TWI387103B - Fully self-aligned pore-type memory cell having diode access device - Google Patents

Fully self-aligned pore-type memory cell having diode access device Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI387103B
TWI387103B TW97128677A TW97128677A TWI387103B TW I387103 B TWI387103 B TW I387103B TW 97128677 A TW97128677 A TW 97128677A TW 97128677 A TW97128677 A TW 97128677A TW I387103 B TWI387103 B TW I387103B
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diode
plurality
memory
material
memory cells
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TW97128677A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201005936A (en
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Hsiang Lan Lung
Chung Hon Lam
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Macronix Int Co Ltd
Ibm
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Publication of TWI387103B publication Critical patent/TWI387103B/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/24Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures
    • H01L27/2409Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures comprising two-terminal selection components, e.g. diodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/24Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures
    • H01L27/2463Arrangements comprising multiple bistable or multistable switching components of the same type on a plane parallel to the substrate, e.g. cross-point arrays, details of the horizontal layout
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/06Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory based on solid-state phase change, e.g. between amorphous and crystalline phases, Ovshinsky effect
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/12Details
    • H01L45/122Device geometry
    • H01L45/1233Device geometry adapted for essentially vertical current flow, e.g. sandwich or pillar type devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/14Selection of switching materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/14Selection of switching materials
    • H01L45/141Compounds of sulfur, selenium or tellurium, e.g. chalcogenides
    • H01L45/144Tellurides, e.g. GeSbTe
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/14Selection of switching materials
    • H01L45/145Oxides or nitrides
    • H01L45/146Binary metal oxides, e.g. TaOx
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/14Selection of switching materials
    • H01L45/145Oxides or nitrides
    • H01L45/147Complex metal oxides, e.g. perovskites, spinels
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L45/00Solid state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. dielectric triodes; Ovshinsky-effect devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L45/04Bistable or multistable switching devices, e.g. for resistance switching non-volatile memory
    • H01L45/16Manufacturing
    • H01L45/1666Patterning of the switching material
    • H01L45/1683Patterning of the switching material by filling of openings, e.g. damascene method
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S438/00Semiconductor device manufacturing: process
    • Y10S438/90Bulk effect device making

Description

Fully self-aligned microporous memory cell with diode access device [Party of the joint research contract]

New York International Business Machines Corporation, Taiwan Wanghong International Co., Ltd. and Infineon Technologies A.G. are parties to the joint research contract.

The present invention relates to a high density memory device based on a phase change based memory material, comprising a chalcogenide based material and other programmable resistive materials, and a method of making the device.

For example, a chalcogenide material and a phase change material of a similar material can cause a phase change between an amorphous state and a crystalline state by application of a current suitable for the implementation of the integrated circuit. A generally amorphous state is characterized by a higher electrical resistance than the generally crystalline state, which can be readily perceived to indicate data. These features are beneficial for the use of programmable resistive materials to form non-volatile memory circuits that are randomly accessible and writable.

The change from amorphous to crystalline is usually a lower current operation. The change from the crystalline state to the amorphous state referred to herein as a reset is generally a higher current operation comprising a short high current density pulse to melt or collapse the crystalline structure, after which the phase change material rapidly cools and the cooling phase changes. The program and stabilizing at least a portion of the phase change material in an amorphous state. It is desirable to minimize the magnitude of the reset current used to cause the transition of the phase change material from a crystalline state to an amorphous state.

The amount of current required for resetting can be reduced by reducing the phase change material in the memory cell. The size and/or the contact area between the electrode and the phase change material is reduced, such that the higher current density is achieved by a small absolute current value of the phase change material element.

One method of controlling the size of the active region in a phase change memory cell is a very small electrode designed to deliver current to the phase change material body. This small electrode structure induces a change in phase in a phase change material such as a small area of one of the braided heads. See U.S. Patent No. 6,429,064 issued to Wicker on August 6, 2002, entitled "Reduced Contact Area for Sidewall Conductors"; Gilgen, entitled "Small Contact Area Between Electrodes", October 8, 2002 U.S. Patent No. 6,462,353, issued to Lowrey, issued on December 31, 2002 to U.S. Patent No. 6,501,111, entitled "Three-Dimensional (3D) Programmable Device"; to Harshfield, July 1, 2003 U.S. Patent No. 6,563,156 to "Memory Element and Method of Making Same".

The problems caused when manufacturing very small sized devices include the issue of alignment when manufacturing large high density memory devices.

Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide a fully self-aligned memory cell structure having a small size and low reset current, and a method of fabricating such a structure for a large high density memory device.

The memory device described herein includes a plurality of memory cells. Each of the memory cells includes a diode, the diode includes a doped semiconductor material, and a dielectric spacer. The diode defines an opening, and the dielectric spacer has The side that is self-aligned with the side of the diode. Each of the memory cells further includes a memory component on the dielectric spacer and included in the a portion of the mouth that is in contact with the top surface of one of the diodes.

A method of fabricating a memory device as described herein, comprising forming a material comprising a word line material, a diode material on a word line material, a dielectric spacer material on a diode material, and a dielectric spacer material layer The structure of the first sacrificial material. A plurality of dielectrically filled first trenches are formed in the structure extending in a first direction to define a plurality of strips, each strip comprising a word line, the word line comprising a word line material. A second sacrificial material is formed on the strip and the first trench that is dielectrically filled. A plurality of dielectrically filled second trenches are formed down to the word lines and extend in the second direction to define a plurality of sacrificial strips comprising the second sacrificial material. The first sacrificial material is removed to define a via, and the sacrificial strip is removed to define a trench above the via and extend to a second direction. A plurality of dielectric spacers are formed from a dielectric spacer material. A plurality of memory elements and a plurality of bit lines are then formed in the vias and trenches.

