TWI255588B - A dual-feed dual-band antenna - Google Patents

A dual-feed dual-band antenna

Info

Publication number
TWI255588B
TWI255588B TW94112969A TW94112969A TWI255588B TW I255588 B TWI255588 B TW I255588B TW 94112969 A TW94112969 A TW 94112969A TW 94112969 A TW94112969 A TW 94112969A TW I255588 B TWI255588 B TW I255588B
Authority
TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
metal arm
antenna
dual
ground plane
point
Prior art date
Application number
TW94112969A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
TW200638605A (en
Inventor
Kin-Lu Wong
Jui-Hung Chou
Chi-Yueh Wang
Cheng-Han Lee
Boon-Tiong Chua
Original Assignee
Yageo Corp
Kin-Lu Wong
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Yageo Corp, Kin-Lu Wong filed Critical Yageo Corp
Priority to TW94112969A priority Critical patent/TWI255588B/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of TWI255588B publication Critical patent/TWI255588B/en
Publication of TW200638605A publication Critical patent/TW200638605A/en

Links

Abstract

The present invention is related to a dual-feed dual-band antenna. The antenna comprises a ground plane, a first radiating arm located above an edge of the said ground plane, a second radiating arm extending in the opposite direction of the said first radiating arm, a substantially T-shaped shorting arm for electrically connecting the said first radiating arm and the said second radiating arm to the said ground plane, a first feeding coaxial cable and a second feeding coaxial cable for transmitting signals. The present invention is capable of operating in the 2.4 GHz (2400-2484 MHz) and 5 GHz (5150-5875 MHz) wireless local area network (WLAN) bands, and is suitable to be directly applied to a dual-module system, without the need of an additional switching circuitry.

