TWI278281B - Method and system for reproduction of coral reefs and coral reef organisms in large quantities - Google Patents

Method and system for reproduction of coral reefs and coral reef organisms in large quantities Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI278281B
TWI278281B TW93118194A TW93118194A TWI278281B TW I278281 B TWI278281 B TW I278281B TW 93118194 A TW93118194 A TW 93118194A TW 93118194 A TW93118194 A TW 93118194A TW I278281 B TWI278281 B TW I278281B
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Taiwan
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water
tank
breeding
pipe
coral
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TW93118194A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW200600008A (en
Inventor
Tung-Yung Fan
Wei-Jiun Su
Huei-Ru Chen
Tze-Min Shiau
Fu-Wen Guo
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Nat Museum Of Marine Biology &
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Abstract

This invention concerns a method and a system for reproduction of coral reefs and coral reef organisms in large quantities. First, an open or hermetic cultivation tank with dust collection and discharge device at the bottom is constructed. The bottom of the tank is laid with sand, followed by placing hollow bricks and rocks on the sand before adding seawater. Coral reef organisms cultured inside the cultivation tank can be reproduced in suspension, erection, and wall mounted type. A water current device is installed to re-supply seawater, draw in seawater and circulate it back to cultivation tank to promote organism exchange cycle and produce current. An organism filial generation colleting device is also established, such that organism filial generation can flow into the collecting tube with filial generation stored plankton net through spillway, wherein the colleting tube contains adequate amount of seawater to keep the organism filial generation alive, providing light and food device to enable coral reefs and coral reef organisms to reproduce in large quantities, with high economic, aquatic, fishery, conservational, and educational value.

Description

1278281 玖, invention description: [Technical field of invention] The present invention relates to a system and method for large-scale breeding of coral and coral reef organisms, especially a large-scale breeding production of coral and coral reef organisms Invention design of the value of aquarium, fishery, conservation and education. According to the official statistical survey, since 1989, the global live trade volume has shown rapid and stable growth. The annual growth rate is Xiao - and it is estimated that the commercial demand for global live corals in 2000 has exceeded 100. And cherish and sustainable use of resources. Both Shanhu and Live Rock are listed in the appendix of Yanshi's Stone Agreement (Caf): Zhong, Da ^; Vivid Plant International Trade
T Gossip has a coral sarcophagus m A which prohibits or regulates the commercial use of Shan Xiang in its sea area. Oh, because the demand for international commercial trade and public education exhibitions in Shanhu has been growing rapidly year by year, and the hobby between wild woods has been ruined by various human and natural factors, but it has been rapidly degraded. Therefore, it is established..." The pollution that has not been squandered, u, the establishment of coral farms to replace the way of mining by the wild, has been artificially cultivated for A to become a marine organism for its development: to the attention of the country in the midnight, science and technology, open up new generations to raise aquarium The key projects of the industry - < / ", industry and expansion of the past high cost of equipment required for breeding corals, loss of maintenance costs ..., and complex, resulting in the same investment costs, poor breeding performance, and! 278281 Liang Liang 2:: Reef tank - generally considered to be highly difficult by the aquarium, Monaco == and the way 'such as Berlin, Smith -, such as the Aquarium, Zhaoming: Temple; a variety of farming equipment and equipment ^, cold Part machine, heater, motor, protein removal 1", smart reactor, germicidal lamp, etc., and additives, such as sputum, sputum, no... such as reef organisms, including scorpion species, Iodine, etc.; and a variety of Shan, insects 2, Haicai 'sponge, sea rabbit, snail shellfish, sea worms, shrimps and crabs, sea clip rabbits lack μ > t every class, often people do not 4 sea urchin temple Invertebrates, marine fish, and algae don't know how to choose and match. [Invention] Inventors have invented through continuous efforts and trials--: innovative design, during which the eight-mile oligoculture System and method A large number of breeding and production of stolen goods, and...: the value of fertility and education of 仃 蝴 蝴 蝴 珊 珊 珊 珊 珊 珊 ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 度 度 度A system of large-scale breeding of coral reefs and coral reefs, including: a breeding water tank, living sand, typed organisms, and non-polluting water, hollow monuments and hairs; sewage and sewage devices 'Set the through hole at the bottom of the aquaculture water phase, set the square