applied to the receiver. In still other instances, the device can include a body-powered power block, such as that described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 11/385,986, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

接收器可包括電源模組,以控制該裝置所承擔之某些狀態,例如為使裝置電力使用最少。例如,電源模組可依據一天中之時間、病人行動、或其他事件而完成資料收集之工作週期,所完成之工作週期可基於信號因子或多重因子。例如,當病人四處移動而非休息時,電源模組可使接收器獲得病人活動資料(例如經由加速計模組)。在其他方面,電力管理模組可使接收器僅於夜間收集ECG資料,例如經由使用接收器中即時時鐘而僅於預定時段收集ECG,例如從9PM至7AM。The receiver can include a power module to control certain states assumed by the device, for example to minimize device power usage. For example, a power module can complete a data collection work cycle based on time of day, patient action, or other event, and the completed work cycle can be based on a signal factor or multiple factors. For example, when the patient moves around rather than rest, the power module can cause the receiver to obtain patient activity data (eg, via an accelerometer module). In other aspects, the power management module can cause the receiver to collect ECG data only at night, such as collecting ECGs only for a predetermined period of time, such as from 9 PM to 7 AM, using an instant clock in the receiver.

如前述,接收器可經配置而具有各式狀態-例如閒置狀態或一或多項活動狀態-藉中介模組而使高功率功能區塊視需要用於每一所需之接收器狀態而於活動及不活動狀態之間循環。此外,其他接收器元件可經由電源模組而於接收器的不同狀態期間循環開啟及關閉。電源模組可經配置而控制醫療裝置內至各式電路區塊之電源-例如,有關至處理器之電源的電路區塊、有關各式周邊組件之電路區塊(例如無線通訊模組等)及其電源等。因而,在接收器的每一狀態期間,至接收器之各式組件的電源可視需要而獨立地循環開啟及關閉,以獲得電力效率(並與前述高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環無關)。例如在一些情況下,接收器可經配置而呈現二或更多種不同活動狀態,其中不同工作係於每一不同活動狀態中實施。有興趣之接收器可於第一活動狀態下經配置而實施IEM信號檢測協定,及於第二活動狀態下經配置而實施生理資料檢測協定。在該些類型的接收器中,接收器之各式組件可視需要而循環開啟及關閉以獲得電力效率(並與前述高功率功能區塊於活動及不活動狀態之間循環無關)。As mentioned above, the receiver can be configured to have various states - such as an idle state or one or more active states - to enable the high power functional block to be used for each desired receiver state as needed by the mediation module. Loop between inactive and inactive states. In addition, other receiver components can be cycled on and off during different states of the receiver via the power module. The power module can be configured to control the power supply within the medical device to various circuit blocks - for example, circuit blocks related to the power supply to the processor, circuit blocks related to various peripheral components (eg, wireless communication modules, etc.) And its power supply, etc. Thus, during each state of the receiver, the power to the various components of the receiver can be cycled on and off independently as needed to achieve power efficiency (and with the aforementioned high power functional blocks in active and inactive states) The loop is irrelevant). For example, in some cases, the receiver can be configured to present two or more different activity states, with different jobs being implemented in each of the different activity states. The receiver of interest may configure the IEM signal detection protocol in the first activity state and configure the physiological data detection protocol in the second activity state. In these types of receivers, the various components of the receiver can be cycled on and off as needed to achieve power efficiency (and independent of the cycle between the active and inactive states of the aforementioned high power functional blocks).

電源模組可包含一或多項個別電源以啟動及停用至該些各式組件之電源。例如,在一方面,電源模組可包含高功率處理輸入/輸出電源以供應輸入/輸出電力予高功率處理區塊;及高功率處理核心電源以供核心電力予高功率處理區塊。再者,電源模組可包含無線通訊輸入/輸出電源以供應輸入/輸出電力予無線通訊模組;及無線通訊核心電源以供應核心電力予無線通訊模組。The power module can include one or more individual power sources to activate and deactivate power to the various components. For example, in one aspect, the power module can include high power processing input/output power to supply input/output power to the high power processing block; and high power processing core power for core power to the high power processing block. Furthermore, the power module can include wireless communication input/output power to supply input/output power to the wireless communication module; and wireless communication core power to supply core power to the wireless communication module.

應理解的是單一電源可用於提供電力予多個組件。例如,單一電源可提供輸入/輸出電力予高功率處理區塊及無線通訊模組。在一方面,電源模組從低功率處理區塊(例如微處理器)接收控制信號以判斷電源係開啟/關閉。It should be understood that a single power source can be used to provide power to multiple components. For example, a single power supply can provide input/output power to high power processing blocks and wireless communication modules. In one aspect, the power module receives control signals from a low power processing block (eg, a microprocessor) to determine that the power system is on/off.

請參閱圖26,提供依據本發明理論之接收器電路的電路圖。電路2600負責控制至接收器各式組件之電源。圖26以雙圖顯示之信號線路「VCC_EN_BAT」連接至圖24,並結合圖24中電路部分以控制電源。如圖26中所描繪,顯示翻譯器2610電性耦合至開關2620,後者電性耦合至參考電壓2630及2640。翻譯器2610將其A匯流排上之資料信號VC_ENA翻譯為其B匯流排上之信號VC_EN_BAT。信號VCC_EN_BAT連接至供應電力予各式組件之調節器24155、24157及24159(如圖24中所描繪)之啟動接腳。因而,資料信號VCC_EN_BAT可啟動/關閉接收器之各式組件的電源。例如,調節器24155、24157及24159分別提供電力予DSP核心、DSP及無線通訊I/O及無線通訊核心。因而,每一該些組件可相應於電路2600之啟動/關閉資料信號(VCC_EN_BT)而被關閉及啟動。Referring to Figure 26, a circuit diagram of a receiver circuit in accordance with the teachings of the present invention is provided. Circuit 2600 is responsible for controlling the power to various components of the receiver. Fig. 26 is connected to Fig. 24 by the signal line "VCC_EN_BAT" shown in the double figure, and is combined with the circuit portion of Fig. 24 to control the power supply. As depicted in FIG. 26, display translator 2610 is electrically coupled to switch 2620, which is electrically coupled to reference voltages 2630 and 2640. The translator 2610 translates the data signal VC_ENA on its A bus to its signal VC_EN_BAT on the B bus. Signal VCC_EN_BAT is coupled to the enable pin that supplies power to regulators 24155, 24157, and 24159 (as depicted in FIG. 24) of various components. Thus, the data signal VCC_EN_BAT can turn on/off the power to the various components of the receiver. For example, regulators 24155, 24157, and 24159 provide power to the DSP core, DSP, and wireless communication I/O and wireless communication core, respectively. Thus, each of these components can be turned off and on in response to the enable/disable profile signal (VCC_EN_BT) of circuit 2600.

接收器可包括多用途連接器模組。多用途連接器模組包括活體對象接點,例如電極,如文中所示(以下亦稱為「多用途連接器」),並可用於裝置電源的週期性充電、裝置之控制功能的重新程式設計、及/或裝置之資料檢索。該組態與包括每一該些功能之個別連接器的組態相反,例如獨特的病人連接器、電力連接器及裝置組態連接器。The receiver can include a multi-purpose connector module. The multi-purpose connector module includes a living object contact such as an electrode, as shown in the text (hereinafter also referred to as "multi-purpose connector"), and can be used for periodic charging of the device power supply and reprogramming of the control function of the device. And/or device data retrieval. This configuration is in contrast to the configuration of individual connectors that include each of these functions, such as unique patient connectors, power connectors, and device configuration connectors.

包括多用途連接器模組之接收器為目標物件之間可改變之連接,例如病人或病人相關裝置,及第二外部裝置,例如外部程式設計裝置及外部充電器裝置。連接可用於幫助信號通訊,例如電信號、數位信號、光學信號、各式信號之組合等。文中所使用的「可變連接」乙詞,係指多用途連接器接收與活體對象(例如病人)及第二外部裝置之一相關之連接組件的能力,及基於特定連接組件而形成連接的能力,例如與病人相關之連接組件或與第二外部裝置相關之連接組件。接收器進一步包括多功能區塊以經由連接控制與信號通訊相關之信號。在各式方面,第二外部裝置包含外部程式設計裝置,及第二功能區塊包含控制器功能區塊以控制與外部程式設計裝置及接收器間之通訊相關的信號。當接收器經由多用途連接器而連接至外部程式設計裝置時,外部程式設計裝置可用於計畫性地控制接收器。在各式方面,第二外部裝置包含外部充電器裝置,及第二功能區塊包含電力功能區塊以控制與外部充電器裝置及接收器間之通訊相關的信號。當接收器經由多用途連接器而連接至外部充電器時,外部充電器可用於充電接收器。在各式方面,第二功能區塊包含病人互動功能區塊。當接收器經由多用途連接器而連接至病人或病人相關裝置時,該裝置可用於與病人或病人相關裝置互動通訊。例如,接收器可配賦電極以激發或感應各式病人參數,及附著於病人身體以利各式功能目標,例如遞送起搏刺激予病人;接收病人之生理資訊等。The receiver including the multi-purpose connector module is a changeable connection between the target objects, such as a patient or patient related device, and a second external device such as an external programming device and an external charger device. Connections can be used to aid in signal communication, such as electrical signals, digital signals, optical signals, combinations of various signals, and the like. The term "variable connection" as used herein refers to the ability of a multi-purpose connector to receive a connection component associated with one of a living object (eg, a patient) and a second external device, and the ability to form a connection based on a particular connection component. For example, a connection component associated with the patient or a connection component associated with the second external device. The receiver further includes a multi-function block to control signals associated with signal communication via the connection. In various aspects, the second external device includes an external programming device, and the second functional block includes a controller functional block to control signals associated with communication between the external programming device and the receiver. The external programming device can be used to programmatically control the receiver when the receiver is connected to the external programming device via the multipurpose connector. In various aspects, the second external device includes an external charger device, and the second functional block includes a power functional block to control signals associated with communication between the external charger device and the receiver. When the receiver is connected to an external charger via a multi-purpose connector, an external charger can be used to charge the receiver. In various aspects, the second functional block contains a patient interaction function block. When the receiver is connected to the patient or patient related device via the multipurpose connector, the device can be used to interact with the patient or patient related device. For example, the receiver can be equipped with electrodes to excite or sense various patient parameters, and attached to the patient's body to facilitate various functional goals, such as delivering pacing stimuli to the patient; receiving physiological information of the patient, and the like.

在一些方面,至少一多功能區塊被用做信號指示器。信號指示器可為任何可實施所描述功能性之組件、次組件或其組合。在一範例中,接收器係實體結合,例如用於包括信號指示器。該等組態可包含一或更多電路等。在另一範例中,信號指示器與接收器實體分離。該等組態可包含有利於文中所描述之信號功能性的路由器或其他網路裝置。信號指示器可包含用於控制信號之控制元件,例如區分信號。在各式方面,信號指示器包含軟體及電路其中至少一項。In some aspects, at least one multi-function block is used as a signal indicator. The signal indicator can be any component, sub-component, or combination thereof that can perform the described functionality. In an example, the receiver is physically coupled, for example to include a signal indicator. These configurations may include one or more circuits and the like. In another example, the signal indicator is separate from the receiver entity. Such configurations may include routers or other network devices that facilitate the signal functionality described herein. The signal indicator can include control elements for controlling the signal, such as distinguishing signals. In various aspects, the signal indicator includes at least one of a software and a circuit.

