TW202138752A - Multicontour sensor - Google Patents

Multicontour sensor Download PDF

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TW202138752A
TW202138752A TW109143084A TW109143084A TW202138752A TW 202138752 A TW202138752 A TW 202138752A TW 109143084 A TW109143084 A TW 109143084A TW 109143084 A TW109143084 A TW 109143084A TW 202138752 A TW202138752 A TW 202138752A
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strip
sensor
electrodes
bend
contour
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TW109143084A
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保羅 達伊茲
詹姆士 荷貝瑞
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美商塔切爾實驗室公司
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Priority to US62/944,814 priority
Priority to US201962946634P priority
Priority to US62/946,634 priority
Priority to US201962947094P priority
Priority to US62/947,094 priority
Priority to US202017113006A priority
Priority to US17/113,006 priority
Application filed by 美商塔切爾實驗室公司 filed Critical 美商塔切爾實驗室公司
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Abstract

A multicontour sensor comprises a plurality of multibend sensors; each multibend sensor comprising a reference strip having a first plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the first plurality of electrodes is adapted to receive a signal; and a sliding strip having a second plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the second plurality of electrodes is adapted to transmit at least one signal, wherein each sliding strip and each reference strip of each of the plurality of multibend sensors is adapted to flexibly move in at least one dimension with respect to a corresponding sliding strip or reference strip and to freely move with respect to at least one other sliding strip or reference strip. The multicontour sensor further comprises measurement circuitry adapted to process signals received by the first plurality of electrodes of at least one of the plurality of multibend sensors, wherein the processed signals provide information regarding the contours of the multicontour sensor.

Description

多輪廓感測器Multi-contour sensor

所揭示之設備及方法係關於感測領域,且特定言之係關於使用多彎曲感測器提供輪廓及定位之準確判定。The disclosed device and method are related to the field of sensing, and specifically related to the use of multi-bend sensors to provide accurate determination of contour and positioning.

過去,已採用感測手套來偵測手勢。一實例係在美國專利第5,097,252號中闡述之Dataglove,其沿著手指採用光學彎曲感測器以偵測手指位置。Nintendo之Power Glove使用一類似設計,但具有電阻式彎曲感測器。在兩種情況中,彎曲感測器並不非常靈敏,僅提供各彎曲感測器之整體彎曲之一單一量測。In the past, sensing gloves have been used to detect gestures. An example is the Dataglove described in US Patent No. 5,097,252, which uses an optical bending sensor along the finger to detect the position of the finger. Nintendo's Power Glove uses a similar design, but has a resistive bending sensor. In both cases, the bending sensor is not very sensitive and only provides a single measurement of the overall bending of each bending sensor.

彎曲感測器亦用於手指及手感測以外之應用。其等通常用於更普遍地理解人體運動。近數十年來已在高準確度感測器之發展及其低成本批量生產方面取得巨大進展。此大多數受包含令人印象深刻的感測器陣列之智慧型電話驅動。儘管取得此等進步,但仍存在已驚人地證明難以用一廉價精密裝置進行感測之關於實體世界的許多事物。吾人考量感測一動態變形物件之形狀之挑戰性問題。Bending sensors are also used for applications other than finger and hand sensing. They are often used to understand human movement more generally. In recent decades, great progress has been made in the development of high-accuracy sensors and their low-cost mass production. Most of this is driven by smart phones that contain an impressive array of sensors. Despite these advances, there are still many things about the physical world that have surprisingly proven difficult to sense with an inexpensive precision device. We considered the challenging problem of sensing the shape of a dynamically deforming object.

許多應用中出現理解形狀之期望。在機器人學中,旋轉關節經頻繁級聯(cascade)以容許靈巧的多軸運動,必須監測該運動以進行主動控制。已將發射一大型火箭比作「推繩子(pushing on a string)」,且其需要對動態撓曲之一詳細理解。橋樑、貯槽、飛機及許多其他結構經受重複負載循環,且理解此等系統中之變形可幫助防止災難。與人機互動(HCI)社群更密切相關的是,吾人之身體非常靈活。在醫學及運動表現中,理解運動之範圍及類型通常為重要的。運動捕捉對於遊戲及電影行業兩者係至關重要的。在虛擬及擴增實境中,對詳細手部姿勢(hand pose)之一即時理解容許令人信服的互動。對於演奏,音樂家及其他藝術家可直觀地操縱形狀以提供對關鍵系統之表達控制。The desire to understand shapes arises in many applications. In robotics, rotating joints are frequently cascades (cascade) to allow dexterous multi-axis motion, which must be monitored for active control. Launching a large rocket has been compared to "pushing on a string", and it requires a detailed understanding of one of dynamic deflection. Bridges, tanks, airplanes, and many other structures are subject to repeated load cycles, and understanding the deformations in these systems can help prevent disasters. More closely related to the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community is that our bodies are very flexible. In medical and sports performance, it is often important to understand the scope and type of exercise. Motion capture is vital to both the gaming and film industries. In virtual and augmented reality, real-time understanding of one of the detailed hand poses allows for convincing interaction. For performances, musicians and other artists can intuitively manipulate shapes to provide expressive control over key systems.

為更好地理解具有多個關節之系統之位置,一些系統已在每關節或在各關節點處使用一彎曲感測器。此途徑存在限制其實用性之挑戰。例如,彎曲感測器必須針對關節之間之間隔客製適配。由於人之體型變動,對針對間隔適配之需要對於追蹤人體運動而言可成問題。To better understand the position of systems with multiple joints, some systems have used a bending sensor at each joint or at each joint point. This approach has challenges that limit its practicality. For example, the bending sensor must be customized for the spacing between joints. Due to changes in human body shape, the need for interval adaptation can be problematic for tracking human motion.

另外,存在來自關節量測之級聯誤差之問題。例如,一手指之各連續片段之角度可被判定為與該片段之關節角之總和。因此,針對先前關節之各者進行之角度量測之任何誤差累積。因此,機器人臂使用極高精度角度編碼器來找到一適度精確位置。不幸地,廉價彎曲感測器具有不良角度精度,而使其等不足以理解級聯關節誤差之影響。In addition, there is a problem of cascading errors from joint measurement. For example, the angle of each continuous segment of a finger can be determined as the sum of the joint angle of the segment. Therefore, any errors in angle measurements made for each of the previous joints accumulate. Therefore, the robot arm uses an extremely high-precision angle encoder to find a reasonably accurate position. Unfortunately, cheap bending sensors have poor angular accuracy, making them insufficient to understand the effects of cascaded joint errors.

系統已嘗試藉由使用相機及其他感測技術來直接量測手指位置而克服此缺點。基於相機之技術存在難以找到從其觀看正在發生的事情之良好視點之挑戰。其他位置感測器系統可為龐大的及/或昂貴的。可使用慣性追蹤,但其具有嚴重漂移問題。The system has tried to overcome this shortcoming by using cameras and other sensing technologies to directly measure the position of the finger. The camera-based technology has the challenge of finding a good point of view from which to see what is happening. Other position sensor systems can be bulky and/or expensive. Inertial tracking can be used, but it has serious drift problems.

亦存在光纖布拉格(Bragg)光柵感測器,其等允許量測沿著一光纖束之長度之彎曲且可復原一特定幾何形狀之詳細形狀。此等感測器難以製造且需要大量龐大的儀器及複雜校準。此外,其等係昂貴的且對於大多數應用而言不切實際。There are also fiber Bragg grating sensors, which allow measurement of the bend along the length of an optical fiber bundle and can restore the detailed shape of a specific geometric shape. These sensors are difficult to manufacture and require a large number of large instruments and complex calibrations. In addition, they are expensive and impractical for most applications.