at the through hole, raise the door switch; S, set in the water pipe|-water flow 褒i 'with supplementary water pipe, ® water officer and back 1278281 pipe, replenishing water pipe Into the water Connected to the water source, the outlet end is located above the aquaculture water tank, the water absorption pipe is buried in the water tank at the water end, and the water outlet end is connected to the aquaculture water tank and then connected: the pumping motor, the water outlet end of the pumping motor is connected with the outlet pipe and the return pipe, and the outlet end of the return pipe is turned. Returning to the aquaculture tank; - a biological progeny collecting device having a collecting pipe and a water tank, the water inlet end of the collecting pipe is located at the sea surface of the inside of the breeding water tank, and the collecting pipe: the end is piercing the breeding water tank, and the water tank is provided Below the water outlet end of the collection pipe, a plankton net that can retain the biological progeny is set in the water second; a food supply device, and the right 粗 粗 、 /, the bait 枓 phase, the bait bin is set in the bait bin, falling The outlet of the tube is located above the breeding tank to set the light source. 10,000, and the technical method for achieving the above purpose above the breeding tank, the present invention provides a "recognition of coral and coral reef organisms," and a breeding tank for breeding. At the bottom of the water tank, there is a device for collecting and discharging pollutants, and on the upper baffle, the live sand is stacked on the live sand, and the hollow monument is stacked.. and the seawater is added, and the aquaculture water phase is placed: the organism can be used, vertical and Wall type and other methods are used to breed various types of sand paste. Other types of sand reef creatures can also be cultured in water tanks, and a water flow device can be used to replenish seawater, pumping seawater and returning it to the breeding tank to promote biological parental circulation. And the production of water flow, and can control the drainage, the height of the water level, the temperature of the sea water 1 degree, etc. and the biological progeny collection device, the biological progeny enters the collection tube containing the retained generation of the plankton net through the overflow, and receives the The proper amount of seawater in the tube keeps the biological progeny alive. With this design, it is possible to carry out a large number of breeding production of Shanhua and Shanshi Shijiao, and it has the value of economy, aquarium, fishery, conservation and education. 1278281 [Embodiment] One by one...V Huangfuxing water has a device for collecting and discharging pollutants. 'The live sand (Shanxiang sand) is placed on it. The hollow bricks and rocks are stacked and the seawater is added to the water tank. , vertical and wall styles and other methods of breeding a variety of wild butterflies, two types of coral reef organisms can also be cultured in the water tank, 1, 1, * ★ U and 6 and a water flow device can add seawater, pumping seawater and Return the breeding water tank towel to promote the biological father to change the circulation and manufacture the water flow. It can control the drainage, the water level, the sea temperature, the salinity, etc., and set up a biological generation collection device. There is a collecting tube for the retention of the plankton nets, and the appropriate amount of seawater is kept in the & collecting tube to make the biological progeny survive well, and there is a device for providing light energy or food, and 35 carries out a large number of wild and scorpion creatures. Production, highly economical, aquarium, fishery, insurance and teaching f value. - Cooperate with the system of the "Coral and Coral Reef Breeding and Breeding" of the present invention as shown in the first figure, including a breeding tank (i), set live sand (3), live rock (4), and hollow monument ( 4 0) and various types of cultured organisms (5) (ie corals, coral reef organisms) and uncontaminated seawater; "sedimentation and sewage devices (2), installed at the bottom of the aquaculture tank (1) and in the culture tank ( 1) The through hole is set at the bottom, and the undercut is set at the through hole (2 2 ). The water switch (2 2 1 ) is set in the water switch (2 2 1 ), and the device (2) is transparent. a horizontal partition (2 〇) of the hole and a partition (2 1 ) inclined toward the through hole without a through hole; 1278281 A water flow device (6) having a supplementary water pipe (6 〇), a suction pipe (6 1 ) and a return flow The pipe (6 3 ), the supplementary water pipe (60) is connected to the water source, and the water-supply officer (6 1 ) is buried in the water tank (1) and the water is discharged from the aquaculture tank (1). 