可依據各式標準而遂行信號控制或區分,例如電壓、頻率、人力控制、程式控制等。控制元件組態據以改變。例如,依據電壓而區分之控制元件可完成為一個或更多二極體、熱阻器等。依據頻率而區分之控制元件可完成為高通濾波器或低通濾波器。提供人力及/或程式控制之控制元件可完成為類比開關、繼電器、多工器等。各式其他完成可依據各式參數,例如光線、溫度、時間等。Signal control or differentiation can be performed according to various standards, such as voltage, frequency, manual control, program control, and the like. The control component configuration is changed accordingly. For example, control elements that are differentiated according to voltage can be implemented as one or more diodes, thermal resistors, and the like. The control element that is differentiated according to frequency can be completed as a high pass filter or a low pass filter. Control elements that provide manpower and/or program control can be implemented as analog switches, relays, multiplexers, and the like. Various other completions can be based on various parameters such as light, temperature, time, and the like.

如上述,多用途連接器為連接器元件,其用於提供連接予病人及一或多項第二外部裝置,例如外部程式設計裝置、外部充電器裝置或外部資料處理器。因此,多用途連接器之結構使其可提供接收器之連接至病人,或直接或經由其他裝置(如下述)而至其他裝置。因此,接收器可於第一時間經由多用途連接器而連接至病人,及於不同於第一時間之第二時間經由相同多用途連接器而連接至另一裝置,使得相同多用途連接器被用以於不同時間將接收器連接至不同實體。因此,多用途連接器可用以於不同時間連接一或多項裝置之功能區塊的實體完成至病人及至至少一或多項其餘外部裝置,例如外部充電器、外部程式設計裝置或外部資料處理器。As noted above, the multipurpose connector is a connector component for providing connection to a patient and one or more second external devices, such as an external programming device, an external charger device, or an external data processor. Thus, the multi-purpose connector is constructed to provide connection of the receiver to the patient, or to other devices either directly or via other means (as described below). Therefore, the receiver can be connected to the patient via the multi-purpose connector at a first time and connected to another device via the same multi-purpose connector at a second time different from the first time, such that the same multi-purpose connector is Used to connect the receiver to different entities at different times. Thus, the multi-purpose connector can be used to complete the connection of the functional blocks of one or more devices at different times to the patient and to at least one or more of the remaining external devices, such as an external charger, an external programming device, or an external data processor.

多用途連接器之結構可視需要而加以改變,其中有興趣之連接器結構包括但不限於:IS-1連接器、醫療儀器促進協會心電圖(AAMI ECG)塞繩連接器、及醫療級籠罩多接腳連接器。在一些情況下,連接器包括一或多個電極,例如二至十個電極,包括三個電極或四個電極。The structure of the multi-purpose connector can be changed as needed, and connector structures of interest include, but are not limited to, IS-1 connectors, medical instrument promotion association electrocardiogram (AAMI ECG) cord connectors, and medical grade cages. Foot connector. In some cases, the connector includes one or more electrodes, such as two to ten electrodes, including three or four electrodes.

若有需要,多用途連接器可經配置而直接與病人或其他外部裝置連接,使得無其餘的連接器裝置需於接收器之多用途連接器與病人或其他外部裝置之間提供連接。另一方面,多用途連接器可經配置而經由實體獨特的連接器裝置(例如電纜或線)連接至病人或其他外部裝置。實體獨特的電連接器可具有一端子用於置入多用途連接器,及另一端子用於實施特定目的,例如連接至病人或外部裝置,例如電池充電器或外部程式設計裝置。應注意的是,若接收器經由獨特的連接器(例如電線)而連接至病人,該裝置仍被視為接收器。If desired, the multi-purpose connector can be configured to interface directly with a patient or other external device such that no remaining connector device provides a connection between the multi-purpose connector of the receiver and the patient or other external device. In another aspect, the multi-purpose connector can be configured to connect to a patient or other external device via a physically unique connector device, such as a cable or wire. The physically unique electrical connector can have one terminal for placement in a multi-purpose connector and the other terminal for specific purposes, such as connection to a patient or an external device, such as a battery charger or an external programming device. It should be noted that if the receiver is connected to the patient via a unique connector (eg, a wire), the device is still considered a receiver.

如本申請案其他部分所描述的,在本發明之接收器中,多用途連接器作業上連接(例如電性連接、光學連接等)至多功能區塊(例如兩個或更多、三個或更多、四個或更多、五個或更多、七個或更多、十個或更多功能區塊)。As described elsewhere in this application, in the receiver of the present invention, the multi-purpose connector is operatively connected (eg, electrically connected, optically coupled, etc.) to the multi-function block (eg, two or more, three or More, four or more, five or more, seven or more, ten or more functional blocks).

除了用於連接病人外,有興趣之多用途連接器可經配置而將接收器連接至其他外部裝置,包括但不限於外部充電器裝置、外部程式設計裝置、資料處理裝置、數據機、鍵盤、顯示裝置及/或外部儲存裝置等。經由使用相同連接器將接收器連接至病人及其他裝置,可避免當醫療裝置連接至另一裝置(例如充電器)時,病人連接至接收器。此組態提高了病人之安全性,因其排除了來自其他外部裝置(例如電力充電器、程式設計裝置、資料處理器等)之信號將傳輸至病人而傷害病人之可能性。使用單一連接器進行多重功能使得裝置的防水更容易,因為裝置外罩的開口較少。In addition to being used to connect patients, an interested multi-purpose connector can be configured to connect the receiver to other external devices, including but not limited to external charger devices, external programming devices, data processing devices, data machines, keyboards, Display device and/or external storage device, etc. By connecting the receiver to the patient and other devices using the same connector, it is avoided that the patient is connected to the receiver when the medical device is connected to another device, such as a charger. This configuration increases patient safety by eliminating the possibility that signals from other external devices (such as power chargers, programming devices, data processors, etc.) will be transmitted to the patient and harm the patient. The use of a single connector for multiple functions makes the device more waterproof because the device housing has fewer openings.

有興趣之接收器可包括機能上置於多用途連接器與裝置之一或多個多功能區塊之間的路由器。「機能上置於其間」意即例如匯入信號、匯出信號或雙向信號等信號將於通過多用途連接器之後,在進入多功能區塊之一之前,通過路由器。路由器可經配置而依據一或多個參數選擇地允許信號通過而至某功能區塊。例如,路由器可經配置而依據電壓區分信號,例如僅允許高於或低於某閾值電壓(或介於某波段之間)之信號通過;依據頻率,例如僅允許高於或低於某閾值頻率(或介於某頻段之間)之信號通過;或依據作業模式,例如充電模式、資料傳輸模式、病人互動模式等。在一些情況下,亦存在機能上置於多用途連接器與僅若干多功能區塊之間的路由器。換言之,可存在一或多個未經由路由器而與多用途連接器分離之功能區塊。An interested receiver may include a router that is functionally placed between the multi-purpose connector and one or more of the multi-function blocks. "Functionally placed between them" means that signals such as incoming signals, outgoing signals, or bidirectional signals will pass through the router after passing through the multipurpose connector and before entering one of the multifunction blocks. The router can be configured to selectively allow signals to pass through to a functional block in accordance with one or more parameters. For example, a router can be configured to differentiate signals based on voltage, for example, only signals above or below a certain threshold voltage (or between certain bands) are allowed to pass; depending on the frequency, for example, only frequencies above or below a certain threshold are allowed. Signals (or between certain frequency bands) pass; or depending on the operating mode, such as charging mode, data transmission mode, patient interaction mode, etc. In some cases, there are also routers that are functionally placed between the multi-purpose connector and only a few multi-function blocks. In other words, there may be one or more functional blocks that are not separated from the multi-purpose connector by the router.

在一些情況下,路由器可經配置而依據有興趣之信號對於裝置之獨特特性區分信號。測量來自身體之信號可為相對低電壓,例如500mV或更低,或50mV或更低,例如100mV或更低。類似地,測量來自身體之信號可為相對低頻,例如20kHz或更低,例如5kHz或更低,或1kHz或更低。相比之下,用於充電例如外部醫療裝置之裝置內部電池的典型電力信號可為相對較高電壓,例如1V或更高,2V或更高,或5V或更高。用於資料傳輸之典型信號可具有較身體測量信號相對較高頻率,例如100kHz或更高,1MHz或更高,或10MHz或更高。因而,經由依據頻率及電壓之區分,路由器可選擇地將信號發送至適當功能區塊。路由器可依據信號的任一特性而區分信號,包括但不限於電壓、頻率及其二者之組合。在其他情況下,路由器可依據裝置的作業模式而發送匯入信號,此可經由其他電路、軟體、人工開關或指令加以設定。In some cases, the router can be configured to differentiate signals for unique characteristics of the device based on signals of interest. The signal from the body can be measured as a relatively low voltage, such as 500 mV or less, or 50 mV or less, such as 100 mV or less. Similarly, measuring the signal from the body can be relatively low frequency, such as 20 kHz or lower, such as 5 kHz or lower, or 1 kHz or lower. In contrast, a typical power signal for charging a device internal battery, such as an external medical device, can be a relatively high voltage, such as 1 V or higher, 2 V or higher, or 5 V or higher. A typical signal for data transmission may have a relatively higher frequency than a body measurement signal, such as 100 kHz or higher, 1 MHz or higher, or 10 MHz or higher. Thus, the router can selectively transmit signals to the appropriate functional blocks via differentiation based on frequency and voltage. The router can distinguish signals based on any of the characteristics of the signal, including but not limited to voltage, frequency, and combinations of the two. In other cases, the router can send an incoming signal depending on the mode of operation of the device, which can be set via other circuits, software, manual switches, or commands.

在某些情況下,路由器用於將某類型信號發送至特定功能區塊,同時將信號與一或多個其他功能區塊隔離。例如,若需要對來自病人之信號進行高阻抗測量,重要的是將電力功能區塊之低阻抗隔離。在此情況下,路由器可置於電力功能區塊與多用途連接器之間,其僅允許高於某電壓之信號通過。因而,測量來自病人身體之信號的相對低電壓將與電力功能區塊隔離,且病人互動功能區塊將可適當地測量信號。In some cases, a router is used to send a certain type of signal to a specific functional block while isolating the signal from one or more other functional blocks. For example, if a high impedance measurement of a signal from a patient is required, it is important to isolate the low impedance of the power functional block. In this case, the router can be placed between the power functional block and the multi-purpose connector, which only allows signals above a certain voltage to pass. Thus, the relatively low voltage that measures the signal from the patient's body will be isolated from the power functional block, and the patient interaction function block will be able to properly measure the signal.

然而,在一些情況下,當特定區塊未使用時,將其與其他功能區塊隔離便不重要。因此,在一些情況下路由器可不用於使一或多個特定功能區塊與信號斷開。即,在該些狀況下,匯入信號將總是通過特定功能區塊。然而,在一些情況下,功能區塊可僅回應某類型信號,例如某範圍之頻率或電壓,且當暴露於其他信號時,將不受破壞。此選擇性回應可有效地做為路由方式。However, in some cases, when a particular block is not in use, it is not important to isolate it from other functional blocks. Therefore, in some cases the router may not be used to disconnect one or more specific functional blocks from the signal. That is, under these conditions, the incoming signal will always pass through a particular functional block. However, in some cases, a functional block may only respond to a certain type of signal, such as a range of frequencies or voltages, and will be uncorrupted when exposed to other signals. This selective response can be effectively used as a routing method.