The memory cells described herein can result in an active region that is located within the memory element that can be made extremely small, thereby reducing the amount of current required to induce a phase change. The width of the first portion of the memory component defined by the dielectric spacer in the opening is smaller than the diode and the bit line, and is preferably smaller than the diode and word generally used to form the memory array. The minimum feature size of the lithography process of the meta-line, the first portion of the small memory component concentrating the current density of the first portion of the memory component, thereby reducing the amount of current required to induce a phase change in the active region. Additionally, the dielectric spacer preferably comprises a material that provides some thermal insulation, which also helps to reduce the amount of current required to induce a phase change. Moreover, in an embodiment, the second portion of the memory component can provide some thermal isolation from the corresponding bit line of the active region.

Memory arrays with fully self-aligned memory cells as described herein can result in high density memory. In an embodiment, the cross-sectional area of the memory cells of the array is the entire This is determined by the size of the word line and the bit line, which allows the array to have a high memory density. The word line has a word line width, and adjacent word lines are separated by a word line separation distance, and the bit line has a bit line width, and adjacent bit lines are separated by a single line separation distance. . In a preferred embodiment, the sum of the word line width and the word line separation distance is equal to twice the feature size F used to form the array, and the sum of the bit line width and the bit line separation distance is equal to the feature size. F twice.

Other aspects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description of the drawings, detailed description and claims.

In the following description of the invention, reference will be made to the embodiments and methods of the specific structures. It is to be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the details of the embodiments disclosed herein. The preferred embodiments are described to illustrate the invention, but are not intended to limit the scope thereof as defined by the scope of the patent application. A person of ordinary skill in the art will be aware of various different equivalent variations based on the following description. The same elements in the various embodiments are generally represented by the same element symbols.

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the implementation of a portion of the intersection memory array 100 described herein using a fully self-aligned porous memory cell having a diode access device.

As shown in the simplified diagram of FIG. 1, each memory cell of the array 100 includes a diode access device and a memory component (indicated by a variable resistor in FIG. 1), and the memory component can be set to One of a plurality of resistance states, and thus one or more bits of data can be stored.

The array 100 includes a plurality of word lines 130 and bit lines 120, the words The line 130 includes word lines 130a, 130b, and 130c extending in parallel with the first direction, and the bit lines 120 include bit lines 120a, 120b, and 120c extending in parallel with the second direction. The array 100 is represented as an array of intersections because the word line 130 and the bit line 120 are configured such that a given word line 130 and a given line of elements 120 straddle each other rather than actually intersect, and memory The cell line is located at the intersection of the word line 130 and the bit line 120.

The memory cell 115 represents the memory cell of the array 100 and is disposed at the intersection of the bit line 120b and the word line 130b. The memory cell 115 includes a diode 121 and a memory element 160 arranged in series. The body 121 is electrically coupled to the word line 130b, and the memory element 160 is electrically coupled to the bit line 120b.

The reading and writing of the memory cells 115 of the array 100 can be achieved by applying appropriate voltages and/or currents to the corresponding word lines 130b and bit lines 120b to induce current through the selected memory cells 115. The magnitude and duration of the applied voltage and current depend on the operation being performed, such as a read operation or a write operation.

In a reset (or erase) operation of the memory cell 115 having the memory component 160 including the phase change material, a reset pulse is applied to the corresponding word line 130b and the bit line 120b to cause the phase change material to be active. The region is converted to an amorphous state by which the resistance within the range of resistance values associated with the reset state is set. The reset pulse is a relatively high energy pulse sufficient to raise at least the active region temperature of the memory element 160 above the transition (crystallization) temperature of the phase change material and above the melting temperature such that at least the active region is liquid. Then, the reset pulse is quickly terminated, resulting in a relatively fast cooling time, allowing the active region to rapidly cool below the transition temperature so that the active region can be stabilized to an amorphous state.

Memory cell 115 having a memory element 160 comprising a phase change material In the setting (or stylization) operation, applying a stylized pulse of a suitable size and duration to the corresponding word line 130b and the bit line 120b is sufficient to raise the temperature of at least a portion of the active region to a transition temperature. And converting a portion of the active region from an amorphous state to a crystalline state, the conversion reducing the resistance of the memory device 160 and setting the memory cell 115 to a desired state.

Applying a suitable size and duration read pulse to the corresponding word line for one of the data values stored in the memory cell 115 having the memory element 160 including the phase change material 160 (or sensing) operation 130b and bit line 120b induce current to flow, which does not cause memory element 160 to change in resistance state. The current flowing through the memory cell 115 depends on the resistance of the memory element, and thus the data value is stored in the memory cell 115.

2A and 2B are cross-sectional views showing a portion of memory cells (including representative memory cells 115) disposed in the intersection array 100, and FIG. 2A is a cross-sectional view along the bit line 120 and the second B-line The word line 130 is formed by a cross section.

Referring to FIGS. 2A and 2B, the memory cell 115 includes a first doped semiconductor region 122 having a first conductivity type, and a second doped semiconductor region 124 on the first doped semiconductor region 122, the second doping The hetero semiconductor region 124 has a second conductivity type opposite to the first conductivity type. The first doped semiconductor region 122 and the second doped semiconductor region 124 define a pn junction 126 therebetween.

The memory cell 115 includes a conductive cap layer 180 located in the second doped semiconductor region 124. The first and second doped semiconductor regions 122, 124 and the conductive cap layer 180 comprise a multilayer structure to define a diode 121. In an exemplary embodiment, the conductive cap layer 180 comprises a metal halide comprising titanium, tungsten, cobalt, nickel or ruthenium. The conductive cap layer 180 provides a conductivity during operation The higher contact surfaces of the first and second doped semiconductor regions 122, 124 help maintain the uniformity of the electric field across the first and second doped semiconductor regions 122, 124. Additionally, the conductive cap layer 180 can be used as a protective etch stop layer for the second doped semiconductor region 124 during fabrication of the memory cell 100.

The first doped semiconductor region 122 is located on the word line 130b, and the word line 130b extends into and out of the cross section shown in FIG. 2A. In an exemplary embodiment, the word line 130b includes a doped N + (highly doped N type) semiconductor material, the first doped semiconductor region 122 comprising a doped N (lightly doped N type) semiconductor material, And the second doped semiconductor region 124 comprises a doped P + (highly doped P-type) semiconductor material. It can be seen that the breakdown voltage of the diode 121 can be increased by increasing the distance between the P + doped region and the N + doped region, and/or decreasing the doping concentration in the N region.