大多數先前工作使用給出彎曲之一單一量測之感測器。為感測複雜曲線,吾人可採用一系列單彎曲感測器,從而建立經連接關節之一模型。此在待感測之基本事物被良好地模擬為一系列連桿組時最佳運作。然而,感測器之放置需要對關節位置之一先驗理解。例如,當模擬人體關節(諸如一手指)時,人與人之間的位置存在顯著變動,從而排除一般解決方案。Most previous work uses sensors that give a single measurement of bending. To sense complex curves, we can use a series of single bending sensors to create a model of one of the connected joints. This works best when the basic things to be sensed are well simulated as a series of linkage groups. However, the placement of the sensor requires a priori understanding of the joint position. For example, when simulating a human joint (such as a finger), there is a significant change in the position between people, thereby excluding general solutions.

複曲線可需要大量單彎曲感測器以提供對形狀之一充分理解。不幸地,各額外彎曲感測器促成量測誤差,該量測誤差累積以使系統之總體準確性逐步降級。此嚴重限制可合理採用之單彎曲感測器之最大數目。A complex curve may require a large number of single-bend sensors to provide a full understanding of one of the shapes. Unfortunately, each additional bending sensor contributes to measurement errors that accumulate to gradually degrade the overall accuracy of the system. This severely limits the maximum number of single bend sensors that can be reasonably used.

最近,已應用機器學習途徑來理解具有許多單彎曲感測器之系統之輸出。雖然此等系統可能組合來自大量單彎曲感測器之讀數使得誤差不會以此一直接方式累積,但其等需要廣泛訓練。亦不太清楚累積誤差之任何減少是否來自施加使系統不太通用之約束。Recently, machine learning approaches have been applied to understand the output of systems with many single bending sensors. Although these systems may combine readings from a large number of single bend sensors so that errors will not accumulate in this direct way, they require extensive training. It is also not clear whether any reduction in accumulated error comes from imposing constraints that make the system less versatile.

偵測撓曲之最常見方式係藉由量測在應變下之一材料之改變性質。Spectra Symbols之撓曲感測器(Flex sensor)係一實例。應變係撓曲之一有問題的代表。拉伸、環境狀況及其他因素可能誘發無法與歸因於彎曲之應變容易地區分之應變。連續應變循環亦可引起材料疲勞。The most common way to detect deflection is by measuring the changing properties of a material under strain. The Flex sensor of Spectra Symbols is an example. One of the problematic representatives of strain system deflection. Stretching, environmental conditions, and other factors may induce strains that cannot be easily distinguished from strains due to bending. Continuous strain cycles can also cause material fatigue.

最常見之基於應變之彎曲感測器係電阻式、光學的(包含光纖布拉格光柵(FBG)感測器)、壓電式或電容式。吾人考量此等之各者且論述其等操作。電阻式彎曲感測器類似於電阻式應變計,但經最佳化用於大得多的彎曲。一電阻材料層放置於一撓性基板上且在感測器彎曲時經歷應變。電阻材料從側彎曲引起張力應變,從而增加電阻。The most common strain-based bending sensors are resistive, optical (including fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors), piezoelectric or capacitive. We consider each of these and discuss their operations. Resistive bend sensors are similar to resistive strain gauges, but are optimized for much larger bends. A layer of resistive material is placed on a flexible substrate and undergoes strain when the sensor is bent. Bending of the resistive material from the side causes tensile strain, thereby increasing electrical resistance.

電阻式感測器歸因於疲勞、材料老化及環境狀況而遭受顯著漂移,且需要進行不斷的重新校準以達成均勻適度的準確度。因為其等僅提供彎曲之一單一量測,所以其等無法區分複曲線之形狀。例如,在監測手指彎曲之情況中,感測器無法將不同關節處之撓曲彼此區分。儘管電阻式彎曲感測器具有許多限制,然其等非常廉價且易於介接以容許在許多應用中使用。此等中最著名的係Nintendo之PowerGlove (用於遊戲之一早期消費性手部姿勢介面裝置),其已將市售撓曲感測器嵌入至柔軟材料及剛性材料兩者中以產生不同控制互動,像開關或滑塊。已使用噴墨印刷來形成客製化形狀以在兩個及三個維度上產生遊戲控制器及玩具。Resistive sensors suffer significant drift due to fatigue, material aging, and environmental conditions, and require constant recalibration to achieve uniform and moderate accuracy. Because they only provide a single measurement of bending, they cannot distinguish the shape of complex curves. For example, in the case of monitoring finger bending, the sensor cannot distinguish the bending at different joints from each other. Although resistive bending sensors have many limitations, they are very cheap and easy to interface to allow their use in many applications. The most famous of these is Nintendo's PowerGlove (used in one of the early consumer hand gesture interface devices in the game), which has embedded commercially available deflection sensors into both soft and rigid materials to produce different controls Interaction, like a switch or a slider. Inkjet printing has been used to form customized shapes to produce game controllers and toys in two and three dimensions.

光纖形狀感測器(FOSS)包括具有反射內壁之撓性管,該等撓性管具有在相對端處之一光傳輸器及接收器。FOSS藉由在撓性管彎曲時量測光之強度、相位、偏振或波長之變化而復原彎曲形狀。The optical fiber shape sensor (FOSS) includes flexible tubes with reflective inner walls, and the flexible tubes have an optical transmitter and a receiver at opposite ends. FOSS restores the curved shape by measuring the changes in the intensity, phase, polarization, or wavelength of the light when the flexible tube is bent.

光纖布拉格光柵(FBG)感測器採用已經處理以產生與一特定波長之光相互作用之一光柵的一光纖。在光纖彎曲時,光柵機械膨脹或壓縮,此使所關注波長移位(shift)。一般而言,使用一可調諧雷射來掃描變形光柵之新波長。不同波長光柵圖案可放置於沿著光纖之不同位置處,從而容許在各位置處獨立地量測彎曲程度。A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor uses an optical fiber that has been processed to produce a grating that interacts with light of a specific wavelength. When the fiber is bent, the grating mechanically expands or compresses, which shifts the wavelength of interest. Generally speaking, a tunable laser is used to scan the new wavelength of the deformed grating. Different wavelength grating patterns can be placed at different positions along the fiber, allowing independent measurement of the degree of bending at each position.

FOSS可為極細的(extremely thin)且輕量的且對感測器之長度幾乎沒有限制。其等相對精確且不受電磁干擾之影響。雖然此等感測器可提供令人印象深刻的效能,但其具有一非常高的價格。一可調諧雷射詢問器之成本可多達USD$10,000 (嚴重限制實際應用之一成本)。雖然光纖可能非常細,但詢問器趨於較大且功耗極高(power hungry)。其等需要複雜的製程及校準以及複雜信號處理。其等具有一受限曲率量測範圍且非常快地陷入非線性。此等原因將其等之使用案例限於非常特定的應用(像醫療裝置)而非用於日常人類生活。FOSS can be extremely thin and lightweight, and there is almost no limit to the length of the sensor. They are relatively accurate and are not affected by electromagnetic interference. Although these sensors can provide impressive performance, they have a very high price. The cost of a tunable laser interrogator can be as much as USD$10,000 (which severely limits the cost of practical applications). Although the optical fiber may be very thin, the interrogator tends to be larger and power hungry. They require complex manufacturing processes and calibrations and complex signal processing. They have a limited curvature measurement range and fall into nonlinearity very quickly. These reasons limit their use cases to very specific applications (like medical devices) rather than being used in daily human life.