Description

1255588 - Nine, invention description: [Technical field of invention] • 丨 invention system (4) in a kind of double-fed dual-frequency antenna, especially for applications • Antennas on wireless communication products notebook computers. [Prior Art] With the development of wireless communication, the related wireless local area network (wirdess: calareanetwork) products are more and more widely used, and the performance of antenna design has become an important key to affect the quality of communication products receiving and transmitting signals - Taiwan Patent Notice No. 563, 274 "Double Frequency Antenna" and Taiwan Patent. The 555, 177 5 Tiger multi-frequency antennas all reveal a grounding surface built into the LCD screen of a notebook computer, and an inverted-f antenna design is designed on the ground plane, although the antenna is suitable for 24 GHz (24〇). 〇_2484 MHz) and 5 GHz (5150_5875 MHz) dual-band wireless LAN modules, but only for a single 2.4/5 GHz dual-band module. For applications with different module designs at 24 GHz and 5 GHz, these single-fed dual-band antennas must be connected to a switching circuit to separate two different feed signals (24 GHz and 5 GHz). Feed to the corresponding module. This type of application will result in a drop in antenna gain and bandwidth. In order to solve this problem, we propose an innovative design with dual-input dual-frequency antenna, which can be generated at the same time. The low-frequency operating band covers the 2.4 GHz band of the wireless local area network, and the high-frequency operating band covers the wireless local area network. In the GHz band, because of its dual feed-in characteristics, it is not necessary to add a switching circuit to the antenna feed end, and the antenna characteristics are not reduced, so that the requirements for the dual module can be satisfied. 1255588 ι [ SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION As described above, it is an object of the present invention to provide an innovative design of a dual-frequency antenna with dual feed, which can generate a low frequency operating band = benefit line, domain network 2.4 GHz (2400-2484 MHz) The band and high-frequency bands cover the 5 GHz (5150-5875 MHz) band of the wireless local area network. The antenna S of the present invention comprises: a ground plane having a shape substantially a rectangle, and at the side of the ground plane, having a first ground point, a second ground point and a short circuit point; - the first radiating metal arm 'located at the side of the ground plane, extending substantially along the side, and having a first feed point; a second light metal, at the side of the ground plane, and facing Extending in a direction opposite to the first Korean metal arm and having a second feed point; a shorted metal arm located at the side of the ground contact surface and between the first light metal arm and the light metal Between the arms, and comprising: a first short-circuited metal arm, = 4 to a four-shot metal arm, the other end connected to the second light-emitting metal ^ and - a second short-circuited metal arm, the - end being substantially perpendicularly connected thereto The first bean road metal arm forms a T-open 3 structure, and the other is always electrically rolled to the ground plane ^ way point '-the first feed coaxial transmission line, including: a first center (10), connected to the The mth and ^22 layers of the first-light metal f: the first conductor connected to the ground plane The second two-node feeds into the coaxial transmission line, comprising: - a second center conductor connected to the second feed point of the body of the metal body; and a second outer grounding conductor - the first connection to the ground plane Two grounding points. , long,? By adjusting the first radiating metal arm and the antenna (lower) operating band, and the length of the first radiating metal arm is close to the center of the antenna - (lower) operating band a quarter wavelength of the inrush rate; and obtaining a second (higher) operating band of the antenna by adjusting the length of the second radiating metal arm, and the length of the second light gold # is close to the second of the antenna High) operating band ^ 1/4 wavelength of the heart frequency. [Embodiment] FIG. 1 is a supporting metal moon plate 13 having a double-fed dual-frequency antenna according to the present invention, including a ground plane or a notebook computer liquid crystal screen (lcd), and has a shape substantially a rectangle 5 having a first grounding point 131, a second grounding point 132 and a shorting point 133 at one side of the grounding surface; a first radiating metal arm 14 on the side of the grounding surface 13 Extending substantially along the side edge for generating a first (lower) operating frequency band of the antenna and having a first feed point 141; a second radiating metal arm 15 located at the ground plane 13 The side edge extends toward the opposite direction of the first radiating metal arm 14 for generating a second (preferred) operating frequency band of the antenna and has a second feeding point 151; a shorted metal arm The first radiating metal arm 14 is disposed between the first radiating metal arm 14 and the second radiating metal arm 15 and includes: a first shorting metal arm 161 connected to the first end a first radiating metal arm 14 having the other end connected to the second radiating metal arm 15; a second short-circuiting metal arm M2 having one end substantially perpendicularly connected to the first short-circuiting metal arm 161 to form a butyl structure, the other end electrically connected to the short-circuit point 133 of the grounding surface, and a first feeding coaxial transmission line, including a first center conductor l255588 171 connected to the first feed point of the 5th round metal arm and a first outer ground conductor 172 connected to the first ground point 131 of the ground plane And a second feed coaxial transmission line 18, comprising a second center conductor 181 connected to the second feed point 151 of the second radiating metal arm; and a second outer ground conductor 182 connected to the The second ground point 132 of the ground plane. In the first embodiment, the ground plane 13, the first radiating metal arm 14, the second radiating metal arm 15 and the shorting metal arm are "made" or cut by a single metal sheet.