6 2) 4 X motor (6 2 ) is connected to the return pipe (6 3 ) at the water outlet end, and the return pipe (63) is turned back to the aquaculture tank (丄); The collecting device (7 has a collecting tube (7〇) ruler (7 1 ), and the collecting tube (7 〇) into the water end is located in the breeding water tank ( 1 ): at the sea surface to be filled, the collecting tube (7 〇) is discharged End through the raise = "mesh (1) 'water tank (7 1) is set in the collection tube (7 0) out of the K and below the water tank (7 work) to set up a plankton network that can retain biological progeny (7 2); a food supply device (only 3, Gan Q 8) has a bait bin (80), a bait bin (80) is equipped with bait, ^ Μ and bait 枓 phase (80) at the lower edge of the setting Tube (8 1 ), blanking tube (only ί, hawthorn · ° discuss & ( 8 1 ) exit above the breeding tank (1)' and in the breeding tank (phase, 丄j can be set a light source (9) 0 The culture tank (1) can be opened or sealed, and the sealed type is added to the culture tank (1) system to prevent evaporation of water and foreign matter from entering. The aquaculture water tank (1) is implemented, and the sewage collection and sewage disposal device (2) is set up in the 丄p, and the valve switch (2 2 ) and 匕z ) in the Yuping system is made to make the live sand (3) biologically stable. Habitat And make the basin #% from, Ni, form an anaerobic environment, and the partition (20) can be used for the bio-bubble gossip to enter and fall in the non-perforated and inclined (2ί)卜,#士. 1) If § is necessary, such as excessive accumulation of excrement or sediment, and may cause the sand of the live sand (3) to be lacking, the wide door switch (22) can be opened. A small amount of drainage, remove deposits from the bottom of the aquaculture tank (1). And the live sand (3) described by β is the sand of the lake, and when the particle size and the thickness of the sand are appropriate, the low dissolved oxygen region and the nutrient base salt = anaerobic denitrifying bacteria are reduced, and nitrogen is used. The shape cuts out = the common acid accumulation phenomenon in the I and the water rainbow; the lining and some gold oxygen treatment, combined with the formation of carbonates and sulfides, and the temple is stored; in: anaerobic treatment can transform organic f The quality of the organism is small, = Zhonghu: the amount of sediment produced is less, about 25-45% of aerobic treatment, thus reducing the acidity generated during the activities of bacteria such as bottom, such as nitric acid 2, neutralization, while Causes the elution of carbonate (4) ions, so that the trace elements continue to be filled with ;m; 1 The area formed by the 离子 々 々 々 矽 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有 具有Role, in addition, L:: substance; layer & field can form a large number of biofilms, in the light or exposure feasible photosynthesis to produce oxygen dissolved = under the planting of the Kao Shi Xiaocheng Alo milk area, carry &, organic Small particles and dissolved organic matter are absorbed and utilized by aerobic bacteria By nitrification ^, θ rice is fine and sucks non-toxic nitrate di-sand:!::: ammonia and nitrite are oxidized to force without acidification, and can be used as buffering energy for nutrient salt Algae, to; human '" to include photosynthesis and absorption, ^ test class for food and control it is not excessively complicated! 278281 Sheng snail shellfish and crustacean sea worms and sea cucumbers and other habitats, role-playing role to remove A place for the rearing of organic debris. κ, evading predators, and breeding and hatching the above-mentioned live sand (3) stacked hollow bricks), the hollow bricks (4 η, ) /, live stone (4 can be used as biological barriers and stacked with living rocks The formation of the air is Jing, can be 'with breeding grounds' and both the sand and the reef are Huoshengsheng / quality buffering capacity ^ acidification, and filter the water particles to maintain the water fold, the main pill τ Lu Yang , scorpion, le, etc., the algae feeds on the two sponges, tubeworms, worms and sea shells, the spines are moving, and the snails, the echinoderms and the fish are not excessively prosperous.洁土 a, 瑕 瑕 、, sea worms in April and   in addition to organic debris and ubiquitous U and sea cucumbers inhabit, eat, avoid predators, and I colonize and bred the habitat of the offspring. When the reef and hollow bricks are stacked in a moderately loose manner and constructed various shapes, such as slopes, flats, and private institutions, various living creatures can be built: 曰, caves, and walls, etc., to create hollow bricks or sand bones. Heart rules = a total of more biological habitats, rocks, flows and fluctuations, making water masses The sugar noodles can promote the formation of water hollow bricks to promote the transport of substances and nutrient absorption by irregularities. A type of Fufeng provides a safe shelter with a large number of concealed, protective and attacking targets, and creates a varied habitat. The environment 'is for the reproduction of various types of organisms. The organisms (5) cultured in the above-mentioned breeding water tanks (1) can breed various types of wild butterflies in the form of hanging, vertical and wall, and form hanging cultured organisms (5). 〇), wall cultured organisms (5 i ) and vertical cultured organisms ( 10 1278281 52), other types of coral reef organisms can also be cultured in water tanks, hanging people = method of cultivating corals 'is longer The branch of the mountain is cut into several segments. 