壓電式彎曲感測器係基於壓電材料之變形及應變。此等變形改變材料之表面電荷密度且引起電極之間之電荷轉移。信號之振幅及頻率與所施加之機械應力成正比。類似於摩擦電感測器,壓電式感測器遭受漂移且僅在運動中時提供信號。此將其等應用僅限於動態彎曲而非靜態或低頻變形。Piezoelectric bending sensors are based on the deformation and strain of piezoelectric materials. These deformations change the surface charge density of the material and cause charge transfer between electrodes. The amplitude and frequency of the signal are proportional to the applied mechanical stress. Similar to triboelectric sensors, piezoelectric sensors suffer from drift and only provide a signal when in motion. This limits its applications to dynamic bending rather than static or low-frequency deformation.

大多數電阻式應變感測器具有高延時且無法量測絕對彎曲角。導電材料之磁滯性質在循環負載期間產生變化導電率。大多數電阻式及FBG (光纖布拉格光柵)感測器對大應變之回應係非線性的。Most resistive strain sensors have high latency and cannot measure the absolute bending angle. The hysteresis properties of conductive materials produce changes in conductivity during cyclic loading. Most resistive and FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensors respond nonlinearly to large strains.

應變感測之一替代方案被吾人稱作幾何感測。此等感測器藉由感測由彎曲導致之幾何變化而遠更直接地量測曲率。實例包含量測不同感測器層之相對位移。An alternative to strain sensing is what we call geometric sensing. These sensors measure curvature far more directly by sensing geometric changes caused by bending. Examples include measuring the relative displacement of different sensor layers.

因此,需要一種用於透過使用感測器準確地判定彎曲及用於改良此彎曲之準確度之經改良方法及設備。Therefore, there is a need for an improved method and device for accurately determining the bend by using a sensor and for improving the accuracy of the bend.

本申請案係2020年10月22日申請之美國專利申請案第17/077,801號之一部分接續申請案;該案第17/077,801號主張2019年10月23日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/925,214號之權利。本申請案係2020年9月20日申請之美國專利申請案第17/026,252號之一部分接續申請案;該案第17/026,252號主張2019年9月20日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/903,272號之權利。本申請案係2020年8月17日申請之美國專利申請案第16/995,727號之一部分接續申請案;該案第16/995,727號主張2019年8月15日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/887,324號之權利。本申請案亦為2019年2月8日申請之美國專利申請案第16/270,805號之一部分接續申請案;該案第16/270,805號主張2018年10月22日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/748,984號之權利。本申請案主張以下案之權利:2020年10月13日申請之美國臨時申請案第63/091,242號;2020年10月13日申請之美國臨時申請案第63/091,229號;2020年4月8日申請之美國臨時申請案第63/007,349號;2020年3月6日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/986,370號;2020年2月5日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/970,524號;2020年2月4日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/970,017號;2019年12月12日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/947,094號;2019年12月11日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/946,634號;及2019年12月6日申請之美國臨時申請案第62/944,814號。全部前述申請案之內容皆以引用的方式併入本文中。本申請案包含受著作權保護之材料。著作權所有人不反對任何人摹真複製專利揭示內容,因為其出現在專利商標局檔案或記錄中,但在其他方面無論如何保留一切著作權。This application is a partial continuation of the U.S. Patent Application No. 17/077,801 filed on October 22, 2020; the case No. 17/077,801 claims the U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/ filed on October 23, 2019 Rights under No. 925,214. This application is a partial continuation application of U.S. Patent Application No. 17/026,252 filed on September 20, 2020; the case No. 17/026,252 claims the U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/ filed on September 20, 2019 Rights under No. 903,272. This application is a partial continuation application of U.S. Patent Application No. 16/995,727 filed on August 17, 2020; the case No. 16/995,727 claims that the U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/ filed on August 15, 2019 Rights under No. 887,324. This application is also a partial continuation application of the U.S. Patent Application No. 16/270,805 filed on February 8, 2019; the case No. 16/270,805 claims that the U.S. Provisional Application No. 62 filed on October 22, 2018 /748,984 rights. This application claims the following rights: U.S. Provisional Application No. 63/091,242 filed on October 13, 2020; U.S. Provisional Application No. 63/091,229 filed on October 13, 2020; April 8, 2020 U.S. Provisional Application No. 63/007,349 filed on March 6, 2020; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/986,370 filed on March 6, 2020; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/970,524 filed on February 5, 2020; 2020 U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/970,017 filed on February 4, 2019; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/947,094 filed on December 12, 2019; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/ filed on December 11, 2019 No. 946,634; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/944,814 filed on December 6, 2019. The contents of all the aforementioned applications are incorporated herein by reference. This application contains materials protected by copyright. The copyright owner does not object to anyone copying the patent disclosure content, because it appears in the files or records of the Patent and Trademark Office, but reserves all copyrights in other respects in any case.

本申請案描述多彎曲感測器及用於製造此等感測器之方法之各種實施例。本文中所描述之實施例及技術容許對複曲線之準確量測。在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器偵測多個彎曲。在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器在許多點上方進行量測。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器偵測沿著感測器之長度之多個彎曲且使用所進行之量測來產生其當前形狀之一準確判定。This application describes various embodiments of multi-bend sensors and methods for manufacturing these sensors. The embodiments and techniques described herein allow accurate measurement of complex curves. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor detects multiple bends. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor measures over many points. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor detects multiple bends along the length of the sensor and uses the measurements made to produce an accurate determination of its current shape.

不同於在多個點處獨立地量測角度之先前系統,藉由量測相對移位,可顯示一個點處之量測誤差不會影響對其他點處之角度之理解。在撓性條帶彎曲成一複雜樣式時,藉由在許多點處量測撓性條帶之間之相對移位,可判定多彎曲感測器之形狀。不同於在多個點處獨立地量測角度藉此累積誤差的先前系統,藉由量測移位,一個點處之量測誤差不會影響對其他點處之絕對角度之理解。此使本文中所描述之實施例對量測誤差較不敏感。Unlike previous systems that measure angles independently at multiple points, by measuring relative displacement, it can be shown that the measurement error at one point does not affect the understanding of the angle at other points. When the flexible strip is bent into a complex pattern, by measuring the relative displacement between the flexible strips at many points, the shape of the multi-bend sensor can be determined. Unlike previous systems that measure angles independently at multiple points to accumulate errors, by measuring displacement, the measurement error at one point does not affect the understanding of the absolute angle at other points. This makes the embodiments described herein less sensitive to measurement errors.