如此處使用之路由器其本身可由多功能路由區塊製成,每一個機能上置於一或多個裝置功能區塊與多用途連接器之間。如此一來,各個路由器區塊可依據不同參數而區分信號,允許不同種類信號抵達各裝置功能區塊。A router as used herein may itself be made up of a multi-function routing block, each of which is placed between one or more device functional blocks and a multi-purpose connector. In this way, each router block can distinguish signals according to different parameters, allowing different types of signals to reach the functional blocks of each device.

路由器可固有地、主動地或經由固有及主動技術之組合而將信號發送至適當電路。在一些情況下,路由器可依據電壓而區分匯入信號。例如,機能上置於多用途連接器與一或多個功能區塊之間之路由器可允許僅高於某閾值電壓之信號通過而至該些功能區塊。在一些情況下,此可由一或多個二極體實施。在一些情況下,該等二極體可配置做為整流器,例如半波整流器、全波整流器、三相整流器等。在其他情況下,路由器可允許僅低於某閾值電壓之信號通過而至相關功能區塊。The router can send signals to the appropriate circuitry either inherently, actively, or via a combination of inherent and active technologies. In some cases, the router can distinguish incoming signals based on voltage. For example, a router that is functionally placed between a multipurpose connector and one or more functional blocks may allow signals that are only above a certain threshold voltage to pass to the functional blocks. In some cases, this can be performed by one or more diodes. In some cases, the diodes can be configured as rectifiers, such as half-wave rectifiers, full-wave rectifiers, three-phase rectifiers, and the like. In other cases, the router may allow signals that are only below a certain threshold voltage to pass through to the associated functional block.

在其他情況下,路由器可依據頻率而發送信號。例如,機能上置於多用途連接器與一或多個功能區塊之間之路由器可允許僅高於某頻率之信號通過而至相關功能區塊。在其他情況下,路由器可允許僅低於某頻率、在某頻段內或某頻段外之信號通過。依據頻率而區分之路由器可包含一濾波器,例如低通濾波器、高通濾波器或帶通濾波器。濾波器可具有任何方便之設計,且濾波器特性可隨需予區分之信號的特性而改變。In other cases, the router can send signals based on frequency. For example, a router that is functionally placed between a multipurpose connector and one or more functional blocks may allow signals that are only above a certain frequency to pass through to the associated functional block. In other cases, the router may allow signals that are only below a certain frequency, within a certain frequency band, or outside a certain frequency band. A router that is differentiated by frequency may include a filter such as a low pass filter, a high pass filter, or a band pass filter. The filter can have any convenient design and the filter characteristics can vary depending on the characteristics of the signal to be differentiated.

在一些方面,路由器可包含一或多個將信號發送至適當功能區塊之控制開關。該些開關可包括但不限於類比開關、多工器、繼電器等,或其任意組合。該些開關可由檢測信號存在與否並據以發送之其他電路控制。另一方面,該些開關可由軟體控制。在其他方面,該些開關可由使用者控制。例如,可在裝置外罩上或外部控制器上存在使用者介面。使用者介面可包括但不限於一或多個開關、一或多個按鈕、觸控螢幕等,藉此使用者可選擇適當操作模式,且路由器開關可據以設定。在一些情況下,裝置之操作模式可依據來自多用途連接器之信號輸入而由內部電路或軟體修改。可能的操作模式可包括但不限於病人互動模式、充電模式、資料通訊模式等。該些切換可依據操作模式而予發送。In some aspects, the router can include one or more control switches that send signals to the appropriate functional blocks. The switches may include, but are not limited to, analog switches, multiplexers, relays, etc., or any combination thereof. The switches can be controlled by other circuitry that detects the presence or absence of a signal and transmits it accordingly. On the other hand, the switches can be controlled by software. In other aspects, the switches are controllable by the user. For example, a user interface can be present on the device housing or on an external controller. The user interface can include, but is not limited to, one or more switches, one or more buttons, a touch screen, etc., whereby the user can select an appropriate mode of operation and the router switch can be set accordingly. In some cases, the mode of operation of the device can be modified by internal circuitry or software depending on the signal input from the multipurpose connector. Possible modes of operation may include, but are not limited to, patient interaction mode, charging mode, data communication mode, and the like. These switches can be sent depending on the mode of operation.

在一些情況下,資料或處理指令係經由多用途連接器而予發送,其可令人滿意地選擇與病人連接電路相容之信令協定。為符合調整需求,病人電性連接可具有連接至該電性連接之安全電容器以保護病人免於DC電壓。在該些方面,其可令人滿意地選擇不依賴DC位準而代表1或0之資料位元的通訊協定。相反地,可選擇依賴轉變或頻率調變而代表資料之資料通訊協定。在其他情況下,不需避免DC資料協定,任何方便的資料協定均可使用。In some cases, the data or processing instructions are sent via a multi-purpose connector that satisfactorily selects a signaling protocol that is compatible with the patient connection circuitry. To meet regulatory needs, the patient electrical connection can have a safety capacitor connected to the electrical connection to protect the patient from DC voltage. In these respects, it is possible to satisfactorily select a communication protocol that does not rely on a DC level to represent a data bit of 1 or 0. Conversely, a data communication protocol that relies on transitions or frequency modulation to represent data can be selected. In other cases, there is no need to avoid DC data agreements and any convenient data agreement can be used.

圖16中顯示接收器之方塊圖包含多用途連接器,其中顯示裝置處於病人互動模式。接收器1601經由多用途連接器1605而連接至病人1603。多用途連接器1605係置於外罩1607之上,並連接至路由器1609。路由器1609連接至內部電源1611、信號獲得區塊1613、能量輸出區塊1615及/或控制及資料輸入/輸出區塊1617。如圖所示,接收器1601係連接至病人1603,因而路由器1609經由連接1619而將信號發送至信號獲得區塊1613。能量可經由能量輸出區塊1615通過連接1621而傳送與病人。連接1621可共用與連接1619相同之電線。The block diagram of the receiver shown in Figure 16 includes a multi-purpose connector in which the display device is in a patient interaction mode. Receiver 1601 is coupled to patient 1603 via multi-purpose connector 1605. A multipurpose connector 1605 is placed over the housing 1607 and connected to the router 1609. Router 1609 is coupled to internal power source 1611, signal acquisition block 1613, energy output block 1615, and/or control and data input/output block 1617. As shown, receiver 1601 is coupled to patient 1603, and router 1609 sends a signal to signal acquisition block 1613 via connection 1619. Energy can be communicated to the patient via energy output block 1615 via connection 1621. The connection 1621 can share the same wires as the connection 1619.

圖17中顯示相同接收器,其中顯示裝置處於充電模式。外部電源1723經由多用途連接器1705連接至接收器1701。多用途連接器1705連接至路由器1709。路由器1709將匯入信號判明為充電信號,並據以將信號經由連接1725而發送至內部電源1711,因而充電內部電源1711。The same receiver is shown in Figure 17, where the display device is in charging mode. The external power source 1723 is connected to the receiver 1701 via the multi-purpose connector 1705. Multipurpose connector 1705 is coupled to router 1709. The router 1709 recognizes the incoming signal as a charging signal and accordingly transmits the signal to the internal power source 1711 via the connection 1725, thereby charging the internal power source 1711.

圖18顯示當裝置處於資料通訊模式時之接收器1801。外部控制和數據通訊裝置1827經由多用途連接器1805而連接至接收器1801。多用途連接器1805連接至路由器1809。路由器1809將匯入信號判明為控制及/或資料通訊信號,並據以將信號發送至控制及資料輸入/輸出區塊1817及連接1829。外部控制和數據通訊裝置1827接著可將控制信號及/或資料封包發送至控制及資料輸入/輸出區塊1817,或發送來自控制及資料輸入/輸出區塊1817之信號要求資料。控制及資料輸入/輸出區塊1819可於相同連接1829上或不同連接(包括無線連接)上將資料發送至外部控制和數據通訊裝置1827。Figure 18 shows the receiver 1801 when the device is in the data communication mode. The external control and data communication device 1827 is connected to the receiver 1801 via a multi-purpose connector 1805. A multipurpose connector 1805 is connected to the router 1809. Router 1809 identifies the incoming signal as a control and/or data communication signal and transmits the signal to control and data input/output block 1817 and connection 1829 accordingly. The external control and data communication device 1827 can then send the control signals and/or data packets to the control and data input/output block 1817 or the signal request data from the control and data input/output block 1817. Control and data input/output block 1819 can send data to external control and data communication device 1827 over the same connection 1829 or on different connections (including wireless connections).

圖19A及19B中顯示可用於本發明之接收器中的路由器之範例。圖19A描繪依據電壓位準而區分信號之路由器。僅超過路由器1931之閾值電壓的信號將從匯流排1933發送至匯流排1935。圖19B中顯示該原理之簡單範例,其中二極體1937做為信號指示器,例如路由器1909。僅搭於二極體1937之閾值電壓的信號將從匯流排1939發送至匯流排1941。An example of a router that can be used in the receiver of the present invention is shown in Figures 19A and 19B. Figure 19A depicts a router that differentiates signals based on voltage levels. Signals that only exceed the threshold voltage of router 1931 will be sent from bus 1933 to bus 1935. A simple example of this principle is shown in Figure 19B, in which the diode 1937 acts as a signal indicator, such as router 1909. Only the signal at the threshold voltage of the diode 1937 will be sent from the bus 1939 to the bus 1941.

圖20A及20B顯示依據匯入信號之頻率而予區分之路由器。圖20A顯示依據頻率並具有匯入信號匯流排2043及功能區塊匯流排2045、2047之路由器的原理。元件2049具有隨頻率而增加之阻抗,並形成具電阻高通濾波器2050。僅高於高通濾波器之設計頻率的信號將從匯流排2043發送至匯流排2045。元件2051具有隨頻率而降低之阻抗,並形成具電阻低通濾波器2052。僅低於低通濾波器之設計頻率的信號將從匯流排2043發送至匯流排2047。高通濾波器及低通濾波器具有或不具有不同設計頻率。圖20B顯示此原理之簡單範例。電容器2053及電阻2054於匯流排2057與匯流排2059之間形成高通濾波器,且電感2055及電阻2056於匯流排2057與匯流排2061之間形成低通濾波器。僅高於截止頻率之該些信號獲允許從匯流排2057發送至匯流排2059,同時僅低於截止頻率之該些信號獲允許從匯流排2057發送至匯流排2061。20A and 20B show routers that are differentiated according to the frequency of the incoming signal. Figure 20A shows the principle of a router that is based on frequency and has a sinking signal bus 2043 and functional block bus 2045, 2047. Element 2049 has an impedance that increases with frequency and forms a resistive high pass filter 2050. Signals that are only above the design frequency of the high pass filter will be sent from bus bar 2043 to bus bar 2045. Element 2051 has an impedance that decreases with frequency and forms a resistive low pass filter 2052. Signals that are only below the design frequency of the low pass filter will be sent from bus bar 2043 to bus bar 2047. The high pass filter and low pass filter have or do not have different design frequencies. Figure 20B shows a simple example of this principle. The capacitor 2053 and the resistor 2054 form a high-pass filter between the bus bar 2057 and the bus bar 2059, and the inductor 2055 and the resistor 2056 form a low-pass filter between the bus bar 2057 and the bus bar 2061. Only those signals above the cutoff frequency are allowed to be transmitted from the busbar 2057 to the busbar 2059, while only those signals below the cutoff frequency are allowed to be transmitted from the busbar 2057 to the busbar 2061.