'Each segment can be several centimeters long. It can be lived on a fishing line or fixed on a pedestal. It is hung in a living organism. Its advantages are: (a) a large number of breeding can be carried out; b) Effective use of the space in the upper middle layer of the organism; (c) The luminosity of the upper layer of the organism is lower than that of the lower layer of 5 gold, and the amount of light received by the lake is higher and grows faster; (d) avoiding competition with other organisms on the reef, affecting Coral growth; 'large The number of coral species can be cultured by hanging method. The vertical method is to cut the branches of the butterfly into several segments and erect it on the pedestal. This method is suitable for the slash and other kinds of stalks and other kinds of snails. The method of the wall-type method is to grow the culture by growing the fertilization of the coral, the embryo and the young child into the water tank, and attaching it to the wall of the box. The advantage of cultivating the coral by this method is... The reproduction of a large number of corals with sexual reproduction ability; -) The corals that breed have higher genetic variation, may adapt to incompatibility (c) The survival and growth of young children are self-selected; the attached matrix, its environment It may be a more appropriate characteristic, σ) that the groups of tissue histocompatibility can merge with each other to merge several small groups to rapidly increase the population. 1278281 The test results of the present invention, thousands of strains of p sigma, and the group of one is also grown in a period of more than one year, that is, from the birth of less than 1 mm of the second 丨田, to a diameter of about 10 cm. Medium-sized group. The above-mentioned water flow device (6) can be used for replenishing seawater, sucking seawater, and returning it to the aquaculture water tank to promote the peak and the water flow, and also to control the drainage and water level. And, in the water supply phase of the 甘 殂 殂 殂 (1), a water quality control adjuster (6 4 ), P1 4) water baffle control adjuster (6 4 ) can be connected at the return pipe (6!) or in the system The dH value of the water quality, U is suitable for the woman, and can detect and regulate the temperature, the temperature, the labor, the w, the “more fragrant”, The temperature can be properly controlled; while the water flow is submerged by a submersible motor or externally. The motor is made to flow, and the appropriate strong sound flow can clean the deposits accumulated in the water jacket of the biological body. Control the adhesion of contaminated organisms (f〇uling °rganisms), improve the efficiency of material transport, reduce the effect of boundary layer, increase the contact of camping organisms, and promote the exchange of substances, such as in reflux tubes & And the fork is placed at two outlets (6 3 1 ) (0, &g t; , a degree of temperament 32), the embarrassing water outlet 3 1 ) can be on the water surface | y soil fire, from one, 丄I 仏 water wave, the lower south outlet (9 9 ) is located in the culture Water tank (1 A exchange of movement; (1) the middle position, the water flow in the middle layer can be used to make the water flow also make the suspended solids and organic particles in the water, the pores of the sand and the surface of the sand, and the attached Shilu σ filter-feeding animals capture, thus maintaining water quality, crystal clear, and meet the biological food needs; Bay / month In addition, one of the water outlet /, should be close to the water surface, with a 4 k face accumulated oil film and micro thin π release hibiscus into the organism, and is biodegraded and filtered to 12 12278281, and the material exchange between the organism and the air is good; at the same time, the generated water wave has a lens-like concentrating effect, which not only improves the illuminance, but also produces A natural scene of sparkling. The biological progeny collection device (7) allows the biological progeny to overflow into the planktonic net (72) through the collection tube (70) and retain the descendant 'collection officer' ( 7 0 ), plankton net (7 2 ) and water tank (7丄) Have adequate water biological progeny survived well, and as red 1) is provided an overflow pipe (73), so that excess water may overflow pipe (73) is discharged outwardly;
The cultured water|the plankton in the head (1) and the sons of various creatures will not be blocked by the filter cotton or other coffins commonly used in ordinary aquariums, and will be destroyed by coral sand and shale, and # « , ..., a large number of hidden spaces formed by the two-hearted specialization for the inhabitation, foraging, and escaping of the animals. The breeding and incubation of the offspring, the long scarf: the southern creatures in the early life history stage. Survival rate, sea worms and snails in the culture tank (1) d often fall down. Newborn newborns appear in the midnight, and the young ones released by the corals can successfully survive and grow, and the F water phase (1) survives.