In another embodiment, word line 130 can comprise other conductive materials such as tungsten, titanium nitride, tantalum nitride, aluminum. In yet another embodiment, the first doped semiconductor region 122 can be omitted, and the diode 121 can be formed by the second doped semiconductor region 124, the conductive cap layer 180, and a portion of the word line 130b.

The memory device 160 is located on a dielectric spacer 140 and electrically coupled to the diode 121 to the corresponding bit line 120b. The memory component 160 comprises a memory material, for example selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, osmium, iridium, selenium, indium, titanium, gallium, antimony, tin, copper, palladium, lead, silver, sulfur, antimony, oxygen, phosphorus, arsenic, nitrogen and One or more materials of the group consisting of gold. The memory component 160 includes a first portion 162 located in an opening defined by the dielectric spacer 140 on the diode 121 to contact a top surface of the diode 121. The first portion 162 It is surrounded by a dielectric spacer 140. The memory component 160 also includes a second portion 164 on the first portion 162.

The dielectric spacer 140 preferably includes a memory that blocks the memory component 160 A material that diffuses body material. In some embodiments, the material of the dielectric spacer 140 may be selected to have a low thermal conductivity for reasons discussed in detail below. The dielectric spacer 140 has a side 141 that is self-aligned with the side 127 of the diode 121. In the following fabrication examples, which are described in detail with reference to Figures 3 through 16, the material of the dielectric spacer 140 is patterned during patterning of the material of the diode 121.

The bit line 120 including the bit line 120b as the top electrode of the memory cell 115 extends into and out of the cross section shown in FIG. 2B. The bit line 120 can comprise one or more layers of electrically conductive material. The bit line 120 may comprise, for example, titanium nitride or tantalum nitride. In the embodiment of the memory element 160 in which GST (discussed below) is included, titanium nitride is preferred because it has good contact with GST, which is used in general materials for semiconductor fabrication, and provides a good Diffusion barrier layer. Alternatively, the bit line 120 may be aluminum titanium nitride or aluminum nitride, or more than one element selected from the group consisting of titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, aluminum, tantalum, copper, platinum, rhodium, iridium, Nickel, nitrogen, oxygen and helium and combinations thereof.

A dielectric 170 comprising one or more layers of dielectric material surrounds the memory cell and separates adjacent word lines 130 and adjacent bit lines 120.

In operation, the voltages on word line 130b and bit line 120b can induce current through memory element 160 and diode 121.

The active region 155 is an area of the memory element 160 in which the memory material is induced to vary between at least two solid phases. It will be appreciated that in the illustrated configuration, the active region 155 can be made extremely small, thereby reducing the amount of current required to induce a phase change. The width 163 of the first portion 162 of the memory device 160 is lower than the second portion 164 of the diode 121 and the memory device 160, and is preferably lower than that used to form the memory array 100. The minimum feature size of the lithography process of the polar body 121 and the word line 130. The small memory component The first portion 162 of 160 can concentrate the current density in the first portion 162 of the memory device 160 to reduce the amount of current required to induce a phase change in the active region 155. Additionally, the dielectric spacer 140 preferably includes a material that provides thermal isolation to the active region 155, which also helps to reduce the amount of current required to induce a phase change. Moreover, the second portion 164 of the memory device 160 can provide some thermal isolation from the corresponding bit line 120 of the active region 155.

As can be seen from the cross-sections shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B, the memory cell lines of the array 100 are arranged at the intersection of the word line 130 and the bit line 120. The memory cell 115 is representative, and is arranged at the intersection of the word line 130b and the bit line 120b. Diode 121, dielectric spacer 140, and memory element 160 form a structure of memory cell 115 having a first width substantially the same as width 134 of word line 130 (see FIG. 2A). Again, the structure has a second width that is substantially the same as the width of the bit line 120 (see Figure 2B). The term "substantially" as used herein is intended to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Thus, the cross-sectional area of the memory cells of array 100 is entirely determined by the size of word line 130 and bit line 120 to allow array 100 to have a higher memory density.

The word line 130 has a word line width 134, and adjacent word lines 130 are separated by a word line separation distance 132 (see FIG. 2A), and the bit line 120 has a bit line width 124 and is adjacent. The bit line 120 is separated by a one-line separation distance 125 (see Figure 2B). In the preferred embodiment, the sum of the word line width 134 and the word line separation distance 132 is equal to twice the feature size F used to form the array 100, and the sum of the bit line width and the bit line separation distance 125 is equal to Used for twice the feature size F. In addition, F is preferably the minimum feature size for the process of forming bit line 120 and word line 130 (typically a lithography process) such that the memory cells of array 100 have a memory cell area of 4F 2 .

In the memory array 100 shown in FIGS. 2A to 2B, the memory cell 115 structure formed by the diode 121, the dielectric spacer 140, and the memory element 160 has a side 133a with the corresponding word line 130b. 133b self-aligned first and second sides 116a, 116b, and first and second sides 116c, 116d having self-alignment with the sides 123a, 123b of the corresponding bit line 120b. In the following fabrication embodiment, which is described in detail with reference to FIGS. 3 through 16, the diode 121 is formed during patterning of the word line 130 and the material pattern defining the location of the dielectric spacer 140. Thus, the memory cells of array 100 shown in the cross-sectional views of Figures 2A through 2B are completely self-aligned.

Figs. 3 to 16 show the steps of manufacturing the manufacturing sequence of the intersection array 100 of the memory cells as shown in Figs. 2A to 2B.

Figures 3A through 3B illustrate a first step of forming a top view and a cross-sectional view of a structure 300 on a P-well. The multilayer structure 300 includes a word line material 310 and a diode material 312 on the word line material 310.

The diode material 312 includes a first doped semiconductor material layer 320, a second doped semiconductor material layer 330, and a conductive capping material layer 340 on the second doped semiconductor material layer 330.