圖20C顯示依據匯入信號之頻率而予區分之路由器的另一範例。高通濾波器2056具有跌落於某設計頻率之下的增益。僅高於設計頻率之信號將從匯流排2058發送至匯流排2060。低通濾波器2062具有跌落於第二設計頻率之上的增益。僅高於設計頻率之信號將從匯流排2058發送至匯流排2064。Figure 20C shows another example of a router that is differentiated based on the frequency of incoming signals. High pass filter 2056 has a gain that falls below a certain design frequency. Signals only above the design frequency will be sent from bus 2090 to bus 2060. Low pass filter 2062 has a gain that falls above the second design frequency. Only signals above the design frequency will be sent from bus 2058 to bus 2064.

圖21顯示使用主動開關之路由器的觀點。匯流排2163經由開關2171、2173及2175而與匯流排2165、2167及2169分離。匯流排2165、2167及2169各連接至外部接收器的一或多個功能區塊。開關2171、2173及2175可由其他電路、軟體及/或使用者控制以視需要開啟或關閉而使匯流排2163與相應功能區塊連接或脫離。Figure 21 shows the point of view of a router using an active switch. The bus bar 2163 is separated from the bus bars 2165, 2167, and 2169 via switches 2171, 2173, and 2175. The busbars 2165, 2167, and 2169 are each connected to one or more functional blocks of the external receiver. Switches 2171, 2173, and 2175 can be controlled by other circuits, software, and/or users to open or close the busbar 2163 to or from the corresponding functional block as needed.

本發明之接收器可包括連接至多用途連接器之電路,其固有地將高於某閾值之應用AC電壓發送至整流機構、電力轉換機構,及接著至使用能量充電內部電池之電池充電器電路。接收器內部之資料獲得電路不受特定應用AC電壓之影響。接收器亦檢測電壓存在與否,並依據資訊而改變其操作模式。The receiver of the present invention can include circuitry coupled to the multi-purpose connector that inherently transmits an applied AC voltage above a certain threshold to a rectifying mechanism, a power conversion mechanism, and then to a battery charger circuit that uses energy to charge the internal battery. The data acquisition circuitry inside the receiver is unaffected by the AC voltage of the particular application. The receiver also detects the presence or absence of voltage and changes its mode of operation depending on the information.

圖22-24顯示接收器之一觀點的電路範例。圖22顯示多用途電極連接SNAP_E1 2277、SNAP_E2 2279及SNAP_E3 2281,連同將電極經由信號接收放大器輸入22121及22123連接至信號接收區塊之開關22113、22115及22117。二極體2283、2285及2287保護電路免於因靜電釋放(ESD)而受破壞。電感2289、2291及2293降低電磁干擾(EMI)。電容器2295、2297及2299經由避免來自施予電極2277、2279及2281之任何DC電壓而保護病人。線路ChargeInAC1 22101、ChargeInAC2 22103及ChargeInAC3 22105將輸入連接至內部電源,其將於後續圖中顯示。電容器22107、22109及22111避免來自施予信號接收放大器之任何DC電壓。開關22113、22115、22117及22119係用於選擇三電極2277、2279及2281之任何組合而前進至兩信號接收放大器輸入V+diff 22121及V-diff 22123。Figure 22-24 shows an example of a circuit from one of the receiver's perspectives. Figure 22 shows the multipurpose electrode connections SNAP_E1 2277, SNAP_E2 2279, and SNAP_E3 2281, along with switches 22113, 22115, and 22117 that connect the electrodes to signal receiving blocks via signal receiving amplifier inputs 22121 and 22123. Diodes 2283, 2285, and 2287 protect the circuit from damage due to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Inductors 2289, 2291, and 2293 reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). Capacitors 2295, 2297, and 2299 protect the patient by avoiding any DC voltage from the donor electrodes 2277, 2279, and 2281. Lines ChargeInAC1 22101, ChargeInAC2 22103 and ChargeInAC3 22105 connect the inputs to the internal power supply, which will be shown in the subsequent figures. Capacitors 22107, 22109, and 22111 avoid any DC voltage from the signal receiving amplifier. Switches 22113, 22115, 22117, and 22119 are used to select any combination of three electrodes 2277, 2279, and 2281 to advance to the two signal receive amplifier inputs V+diff 22121 and V-diff 22123.

在圖22中所示之裝置中,不可能完全脫離信號接收區塊。若充電信號施予該些電極,將通過該些開關而至放大器輸入。然而,放大器輸入經設計而不受相對大之電壓影響,所以脫離信號接收區塊是不必要的。In the apparatus shown in Fig. 22, it is impossible to completely detach from the signal receiving block. If the charging signal is applied to the electrodes, they will pass through the switches to the amplifier input. However, the amplifier input is designed to be unaffected by relatively large voltages, so it is not necessary to leave the signal receiving block.

在另一組態中,當電極上接收資料信號以外之信號時,便可脫離信號接收區塊。此可經由例如使用其餘開關及/或不同的開關而予完成。In another configuration, when a signal other than the data signal is received on the electrode, the signal receiving block can be detached. This can be done, for example, by using the remaining switches and/or different switches.

圖23顯示電池充電器輸入至內部電源功能區塊。來自圖22之線路ChargeInAC1 22101、ChargeInAC2 22103及ChargeInAC3 22105分別於ChargeInAC1 23125、ChargeInAC2 23127及ChargeInAC3 23129連接至電源功能區塊。二極體23131-23136形成三相整流器。當裝置連接至外部充電器時,整流器取得充電信號,其可能為交流電流(例如100 kHz方波),並於網絡Charger_In 23139上將其轉換為DC電流。當出現於輸入之電壓約低於0.6 V時,例如當裝置連接至病人時,信號並未通過整流器,且Charger_In節點23139脫離輸入23125、23127及23129。當需要進行病人上信號的高阻抗測量時,便使Charger_In節點23139的低阻抗與電極分離。升壓轉換器23141將網絡Charger_In 23139上之電壓提高至所需充電電壓,例如約5V。提高之電壓經由節點23143而發送至電池充電器。若高於所需之電壓置於Charger_In節點23139上,二極體23145便保護電路。Figure 23 shows the battery charger input to the internal power function block. The lines ChargeInAC1 22101, ChargeInAC2 22103, and ChargeInAC3 22105 from Figure 22 are connected to the power function block at ChargeInAC1 23125, ChargeInAC2 23127, and ChargeInAC3 23129, respectively. The diodes 23131-23136 form a three-phase rectifier. When the device is connected to an external charger, the rectifier takes a charging signal, which may be an alternating current (eg, a 100 kHz square wave), and converts it to a DC current on the network Charger_In 23139. When the voltage present at the input is less than about 0.6 V, such as when the device is connected to the patient, the signal does not pass through the rectifier, and the Charger_In node 23139 is disengaged from inputs 23125, 23127, and 23129. When a high impedance measurement of the signal on the patient is required, the low impedance of the Charger_In node 23139 is separated from the electrode. Boost converter 23141 boosts the voltage on network Charger_In 23139 to the desired charging voltage, for example about 5V. The increased voltage is sent to the battery charger via node 23143. If the voltage above the desired voltage is placed on the Charger_In node 23139, the diode 23145 protects the circuit.

圖24顯示電池充電器電路之觀點。來自圖23之輸出節點23143於電池充電器輸入節點24147與圖24中之電池充電器電路連接。電池充電器輸入24147連接至電池充電器積體電路24149。在此方面,電池充電器輸入24147用於充電電池板24151及24153之電池(例如鋰電池)。圖24中所示電路的其餘部分包括調節器24155、24157及24159,其決定用於裝置中電路的其餘部分之電池電壓。Figure 24 shows the point of view of the battery charger circuit. The output node 23143 from Figure 23 is coupled to the battery charger circuit of Figure 24 at the battery charger input node 24147. Battery charger input 24147 is coupled to battery charger integrated circuit 24149. In this regard, battery charger input 24147 is used to charge batteries (e.g., lithium batteries) of panels 24151 and 24153. The remainder of the circuit shown in Figure 24 includes regulators 24155, 24157 and 24159 which determine the battery voltage for the remainder of the circuitry in the device.

使用期間,接收器可操作上經由多用途連接器而耦合至活體對象(例如病人)或另一外部裝置。其他可連接之外部裝置包括但不限於外部充電器裝置、外部程式設計裝置及外部資料處理裝置。接收器亦可操作上經由多用途連接器而耦合至另一醫療裝置,包括至植入之醫療裝置的外部近端。當病人或另一裝置經由多用途連接器而連接至外部醫療裝置時,路由器可依據信號類型或信號特性而開啟或關閉信號路徑。如上述,路由選擇可固有地、主動地或經由該些及其他技術而予實施。During use, the receiver is operatively coupled to a living object (eg, a patient) or another external device via a multi-purpose connector. Other connectable external devices include, but are not limited to, external charger devices, external programming devices, and external data processing devices. The receiver is also operatively coupled to another medical device via a multi-purpose connector, including to an external proximal end of the implanted medical device. When a patient or another device is connected to an external medical device via a multi-purpose connector, the router can turn the signal path on or off depending on the type of signal or signal characteristics. As mentioned above, routing can be implemented intrinsically, actively, or via these and other technologies.

圖25提供於具有多用途連接器之方面可達成之組件/功能關係示意圖。該示意圖例如提供用於信號指示器2500。信號指示器2500包含控制元件2502。控制元件2502可控制或回應於電壓2504、頻率2506、人工/程控指令2508及其他標準2510。電壓2504可經由一或多個二極體2512、熱敏電阻2514等而予區分。頻率2506可經由高通濾波器2516、低通濾波器2518等而予區分。信號可為經由類比開關2520、繼電器2522、多工器2524等之人工/程控指令2508。用於信號控制/回應之其他標準2510可包括例如光線、溫度、時間等。Figure 25 provides a schematic diagram of the component/function relationships that can be achieved with respect to a multi-purpose connector. This schematic is provided, for example, for signal indicator 2500. Signal indicator 2500 includes control element 2502. Control component 2502 can control or respond to voltage 2504, frequency 2506, manual/program command 2508, and other criteria 2510. Voltage 2504 can be differentiated via one or more diodes 2512, thermistor 2514, and the like. Frequency 2506 can be differentiated via high pass filter 2516, low pass filter 2518, and the like. The signal may be a manual/program command 2508 via analog switch 2520, relay 2522, multiplexer 2524, and the like. Other criteria 2510 for signal control/response may include, for example, light, temperature, time, and the like.

使用具本發明之多用途連接器的方法亦包括使接收器脫離病人或上述其他裝置之一,及經由多用途連接器而操作上將裝置耦合至病人或其他裝置之一。當接收器中存在路由器時,可發送來自於第二連接裝置之信號,其不同於第一連接裝置之信號。此外,外部醫療裝置之操作模式可回應來自於第二連接裝置之信號而予改變。The method of using the multi-purpose connector of the present invention also includes disengaging the receiver from the patient or one of the other devices described above, and operatively coupling the device to one of the patient or other device via the multi-purpose connector. When a router is present in the receiver, a signal from the second connection device can be transmitted that is different from the signal from the first connection device. Additionally, the mode of operation of the external medical device can be changed in response to signals from the second connected device.