Figure 2 is a reflection coefficient π", S22) and isolation (sy measurement result of an embodiment of the antenna of the present invention. In the embodiment i, the supporting metal of the analog notebook liquid crystal i (LCD) In the backplane environment, we select the ground plane 13 to have a length of about 26 mm and a width of about 2 〇〇; the first radiating metal arm 14 has a length of about 22 faces and a width of 2 faces; The metal arm 15 has a length of about llmm and a width of two sides; the first short-circuiting metal arm (6) of the short-circuited metal arm has a length of about 6 faces and a width of mm, and the second short-circuited metal arm of the short-circuited metal arm 162 has a length of about 2m: and a width of lmm. From the experimental results obtained, under the ambiguity of the lion reflection coefficient, its first resonant mode or lower operating band is sufficient to cover the 2.4 GHz (2400 GHz) wireless area network. The road band, while in the second ugly mode or higher operating band 22 (4) cover 5 post (5 traces ·) wireless = network band, and in isolation 23, the two modes are less than -15 dB. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are the antennas of the first embodiment of the present invention in the radiation of the 255588 step Wz and the antenna of the measuring hall. Type (4) fruit. The test results of the obtained examples, especially in the χ-Ζ plane "red (corruption straight face) and Xy _ plane (horizontal plane) measurement radiation field type, its natural performance main west t big green main pole The direction of the antenna is characterized by a misdirected polarization. Fig. 5 is an experimental result of the antenna gain of the antenna of the present invention in a lower operating band like GHz. The measurement results show that the lower fall frequency band The antenna gain is about 2·2~2.5dBi, which satisfies the operation requirements of the wireless local area network system. Fig. 6 is an experimental result of the antenna gain measurement in the higher operating band (5 GHz) of the antenna according to an embodiment of the present invention. The result of the measurement shows that the antenna gain of the lower operating band is about 2.5·3.0 dBi, which satisfies the operational requirements of the wireless local area network system. Fig. 7 is a structural diagram of another embodiment of the antenna of the present invention. A ground plane or a notebook computer liquid crystal display (LCD) 2 supports the metal moon plate 13 and has a shape substantially a rectangle, and has a first grounding point 131 and a second grounding point at one side of the grounding surface. 132 with a short circuit point 133; - first radiation a metal arm 74, located at the side of the ground plane 13, extends substantially along the side for generating a first (lower) operating frequency band of the antenna and having a first feed point 741; The second radiating metal arm is 'located at the side of the ground plane 13 and extends in a direction opposite to the first radiating metal arm 74 for generating a second (slower) operating frequency band of the antenna, and Having a second feed point 751; a shorted metal arm 16' is located at the side of the ground plane 13 and between the first radiating metal arm 74 and the second radiating metal arm 75, and includes a first short 1255588 'way metal arm 161 having one end connected to the first radiating metal arm 74 and the other end connected to the second radiating metal arm 75; and a second shorting metal arm • 丨 62 having one end substantially Vertically connected to the first short-circuiting metal arm 161 to form a T-shaped structure 'the other end is electrically connected to the grounding surface of the short-circuit point ^ 133; - the first feeding coaxial transmission line 17, comprising: a first-center conductor 171 Connected to the first feed point 74ι of the first radiating metal arm: And a first outer ground conductor 172 connected to the first ground point 131 of the ground plane; and a second feed coaxial transmission line 18, comprising: a second center conductor 181 connected to the second radiating metal The second feed point 751 of the arm; and the second outer ground conductor 182 are connected to the second ground point 132 of the ground plane. The seventh embodiment differs from the embodiment in that the first Korean metal arm 74 and the second light metal arm 75 have a bent end, which can be used to reduce the size of the antenna. The structure is substantially the same as that of the first embodiment. Further, the first Korean metal arm 74, the second radiating metal arm 75, and the short-circuit metal 6 are formed on a microwave substrate 76 by printing or (4) technology. • Figure 8 is a block diagram of another embodiment of the present g-month antenna. The yoke example 8 includes a grounding surface or a gift metal backing plate 83 of a notebook computer LCD screen (lcd), which is substantially rectangular in shape, and has a first-side at one side of the grounding surface. a location 831, a second grounding point, a first shorting point 833 and a second shorting point 834; a first antenna 