In the illustrated embodiment, the word line material 310 comprises a doped N + (highly doped N type) semiconductor material, the first doped semiconductor material layer 320 comprising a doped N (lightly doped N type) semiconductor The material, and the second doped semiconductor material layer 330 comprises a doped P + (highly doped P-type) semiconductor material. Layers 310, 320, 330 can be formed by known techniques such as implantation and activation tempering processes.

In the illustrated embodiment, the electrically conductive cover material layer 340 comprises a metal halide comprising titanium, tungsten, cobalt, nickel or niobium. In one embodiment, the conductive cover material layer 340 comprises cobalt telluride (CoSi) and is deposited by depositing a layer of cobalt. Rapid Thermal Process (RTP) formation causes cobalt to react with the ruthenium of layer 330 to form layer 340. It will be appreciated that other metal halides may also be formed by depositing titanium, arsenic, doped nickel, or alloys thereof in this manner (similar to the example of using cobalt as described herein).

A dielectric spacer material 350 is disposed on the diode material 312 and a sacrificial component material 360 is disposed on the dielectric spacer material 350. Layers 350, 360 preferably comprise materials that are selectively treatable (e.g., selectively etched) relative to the other. In the illustrated embodiment, dielectric spacer material 350 comprises tantalum nitride and sacrificial element material 360 comprises amorphous germanium.

In the illustrated embodiment, layers 310, 320, 330 have a total thickness 315 of about 400 nanometers, layer 340 has a thickness 345 of about 50 nanometers, layer 350 has a thickness 355 of about 40 nanometers, and layer 360 has about The thickness of 90 nm is 365.

Next, the structure 300 is patterned to form a plurality of first trenches 410 extending in a first direction to define a plurality of strips 400, each strip 400 comprising a word line 130 comprising a layer of word line material material 310, The structures shown in the top view and the cross-sectional view of Figs. 4A and 4B, respectively, are obtained. The word line 130 has a width 134 and a separation distance 132, each preferably equaling a minimum feature size for forming a process for the first trench 410, such as a lithography process. In the illustrated embodiment, the multi-layer strip 400 has a spacing 420 of about 250 nanometers.

Next, the trench 410 of the structure shown in FIGS. 4A to 4B is filled with a dielectric filling material 500, and the structures shown in the top view and the cross-sectional view of FIGS. 5A and 5B, respectively, are obtained. The dielectric fill material 500 can comprise, for example, hafnium oxide, and can be formed by depositing the material 500 within the trench 410, and then undergoing a planarization process such as chemical mechanical polishing CMP.

Next, a sacrificial strip material 600 is formed as shown in Figures 5A through 5B. Structurally, the structures shown in the top view and the cross-sectional view of Figs. 6A and 6B, respectively, are obtained. In the illustrated embodiment, the sacrificial strip material 600 comprises an amorphous tantalum deposit having a thickness of about 90 nanometers.

Next, the structures shown in FIGS. 6A-6B are patterned to form a plurality of second trenches 700 extending in parallel in the second direction to define a plurality of stacks 710 and sacrificial strips comprising the sacrificial strip material layer 600. 720, the structure shown in the top view of FIG. 7A and the cross-sectional view of FIGS. 7B to 7D, respectively. In the illustrated embodiment, the strips 720 have a thickness of about 725 nanometers 725.

The trench 700 can be formed by patterning a photoresist layer on the structure shown in FIGS. 6A to 6B, and using the patterned photoresist as an etching mask to etch down to the word line 130.

As shown in the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 7B-7C, each stack 710 includes a diode 121 including a diode material 312 on a corresponding word line 130, a dielectric element 730 including a diode 121. A layer of material 350, and a sacrificial element 740, comprising a layer of material 360 on the dielectric element 730.

The diode 121 includes a first doped semiconductor region 122 comprising a material layer 320, a second doped semiconductor region 124 comprising a material layer 330, and a conductive cap layer 180 comprising a material layer 340. The first doped semiconductor region 122 and the second doped semiconductor region 124 define a pn junction 126 therebetween.

Due to the formation of the first trench 410 of Figures 4A through 4B of the strip 400 comprising the word line 130 and the subsequent formation of the second trench 700 of Figures 7A through 7D, the multilayer stack 710 preferably has a The minimum feature size widths 712, 714 and separation distances 716, 718 of the processes (typically lithographic processes) that form the trenches 410 and 700.

Next, the ditch 700 of the structure shown in FIGS. 7A to 7D is filled with another The dielectric filling material 500 has a structure shown in a top view of FIG. 8A and a cross-sectional view of FIGS. 8B to 8D, respectively. In the illustrated embodiment, the trench 700 is filled with the same material as used to fill the dielectric 500 of the trench 410 as described with reference to Figures 5A-5B. The dielectric fill material 500 can be formed by depositing material within the trench 700, and then undergoing a planarization process such as chemical mechanical polishing CMP to expose the top surface of the sacrificial strip 720.

Next, the sacrificial strip 720 and the sacrificial element 730 are removed, a via hole 900 is formed at the position of the element 730, and a trench 920 is formed at the position of the strip 720 to obtain a top view of FIG. 9A and a 9B to 9D view. The structure shown in the cross-sectional view. In the illustrated embodiment, both the sacrificial strips 720 and the sacrificial elements 730 comprise amorphous germanium and can be removed by etching using, for example, KOH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (THMA). In the illustrated embodiment, the via 900 has a height 902 of about 90 nanometers and the trench 920 has a height 922 of about 90 nanometers.

Next, the sidewall spacers 1000 are formed in the via holes 900 shown in FIGS. 9A to 9D, and the structures shown in the top view of FIG. 10A and the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 10B to 10D are obtained. The sidewall spacers 1000 define openings 1010 in the vias 900, and in the illustrated embodiment, the sidewall spacers 1000 comprise germanium.

The sidewall spacers 1000 can be formed by forming a sidewall spacer material layer on the structure shown in FIGS. 9A through 9D, and non-isotropically etching the sidewall spacer material layer to expose a portion of the dielectric member 730. In this embodiment, the opening 1010 of the sidewall spacer 1000 is self-centering within the sidewall spacer 1000.