, growth and reproduction 'and make the Shanjiao reef group gather and prosperously invented and tested. The results show that this is the same as the four types of staghorn staghorn I, lychee column coral, scorpion桎珊珈 month π column coral, beam-shaped true leaf coral, etc., young can successfully survive in this device, ' 立 穗 coral Can 'form" new individuals, and often become UU colonies and snails often...: "Sammon fish, sea worms" There are many new individuals appearing in this device. The light source (9), the food supply package Jin. The attack (8), the source of the coral reef ecological tank 13 1278281 is mainly light and bait, # 077 π山θ工昭明户斤Μ Μ 4, first plus Sunlight, lamps or people..., moons, corals, reefs, plants, and creatures are all women's 4_ two things, the water body t has a Xu Xi 溱 class, and Shan Jun and car law algae, in Guangzhao There is a large amount of co-biological respiration in Kwan Thao shell: ΓΓ Co-production produces oxygen, dissolves in water, provides energy, promotes,... The body, through the food chain and food network, transmits the main type 曰π I, 疋人杈杈The bait is adjusted according to the main meteorite corals, the water fish, the snails and the sea urchin. There are #珊蝶 or other seas mainly depending on _# ΐ上/, raw/woody stony corals and otter corals relying on sufficient light to grow good food floating 4 from ten A + 1 human coral and gorgonian corals need to feed the creatures Or powdered bait with a strong water flow. Moreover, the consumption and energy use used in the design of the present invention, and the object 4=from ',,,%%' can reduce the recycling of raw materials and materials, and the natural ecological tanks required for coral reefs, · W equipment and equipment, in addition to water tanks, Wang Xinbei, lights, motors and cold Β 7σ卩 machine 疋 artificially manufactured products such as sand, reef and biology, etc. The product of 妯Agu 0, 疋 from W, therefore has the natural environmental protection of the materials used, far from ΛΑ + t ^ σ m 敕, the way of operation saves raw materials and sputum, and the whole aquarium produces mu (four) w m ^ original Moreover, the advantages of this recycling cycle are high, so the large number of breeding and production of the Xingshanshu reef creatures, and the economic, aquarium, and sputum cases are the origins of the heart, vegetables, conservation and education. That is to say, 'the invention has a large amount of 4 species of corals and coral reefs," and establishes a breeding tank (η " >, method of farming w, , 1 ), and a light source (1) above the clothing tank (1) , food supply and assembly side 6 and) at the bottom is equipped with pollution collection, sewage system, 〇, ^ (1 3)..." (2) 'and laying live sand on it (. i stacking hollow bricks (40) and live Rock (4) 14 1278281 and the organisms added to the seawater 'and' placed in the breeding tank (1) can breed various corals, algae, etc. in the form of hanging, vertical and wall, etc. It can also be cultured in the breeding water tank (work), and has an X-scratch flat (6) to replenish seawater, pumping seawater and returning it to the aquaculture tank (1) to promote seawater exchange cycle and water flow control and to control drainage. , water level south degree, etc., and a biological progeny collection device (7), biological progeny, overflowing from the raft (7 〇) into the floating organism network (γ 2) retained generation collection tube (7 0 There is an appropriate amount of seawater in the middle to ensure that the biological progeny can survive well. The above method is set on the outer wall of the breeding tank (丄). A water quality control regulator (6 4 ), which can detect and control the water quality, salinity and temperature. ^ In summary, the present invention "a series of coral and coral reef organisms, a large number, Method, 疋Using the high-level creation of the natural law technical idea, in line with the requirements of the invention patent application, and applying according to the law. [Simplified illustration] (1) The first part of the drawing: the system of the invention (2) Symbol (1) breeding water tank (2 〇) partition (2 2) water pipe (3) schematic diagram of live sand. (2) sewage collection and sewage disposal device (21) partition plate (2 2 1 ) valve switch (4) live rock