在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器包括兩個平坦撓性條帶。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器包括三個三角形撓性條帶。如在本文中及整個申請案內所使用,「條帶」意謂大體上在一個維度或軸上比在其之其他維度或軸上更長之一塊材料。一條帶可為矩形、圓柱形、三角形或大體上具有一無定形形狀,只要一個維度長於另一(些)維度。在一實施例中,條帶之一者係一參考條帶且另一條帶係一滑動條帶。在一實施例中,條帶之一者同時為一參考條帶及一滑動條帶兩者或在不同時間在兩者之間改變。在一實施例中,條帶之一者包括至少兩個參考條帶。在一實施例中,條帶之一者包括至少兩個滑動條帶。雖然條帶被稱為參考條帶及滑動條帶,但應瞭解,參考條帶及滑動條帶之角色可互換。In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor includes two flat flexible strips. In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor includes three triangular flexible strips. As used herein and throughout the application, "stripe" means a piece of material that is substantially longer in one dimension or axis than in other dimensions or axes. A strip can be rectangular, cylindrical, triangular, or have an amorphous shape in general, as long as one dimension is longer than the other dimension(s). In one embodiment, one of the straps is a reference strap and the other strap is a sliding strap. In an embodiment, one of the strips is both a reference strip and a sliding strip at the same time or changes between the two at different times. In an embodiment, one of the strips includes at least two reference strips. In an embodiment, one of the straps includes at least two sliding straps. Although the strips are called reference strips and sliding strips, it should be understood that the roles of reference strips and sliding strips are interchangeable.

在一實施例中,一參考條帶及一滑動條帶藉由一間隔件分離且在一個端上機械地連結。參考條帶及滑動條帶之長度實質上相同。複數個保持器可確保條帶在被使用時保持壓抵於間隔件,使得條帶之間之距離保持實質上恆定。在可藉由多種不同方法判定之沿著參考條帶之量測點處,可量測滑動條帶上之對應位置。當多彎曲感測器係筆直時,條帶對齊(line up)。In one embodiment, a reference strip and a sliding strip are separated by a spacer and mechanically connected on one end. The lengths of the reference strip and the sliding strip are substantially the same. The plurality of holders can ensure that the strips remain pressed against the spacer when they are used, so that the distance between the strips remains substantially constant. At the measurement points along the reference strip that can be determined by a variety of different methods, the corresponding position on the sliding strip can be measured. When the multi-bend sensor is tied straight, the strips line up.

在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器係一電容式感測器。如熟習此項技術者將提及,電容式彎曲感測器藉由感測器層之間之材料應變或位移來工作。無論哪種方式,幾何變化皆改變電容耦合之有效重疊表面積及/或導體之間之間隔(依據彎曲角而變化)。電容式感測器可與其他技術相比更線性。其等生產成本低廉且比電阻式感測器更穩定。In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor is a capacitive sensor. As those familiar with the art will mention, capacitive bending sensors work by material strain or displacement between sensor layers. Either way, the geometric change changes the effective overlap surface area of the capacitive coupling and/or the spacing between the conductors (varies according to the bending angle). Capacitive sensors can be more linear than other technologies. Its production cost is low and it is more stable than resistive sensors.

在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器係用於感測彎曲且重建曲線之詳細形狀之一低成本精確動態感測器。在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器包括可在一平面中形成為複曲線之一撓性條帶堆疊。在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器藉由在許多點處註記感測器之內層與外層之間的相對移位而量測曲率。In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor is a low-cost accurate dynamic sensor for sensing bending and reconstructing the detailed shape of the curve. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor includes a stack of flexible strips that can be formed as a complex curve in a plane. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor measures curvature by noting the relative displacement between the inner and outer layers of the sensor at many points.

現參考圖1及圖2,其展示一多彎曲感測器10之一實施例。圖1展示多彎曲感測器10之一示意性側視圖。在所展示之實施例中,多彎曲感測器10具有一滑動條帶12及一參考條帶14。圖2展示參考條帶14之一俯視圖及滑動條帶12之一仰視圖。滑動條帶12在參考條帶14之一遠端16處固定至參考條帶14。在所展示之實施例中,存在定位於滑動條帶12與參考條帶14之間之一間隔件18。在一實施例中,一多彎曲感測器10具有多個間隔件18。額外地展示使滑動條帶12及參考條帶14保持抵靠間隔件18之保持器22。Referring now to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, an embodiment of a multi-bend sensor 10 is shown. FIG. 1 shows a schematic side view of a multi-bend sensor 10. In the illustrated embodiment, the multi-bend sensor 10 has a sliding strip 12 and a reference strip 14. FIG. 2 shows a top view of the reference strip 14 and a bottom view of the sliding strip 12. The sliding strip 12 is fixed to the reference strip 14 at one of the distal ends 16 of the reference strip 14. In the illustrated embodiment, there is a spacer 18 positioned between the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor 10 has a plurality of spacers 18. The holder 22 that keeps the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 against the spacer 18 is additionally shown.

電路24可操作地連接至滑動條帶12及參考條帶14,電路24經調適以接收及處理所發生之量測。在所展示之實施例中,電路24可包括組件或可操作地連接至組件,諸如處理器、信號產生器、接收器、連接器等。The circuit 24 is operatively connected to the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14, and the circuit 24 is adapted to receive and process the measurements that occur. In the illustrated embodiment, the circuit 24 may include components or be operably connected to components, such as a processor, a signal generator, a receiver, a connector, and the like.

滑動條帶12及參考條帶14可由撓性印刷電路板條帶形成。雖然滑動條帶12及參考條帶14被展示為具有特定電極圖案,但應瞭解,取決於特定實施方案,各自條帶之各者之角色可改變,且滑動條帶12可用作參考條帶14,且反之亦然。電極20可放置於滑動條帶12及參考條帶14之表面上。電極20經調適以傳輸及接收信號。電極20可配置成能夠判定滑動條帶12及參考條帶14之彎曲期間之一變化之任何圖案。另外,在滑動條帶12及參考條帶14上實施之電極20之數目、大小及形狀可基於一特定實施方案而改變。在一實施例中,電路24可操作地連接至電極20。電路24處理自電極20接收之信號,以量測在條帶形成為曲線時不同條帶中之電極之間的相對移位。The sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 may be formed of flexible printed circuit board strips. Although the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are shown as having specific electrode patterns, it should be understood that depending on the specific implementation, the role of each of the respective strips can be changed, and the sliding strip 12 can be used as the reference strip 14, and vice versa. The electrode 20 can be placed on the surface of the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14. The electrode 20 is adapted to transmit and receive signals. The electrode 20 can be configured in any pattern capable of determining a change in one of the bending periods of the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14. In addition, the number, size, and shape of the electrodes 20 implemented on the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 can be changed based on a specific implementation. In an embodiment, the circuit 24 is operatively connected to the electrode 20. The circuit 24 processes the signals received from the electrodes 20 to measure the relative displacement between the electrodes in different strips when the strips are formed as a curve.

仍參考圖1及圖2,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14係撓性的且能夠移動及彎曲。另外,放置於滑動條帶12與參考條帶14之間之間隔件18係撓性的且能夠移動及彎曲。在一實施例中,間隔件18可相對於滑動條帶12及參考條帶14具有不同位準之撓性。在一實施例中,滑動條帶12、參考條帶14及間隔件18可各自具有不同位準之撓性。在一實施例中,不存在間隔件18,且滑動條帶12及參考條帶14相對於彼此移動。Still referring to Figures 1 and 2, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are flexible and capable of moving and bending. In addition, the spacer 18 placed between the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 is flexible and can move and bend. In an embodiment, the spacer 18 may have different levels of flexibility relative to the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14. In an embodiment, the sliding strip 12, the reference strip 14 and the spacer 18 may each have different levels of flexibility. In an embodiment, there is no spacer 18, and the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 move relative to each other.