In the exemplary embodiment, the sidewall spacer 1000 defines an opening 1010 having a square-like cross-section. However, in an embodiment, the opening 1010 can be circular, elliptical, rectangular or other irregular The shape depends on the manufacturing technique used to form the sidewall spacer 1000.

Next, the dielectric spacer 730 is etched using the sidewall spacer 1000 as an etch mask to form the dielectric spacer 140, and the structure shown in the top view of FIG. 11A and the cross-sectional view of FIGS. 11B to 11D is obtained. This etching can be performed using, for example, reactive ion etching RIE.

Referring to FIGS. 11A-11D, the dielectric spacer 140 has an opening 1100 extending to the conductive cap layer 180, the conductive cap layer 180 being an etch stop layer when the dielectric spacer 140 is formed. Opening 1100 has a secondary lithographic width 1110, and in the illustrated embodiment, the width 1110 is about 40 nanometers. As noted above, the opening 1010 of the sidewall spacer 1000 can be self-centering, and thus it should be understood that the formation of the opening 1100 of the dielectric spacer 140 can also be self-centered.

Next, the sidewall spacer 1000 is removed from the structure shown in FIGS. 11A to 11D to obtain a top view of FIG. 12A and a cross-sectional view of FIGS. 12B to 12D. In the illustrated embodiment, the sidewall spacer 1000 comprises germanium and can be removed using an etch such as KOH or THMA.

Next, the memory device 160 is formed in the via hole 900, the via hole includes a first portion in the opening 1100 defined by the dielectric spacer 140, and the bit line is formed on the memory device 160 and extends In the second direction, the top view of Fig. 13A and the cross-sectional view of Figs. 13B to 13D are obtained. The memory element 160 and the bit line 120 can be formed by depositing a phase change material layer on the graphs shown in FIGS. 12A to 12D. Formed, reactive phase etching is used to etch back the phase change material to form element 160, and a bit line material is formed and a planarization process such as CMP is performed to form bit line 120. Alternatively, the memory device 160 and the bit line 120 may form a layer of one-dimensional line material by forming a phase change material layer (eg, having a thickness of about 90 nm) in the structures illustrated in FIGS. 12A through 12D ( For example, having a thickness of about 90 nm) is formed on the phase change material layer and subjected to a planarization process such as CMP.

As described above, the diode 121 is formed by the formation of the trenches 410 and 700, which also define the word line 130, the sacrificial element 730, and the sacrificial strip 720. Since the sacrificial element 730 and the sacrificial strip 720 define the locations of the subsequently formed memory element 260 and bit line 120, it will be appreciated that the memory cell lines depicted in Figures 13A through 13D are fully self-aligned.

Next, an oxide layer 1400 is formed on the structures shown in FIGS. 13A to 13D, and the structure shown in the top view of FIG. 14A and the cross-sectional view of FIGS. 14B to 14D is obtained.

Next, the array of conductive plugs 1510 is formed by the oxide layer 1400 to contact the corresponding word line 130, and the overall word line 1500 is formed on the oxide layer 1400 and contacts the opposite conductive plug 1510, which is shown in FIG. 15A. To the structure of the 15D map.

The overall word line 1500 extends to a peripheral circuit 1600 comprising a CMOS device as depicted in the top view of FIG. 16A and the cross-sectional view of FIG. 16B.

Figure 17 is a simplified block diagram of the integrated circuit 10 in an embodiment. The integrated circuit 10 includes a diode access device as described herein The self-aligned memory cell is one of the intersection memory arrays 100. A word line decoder 14 is coupled and electrically coupled to the plurality of word lines 16. A bit line (row) decoder 18 is electrically coupled to the plurality of bit lines 20 for reading data and writing data from the phase change memory cells (not shown) in the memory array 100. The address is supplied to the word line decoder and driver 14 and the bit line decoder 18 via the bus bar 22. The sense amplifier and data input structures in block 24 are coupled to bit line decoder 18 via data bus 26. The data is transferred from the input/output port of the integrated circuit 10, or other data sources inside or outside the integrated circuit 10, via the data input line 28 to the data input structure of block 24. Other circuits 30 are included on integrated circuit 10, such as a general purpose processor or special purpose application circuit, or a combination of modules that provide system single chip functionality supported by array 100. The data is output from the sense amplifier in block 24 to the input/output port on the integrated circuit 10 via the data output line 32, or to other data destinations internal or external to the integrated circuit 10.

The controller 34 used in the present embodiment uses a bias adjustment state mechanism and controls the application of the bias adjustment supply voltage 36, such as reading, programming, erasing, erasing confirmation, and stylizing confirmation voltage. . The controller 34 can be implemented using special purpose logic circuitry as is well known to those skilled in the art. In an alternate embodiment, the controller 34 includes a general purpose processor that can be implemented on the same integrated circuit to execute a computer program to control the operation of the device. In yet another embodiment, the controller 34 is a combination of special purpose logic circuitry and a general purpose processor.