15 1278281 (4 Ο ) hollow brick (5 ) creature, (5 Ο ) hanging culture organism · (5 1) wall culture organism (52) vertical culture organism (6) water flow device (60) water supply pipe (6 1 ) suction pipe (6 2 ) pumping motor (6 3 ) return pipe (6 4 ) water quality control adjuster (7) biological progeny collection device (7 0 ) collection pipe (7 1 ) water tank ' (7 2 ) plankton Net (8) food supply device _ (8 0) bait bin (8 1) blanking tube (9) light source
16

Claims (1)

1278281 Picking up and applying for patents: 1 · A system for the extensive breeding of corals and coral reef organisms, including: a culture tank with a perforated partition inside, and a live rock on the partition Hollow monuments and various types of cultured organisms, and loaded with non-polluting seawater; a sewage and sewage device installed at the bottom of the aquaculture tank, and a through hole at the bottom of the culture water tank, and a water pipe at the through hole a water switch device is provided on the water pipe; a water flow device has a supplementary water pipe, a water suction pipe and a return pipe, the supplementary water pipe is connected to the water source at the water end, the water outlet end is located above the aquaculture water tank, the water absorption pipe is buried at the water end and is buried in the culture water tank, and the water outlet end is pierced and cultured. A water pump is connected to the water tank, and the water outlet end of the pump motor is connected with an outlet pipe and a return pipe. The outlet end of the return pipe is turned back into the breeding water tank. A biological generation collecting device has a collecting pipe and a water tank, and the collecting pipe is located at the water inlet end. At the surface of the seawater filled in the breeding tank, the outlet end of the collecting pipe passes through the breeding water tank, and the water tank is arranged below the water outlet end of the collecting pipe. The water red is provided with a plankton net that can retain the retained biological progeny; the ft U set has a bait bin, the blanking tube is provided with a blanking pipe, the blanking pipe outlet is located above the breeding water tank, the state industrial million, and the breeding water tank can be Set the light source above. 2. A system for the extensive breeding of corals and coral reef organisms as described in the first paragraph of the patent application, wherein the top of the aquaculture tank can be capped to form a sealed aquaculture tank. 17 I27828l 3 · If you apply for the patent scope 1 or 2, 10, the 4th Dadanmin tomb 丄^ 2 the coral and coral reefs are cultured in the system. Among them, the live sand is the sand. 4 · If the scope of patent application is the third item, the system is very versatile, and the system is a large-scale, aquaculture system, in which the light source can be a lamp. Amount: The system of breeding according to item 3 of the patent application scope, wherein the light source can be sunlight. Li-〇·--------------------------- ,: breeding water tank' is set above the breeding water tank, the food supply device
Live 2 is equipped with a sewage collection and sewage device at the bottom of the aquaculture tank, and sand is laid on it, and hollow bricks and living rocks are stacked on the live sand and seawater is added, and ^
The organisms in the culture tank can be cultured in the form of hanging, vertical and wall. Other types of coral reef organisms can also be cultured in aquaculture tanks, and a water flow device can be used to replenish seawater, pumping seawater and returning it to the aquaculture tank to promote seawater exchange cycle and water flow control. Drainage, water level, etc., and a biological generation collection device, the biological progeny is overflowed from the collection tube into the retained population of the planktonic net. The collection tube holds a proper amount of seawater to make the biological progeny survive well. 7 · For example, according to the sixth paragraph of the patent scope of the patent, the method of breeding large-scale aquaculture of coral and Shanxiang stone coke, wherein a water quality control regulator is arranged on the outer wall of the culture tank, and the pH value, salinity, and Temperature detection and regulation. Pick up, round: as the next page 18
TW93118194A 2004-06-24 2004-06-24 Method and system for reproduction of coral reefs and coral reef organisms in large quantities TWI278281B (en)

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CN106106276B (en) * 2016-06-28 2019-04-26 广东海洋大学 A kind of artificial regeneration's method of cave coral

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