在實施例中使用之間隔件18較佳地使條帶保持以一恆定距離間隔而無關於彎曲之量,但仍允許相對滑動。間隔件18較佳地具有能夠在存在彎曲時允許滑動條帶12與參考條帶14之長度之間存在差異的一厚度。在一實施例中,可不存在間隔件,且滑動條帶12及參考條帶14可彼此鄰接,然而,在面向外之側之間仍應存在足夠距離以允許在一彎曲期間感測滑動條帶12與參考條帶14之間之相對移位。在一實施例中,間隔件18可具有相同於滑動條帶12及參考條帶14之撓性。一厚間隔件18將提供一良好移位量,但間隔件18本身可隨著一緊密彎曲而改變厚度。一薄間隔件18將較少具有此問題但可能未提供足夠移位。在一實施例中,間隔件18可由抵靠彼此滑動之一系列薄層構成。此容許一厚間隔件18在不改變總厚度之情況下具有相當緊密彎曲。The spacer 18 used in the embodiment preferably keeps the strips spaced at a constant distance regardless of the amount of bending, but still allows relative sliding. The spacer 18 preferably has a thickness that can allow a difference between the length of the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 when there is bending. In an embodiment, there may be no spacers, and the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 may be adjacent to each other, however, there should still be a sufficient distance between the outwardly facing sides to allow the sliding strip to be sensed during a bending The relative displacement between 12 and the reference strip 14. In an embodiment, the spacer 18 may have the same flexibility as the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14. A thick spacer 18 will provide a good amount of displacement, but the spacer 18 itself can change thickness with a tight bend. A thin spacer 18 will have less of this problem but may not provide sufficient displacement. In one embodiment, the spacer 18 may be composed of a series of thin layers that slide against each other. This allows a thick spacer 18 to have a fairly tight bend without changing the overall thickness.

具有參考層與滑動層之間之一已知間隔有助於獲得準確資料。確保間隔可藉由不同方法來完成。如上文關於圖1論述,可將保持器22附裝至一個條帶且將壓縮力提供至抵靠其滑動之另一條帶,如所展示。保持器22可為將一壓縮力提供至參考條帶14及滑動條帶12之塑膠或彈性件。壓縮力應使得其維持距離但不抑制參考條帶14及滑動條帶12之移動。在一實施例中,可使用彈性套筒來達成相同任務,從而提供壓縮力。Having a known interval between the reference layer and the sliding layer helps to obtain accurate data. Ensuring the interval can be accomplished by different methods. As discussed above with respect to FIG. 1, the holder 22 can be attached to one strap and provide compressive force to the other strap that slides against it, as shown. The holder 22 may be a plastic or elastic member that provides a compressive force to the reference strip 14 and the sliding strip 12. The compression force should be such that it maintains the distance but does not inhibit the movement of the reference strip 14 and the sliding strip 12. In one embodiment, an elastic sleeve can be used to accomplish the same task, thereby providing compression.

在端部分16處,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14固定在一起。在一實施例中,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14機械地附接在一起。在一實施例中,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14彼此一體地固定。在一實施例中,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14在除遠端外之一位置處固定。在一實施例中,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14在條帶之中間固定。在沿著滑動條帶12及參考條帶14之長度之別處,滑動條帶12及參考條帶14相對於彼此滑動。滑動條帶12及參考條帶14亦抵靠間隔件18相對於彼此滑動。保持器22確保滑動條帶12及參考條帶14保持壓抵於間隔件18以保持其等之間之一恆定距離。電路24及條帶之間之電連接在其中發生彎曲之感測區域外部。在圖1及圖2中展示之實施例中,電路24定位成靠近其中滑動條帶12及參考條帶14連結之端部分16。滑動條帶12及參考條帶14含有將容許電子器件藉由量測來自滑動條帶12上之電極20及參考條帶14上之電極20透過間隔件18之耦合而偵測兩個條帶之間在許多位置處之相對移位的電極20圖案。At the end portion 16, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are fixed together. In an embodiment, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are mechanically attached together. In one embodiment, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are integrally fixed to each other. In one embodiment, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are fixed at a position other than the distal end. In one embodiment, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are fixed in the middle of the strip. Elsewhere along the length of the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14, the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 slide relative to each other. The sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 also slide relative to each other against the spacer 18. The holder 22 ensures that the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 remain pressed against the spacer 18 to maintain a constant distance between them. The electrical connection between the circuit 24 and the strip is outside the sensing area where the bending occurs. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the circuit 24 is positioned close to the end portion 16 where the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are connected. The sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 contain will allow the electronic device to detect the coupling of the two strips by measuring from the electrode 20 on the sliding strip 12 and the electrode 20 on the reference strip 14 through the spacer 18 The electrode 20 pattern is relatively displaced in many positions.

可使用經實施以產生撓性電路之材料及技術來製造上文論述之實施例。撓性電路可以一撓性絕緣基板(諸如聚醯亞胺)開始。用一黏著劑將一薄導電層(諸如銅、銀、金、碳或某一其他適合導電材料)黏著至基板。在一實施例中,使用光微影技術來圖案化導電層。在一實施例中,藉由濺鍍來施覆導電層。在一實施例中,藉由印刷來施覆導電層。當經由印刷施覆時,可將導電油墨直接圖案化至基板上。The embodiments discussed above can be fabricated using materials and techniques implemented to produce flexible circuits. The flexible circuit can start with a flexible insulating substrate such as polyimide. A thin conductive layer (such as copper, silver, gold, carbon or some other suitable conductive material) is adhered to the substrate with an adhesive. In one embodiment, photolithography technology is used to pattern the conductive layer. In one embodiment, the conductive layer is applied by sputtering. In one embodiment, the conductive layer is applied by printing. When applied by printing, the conductive ink can be directly patterned onto the substrate.

類似於剛性印刷電路板(PCB),撓性電路可經製造以包含藉由絕緣體分離之多個導電層。通孔(via)可提供不同層間之連接。如同剛性PCB,可使用焊接及其他熟知技術將標準電組件附裝至撓性電路。然而,因為一些組件並非撓性的,所以使其等附接撓曲可導致斷裂之電連接。出於此原因,撓性電路可在組件之區域中採用加強件,使得電路之區不會明顯撓曲。出於類似原因,撓性電路趨於不在實際上彎曲之區中放置通孔,此係因為該等區域中之應力有時可導致斷裂。Similar to rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs), flexible circuits can be manufactured to include multiple conductive layers separated by insulators. Vias can provide connections between different layers. As with rigid PCBs, soldering and other well-known techniques can be used to attach standard electrical components to flexible circuits. However, because some components are not flexible, flexing their attachments can lead to broken electrical connections. For this reason, the flexible circuit can use reinforcement in the area of the component, so that the area of the circuit will not be significantly flexed. For similar reasons, flex circuits tend not to place vias in areas that are actually bent, because stress in these areas can sometimes cause breakage.

多彎曲感測器之許多電極圖案可獲益於在彎曲區中使用層間連接。Dupont® 已發展出明確地經設計以承受重複撓曲之特殊導電油墨。然而,亦可使用其他適合撓性導電油墨。可在本文中論述之多彎曲感測器中實施此等油墨。撓性油墨允許導電層之間之撓性連接,從而充當通孔之角色。應注意,此等撓性導電油墨與廣泛範圍之基板(包含織物)相容。此容許構造直接整合至服裝中之多彎曲感測器。另外,在一實施例中,服裝係由用作多彎曲感測器之光纖製成。當實施多彎曲感測器光纖時,可添加加強件以限制多彎曲感測器光纖之移動。Many electrode patterns of multi-bend sensors can benefit from the use of interlayer connections in the bend area. Dupont ® has developed special conductive inks specifically designed to withstand repeated deflection. However, other suitable flexible conductive inks can also be used. These inks can be implemented in the multiple bend sensors discussed herein. The flexible ink allows flexible connections between conductive layers, thereby acting as a through hole. It should be noted that these flexible conductive inks are compatible with a wide range of substrates (including fabrics). This allows the structure to be directly integrated into the multi-bend sensor in the garment. In addition, in one embodiment, the garment is made of an optical fiber used as a multi-bend sensor. When implementing a multi-bend sensor fiber, a reinforcement can be added to limit the movement of the multi-bend sensor fiber.