Memory cell embodiments described herein include phase change memory materials, including chalcogenide materials and other materials. The chalcogenide includes any of the following four elements: oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tellurium (Te), forming part of Group VIA of the Periodic Table of the Elements. Chalcogenides include the combination of a chalcogen element with a more positively charged element or radical. The chalcogenide alloy includes a combination of a chalcogen compound with other substances such as a transition metal or the like. A chalcogenide alloy generally includes more than one element selected from Group IVA of the Periodic Table of the Elements, such as germanium (Ge) and tin (Sn). Typically, chalcogenide alloys include more than one of the following elements: bismuth (Sb), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and silver (Ag). Many phase change-based memory materials have been described in the technical documentation, including the following alloys: gallium/germanium, indium/bismuth, indium/selenium, yttrium/niobium, lanthanum/niobium, lanthanum/niobium/niobium, indium/niobium /碲, gallium/selenium/bismuth, tin/bismuth/niobium, indium/bismuth/niobium, silver/indium/锑/碲, 锗/tin/锑/碲, 锗/锑/selenium/碲, and 碲/锗/锑 / sulfur. In the 锗/锑/碲 alloy family, a wide range of alloy compositions can be tried. This component can be represented by the following characteristic formula: Te a Ge b Sb 100-(a+b) . One researcher described the most useful alloys in that the average enthalpy concentration contained in the deposited material is well below 70%, typically below 60%, and the bismuth content in the general type alloy ranges from the lowest. 23% up to 58%, and the best line is between 48% and 58%. The concentration of cerium is above about 5% and its average range in the material ranges from a minimum of 8% to a maximum of 30%, typically less than 50%. Most preferably, the concentration range of lanthanum is between 8% and 40%. The main component remaining in this ingredient is hydrazine. These percentages represent the percentage of each atom when the total number of atoms of the constituent elements is 100% (Ovshinky 5,687,112 patent, columns 10-11). Special alloys evaluated by another investigator include Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , GeSb 2 Te 4 , and GeSb 4 Te 7 (Noboru Yamada, "Potential of Ge-Sb-Te Phase-change Optical Disks for High-Data- Rate Recording", SPIE v . 3109, pp . 28-37 (1997)). More generally, transition metals such as chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), niobium (Nb), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and mixtures or alloys thereof, may be combined with 锗/锑/ The tantalum combines to form a phase change alloy which includes programmable resistance properties. A special example of a memory material that can be used is described in columns 11-13 of the Ovshinsky '112 patent, examples of which are incorporated herein by reference.

In some embodiments, chalcogenides and other phase change materials are doped with impurities to modify conductivity, switching temperature, melting point, and other characteristics used in doped chalcogenide memory elements. Representative impurities used in the doped chalcogenide include nitrogen, helium, oxygen, cerium oxide, cerium nitride, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, aluminum oxide, cerium, cerium oxide, cerium nitride, titanium, titanium oxide. . See U.S. Patent No. 6,800,504 and U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 2005/0029502.

The phase change alloy can be switched between the first structural state in which the material is generally amorphous and the second structural state in which the material is in a generally crystalline solid state in the active channel region of the cell. These alloys are at least bistable. The term "amorphous" is used to refer to a relatively unordered structure that is less orderly than a single crystal and has detectable features such as higher resistance values than crystalline states. The term "crystalline" is used to refer to a relatively ordered structure that is more ordered than amorphous and therefore includes detectable features such as lower resistance than amorphous. Code Typically, the phase change material can be electrically switched to all detectable different states between the fully crystalline state and the fully amorphous state. Other material properties that are affected by changes in amorphous and crystalline states include atomic order, free electron density, and activation energy. This material can be switched to a different solid state, or can be switched to a mixture of two or more solids, providing a gray-scale portion from amorphous to crystalline. The electrical properties of this material may also change.

The phase change alloy can be switched from one phase to another by applying an electrical pulse. Previous observations indicate that a shorter, larger amplitude pulse tends to change the phase of the phase change material to a substantially amorphous state. A longer, lower amplitude pulse tends to change the phase of the phase change material to a substantially crystalline state. The energy in the shorter, larger amplitude pulses is large enough to disrupt the bonding of the crystalline structure, while the time is short enough to prevent the atoms from realigning into a crystalline state. A suitable curve depends on experience or simulation, especially for a particular phase change alloy. The phase change material disclosed herein is also commonly referred to as GST, it being understood that other types of phase change materials may also be used. The phase change random access memory (PCRAM) used in the present invention is Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 .

Other programmable memory materials that can be used in other embodiments of the invention include GST doped with N 2 , Ge x Sb y , or other species that are converted by different crystalline states to determine electrical resistance; Pr x Ca y MnO 3 , Pr x Sr y MnO 3 , ZrO x or other materials that use electrical pulses to change the state of resistance; or other substances that use an electrical pulse to change the state of resistance; TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane),PCBM (methanofullerene) 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester), TCNQ-PCBM, Cu-TCNQ, Ag-TCNQ, C60-TCNQ, TCNQ doped with other substances, or any other polymeric material including an electrical pulse And control the bistable or multi-stable resistance state.

An exemplary method of forming a chalcogenide may utilize PVD sputtering or magnetron sputtering, the reaction gas being argon, nitrogen, and/or helium, at a pressure of 1 mTorr to 100 mTorr. This deposition step is generally carried out at room temperature. A collimator with an aspect ratio of 1 to 5 can be used to improve its filling performance. In order to improve the filling performance, a DC bias of tens to hundreds of volts can also be used. On the other hand, it is also feasible to combine DC bias and collimator at the same time.

It is sometimes necessary to perform a post-deposition annealing treatment in a vacuum or in a nitrogen atmosphere to improve the crystalline state of the chalcogenide material. The temperature of this annealing treatment is typically between 100 ° C and 400 ° C and the annealing time is less than 30 minutes.

The thickness of the chalcogenide material is a function of the design of the cell structure. In general, a chalcogenide thickness greater than 8 nm may have phase change characteristics such that the material exhibits at least a bistable resistance state. It is expected that certain materials are also suitable for thinner thicknesses.

The present invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments, and it is understood that the present invention is not limited by the detailed description. Alternatives and modifications are suggested in the foregoing description, and other alternatives and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The components of the present invention are combined to achieve substantially the same results as the present invention. They do not depart from the scope of the patent application scope of the present invention.