包括本發明之多用途連接器及其使用方法之有關接收器之進一步細節可見於2008年12月15日提出申請之案號61/122,723之美國臨時專利申請案;該申請案所揭露者係以提及之方式併入本文。Further details of the receivers of the present invention, including the multi-purpose connector of the present invention, and the method of use thereof, can be found in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/122,723, filed on Dec. 15, 2008. The manner mentioned is incorporated herein.

阻抗(EZ)測量模組Impedance (EZ) measurement module

本發明之接收器可包括阻抗測量模組,例如其中該裝置係經配置而測量跨越該裝置之至少一對電極之阻抗。阻抗測量模組可用於判斷兩電極及電阻性負載之系列組合的迴路阻抗(例如干預組織所提供者)。阻抗測量模組包含電流源區塊以提供跨越電極之電流,及電壓處理區塊以測量跨越電阻性負載之電壓信號並判斷電極阻抗。例如接收器可經配置而將2μApp(RMS振幅為1μArms)方波電流施予跨越其兩電極。其足以檢測分離的電極。應用可包括但不限於接收器診斷應用,例如其中測量之阻抗係用於判斷電極是否脫離病人及/或未工作;病人監控應用,例如其中阻抗係用於判斷一或多個生理參數等。The receiver of the present invention can include an impedance measurement module, for example, wherein the device is configured to measure impedance of at least one pair of electrodes across the device. The impedance measurement module can be used to determine the loop impedance of a series of combinations of two electrodes and a resistive load (eg, provided by the intervention organization). The impedance measurement module includes a current source block to provide current across the electrodes, and a voltage processing block to measure the voltage signal across the resistive load and determine the electrode impedance. For example, the receiver can be configured to apply a 2μApp (RMS amplitude of 1μArms) square wave current across its two electrodes. It is sufficient to detect the separated electrodes. Applications may include, but are not limited to, receiver diagnostic applications, such as where the measured impedance is used to determine if the electrode is out of the patient and/or not working; patient monitoring applications, such as where the impedance is used to determine one or more physiological parameters, and the like.

圖27提供一電路圖,依據本發明之一觀點,塑造經由電流源區塊完成之驅動方案2700。如此方面所顯示者,雙極電流可源於單極邏輯驅動器,且驅動方案中不具「DC」組件。產生兩電流「EZ_Carrier」2720及「EZ_Balance」2730,並提供跨越兩電極之電極電流Iez 2710。「EZ_Carrier」2720及「EZ_Balance」2730例如可由低功率處理器(例如微處理器)產生。「EZ_Carrier」2720及「EZ_Balance」2730例如可由低功率處理器(例如微處理器)產生,並與電容器2740及電阻2750(未知電極阻抗)串聯而予完成。Figure 27 provides a circuit diagram depicting a drive scheme 2700 that is completed via a current source block in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. In this respect, the bipolar current can be derived from a unipolar logic driver and there is no "DC" component in the drive scheme. Two currents "EZ_Carrier" 2720 and "EZ_Balance" 2730 are generated and electrode current Iez 2710 across the two electrodes is provided. "EZ_Carrier" 2720 and "EZ_Balance" 2730 can be generated, for example, by a low power processor such as a microprocessor. "EZ_Carrier" 2720 and "EZ_Balance" 2730 can be generated, for example, by a low power processor (eg, a microprocessor) and in series with capacitor 2740 and resistor 2750 (unknown electrode impedance).

電壓處理區塊測量源於電極電流Iez 2710之跨越電極(即跨越電阻性負載─電阻2750)的電壓信號2760。電壓處理區塊接著使用電壓信號2760以判斷電極阻抗。例如,電壓信號2760首先可經由[增益(Gain)=287]放大,頻段限制為5 KHz HPF及33 KHZ LPF以降低雜訊,並應用至類比數位轉換器輸入(例如以500 KHz取樣之12位元類比數位轉換器)以從電壓信號提供數位資料流。DSP例如可處理數位資料流以判斷電極阻抗。例如,DSP可以EZ載波頻率(例如20KHz)混合輸入資料流與正弦波,將Hogenauer(「CIC」)濾波器應用至低通濾波器,並整數倍降低資料流取樣率(例如除以16)。此將載波能量的基礎移至0 Hz。DSP接著計算資料流之絕對值(量),平均於一秒期間,並使用下列方程式轉換為阻抗:The voltage processing block measures a voltage signal 2760 originating from the electrode electrode Iez 2710 across the electrode (ie, across the resistive load - resistor 2750). The voltage processing block then uses voltage signal 2760 to determine the electrode impedance. For example, voltage signal 2760 can first be amplified by [Gain = 287], band limited to 5 KHz HPF and 33 KHZ LPF to reduce noise and applied to analog converter inputs (eg 12 bits sampled at 500 KHz) A meta analog digital converter) provides a digital data stream from a voltage signal. The DSP can, for example, process a digital data stream to determine electrode impedance. For example, the DSP can mix the input data stream with a sine wave at an EZ carrier frequency (eg, 20 KHz), apply a Hogenauer ("CIC") filter to the low pass filter, and reduce the data stream sampling rate by an integer multiple (eg, divided by 16). This shifts the basis of the carrier energy to 0 Hz. The DSP then calculates the absolute value (quantity) of the data stream, averaging over one second, and converting to impedance using the following equation:

Z電極=(Vc/(Iez*Gain))-300Z electrode = (Vc / (Iez * Gain)) - 300

其中:Vc為於A/D轉換器之測量的振幅,處於Iez載波頻率(20KHz)。增益設定G3...G0=0000;使用287做為增益值進行計算。此產生與測量之電極串聯的300 ohm電極阻抗。Where: Vc is the measured amplitude of the A/D converter and is at the Iez carrier frequency (20KHz). Gain setting G3...G0=0000; use 287 as the gain value for calculation. This produces a 300 ohm electrode impedance in series with the measured electrode.

圖28提供依據本發明之一觀點而使用3線歐姆表之電極阻抗測量的電路圖。電流源區塊產生EZ載波線路2820及EZ平衡線路2830,以提供流經電阻性負載之電極電阻En 2850的電極電流(Iez)2810。經由Kelvin連接且無電流流經電極(阻抗)Em 2860,於第一階段2870觀察之電壓將為Iez*(300+En)。電極電流Iez 2810可為例如2 μApp=1μARMS。Figure 28 provides a circuit diagram of electrode impedance measurements using a 3-wire ohmmeter in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. The current source block generates an EZ carrier line 2820 and an EZ balance line 2830 to provide an electrode current (Iez) 2810 through the electrode resistance En 2850 of the resistive load. Connected via Kelvin and no current flows through the electrode (impedance) Em 2860, the voltage observed in the first stage 2870 will be Iez* (300+En). The electrode current Iez 2810 can be, for example, 2 μApp = 1 μARMS.

阻抗測量模組包括控制模組、處理模組及電極。阻抗測量為可以接收器之任兩電極完成之感應能力之範例。除了判斷裝置之功能性及其配置外,例如不論電極係工作及/或依需要而連接至對象,有興趣之生理資料可源於測量之阻抗。例如,測量之阻抗將具有一些部分係由與呼吸有關之經胸阻抗而予判斷。以此方式,阻抗資料可用於獲得對象之呼吸率。電極2903亦可用做對象之流體狀態的感應器。隨著時間的推移,特別是對於使用利尿劑之心臟衰竭病人而言,流體狀態為極重要之量。所獲得之流體狀態可用於滴定治療及/或提供警示。除了測量流體狀態外,阻抗測量亦可用於測量體脂肪。The impedance measurement module includes a control module, a processing module and an electrode. The impedance measurement is an example of the sensing capability that can be accomplished by either of the electrodes of the receiver. In addition to determining the functionality of the device and its configuration, such as whether the electrode system is operating and/or connected to the subject as needed, the physiological data of interest may be derived from the measured impedance. For example, the measured impedance will have some portion that is judged by the transthoracic impedance associated with breathing. In this way, the impedance data can be used to obtain the respiratory rate of the subject. The electrode 2903 can also be used as a sensor for the fluid state of the object. Over time, fluid status is an extremely important amount, especially for heart failure patients who use diuretics. The fluid state obtained can be used for titration therapy and/or providing an alert. In addition to measuring fluid status, impedance measurements can also be used to measure body fat.

模組實施Module implementation

在各式方面,上述模組例如高功率-低功率模組、中介模組、越體導通通訊模組、生理感應模組、電源模組、儲存模組、體外通訊模組等,及/或其組件之一或組合,可以軟體實施,例如數位信號處理軟體;以硬體實施,例如電路;或其組合。因此,可呈現於信號接收器之其餘元件包括但不限於:信號解調器,例如用於解碼從IEM發射之信號;信號傳送器,例如用於將來自信號接收器之信號發送至外部位置;資料儲存元件,例如用於儲存有關接收之信號、生理參數資料、醫療記錄資料等資料;時鐘元件,例如用於結合特定時間與事件(例如信號接收);前置放大器;微處理器,例如用於協調一或多個信號接收器、帶通濾波器等之不同功能。In various aspects, the above modules, such as high power-low power modules, mediation modules, transceiving communication modules, physiological sensing modules, power modules, storage modules, external communication modules, etc., and/or One or a combination of the components may be implemented in software, such as a digital signal processing software; in hardware, such as an electrical circuit; or a combination thereof. Accordingly, the remaining elements that may be present in the signal receiver include, but are not limited to, a signal demodulator, for example, for decoding signals transmitted from the IEM; and a signal transmitter, for example, for transmitting signals from the signal receiver to an external location; Data storage elements, for example for storing information about received signals, physiological parameter data, medical record data, etc.; clock elements, for example for combining specific times and events (eg signal reception); preamplifiers; microprocessors, for example Coordinates different functions of one or more signal receivers, bandpass filters, and the like.

在某些方面,本接收器之模組出現於積體電路上,其中積體電路包括多個獨特的功能區塊。在特定接收器中,至少一些(例如兩個或更多,直至包括全部)模組可以單一積體電路呈現於接收器中(例如以系統芯片或SOC之形式)。In some aspects, the module of the present receiver appears on an integrated circuit, wherein the integrated circuit includes a plurality of unique functional blocks. In a particular receiver, at least some (eg, two or more, up to all) modules may be presented in the receiver in a single integrated circuit (eg, in the form of a system chip or SOC).

單一積體電路亦即包括全部不同功能區塊之單一電路結構。因此,該積體電路為於半導體材料之薄基底表面製造之最小化電子電路(其可包括半導體裝置以及被動組件)之單片積體電路(亦即所知之IC、微電路、微晶片、矽晶片、電腦晶片或晶片)。本發明某觀點之積體電路可為混合積體電路,其為附著於基底或電路板而由個別半導體裝置以及被動組件組成之最小化電子電路。A single integrated circuit is a single circuit structure that includes all of the different functional blocks. Thus, the integrated circuit is a monolithic integrated circuit (ie known as an IC, a microcircuit, a microchip, etc.) that minimizes the fabrication of a thin substrate surface of a semiconductor material (which may include semiconductor devices and passive components).矽 wafer, computer chip or wafer). The integrated circuit of one aspect of the present invention may be a hybrid integrated circuit which is a minimized electronic circuit composed of individual semiconductor devices and passive components attached to a substrate or a circuit board.