在以下論述中,可將包括一滑動條帶及一參考條帶之一多彎曲感測器類推為具有長度L之一對量測捲尺(measuring tape),其等藉由具有厚度t之一間隔件分離,如圖3中展示。類似於一書本之裝訂,在一實施例中,條帶在一個端上連結在一起。在一實施例中,當條帶呈一平坦定向時,量測捲尺之假想距離標記完美地對準。然而,若該對圍繞具有半徑r之一圓柱體形成,則內捲尺(tape measure)將形成具有半徑r之一圓弧,而外捲尺將形成具有半徑r+t之一圓弧(如圖5中展示且在下文更詳細論述)。因為其等在一個端上結合,所以兩個捲尺之零標記仍將對準,但其他標記將逐步錯位。此係因為在一較大半徑上,對向相同角度需要更多捲尺。在一實施例中,當一多彎曲感測器圍繞一圓弧形成時,可在僅知道捲尺之間之間隔及相對移位之情況下計算半徑r。在一實施例中,可類似地在沿著感測器之許多點處量測相對移位,各點容許吾人量測連續片段之曲率。以此方式,吾人可量測良好地模擬為一系列圓弧之複曲線。In the following discussion, a multi-bend sensor including a sliding strip and a reference strip can be analogized as having a pair of measuring tapes with a length L, which are separated by a thickness t The pieces are separated, as shown in Figure 3. Similar to the binding of a book, in one embodiment, the strips are joined together at one end. In one embodiment, when the strip is in a flat orientation, the imaginary distance mark of the measuring tape is perfectly aligned. However, if the pair is formed around a cylinder with a radius r, the inner tape measure will form an arc with a radius r, and the outer tape measure will form an arc with a radius r+t (as shown in Figure 5). Shown in and discussed in more detail below). Because they are combined on one end, the zero mark of the two tape measures will still be aligned, but the other marks will gradually be misaligned. This is because on a larger radius, more tapes are needed for the same angle. In one embodiment, when a multi-bend sensor is formed around a circular arc, the radius r can be calculated when only the distance between the tape measures and the relative displacement are known. In one embodiment, the relative displacement can be measured similarly at many points along the sensor, each point allowing us to measure the curvature of the continuous segment. In this way, we can measure a complex curve that is well simulated as a series of arcs.

現參考圖3至圖5,當多彎曲感測器以一圓形捲繞在一物件周圍時,兩個條帶之內部符合圓形,而外條帶歸因於間隔件18之厚度而符合一稍微更大圓形。Referring now to FIGS. 3 to 5, when the multi-bend sensor is wound around an object in a circle, the inside of the two strips conforms to the circle, and the outer strip conforms to the thickness due to the spacer 18 One is slightly larger and round.

因為兩個條帶具有不同曲率半徑,所以未受約束之端將不會彼此對準。藉由已知條帶(滑動條帶12及參考條帶14)之長度及間隔件18之厚度,可直接計算半徑。若在許多位置處量測兩個條帶之間之相對移位,則可建構作為一系列圓弧之一彎曲模型。相對於傳統感測器,此提供對彎曲之形狀之一遠更好的理解。Because the two strips have different radii of curvature, the unconstrained ends will not be aligned with each other. By knowing the length of the strips (the sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14) and the thickness of the spacer 18, the radius can be directly calculated. If the relative displacement between two strips is measured at many positions, a bending model can be constructed as one of a series of arcs. Compared to traditional sensors, this provides a much better understanding of the curved shape.

仍參考圖3至圖5,為繪示多彎曲感測器以其工作之方式,採取具有長度

Figure 02_image001
之兩個條帶,藉由具有厚度t 之一間隔件18分離之滑動條帶12及參考條帶14。滑動條帶12及參考條帶14在端點16處連結在一起且在該端處無法相對於彼此移動。當參考條帶14捲繞成具有半徑
Figure 02_image002
之一圓形時(如圖4中展示),參考條帶14將具有
Figure 02_image002
之一曲率半徑,而滑動條帶12將具有
Figure 02_image003
之一較小半徑。Still referring to Figures 3 to 5, in order to illustrate how the multi-bend sensor works, it has a length
Figure 02_image001
The two strips are separated by a sliding strip 12 and a reference strip 14 by a spacer 18 having a thickness t. The sliding strip 12 and the reference strip 14 are joined together at an end point 16 and cannot move relative to each other at this end. When the reference strip 14 is wound to have a radius
Figure 02_image002
When one is round (as shown in Figure 4), the reference strip 14 will have
Figure 02_image002
One of the radius of curvature, and the sliding strip 12 will have
Figure 02_image003
One of the smaller radius.

圓形之圓周長係

Figure 02_image004
。參考條帶14 (其具有長度
Figure 02_image005
)覆蓋圓形之一分率:
Figure 02_image006
Circumference of the circle
Figure 02_image004
. Reference strip 14 (which has a length
Figure 02_image005
) One-part rate of coverage circle:
Figure 02_image006

為了以弧度表示,由此條帶對向之角度係:

Figure 02_image007
In order to express in radians, the angle to which the strips oppose is:
Figure 02_image007

如圖中展示,當在厚度量測

Figure 02_image008
之方向上捲曲時,滑動條帶12在內部結束,其具有一較小曲率。較緊密捲繞意謂滑動條帶12之一些延伸超過參考條帶14之端。若此沿著具有相同半徑之一圓形繼續,則滑動條帶12對向一角度:
Figure 02_image009
As shown in the picture, when measuring the thickness
Figure 02_image008
When curled in the direction, the sliding strip 12 ends inside, which has a smaller curvature. Closer winding means that some of the sliding strip 12 extends beyond the end of the reference strip 14. If this continues along a circle with the same radius, the sliding strip 12 faces an angle:
Figure 02_image009

參考條帶14之端與內滑動條帶12上之一對應點30對齊。為給出一更精確定義,其係滑動條帶12上與透過參考條帶14之端點建構之法線之相交點。The end of the reference strip 14 is aligned with a corresponding point 30 on the inner sliding strip 12. To give a more precise definition, it is the intersection of the sliding strip 12 and the normal constructed through the end points of the reference strip 14.

可藉由找到兩個弧之角範圍之差異、找到延伸長度

Figure 02_image010
且自總長度
Figure 02_image011
減去此而在滑動條帶12上找到此點。
Figure 02_image012
You can find the extension length by finding the difference between the angles of the two arcs
Figure 02_image010
And since the total length
Figure 02_image011
Subtract this and find this point on the sliding strip 12.
Figure 02_image012

可藉由將以弧度表示之角範圍除以

Figure 02_image013
以找到圓形之分率且乘以圓周長而找到延伸超過參考條帶14之滑動條帶12之片段
Figure 02_image014
之長度。
Figure 02_image015
You can divide the angular range expressed in radians by
Figure 02_image013
Find the segment of the sliding strip 12 that extends beyond the reference strip 14 by multiplying by the circle length divided by the circle found
Figure 02_image014
The length.
Figure 02_image015

針對半徑

Figure 02_image016
求解此等方程式,給出:
Figure 02_image017
For radius
Figure 02_image016
Solving these equations gives:
Figure 02_image017

藉由量測條帶之間之相對移位,可使用此簡單方程式計算跨長度之曲率半徑。By measuring the relative displacement between the strips, this simple equation can be used to calculate the radius of curvature across the length.