10‧‧‧Integrated circuit

14‧‧‧ Drive

16‧‧‧ character line

18‧‧‧ bit line decoder

20‧‧‧ bit line

22‧‧‧ Busbar

24‧‧‧Sense Amplifier

26‧‧‧ data bus

24‧‧‧Data input structure

28‧‧‧ data input line

30‧‧‧ Circuitry

32‧‧‧ data output line

34‧‧‧ Controller

36‧‧‧ bias adjustment supply voltage

100‧‧‧Array

115‧‧‧ memory cells

116a‧‧‧First side

116b‧‧‧Second side

116c‧‧‧ first side

116d‧‧‧Second side

120‧‧‧ bit line

120a‧‧‧ bit line

120b‧‧‧ bit line

120c‧‧‧ bit line

121‧‧‧ diode

122‧‧‧First doped semiconductor region

123a‧‧‧ side

123b‧‧‧ side

124‧‧‧Second doped semiconductor region

125‧‧‧Separation distance

126‧‧ pn junction

127‧‧‧ side

130‧‧‧ character line

130a‧‧‧ character line

130b‧‧‧ character line

130c‧‧‧ character line

132‧‧‧Separation distance

133a‧‧‧ side

133b‧‧‧ side

134‧‧‧Width

140‧‧‧Dielectric spacer

141‧‧‧ side

150‧‧‧active area

155‧‧‧Active area

160‧‧‧ memory components

162‧‧‧ first part

163‧‧‧Width

164‧‧‧ second part

170‧‧‧ dielectric

180‧‧‧Electrical cover

300‧‧‧Multilayer structure

310‧‧‧ character line material

312‧‧‧Diode material

315‧‧‧ total thickness

320‧‧‧First doped semiconductor material layer

330‧‧‧Second doped semiconductor material layer

340‧‧‧ Conductive covering material layer

345‧‧‧ thickness

350‧‧‧Dielectric spacer material

355‧‧‧ thickness

360‧‧‧Sacrificial component materials

365‧‧‧ thickness

400‧‧‧Multi-layer strips

410‧‧‧First ditches

420‧‧‧ spacing

500‧‧‧Dielectric filling material

600‧‧‧sacrificial strip material

700‧‧‧Second ditches

710‧‧‧Stacking

712‧‧‧Width

714‧‧‧Width

716‧‧‧Separation distance

718‧‧‧Separation distance

720‧‧‧sacrificial strips

725‧‧‧ spacing

730‧‧‧Dielectric components

740‧‧‧ Sacrificial components

900‧‧‧Mesopores

902‧‧‧ Height

920‧‧‧ Ditch

922‧‧‧ Height

1000‧‧‧ sidewall spacers

1010‧‧‧ openings

1100‧‧‧ openings

1110‧‧‧Width

1400‧‧‧ oxide layer

1500‧‧‧ overall word line

1510‧‧‧ Conductive embolism

1600‧‧‧ peripheral circuits

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of a partial intersection array implementation of a fully self-aligned porous memory cell having a diode access device as described herein.

2A to 2B are cross-sectional views showing memory cells arranged in an array of intersections.

The 3A, 3B to 6A, 6B and 7A to 7D to 15A to 15D, 16A, and 16B drawings show the steps of manufacturing the manufacturing sequence of the intersection array of the memory cells as shown in Figs. 2A to 2B.

Figure 17 is a simplified block diagram of an integrated circuit comprising an intersection memory array of a fully self-aligned memory cell having a diode access device as described herein.

100‧‧‧Array

115‧‧‧ memory cells

116a‧‧‧First side

116b‧‧‧Second side

120‧‧‧ bit line

120b‧‧‧ bit line

121‧‧‧ diode

122‧‧‧First doped semiconductor region

124‧‧‧Second doped semiconductor region

126‧‧ pn junction

127‧‧‧ side

130a‧‧‧ character line

130b‧‧‧ character line

130c‧‧‧ character line

132‧‧‧Separation distance

133a‧‧‧ side

133b‧‧‧ side

134‧‧‧Width

140‧‧‧Dielectric spacer

141‧‧‧ side

155‧‧‧Active area

160‧‧‧ memory components

162‧‧‧ first part

163‧‧‧Width

164‧‧‧ second part

170‧‧‧ dielectric

180‧‧‧Electrical cover

Claims (22)