84, located at the side of the ground plane, extending substantially along the side, and The method includes: - a: a radiating metal arm 841' for generating a first (lower) operating frequency band of the antenna, and having a first feed point 843; and a first short circuit 11 1255588 metal arm 842, the end Connected to the first-light metal arm 84i, the other end is electrically connected to the first short-circuit point (8) of the ground plane; a second antenna 85' is located at the side of the ground plane, and is oriented toward the first The antenna extends in opposite directions and includes: a second light metal arm 851 for generating a second (higher) operating frequency band of the antenna, and having a second feed point 853; and a second short metal An arm 852 having one end connected to the second light metal arm (5) and the other end electrically connected to the connection The second short-circuit point 834; the first feed-in coaxial transmission line 17, comprising: a first center-wire 171 connected to the first feed point of the first radiating metal arm; and - a - outer layer a grounding conductor 172 connected to the first grounding point 831 of the ground plane; and a second feeding coaxial transmission line 18, comprising: a second center conductor 181 connected to the second feed of the second radiating metal arm An entry point 853; and a second outer ground conductor 182 are coupled to the second ground point 832 of the ground plane. The eighth embodiment differs from the embodiment 丨 or the seventh embodiment in that two antenna units are used and each has a short-circuited metal arm, and the effect is to reduce the isolation of the antenna, and the rest are implemented with the example 1 or Example 7 is substantially the same. In addition, the first antenna correction and the two-two antenna 85 are formed on a microwave substrate by printing or etching techniques. Figure 9 is a reflection coefficient π", Sr) and isolation of the other embodiment 8 of the antenna of the present invention (sy measurement result; in Embodiment 8, a supporting metal back panel of a simulated pen-type computer liquid crystal display (LCD) Environment, we choose the ground plane 83 to have a length of about 260 mm and a width of about 2 mm; the first radiating metal arm 841 of the first antenna has a length of about 22 mm and a width of 2 mm. The short-circuited metal arm 842 of the antenna has a length of about 6 12 1255588 mm and a width of 1 mm; the second radiating metal arm 85i of the second antenna has a length of about Umm and a width of 2 mm; the second day The second shorting metal arm 852 of the wire has a length of about 4 mm and a width of 1 mm. From the experimental result 'under the definition of _10 dB reflection coefficient, its first resonant mode or lower operating band 91 is sufficient to cover 24 GHz. (24 4 4 )) wireless local area network band, and in the second resonant mode or higher operating band is enough to cover the wireless local area network frequency of 5GHz (5150-5875 MHz); ^, and 纟 isolation% Aspect 'the isolation of the two modes is less than _2 。. Therefore, the embodiment described in the above description is only The present invention is described in terms of the principles of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The invention may be modified and changed in accordance with the spirit of the invention. The scope of the invention should be applied as described below. [Brief Description] Fig. 1 is a structural diagram of an embodiment of an antenna according to the present invention. Fig. 2 is a reflection coefficient (§ and | isolation (S21) measurement result of an antenna according to an embodiment of the present invention. Fig. 3 is a measurement result of the radiation field type of the embodiment of the antenna of the present invention at a frequency % imaginary MHz. Fig. 4 is a measurement result of the radiation field type at a frequency of MHz according to an embodiment of the antenna of the present invention. The figure is the gain measurement result (lower operating band) of the antenna of the present invention. Fig. 6 is a gain measurement result of the antenna-embodiment of the present invention (higher operation 13 1255588, band). FIG. 8 is a structural diagram of another embodiment of an antenna according to the present invention. FIG. 9 is a reflection coefficient (Sn, S22) of another embodiment (structure of FIG. 8) of the antenna of the present invention. And isolation (S21) amount Result: [Main component symbol description] 13: Ground plane or notebook computer LCD screen (LCD) supporting metal back panel 131: first grounding point 132: second grounding point 133: shorting point 14: first radiating metal arm 141 : first feed point 15 : second radiating metal arm 151 : second feed point 16 : shorted metal arm 161 : first shorted metal arm ^ 162 : second shorted metal arm 17 : first fed coaxial transmission line 171 : First center conductor 172: first outer ground conductor 18: second feed coaxial transmission line 181: second center conductor 182: second outer ground conductor 21, 91: first resonant mode or lower operating band (reflection factor 14 '1255588