現在考量其中彎曲在一順時針方向上發生之情況,如圖5中展示。Now consider the situation where the bending occurs in a clockwise direction, as shown in Figure 5.

分析大致如之前般進行,但現在滑動條帶12在外側上,其具有

Figure 02_image018
之一曲率半徑。
Figure 02_image019
The analysis proceeds roughly as before, but now the sliding strip 12 is on the outside, which has
Figure 02_image018
One of the radius of curvature.
Figure 02_image019

如之前,目標係在滑動條帶12上定位對應於參考條帶14之端點之對應點31。然而,因為滑動條帶12在外側上且因此對向一較小角度,所以弧必須繼續以找到相交點。藉由找到對向角度及滑動條帶12上之對應長度而計算

Figure 02_image020
Figure 02_image021
As before, the target system locates the corresponding point 31 on the sliding strip 12 corresponding to the end point of the reference strip 14. However, because the sliding strip 12 is on the outside and therefore subtends a small angle, the arc must continue to find the point of intersection. Calculated by finding the opposite angle and the corresponding length on the sliding strip 12
Figure 02_image020
.
Figure 02_image021

此與在逆時針情況中獲得之結果相同。此處之差異在於

Figure 02_image022
在第一情況中係滑動條帶12延伸超過參考條帶14之量,且在此情況中,其係到達參考條帶14之端將需要之額外量。This is the same result obtained in the counterclockwise case. The difference here is
Figure 02_image022
In the first case, the sliding strip 12 extends beyond the reference strip 14 by an amount, and in this case, it is the additional amount that would be required to reach the end of the reference strip 14.

為組合此兩種情況,考量曲率半徑為一帶正負號之數量,其中一正

Figure 02_image023
指示在一逆時針方向上進行之一弧且一負
Figure 02_image023
指示一順時針方向。To combine these two cases, consider the radius of curvature as the number of signs, one of which is positive
Figure 02_image023
Indicates an arc and a negative in a counterclockwise direction
Figure 02_image023
Indicates a clockwise direction.

一新變數

Figure 02_image024
定義為沿著滑動條帶12之與參考條帶14之端對齊之總長度。帶正負號之曲率半徑係:
Figure 02_image025
A new variable
Figure 02_image024
It is defined as the total length along the end of the sliding strip 12 that is aligned with the end of the reference strip 14. Radius of curvature system with sign:
Figure 02_image025

在圖4中,

Figure 02_image026
給出一正曲率半徑。在圖5中,
Figure 02_image027
給出一負曲率半徑。接著,帶正負號之曲率半徑用於找到參考條帶之帶正負號之角範圍。
Figure 02_image028
In Figure 4,
Figure 02_image026
Give a positive radius of curvature. In Figure 5,
Figure 02_image027
Give a negative radius of curvature. Next, the signed radius of curvature is used to find the signed angle range of the reference strip.
Figure 02_image028

在下文中,全部角度及曲率半徑帶正負號。 自移位量測重建曲線In the following, all angles and radii of curvature are signed. Self-displacement measurement reconstruction curve

在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器將形狀模擬為具有不同半徑之一系列圓弧以容許複曲線。藉由在沿著條帶之許多點處量測相對移位,可快速地判定各片段之曲率。In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor simulates the shape as a series of arcs with different radii to allow for complex curves. By measuring the relative displacement at many points along the strip, the curvature of each segment can be quickly determined.

圖6中展示之多彎曲感測器10包括一滑動條帶12及一參考條帶14。找到參考條帶14之形狀係目標。在沿著參考條帶之固定間隔處,量測沿著滑動條帶12之對應移位位置。藉由對應,其意謂使用相對於曲率半徑之共同中心成相同角度之點。另一說法係若在量測點處建構參考條帶14之曲線之一法線,則將在其與滑動條帶12相交之處進行一量測。The multi-bend sensor 10 shown in FIG. 6 includes a sliding strip 12 and a reference strip 14. Find the shape of the reference strip 14 to be the target. At fixed intervals along the reference strip, the corresponding displacement position along the sliding strip 12 is measured. By correspondence, it means using points that are at the same angle with respect to the common center of the radius of curvature. Another way of saying that is that if a normal line of the curve of the reference strip 14 is constructed at the measurement point, a measurement will be performed at the point where it intersects the sliding strip 12.

現參考圖7A,提供從參考條帶14及滑動條帶12兩者上自

Figure 02_image029
跨越至
Figure 02_image030
(片段
Figure 02_image029
)之一單一圓弧片段作為一實例。片段
Figure 02_image031
在一逆時針方向上塑形為具有半徑
Figure 02_image032
之一圓弧。因此,參考條帶14具有半徑
Figure 02_image032
而滑動條帶在內側且具有
Figure 02_image033
之一較小半徑。起始角
Figure 02_image034
係弧之起點處之切線。終止角係弧在其末端處之切線
Figure 02_image035
。類似於上文計算,
Figure 02_image036
係參考條帶14至量測點
Figure 02_image037
之長度。
Figure 02_image038
係滑動條帶12至量測點
Figure 02_image039
之長度。在參考條帶14之側上,片段在
Figure 02_image040
處開始且在
Figure 02_image041
處結束。類似地,對應滑動條帶12自
Figure 02_image042
延伸至
Figure 02_image043
。可找到參考條帶14片段之帶正負號之曲率半徑及帶正負號之角範圍。Referring now to FIG. 7A, it is provided from both the reference strip 14 and the sliding strip 12
Figure 02_image029
Span to
Figure 02_image030
(Fragment
Figure 02_image029
) A single arc segment as an example. Snippet
Figure 02_image031
Shaped in a counterclockwise direction to have a radius
Figure 02_image032
One of the arcs. Therefore, the reference strip 14 has a radius
Figure 02_image032
And the sliding strip is on the inside and has
Figure 02_image033
One of the smaller radius. Starting angle
Figure 02_image034
The tangent at the starting point of the arc. The end angle is the tangent of the arc at its end
Figure 02_image035
. Similar to the calculation above,
Figure 02_image036
Attach reference strip 14 to the measurement point
Figure 02_image037
The length.
Figure 02_image038
Attach the sliding strip 12 to the measuring point
Figure 02_image039
The length. On the side of the reference strip 14, the fragment is
Figure 02_image040
Start at and at
Figure 02_image041
The end. Similarly, the corresponding sliding strip 12 is from
Figure 02_image042
Extend to
Figure 02_image043
. The signed radius of curvature and the signed angle range of the 14 segments of the reference strip can be found.