圖7提供依據本發明之一觀點的信號接收器之積體電路組件的方塊功能圖。在圖7中,接收器700包括電極輸入710。越體導通通訊模組720及生理感應模組730電性耦合至電極輸入710。在一方面,越體導通通訊模組720係實施為高頻(HF)信號鏈,且生理感應模組730係實施為低頻(LF)信號鏈。亦顯示CMOS溫度感應模組740(用以檢測周遭溫度)及3軸加速計750。接收器700亦包括處理引擎760(例如微控制器及數位信號處理器)、非揮發性記憶體770(用於資料儲存)、及無線通訊模組780(用於將資料傳輸至另一裝置,例如資料上傳動作)。Figure 7 provides a block functional diagram of an integrated circuit component of a signal receiver in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. In FIG. 7, receiver 700 includes an electrode input 710. The transceiving communication module 720 and the physiological sensing module 730 are electrically coupled to the electrode input 710. In one aspect, the transceiving communication module 720 is implemented as a high frequency (HF) signal chain, and the physiological sensing module 730 is implemented as a low frequency (LF) signal chain. A CMOS temperature sensing module 740 (to detect ambient temperature) and a 3-axis accelerometer 750 are also shown. The receiver 700 also includes a processing engine 760 (such as a microcontroller and a digital signal processor), a non-volatile memory 770 (for data storage), and a wireless communication module 780 (for transmitting data to another device, For example, the data upload action).

圖8提供依據本發明之一觀點用於實施圖7中所描繪之接收器的方塊功能圖之電路的更詳細方塊圖。在圖8中,接收器800包括電極e1、e2及e3(811、812及813),其例如接收IEM及/或有興趣之感應生理參數或生物標記的導通傳輸信號。由電極811、812及813接收之信號係由電性耦合至電極之多工器820予以多路傳輸。Figure 8 provides a more detailed block diagram of circuitry for implementing the block functional diagram of the receiver depicted in Figure 7 in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. In FIG. 8, receiver 800 includes electrodes e1, e2, and e3 (811, 812, and 813) that, for example, receive an IEM and/or an inductive physiological parameter or a biodial conduction transmission signal of interest. The signals received by electrodes 811, 812, and 813 are multiplexed by multiplexer 820 that is electrically coupled to the electrodes.

多工器820電性耦合至高帶通濾波器830及低帶通濾波器840。高及低頻信號鏈提供程控增益以涵蓋所需位準或範圍。在此特定方面,高帶通濾波器830通過10 KHz至34 KHz頻段之頻率,同時過濾超出頻段頻率之雜訊。高頻頻段可改變,包括例如3 KHz至300 KHz之範圍。所通過之頻率接著在經由轉換器834轉換為數位信號而輸入電性耦合至高頻信號鏈之高功率處理器880(顯示為DSP)之前,經放大器832予以放大。The multiplexer 820 is electrically coupled to the high bandpass filter 830 and the low bandpass filter 840. The high and low frequency signal chains provide programmable gain to cover the desired level or range. In this particular aspect, the high bandpass filter 830 passes the frequency of the 10 KHz to 34 KHz band while filtering noise beyond the band frequency. The high frequency band can be varied, including, for example, a range of 3 KHz to 300 KHz. The passed frequencies are then amplified by amplifier 832 before being converted to a digital signal via converter 834 and input to a high power processor 880 (shown as a DSP) that is electrically coupled to the high frequency signal chain.

低帶通濾波器840顯示通過介於0.5 Hz至150 Hz範圍之頻率,同時過濾超出頻段之頻率。該頻段可改變,包括例如低於300 Hz之頻率,例如低於200 Hz,包括低於150 Hz。所通過之頻率係經放大器842予以放大。亦顯示電性耦合至第二多工器860之加速計850。多工器860多路傳輸來自加速計之信號連同來自放大器842之放大信號。多路傳輸之信號接著經由亦電性耦合至低功率處理器870之轉換器864轉換為數位信號。The low bandpass filter 840 displays frequencies passing between 0.5 Hz and 150 Hz while filtering out frequencies that exceed the frequency band. This frequency band can vary, including, for example, frequencies below 300 Hz, such as below 200 Hz, including below 150 Hz. The frequency passed is amplified by amplifier 842. An accelerometer 850 that is electrically coupled to the second multiplexer 860 is also shown. The multiplexer 860 multiplexes the signals from the accelerometer along with the amplified signals from the amplifier 842. The multiplexed signal is then converted to a digital signal via a converter 864 that is also electrically coupled to the low power processor 870.

在一方面,可實施數位加速計(例如由類比裝置所製造)以取代加速計850。經由使用數位加速計可達成各式優點。例如,由於該信號,數位加速計將產生已呈數位格式之信號,數位加速計可繞過轉換器864並電性耦合至低功率處理器870─在此狀況下將不再需要多工器860。而且,數位信號可經配置而在檢測時自我啟動,進一步節約電力。此外,可實施連續的階段計數。數位加速計可包括先進先出(FIFO)緩衝器以協助控制發送至低功率處理器870之資料流。例如,資料可暫存於FIFO直至存滿,此時可觸發處理器以從閒置狀態喚醒並接收資料。In one aspect, a digital accelerometer (e.g., manufactured by an analog device) can be implemented to replace the accelerometer 850. Various advantages can be achieved by using a digital accelerometer. For example, due to the signal, the digital accelerometer will generate a signal in a digital format, and the digital accelerometer can bypass the converter 864 and be electrically coupled to the low power processor 870 - in this case, the multiplexer 860 will no longer be required. . Moreover, the digital signal can be configured to self-start upon detection, further saving power. In addition, continuous phase counting can be implemented. The digital accelerometer can include a first in first out (FIFO) buffer to assist in controlling the flow of data to the low power processor 870. For example, data can be temporarily stored in the FIFO until it is full, at which point the processor can be triggered to wake up from idle and receive data.

低功率處理器870可為德州儀器公司(Texas Instruments)之MSP430微控制器。接收器800之低功率處理器870維持閒置狀態,如前述,其需要最小電流消耗─例如10μA或更低,或1 μA或更低。The low power processor 870 can be a MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments. The low power processor 870 of the receiver 800 maintains an idle state, as previously described, which requires a minimum current consumption - such as 10 μA or less, or 1 μA or less.

高功率處理器880可為德州儀器公司之VC5509數位信號處理器。高功率處理器880於活動狀態實施信號處理動作。如前述,該些動作需要較閒置狀態更大量的電流─例如30 μA或更多之電流,例如50 μA或更多─並可包括例如掃瞄導通傳輸信號、當接獲時處理導通傳輸信號、獲得及/或處理生理資料等動作。The high power processor 880 can be a VC5509 digital signal processor from Texas Instruments. The high power processor 880 performs signal processing actions in an active state. As mentioned above, these actions require a larger amount of current than the idle state - for example, 30 μA or more, such as 50 μA or more - and may include, for example, a scan-on transmission signal, a conduction-on transmission signal when received, Obtain and/or process physiological data and other actions.

接收器可包括硬體加速器模組以處理資料信號。硬體加速器模組可實施以取代例如DSP。做為更專業之計算單元,相較於通用DSP,其實施具較少電晶體(低成本及低電力)之信號處理演算法的觀點。硬體區塊可用於「加速」重要特定功能之性能。硬體加速器的一些架構可為經由微指令或超長指令字集而予「程控(programmable)」。使用過程中,其功能可經由呼叫功能圖書館而予擷取。The receiver can include a hardware accelerator module to process the data signals. A hardware accelerator module can be implemented to replace, for example, a DSP. As a more specialized computing unit, it implements a signal processing algorithm with fewer transistors (low cost and low power) compared to a general purpose DSP. Hardware blocks can be used to "accelerate" the performance of important specific functions. Some architectures of hardware accelerators may be "programmable" via microinstructions or very long instruction word sets. During use, its functions can be retrieved via the Call Function Library.

硬體加速器(HWA)模組包含HWA輸入區塊以接收將處理之輸入信號,及用於處理輸入信號之指令;且HWA處理區塊用以依據接收之指令處理輸入信號,並產生最終輸出信號。最終輸出信號可視需要由HWA輸出區塊予以傳輸。The hardware accelerator (HWA) module includes an HWA input block to receive an input signal to be processed, and an instruction for processing the input signal; and the HWA processing block processes the input signal according to the received command and generates a final output signal. . The final output signal can be transmitted by the HWA output block as needed.

圖30提供依據本發明之一觀點的HWA模組方塊圖。如圖所示,輸入區塊3001耦合至處理區塊3002,後者耦合至輸出區塊3003。輸入區塊3001接收輸入信號3001及/或指令3015。HWA模組300例如可接收來自越體導通通訊模組之越體導通通訊信號;及/或接收來自一或多個生理感應模組之生理資料信號。Figure 30 provides a block diagram of an HWA module in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. As shown, input block 3001 is coupled to processing block 3002, which is coupled to output block 3003. Input block 3001 receives input signal 3001 and/or instruction 3015. The HWA module 300 can, for example, receive a transceiving communication signal from a transceiving communication module; and/or receive a physiological data signal from one or more physiological sensing modules.

HWA模組可接收類比信號,及包括類比數位轉換器以將信號轉換為數位信號,或可接收數位輸入信號(例如來自類比數位轉換器或微處理器)。例如,HWA模組可電性耦合至類比數位轉換器及微處理器,其具有狀態機器可直接收集來自A/D轉換器之資料。在另一範例中,硬體加速器可僅連接至微處理器依微處理器指示處理資料。The HWA module can receive analog signals and include an analog digital converter to convert the signal to a digital signal or to receive a digital input signal (eg, from an analog digital converter or microprocessor). For example, the HWA module can be electrically coupled to an analog digital converter and a microprocessor having a state machine that can directly collect data from the A/D converter. In another example, the hardware accelerator can be connected only to the microprocessor to process the data as indicated by the microprocessor.

指令3015可為例如接收自內部記憶體、外部記憶體,或由微處理器產生。在一方面,HWA模組與微處理器共用記憶體(例如經由雙埠記憶體或經由多工器)。在另一方面,HWA模組經由直接記憶體存取(DMA)埠交換資料。The instructions 3015 can be, for example, received from internal memory, external memory, or generated by a microprocessor. In one aspect, the HWA module shares memory with the microprocessor (eg, via a dual port memory or via a multiplexer). On the other hand, the HWA module exchanges data via direct memory access (DMA).

HWA處理區塊3002依據接收之指令3015處理輸入信號3010。例如DCO(數位控制震盪器)、DDC(數位降頻轉換器)、FIR濾波器、CIC整數倍降低取樣率等功能可由該等硬體加速器實施。該些功能對於IEM相關信號處理最佳,亦適於通用資料獲得、阻抗測量、ECG信號處理(漢米爾頓及湯普金斯)、加速計等。由HWA處理區塊3002產生之最終輸出信號3020可視需要而由HWA輸出區塊3003傳輸。HWA processing block 3002 processes input signal 3010 in accordance with received command 3015. Functions such as DCO (Digital Control Oscillator), DDC (Digital Downconverter), FIR filter, CIC integer multiple reduction sampling rate, etc. can be implemented by these hardware accelerators. These functions are best for IEM-related signal processing and are also suitable for general data acquisition, impedance measurement, ECG signal processing (Hamilton and Tompkins), accelerometers, etc. The final output signal 3020 generated by the HWA processing block 3002 can be transmitted by the HWA output block 3003 as needed.