Sn measurement results) 22, 92: second resonance mode or higher operating frequency band (reflection coefficient S22 measurement result) 23, 93: isolation (S21 measurement result) 74: first radiation metal arm 741: first Feeding point 75: second radiating metal arm 751: second feeding point 76: microwave substrate 83: ground plane or notebook computer liquid crystal display (LCD) supporting metal backing plate 831: first grounding point 832: second grounding point 833: first short circuit point 834: second short circuit point φ 84: first antenna 841: first radiating metal arm 842 · first short metal arm 843: first feed point 85: second antenna 851: Two radiating metal arms 852: second shorting metal arm 853: second feeding point 15 1255588 86: microwave substrate

Claims (1)

  1. ", occupying the second grounding point and a short-circuit point; the second radiating metal arm is located at the side of the grounding surface, and roughly ==& extending 1 to produce one of the antennas first (relative to the frequency band) 'And having a first feed point; the wheeled metal arm' is located at the side of the ground plane and extends in the opposite direction of the radiant metal arm for generating two antennas - second (higher Operating a frequency band and having a second feed point; the metal arm ' is located at the side of the ground plane and between the young metal arm and the second light metal arm, and includes: Newway metal arm with one end connected to the first Korean metal
    1255588 Patent Application Range·· A dual feed-in dual-frequency antenna comprising: a ground plane 'having a first ground at the side of the ground plane, and the other end connected to the second radiating metal arm; and - a short-circuited metal arm having an end substantially perpendicularly connected to the first short-circuit to the arm forming a τ-shaped structure, the other end electrically connected to the short-circuit point of the ground plane; a first feed-in coaxial transmission line, including · a center lead, a first feed point connected to the first radiating metal arm; and a first outer ground conductor connected to the first ground point of the ground plane; and 17 1255588 a second feed coaxial transmission line The method includes: a second center conductor connected to the second feed point of the second radiating metal arm; and a second outer ground conductor connected to the second grounding point of the ground plane. 2. The double-input dual-frequency antenna of claim 1 of the patent scope, wherein the length of the first-radiation metal f is close to a quarter wavelength of the center frequency of the first (lower) operating band of the antenna. #3. A dual feed dual frequency antenna as claimed in claim 1 wherein the first radiating metal arm has at least one bend. 4. The dual feed dual frequency antenna of claim 1 wherein the length of the second radiating metal arm is near a quarter wavelength of the center frequency of the second (higher) operating frequency band of the antenna. 5. A dual feed dual frequency antenna as claimed in claim 1 wherein the second radiating metal arm has at least one bend. 6. The dual feed-in dual-frequency antenna of claim 1, wherein the ground-contacting metal arm, the second light-emitting metal arm, and the short-circuit metal arm are made of a single metal The sheet is stamped or cut. The dual-input dual-frequency antenna of claim 1 is wherein the first radiating metal arm, the second radiating metal arm and the short-circuiting metal arm are formed on a microwave substrate by printing or etching techniques. 8· A dual-input dual-frequency antenna comprising: a ground plane having a first ground point, a second ground point, a first short circuit point and a second short circuit at one side of the ground plane 18 '1255588 point-to-antenna, located at the side of the ground plane, extending substantially along the sides, and comprising: a first shot metal arm 'for generating the antenna - first (more than $) Operating the frequency band 'and having a first-feed point; and a short-circuit to the arm, one end of which is connected to the first radiating metal arm' and the other end electrically connected to the first short wh of the ground plane
    a second day, the line, located at the side of the ground plane, extending in the opposite direction of the first antenna, and comprising: an H-beam metal arm 'for generating one of the antennas' upper operating frequency bands, and having a second town has a second shorted metal arm having one end connected to the second spoke arm and the other end electrically connected to the second point of the ground plane; the first feed coaxial transmission line comprising: - a - center a wire connected to the feed point of the first radiating metal arm; and a first outer ground conductor connected to the ground plane; and a second feed coaxial transmission line comprising: a second center conductor Connecting to the second radiant metal arm two feed point; and a second outer ground conductor, the direction connected to the ground plane and the second connection 19 of the first connection of the short metal 1255588 ίο. 11, 12. 13. 14. Location. Double-input dual-frequency antenna as claimed in item 8 of the patent application, wherein the length of the first radiating metal arm is close to the center frequency of the first (lower) operating band of the antenna 1/4 wavelength. If applying The dual-input dual-frequency antenna of the eighth aspect of the invention, wherein the first radiating metal arm has at least one bend. The double-fed dual-frequency antenna of claim 8 wherein the t-th light metal arm The length is close to the 1/4 wavelength of the second (higher) operating frequency of the antenna. The quadruple antenna of the (four) human body of the patent application SU8, wherein the first radiating metal arm has at least one bend. Patent scope No. 8 ground, 哕 Di Π feeding into the dual-frequency antenna 'Where is the W 弟 一 an antenna 盥兮笙 - ink or cutting made? The line is made from a single metal piece as claimed in the patent scope 8 - antenna And the first and the second antenna are fed to the first wave substrate. The lanthanum is formed by a printing or etching technique on a micro 20
TW94112969A 2005-04-22 2005-04-22 A dual-feed dual-band antenna TWI255588B (en)