  1. A memory device comprising a plurality of memory cells, each of the memory cells comprising: a diode comprising a top contact surface, and a member comprising a doped semiconductor material having an outer surface to define the second a side of the pole body; an insulating layer over the diode body and including a first opening over the diode; a dielectric spacer in the first opening on the diode The dielectric spacer has an inner side surface defining a narrower opening and having an outer side surface defining a side of the dielectric spacer that is self-aligned with the side of the diode; and a memory component a first portion included in the narrower opening and in contact with the top contact surface of the diode, and including a second portion over the first portion in the first opening, the second portion having An outer side surface defines the side edge that is self-aligned with the sides of the diode.
  2. The memory device of claim 1, wherein the narrow opening of each of the memory cells has a width that is less than a minimum feature size of a lithography process for forming the memory device. .
  3. The memory device of claim 1, wherein the member comprises a doped semiconductor material of the diode of each of the memory cells, comprising: a first doped semiconductor region having a first a conductive type; a second doped semiconductor region on the first doped semiconductor region and having a second conductivity type opposite to the first conductivity type; A conductive cap layer is disposed on the second doped semiconductor region.
  4. The memory device of claim 3, wherein: the first doped semiconductor region comprises an n-type doped semiconductor material; the second doped semiconductor region comprises a p-type doped semiconductor material; and the conductive cap layer Contains a metal halide.
  5. The memory device of claim 1, wherein the opening of each of the memory cells is self-centered.
  6. The memory device of claim 1, further comprising: a plurality of word lines extending in a first direction; a plurality of bit lines located on the word lines and extending in a second direction, a bit line intersecting the word line at an intersection position; and a plurality of memory cells located at the intersection positions, each memory cell of the memory cells being electrically coupled to a corresponding word line of the word line And the corresponding bit line of the bit line.
  7. The memory device of claim 6, wherein: the diode of each of the memory cells, the dielectric spacer, and the memory component form a first and second a third and fourth side structure; the first and second sides of the structure of each of the memory cells are self-aligned with the sides of the corresponding word line; and the memory cells The third and fourth sides of the structure of each of the memory cells are self-aligned with the sides of the corresponding bit line.
  8. A memory device comprising: a plurality of memory cells; a plurality of word lines extending in a first direction; a plurality of bit lines extending above the plurality of word lines and extending in a second direction, the bits The meta-line passes above the word lines at the intersection point, and the plurality of memory cells are at the intersection points, each of the memory cells and the corresponding word in the plurality of word lines The meta-line and the corresponding bit line in the plurality of bit lines are electrically communicated, and each of the memory cells comprises: a diode comprising a doped semiconductor material; a dielectric spacer in the second Above the pole body and defining an opening, the dielectric spacer has a side that is self-aligned with the side of the diode; and a memory component is above the dielectric spacer and includes a portion of the opening And in contact with a top surface of the diode; and wherein the word lines have a word line width and adjacent word lines are separated by a word line separation distance; the bit lines have bits The width of the line and the adjacent bit lines are separated by a single line separation distance; and the records Each of the cells has a memory cell area having a first side along the first direction and a second side along the second direction, the first side having the same The bit line width is one length of the sum of the separation distances of the bit line, and the second side has another length equal to the sum of the word line width and the word line separation distance.
  9. The memory device of claim 8, wherein the length of the first side is equal to twice the size of a feature F, and the length of the second side is equal to twice the size of the feature F, such that the memory The cell area is equal to 4F 2 .
  10. A method of fabricating a memory device, the method comprising forming a plurality of memory cells, each of the memory cells comprising: a diode comprising a top contact surface, and a member comprising a doped semiconductor material having a An outer surface defining a side of the diode; an insulating layer over the diode and including a first opening over the diode; a dielectric spacer on the diode Within the first opening, the dielectric spacer has an inner side surface defining a narrower opening having an outer side surface defining a side of the dielectric spacer that is self-aligned with the side of the diode And a memory component comprising a first portion in the narrower opening and in contact with the top surface of the diode, and including a second portion over the first portion in the first opening, The second portion has an outer side surface to define the side edge that is self-aligned with the sides of the diode.
  11. The method of claim 10, wherein the narrower opening of each of the memory cells has a width that is less than a minimum feature size of a lithography process for forming a memory device.
  12. The method of claim 10, wherein the member comprises a doped semiconductor material of the diode of each of the memory cells, comprising: a first doped semiconductor region having a first a conductive type; a second doped semiconductor region on the first doped semiconductor region and having a second conductivity type opposite to the first conductivity type; a conductive cap layer located in the second doped semiconductor On the area.
  13. The method of claim 12, wherein: the first doped semiconductor region comprises an n-type doped semiconductor material; the second doped semiconductor region comprises a p-type doped semiconductor material; and the conductive cap layer comprises Metal telluride.
  14. The method of claim 10, wherein the opening of each of the memory cells is self-centered.
  15. The method of claim 10, further comprising: a plurality of word lines extending in a first direction; a plurality of bit lines located on the word lines and extending in a second direction, the bit elements a line and a word line intersect at a point of intersection; and a plurality of memory cells located at the intersections, each memory cell of the memory cells being electrically coupled to a corresponding word line of the word lines and the same The corresponding bit line of the bit line.
  16. The method of claim 15, wherein: the diode of each of the memory cells, the dielectric spacer, and the memory component form a first, second, a structure of the third and fourth sides; the first and second sides of the structure of each of the memory cells are self-aligned with the sides of the corresponding word line; and the memory cells The third and fourth sides of the structure of each memory cell are self-aligned with the sides of the corresponding bit line.
  17. A method of manufacturing a memory device, the method comprising: Forming a plurality of memory cells; forming a plurality of word lines extending in a first direction; forming a plurality of bit lines above the plurality of word lines and extending in a second direction, the bit lines are The intersection point passes above the word lines; the plurality of memory cell lines are formed at the intersection points, each of the memory cells and the corresponding word line in the plurality of word lines Corresponding to the corresponding bit line in the plurality of bit lines, and each of the memory cells comprises: a diode comprising a doped semiconductor material; a dielectric spacer in the diode And defining an opening, the dielectric spacer having a side that is self-aligned with the side of the diode; and a memory component above the dielectric spacer and including a portion within the opening Contacting a top surface of the diode; and wherein the word lines have a word line width and adjacent word lines are separated by a word line separation distance; the bit lines have bit lines Width and adjacent bit lines are separated by a bit line separation distance; and the memory cells Each of the memory cells has a memory cell area having a first side along the first direction and a second side along the second direction, the first side having equal to the bit The line width is one length of the sum of the separation distances of the bit line, and the second side has another length equal to the sum of the word line width and the word line separation distance.
  18. The method of claim 17, wherein the length of the first side is equal to twice the size of a feature F, and the length of the second side is equal to twice the size F of the feature, such that the memory cell The area is equal to 4F 2 .
  19. A method of fabricating a memory device, comprising: forming a material comprising a word line material, a diode material on a word line material, a dielectric spacer material on a diode material, and a dielectric spacer material a first sacrificial material structure; forming a plurality of dielectrically filled first trenches in the structure, extending in a first direction to define a plurality of strips, each strip comprising a word line, the word line Included in the word line material; forming a second sacrificial material on the strip and the dielectrically filled first trench; forming a plurality of dielectrically filled second trenches down to the word line and extending in a second direction Defining a plurality of sacrificial strips comprising a second sacrificial material; removing the first sacrificial material to define via holes, and removing sacrificial strips to define trenches above the vias and extending to a second direction; The electrical spacer material forms a plurality of dielectric spacers; and forms a plurality of memory elements and a plurality of bit lines in the via holes and trenches.
  20. The method of claim 19, further comprising: forming an oxide layer on the bit line; forming an array of conductive plugs extending through the oxide layer to contact the corresponding word line; and forming an overall word line on the oxide layer, And contacting the corresponding conductive plugs in the array of conductive plugs.
  21. The method of claim 19, wherein the forming the plurality of dielectric spacers comprises: Forming a sidewall spacer in the via hole; etching the dielectric spacer material as an etch mask using the sidewall spacer to form a dielectric spacer comprising a dielectric spacer material, and defining an opening; and removing the sidewall Sidewall spacers.
  22. The method of claim 21, wherein the forming the plurality of memory elements and the plurality of bit lines comprises: forming a memory material in the via hole and an opening defined by the dielectric spacer; forming The bit line material is on the memory material and in the trench; and a planarization process is performed.
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