HWA模組3000可進一步包含HWA電力區塊3030以啟動/關閉至HWA模組3000之電力。例如,HWA模組3000可經配置而被關閉或開啟電力,或用於選通驅動其之時鐘而被關閉等。實施其所需之電晶體數量極少(概介於10k至100k閘極範圍),具有大部分獲自相關記憶體/緩衝器之靜電。硬體加速器因而可低功率消耗。The HWA module 3000 can further include an HWA power block 3030 to enable/disable power to the HWA module 3000. For example, the HWA module 3000 can be configured to be turned off or powered on, or used to gate the clock to be turned off, and the like. The number of transistors required to implement it is extremely small (ranging from 10k to 100k gate range), with most of the static electricity obtained from the associated memory/buffer. The hardware accelerator thus has low power consumption.

圖8中亦顯示電性耦合至高功率處理器880之快閃記憶體890。在一方面,快閃記憶體890可電性耦合至低功率處理器870,其可提供較佳電力效率。Also shown in FIG. 8 is flash memory 890 electrically coupled to high power processor 880. In one aspect, flash memory 890 can be electrically coupled to low power processor 870, which can provide better power efficiency.

圖中顯示無線通訊元件895電性耦合至高功率處理器880並可包括例如BLUETOOTHTM 無線通訊收發器。在一方面,無線通訊元件895電性耦合至高功率處理器880。在另一方面,無線通訊元件895電性耦合至高功率處理器880及低功率處理器870。再者,無線通訊元件895可具有其本身電源,使其可例如經由微處理器而獨立於接收器其他組件進行開啟及關閉。The wireless communication component 895 is shown electrically coupled to the high power processor 880 and can include, for example, a BLUETOOTH (TM) wireless communication transceiver. In one aspect, wireless communication component 895 is electrically coupled to high power processor 880. In another aspect, wireless communication component 895 is electrically coupled to high power processor 880 and low power processor 870. Moreover, the wireless communication component 895 can have its own power source that can be turned on and off independently of other components of the receiver, for example, via a microprocessor.

圖9提供有關高頻信號鏈之依據本發明之一觀點的接收器中硬體之方塊圖。在圖9中,接收器900包括電性耦合至多工器920之接收器探針(例如以電極911、912及913之形式)。亦顯示高通濾波器930及低通濾波器940以提供排除頻段外之頻率的帶通濾波器。在顯示之方面,提供10 KHz至34 KHz之帶通,以使落入頻帶內之載波信號通過。示範載波頻率可包括但不限於12.5 KHz及20 KHz。可呈現一或多個載波。此外,接收器900包括類比數位轉換器950─例如於500 KHz取樣。數位信號之後可經由DSP處理。本方面所示為DSP之DMA單元960,其將數位信號發送至DSP專用記憶體。直接記憶體存取提供允許其餘DSP保持於低功率模式之優點。Figure 9 provides a block diagram of a hardware in a receiver with respect to a high frequency signal chain in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. In FIG. 9, receiver 900 includes a receiver probe (eg, in the form of electrodes 911, 912, and 913) that is electrically coupled to multiplexer 920. A high pass filter 930 and a low pass filter 940 are also shown to provide a band pass filter that excludes frequencies outside the frequency band. In terms of display, a bandpass of 10 KHz to 34 KHz is provided to pass the carrier signal falling within the frequency band. Exemplary carrier frequencies may include, but are not limited to, 12.5 KHz and 20 KHz. One or more carriers can be presented. In addition, receiver 900 includes an analog digital converter 950 - for example, at 500 KHz. The digital signal can then be processed via the DSP. This aspect shows a DSP DMA unit 960 that sends digital signals to DSP-specific memory. Direct memory access provides the advantage of allowing the remaining DSPs to remain in a low power mode.

各式狀態之示範組態Exemplary configuration of various states

如前述,對每一接收器狀態而言,高功率功能區塊可據以於活動及不活動狀態之間循環。而且,對每一接收器狀態而言,接收器之各式接收器元件(例如電路區塊、處理器之電力範圍等)可經配置而經由電源模組獨立地從開啟及關閉循環。因而,接收器可針對每一狀態而具有不同組態,以達成電力效率。例如,圖29顯示接收器具有閒置及活動狀態─例如閒置狀態110、側錄狀態130、解調及解碼狀態140、收集ECG及加速計狀態120、及傳輸狀態160。如前述,應注意的是閃燈信號模組可實施各式側錄信號以達低功率效率,因而側錄狀態可群集為下列範例之不活動狀態。As mentioned above, for each receiver state, the high power functional blocks can be cycled between active and inactive states. Moreover, for each receiver state, various receiver components of the receiver (eg, circuit blocks, power ranges of the processors, etc.) can be configured to independently cycle from on and off via the power module. Thus, the receiver can have different configurations for each state to achieve power efficiency. For example, FIG. 29 shows that the receiver has idle and active states - such as idle state 110, side recording state 130, demodulation and decoding state 140, collection ECG and accelerometer state 120, and transmission state 160. As mentioned above, it should be noted that the flash signal module can implement various side-recording signals to achieve low power efficiency, and thus the skimming state can be clustered into the following examples of inactivity.

留意圖29中所示狀態,下列各圖提供依據本發明之一觀點之接收器之各式狀態期間,圖8中所示之接收器組件的示範組態。應理解的是,依據所需應用可實施替代組態。With the state shown in the intent 29, the following figures provide an exemplary configuration of the receiver assembly shown in Figure 8 during various states of the receiver in accordance with one aspect of the present invention. It should be understood that alternative configurations may be implemented depending on the desired application.

在狀態110中,接收器獲得最小電流。接收器800經配置而使得低功率處理器870處於不活動(例如閒置狀態),及高功率處理器880處於不活動(例如閒置狀態),且有關各式活動狀態期間周邊電路及其所需電源之電路區塊保持關閉(例如無線通訊模組895及類比前端)。例如低功率處理器可具有活動之32 KHz震盪器,並消耗若干μA電流或更少,包括0.5 μA或更少。在閒置狀態中,低功率處理器870例如可等候信號而轉換為活動狀態。信號可為外部的(例如中斷)或由裝置周邊之一(例如計時器)內部產生。在高功率處理器閒置狀態期間,高功率處理器可用做為32 KHz手錶石英計時。高功率處理器例如可等候信號而轉換為活動狀態。In state 110, the receiver obtains a minimum current. Receiver 800 is configured such that low power processor 870 is inactive (e.g., idle), and high power processor 880 is inactive (e.g., idle), and peripheral circuitry and its required power during various active states The circuit block remains closed (eg, wireless communication module 895 and analog front end). For example, a low power processor can have an active 32 KHz oscillator and consume several μA currents or less, including 0.5 μA or less. In the idle state, the low power processor 870 can, for example, wait for a signal to transition to an active state. The signal can be external (eg, interrupted) or internally generated by one of the peripherals of the device (eg, a timer). During the idle state of the high power processor, the high power processor can be used as a 32 KHz watch quartz timing. The high power processor can, for example, wait for a signal to transition to an active state.

當接收器處於側錄狀態時,低功率處理器870便處於閒置狀態,及高功率處理器880處於閒置狀態。此外,有關包括側錄功能所需之類比數位轉換器之類比前端的電路區塊係開啟(換言之,即高頻信號鏈)。如前述,閃燈信號模組可實施各式側錄信號以達低功率效率。When the receiver is in the skimming state, the low power processor 870 is in an idle state and the high power processor 880 is in an idle state. In addition, the circuit block of the analog front end of the analog digital converter required for the side recording function is turned on (in other words, a high frequency signal chain). As mentioned above, the flash signal module can implement various side recording signals to achieve low power efficiency.

在檢測傳輸之信號時,可進入較高功率之解調及解碼狀態。當接收器處於解調及解碼狀態,低功率處理器870便處於活動狀態,及高功率處理器880處於活動狀態。高功率處理器880可從例如12 MHz運轉,或接近具提供裝置108 MHz時鐘速度之鎖相迴路(PLL)時鐘倍增器的石英震盪器。低功率處理器870例如於活動狀態期間可做為介於1 MHz至20 MHz之內部R-C震盪器,消耗電力介於每MHz時鐘速度250至300 uA。活動狀態允許可依循之處理及任何傳輸。必要之傳輸可觸發無線通訊模組而從關閉循環至開啟。When detecting the transmitted signal, it can enter the demodulation and decoding state of higher power. When the receiver is in the demodulated and decoded state, the low power processor 870 is active and the high power processor 880 is active. The high power processor 880 can operate from, for example, 12 MHz, or a quartz oscillator with a phase locked loop (PLL) clock multiplier that provides a device 108 MHz clock speed. The low power processor 870 can be used, for example, as an internal R-C oscillator between 1 MHz and 20 MHz during active conditions, consuming power between 250 and 300 uA per MHz clock speed. The active state allows for processing and any transfer. The necessary transmissions can trigger the wireless communication module to cycle from off to on.

當接收器處於收集ECG及加速計狀態,有關加速計及/或ECG信號調整鏈之電路區塊為開啟。高功率處理器880於收集期間處於閒置狀態,於處理及傳輸期間處於活動狀態(例如從12 MHz運轉,或接近具提供裝置108 MHz時鐘速度之PLL時鐘倍增器的石英震盪器)。低功率處理器870於此狀態期間係處於活動狀態,及可做為介於1 MHz至20 MHz之內部R-C震盪器,消耗電力介於每MHz時鐘速度250至300 uA。When the receiver is in the collection ECG and accelerometer state, the circuit blocks associated with the accelerometer and/or ECG signal adjustment chain are turned on. The high power processor 880 is idle during collection and is active during processing and transmission (e.g., operating from 12 MHz, or near a quartz oscillator having a PLL clock multiplier that provides a device 108 MHz clock speed). The low power processor 870 is active during this state and can be used as an internal R-C oscillator between 1 MHz and 20 MHz, consuming power between 250 and 300 uA per MHz clock speed.

接收器之其餘狀態Remaining state of the receiver

除了接收器於閒置與活動狀態之間循環的操作狀態外,接收器可包括其他操作狀態。接收器可包括儲存狀態,例如展示10 μA或更低之極低電流消耗,例如1 μA或更低,包括0.1 μA或更低。在儲存狀態,接收器經配置而使得例如低功率處理器處於閒置狀態,高功率處理器被關閉,及例如有關活動狀態期間所需之周邊電路的電路區塊之其他接收器元件被關閉。圖29描繪接收器之儲存狀態170。接收器依據各類輸入可從儲存狀態轉變為非儲存狀態,例如回應接收器之人工操縱(例如按下「啟動(on)」按鈕或從接收器移除欄標)或回應傳輸至接收器之「啟動(on)」信號之預定排程或應用刺激。如圖1中所示,接收器可從儲存狀態170轉變為閒置狀態110。In addition to the operational state of the receiver cycling between idle and active states, the receiver may include other operational states. The receiver can include a storage state, such as exhibiting very low current consumption of 10 μA or less, such as 1 μA or less, including 0.1 μA or less. In the stored state, the receiver is configured such that, for example, the low power processor is idle, the high power processor is turned off, and other receiver elements such as circuit blocks of peripheral circuitry required during the active state are turned off. Figure 29 depicts the storage state 170 of the receiver. The receiver can be changed from a stored state to a non-storage state depending on various types of inputs, such as responding to manual manipulation by the receiver (eg, pressing an "on" button or removing a bar from the receiver) or responding to transmission to the receiver. "Scheduled on" the scheduled schedule or applies the stimulus. As shown in FIG. 1, the receiver can transition from the storage state 170 to the idle state 110.