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US8164538B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-04-24 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
CN101197464B (en) * 2006-12-05 2012-11-21 松下电器产业株式会社 Antenna apparatus and wireless communication device
US8344956B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-01-01 Skycross, Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
TWI420744B (en) * 2009-11-30 2013-12-21 Asustek Comp Inc Flat multi-band antenna module
US8866691B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-10-21 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
TWI484772B (en) * 2012-04-17 2015-05-11 Tai Saw Technology Co Ltd Multiple-input multiple-output antenna
TWI513103B (en) * 2009-06-05 2015-12-11 Lite On Electronics Guangzhou Dual-feed antenna
TWI550954B (en) * 2014-12-26 2016-09-21 瑞昱半導體股份有限公司 Antenna with isolation enhanced and method thereof
US9865929B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2018-01-09 Acer Incorporated Communication device and antenna element therein
TWI624993B (en) * 2013-11-21 2018-05-21 群邁通訊股份有限公司 Pifa antenna structure and portable electronic device having the same
US9985355B2 (en) 2015-09-22 2018-05-29 Pegatron Corporation Antenna module
US10559870B2 (en) 2016-02-05 2020-02-11 Pegatron Corporation Antenna module

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CN104241857B (en) * 2013-06-19 2019-06-18 深圳富泰宏精密工业有限公司 Wide frequency antenna and portable electronic device with the wide frequency antenna

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CN101197464B (en) * 2006-12-05 2012-11-21 松下电器产业株式会社 Antenna apparatus and wireless communication device
US9337548B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2016-05-10 Skycross, Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
US8344956B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-01-01 Skycross, Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
US8547289B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-10-01 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US9680514B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2017-06-13 Achilles Technology Management Co II. Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
US8723743B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-05-13 Skycross, Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
US8803756B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-08-12 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US8866691B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-10-21 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US9660337B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2017-05-23 Achilles Technology Management Co II. Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US9100096B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-08-04 Skycross, Inc. Methods for reducing near-field radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) values in communications devices
US9190726B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-17 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US8164538B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-04-24 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US9401547B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2016-07-26 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
US9318803B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2016-04-19 Skycross, Inc. Multimode antenna structure
TWI513103B (en) * 2009-06-05 2015-12-11 Lite On Electronics Guangzhou Dual-feed antenna
TWI420744B (en) * 2009-11-30 2013-12-21 Asustek Comp Inc Flat multi-band antenna module
US9312608B2 (en) 2012-04-17 2016-04-12 Tai-Saw Technology Co, Ltd Multiple-input multiple-output antenna device
TWI484772B (en) * 2012-04-17 2015-05-11 Tai Saw Technology Co Ltd Multiple-input multiple-output antenna
US9865929B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2018-01-09 Acer Incorporated Communication device and antenna element therein
TWI624993B (en) * 2013-11-21 2018-05-21 群邁通訊股份有限公司 Pifa antenna structure and portable electronic device having the same
TWI550954B (en) * 2014-12-26 2016-09-21 瑞昱半導體股份有限公司 Antenna with isolation enhanced and method thereof
US9985355B2 (en) 2015-09-22 2018-05-29 Pegatron Corporation Antenna module
US10559870B2 (en) 2016-02-05 2020-02-11 Pegatron Corporation Antenna module

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