接收器亦可經配置而包括充電狀態,如圖29中所示之充電狀態150。當接收器處於充電狀態,僅低功率處理器開啟,例如處於閒置狀態。有關高功率處理器之電源及所有周邊設備的電路區塊均被關閉。The receiver can also be configured to include a state of charge, such as the state of charge 150 shown in FIG. When the receiver is in a charging state, only the low power processor is turned on, for example, in an idle state. The circuit blocks for the power supply of the high power processor and all peripheral devices are turned off.

接收器亦可經配置而包括傳輸狀態160,其中資料例如經使用無線通訊協定而傳輸至及/或來自接收器及另一體外裝置。高功率處理器處於活動狀態,低功率處理器處於活動狀態,及例如有關無線通訊模組之電路區塊的其他接收器元件被開啟。The receiver can also be configured to include a transmission state 160, wherein the data is transmitted to and/or from the receiver and another external device, for example, using a wireless communication protocol. The high power processor is active, the low power processor is active, and other receiver components such as those associated with the wireless communication module are turned on.

接收器亦可經配置而包括「診斷」狀態。在診斷狀態,接收器可測試接收器之一或多個功能的操作,例如信號接收、生理資料獲得及/或處理等,以判斷功能是否正確地實施。接收器可進一步經配置而向使用者報告測試結果,例如經由信號(其可為聲音、畫面、轉發至第三裝置等)。例如,接收器可經配置而向使用者報告所有功能均正常操作,或一或多個功能存在問題。在一些方面,接收器依據不同輸入而轉變進入或離開診斷狀態,例如上述預定排程(例如由接收器程式設計所提供)或應用的刺激。The receiver can also be configured to include a "diagnostic" status. In the diagnostic state, the receiver can test the operation of one or more functions of the receiver, such as signal reception, physiological data acquisition and/or processing, etc., to determine if the function is implemented correctly. The receiver can be further configured to report the test results to the user, such as via a signal (which can be a sound, a picture, a forwarding to a third device, etc.). For example, the receiver can be configured to report to the user that all functions are functioning properly, or that one or more functions are having problems. In some aspects, the receiver transitions into or out of a diagnostic state, such as the predetermined schedule described above (as provided by the receiver programming) or the applied stimulus, depending on the input.

經由序列周邊介面匯流排之通訊Communication via serial peripheral interface bus

低功率處理器(例如圖8中所示MSP)及高功率處理器(例如圖8中所示DSP)可使用任何方便之通訊協定而彼此通訊。在一些情況下,當該二元件存在時係經由序列周邊介面匯流排(以下稱為「SPI匯流排」)而彼此通訊。下列說明描述所實施之信令及信息方案,以允許高功率處理器及低功率處理器通訊,並沿SPI匯流排往返發送信息。對於處理器之間通訊之說明而言,分別使用「LPP」及「HPP」取代「低功率處理器」及「高功率處理器」,以與圖8相符。然而,除了圖8中所示者外,相關討論亦適於其他處理器。Low power processors (such as the MSP shown in Figure 8) and high power processors (such as the DSP shown in Figure 8) can communicate with one another using any convenient communication protocol. In some cases, when the two components are present, they communicate with each other via a sequence peripheral interface bus (hereinafter referred to as "SPI bus"). The following description describes the signaling and information schemes implemented to allow high power processors and low power processors to communicate and send information back and forth along the SPI bus. For the description of communication between processors, "LPP" and "HPP" are used instead of "Low Power Processor" and "High Power Processor" respectively to match Figure 8. However, in addition to what is shown in Figure 8, the related discussion is also applicable to other processors.

介面經配置而使得LPP為主而HPP為僕,且鏈路僅由LPP端驅動。HPP僅可經由SPI而回應LPP。再者,SPI需要HPP立即回應LPP。若LPP發送資料,而HPP未等候資料,資料便將流失。依據本發明之一觀點,介面之信令及信息組態說明如下,以克服該些限制。The interface is configured such that the LPP is dominant and the HPP is the servant, and the link is only driven by the LPP side. HPP can only respond to LPP via SPI. Furthermore, SPI requires HPP to respond immediately to LPP. If the LPP sends the data and the HPP does not wait for the data, the data will be lost. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the signaling and information configuration of the interface is described below to overcome these limitations.

信令Signaling

為克服上述限制,信令協定中實施三個「頻段外」信號。LPP具有「注意」信號,其可提示及解除提示,且HPP具有「注意」及「允許」信號。To overcome the above limitations, three "out-of-band" signals are implemented in the signaling protocol. The LPP has a "Attention" signal that prompts and releases the prompt, and the HPP has a "Attention" and "Allow" signal.

為了LPP發送資料(例如LPP發起信息)予HPP,LPP提示其LPP注意信號。其接著等候直至HPP經由提示HPP允許信號予以回應為止。此確保兩端已備妥進行SPI交易且無資料流失。此時,HPP可從LPP接收信息。若目前無法從LPP接收LPP發起信息,HPP接著便啟動接收LPP發起信息。HPP保持「在線上」直至LPP解除提示其LPP注意信號為止。HPP經由解除提示其HPP允許信號而回應該解除提示。此時,HPP便無法從LPP接收信息。由於可從LPP接收LPP發起信息,HPP接著便關閉接收LPP發起信息。在此情況下,系統便回應信號位準改變及位準本身。換言之,系統將提示之信號視為行動要求,且系統將信號位準視為持續動作之指標。由於在LPP提示其LPP注意信號之前,HPP不需做任何動作,所以HPP可進入低功率閒置狀態。在此狀況下,LPP注意信號不僅要求SPI連結,亦喚醒HPP。In order for the LPP to send data (such as LPP initiation information) to the HPP, the LPP prompts for its LPP attention signal. It then waits until the HPP responds by prompting the HPP permission signal. This ensures that both ends are ready for SPI transactions and no data is lost. At this point, the HPP can receive information from the LPP. If it is currently unable to receive LPP initiation information from the LPP, the HPP then initiates receiving the LPP initiation message. The HPP remains "online" until the LPP releases its LPP attention signal. The HPP should release the prompt by releasing the HPP permission signal. At this point, HPP cannot receive information from the LPP. Since the LPP initiation information can be received from the LPP, the HPP then closes the reception LPP initiation message. In this case, the system responds to the signal level change and the level itself. In other words, the system considers the signal being prompted as an action requirement, and the system considers the signal level as an indicator of continuous action. Since the HPP does not need to do anything before the LPP prompts its LPP attention signal, the HPP can enter a low power idle state. In this situation, the LPP attention signal not only requires an SPI connection, but also wakes up the HPP.

為了HPP發送資料(例如HPP發起信息)予LPP,HPP提示其HPP注意信號。該提示通知LPP:HPP有資料。HPP注意信號之提示係警示LPP,而非HPP注意信號之解除提示。在HPP可再次提示之前,其僅需解除提示該信號。一旦LPP看見提示之HPP注意信號,其最終將經由下列1)回應上述。LPP不需立即回應。在此情況下,其僅為信號之提示。系統從未留意此刻的信號位準。In order for the HPP to send data (such as HPP sponsored information) to the LPP, the HPP prompts for its HPP attention signal. This prompt informs LPP that HPP has information. The HPP attention signal prompts the LPP instead of the HPP attention signal release prompt. Before the HPP can prompt again, it only needs to release the signal. Once the LPP sees the prompted HPP attention signal, it will eventually respond to the above via 1) below. LPP does not need to respond immediately. In this case, it is only a signal prompt. The system never noticed the signal level at the moment.

信息information

由於SPI匯流排的主/僕設計,HPP可僅回應LPP信息。其不可向LPP詢問問題。為啟動雙向資料流,上述信令經實施而結合兩類信息,如下述。Due to the master/servant design of the SPI bus, the HPP can only respond to LPP information. It is not allowed to ask questions to LPP. To initiate a two-way data stream, the above signaling is implemented in conjunction with two types of information, as described below.

對HPP之LPP發起信息而言,狀況1)可用於發送信息予HPP。該類信息從未要求HPP回應信息。一示範信息可為指令「處理此ECG」。一信息告訴HPP去等候ECG資料,且接著LPP便發送包含ECG資料之一連串信息予HPP。另一範例可為當LPP發送指令予HPP告訴其側錄傳輸之IEM信號。For HPP's LPP origination information, condition 1) can be used to send information to HPP. This type of information never requires HPP to respond to information. A demonstration message can be the instruction "Process this ECG". A message tells the HPP to wait for the ECG data, and then the LPP sends a series of information containing the ECG data to the HPP. Another example may be when the LPP sends an instruction to the HPP to tell it to record the transmitted IEM signal.

對HPP發起信息而言,信息必須仍源於LPP。為完成此方向之通訊,狀況2)用於告訴LPP向HPP詢問信息。在HPP提示HPP注意信號之前,便準備詢問資訊(即HPP發起信息),使其可立即回應LPP。LPP發送一連串信息以獲得來自HPP之詢問。LPP發送「詢問長度」信息予HPP以要求詢問長度。LPP接著使用該長度來要求HPP發起信息。由於LPP要求詢問長度,LPP確實瞭解HPP將有多少資料到來。LPP經由發送詢問回應信息予HPP而回答HPP的「問題」。基於HPP經實施而一次僅具有一未解決之詢問,其便瞭解去等候此回應。For HPP-initiated information, the information must still originate from LPP. To complete communication in this direction, condition 2) is used to tell the LPP to ask the HPP for information. Before the HPP prompts the HPP attention signal, it is ready to ask for information (ie HPP initiation information) so that it can respond to the LPP immediately. The LPP sends a series of messages to get an inquiry from the HPP. The LPP sends an "Inquiry Length" message to the HPP to request the length of the inquiry. The LPP then uses this length to request HPP to initiate the information. Because LPP requires length of inquiry, LPP does understand how much data HPP will have. The LPP answers the HPP "problem" by sending an inquiry response message to the HPP. Based on the HPP implementation, there is only one unresolved query at a time, and it is known to wait for this response.

亦應指出的是,對上述序列而言由於LPP「計時」SPI鏈路,所以其總是確實瞭解HPP將有多少資料到來。再者,在此方面,由於LPP總是詢問問題,且HPP總是準備回應來自LPP之任何問題,當HPP希望發送詢問時,不確保總能獲得來自LPP之「詢問長度」信息。It should also be noted that for the above sequence, since the LPP "times" the SPI link, it always knows how much data the HPP will have. Furthermore, in this regard, since the LPP always asks questions and the HPP is always ready to respond to any questions from the LPP, when the HPP wishes to send an inquiry, it is not guaranteed that the "inquiry length" information from the LPP is always available.

在一方面,例如使用弗萊徹校檢演算法,而可實施錯誤檢測及修正。由於錯誤檢測中執行重試,對任何需要採取行動(例如實施側錄等)之信息而言,該行動直至完整狀況1)完成方予採取。這是重要的,因為LPP可檢測錯誤,同時HPP看見修正資料。狀況1)之完成即完成及修正資料傳輸之最後確認。In one aspect, error detection and correction can be implemented, for example, using a Fletcher check algorithm. Due to the retry in the error detection, for any information that needs to be acted upon (eg, implementation of side recording, etc.), the action is taken until the completion of the complete condition 1). This is important because the LPP can detect errors while HPP sees the corrections. The completion of Condition 1) is completed and the final confirmation of the data transmission is correcte