吾人將片段

Figure 02_image044
中之參考條帶14之長度定義為:
Figure 02_image045
We will fragment
Figure 02_image044
The length of the reference strip 14 is defined as:
Figure 02_image045

且將對應滑動條帶之長度定義為:

Figure 02_image046
And the length of the corresponding sliding strip is defined as:
Figure 02_image046

類似地,吾人將此片段之總對向角度定義為:

Figure 02_image047
Similarly, we define the total facing angle of this segment as:
Figure 02_image047

針對正曲率(

Figure 02_image048
Figure 02_image049
)之情況,滑動條帶12塑形為與參考條帶14相比更緊密之一曲線。因此,
Figure 02_image050
,即使其等對向相同角度
Figure 02_image051
。以弧度計算,參考片段之長度係:
Figure 02_image052
For positive curvature (
Figure 02_image048
and
Figure 02_image049
In the case of ), the sliding strip 12 is shaped into a tighter curve than the reference strip 14. therefore,
Figure 02_image050
, Even if they are equally opposed to the same angle
Figure 02_image051
. Calculated in radians, the length of the reference segment is:
Figure 02_image052

且對應滑動條帶之長度係:

Figure 02_image053
And the length of the corresponding sliding strip:
Figure 02_image053

在給定兩個長度及間隔件厚度值情況下,吾人可求解此片段之曲率半徑:

Figure 02_image054
Given two lengths and spacer thickness values, we can find the radius of curvature of this segment:
Figure 02_image054

當曲線順時針進行時,此相同方程式適用,從而給出一負終止角及負曲率半徑。吾人亦可求解弧之對向角度:

Figure 02_image055
When the curve runs clockwise, this same equation applies, giving a negative end angle and a negative radius of curvature. We can also find the opposite angle of the arc:
Figure 02_image055

現在知道具有已知長度、角範圍及曲率半徑之一系列圓弧。可將此系列拼湊在一起以模擬參考條帶14之完整曲線。應注意,在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器具有沿著其等長度之連續撓曲,且因此,其等在其等之一階導數中係固有連續的。因此,為維持片段間之一連續一階導數,毗鄰片段之切線相匹配。換言之,各片段之終止角與下一片段之起始角相匹配。Now we know a series of arcs with a known length, angular range, and radius of curvature. This series can be pieced together to simulate the complete curve of the reference strip 14. It should be noted that in one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor has continuous deflection along its equal length, and therefore, its equal is inherently continuous in its equal first derivative. Therefore, in order to maintain a continuous first derivative between segments, the tangents of adjacent segments match. In other words, the ending angle of each segment matches the starting angle of the next segment.

考量如圖7B中展示之一單一弧。可判定在弧之端點處與弧相切之一起始角72 (

Figure 02_image056
)一終止角74 (
Figure 02_image057
)。可假定循序片段平滑地連接,即,導數在連接點處係連續的。此係藉由一單一切線角描述連接點之原因。Consider a single arc as shown in Figure 7B. It can be determined that a starting angle 72 (
Figure 02_image056
) A terminating angle 74 (
Figure 02_image057
). It can be assumed that the sequential segments are connected smoothly, that is, the derivative is continuous at the connection point. This is the reason why the connection point is described by a single cut-off angle.

弧在一已知起始點71

Figure 02_image058
處且以
Figure 02_image059
一初始已知角72開始,且以
Figure 02_image060
一未知終止角74進行至一未知終止點73
Figure 02_image061
Figure 02_image062
。Arc at a known starting point 71
Figure 02_image058
Place and take
Figure 02_image059
An initial known angle 72 starts with
Figure 02_image060
An unknown end angle 74 proceeds to an unknown end point 73
Figure 02_image061
Figure 02_image062
.

從起始點至終止點之角度變化恰好為片段角

Figure 02_image063
之彎折。為找到x、y平移,將弧上之x及y增量加至先前點。為方便起見,弧之曲率半徑之中心被視為在原點處且用於計算端點位置。接著,將此等之差異應用於已知起始點。The angle change from the start point to the end point is exactly the fragment angle
Figure 02_image063
The bending. To find the x and y translation, add the x and y increments on the arc to the previous point. For convenience, the center of the radius of curvature of the arc is considered to be at the origin and used to calculate the end point position. Then, apply these differences to a known starting point.

針對此計算,已知形成弧之與中心之角度。

Figure 02_image064
之法線係
Figure 02_image065
。針對具有正曲率半徑之一弧,此給出之曲率半徑之中心指出之角度。若曲率半徑為負,則其指向相反方向。此導致藉由使用帶正負號之曲率半徑校正之一正負號翻轉。接著,可經由此等方程式迭代地找到端點:
Figure 02_image066
For this calculation, the angle between the arc and the center is known.
Figure 02_image064
Normal system
Figure 02_image065
. For an arc with a positive radius of curvature, this gives the angle indicated by the center of the radius of curvature. If the radius of curvature is negative, it points in the opposite direction. This causes the sign to be reversed by using the sign of the radius of curvature correction. Then, the endpoints can be found iteratively via these equations:
Figure 02_image066

可使用三角恆等式稍微簡化此等方程式。

Figure 02_image068
These equations can be simplified slightly using trigonometric identities.
Figure 02_image068

此等方程式描述模擬彎曲之該系列圓弧。一圓弧通常藉由其中心75

Figure 02_image070
、其曲率半徑76 (
Figure 02_image071
)、一起始角及一角範圍77 (
Figure 02_image072
)描述。These equations describe the series of arcs that simulate bending. A circular arc usually runs through its center 75
Figure 02_image070
, Its radius of curvature 76 (
Figure 02_image071
), a starting angle and a range of angle 77 (
Figure 02_image072
)describe.

可藉由在

Figure 02_image073
處起始且遵循半徑至弧中心
Figure 02_image074
而找到一弧片段之中心。自點
Figure 02_image075
處之法線找到起始角,其係
Figure 02_image076
。則中心係:
Figure 02_image077
Can be accessed by
Figure 02_image073
Starting at and following the radius to the center of the arc
Figure 02_image074
And find the center of an arc segment. Self-point
Figure 02_image075
Find the starting angle at the normal, which is
Figure 02_image076
. The central department:
Figure 02_image077

應注意,使用帶正負號之曲率半徑確保遵循中心之法線。It should be noted that the use of a radius of curvature with a sign ensures that the normal to the center is followed.

起始角係:

Figure 02_image079
Starting angle system:
Figure 02_image079

若弧順時針進行,則需要正負號以翻轉角度。弧之範圍係

Figure 02_image081
,其亦為一帶正負號之值。 對量測誤差之敏感性If the arc goes clockwise, a sign is needed to flip the angle. The range of arc
Figure 02_image081
, Which is also a value with a sign. Sensitivity to measurement error

任何實際移位量測將為不完美的,從而使理解量測誤差如何影響模擬曲線之準確度變得重要。在關節臂中,關節角之雜訊量測快速地累積,從而引起末端效應器之最終位置之顯著誤差。例如,在多軸機器人臂上,通常經由一系列編碼器(各關節上一個編碼器)判定位置。因為各關節量測之任何誤差累積,所以通常需要高精度編碼器。針對一平面臂,臂之端處之角度誤差簡單為各關節中之全部量測誤差之總和。端點之位置誤差亦受到全部關節誤差(尤其是臂起點處之關節誤差)之嚴重影響。Any actual displacement measurement will be imperfect, making it important to understand how measurement error affects the accuracy of the simulated curve. In the articulated arm, the noise measurement of the joint angle quickly accumulates, causing a significant error in the final position of the end effector. For example, on a multi-axis robot arm, the position is usually determined via a series of encoders (one encoder on each joint). Because of the accumulation of any errors in the measurement of each joint, a high-precision encoder is usually required. For a plane arm, the angle error at the end of the arm is simply the sum of all measurement errors in each joint. The position error of the end point is also severely affected by all joint errors (especially the joint error at the beginning of the arm).

多彎曲感測器中之量測誤差更寬容。在一實施例中,誤差累積因為各弧之量測誤差並非獨立而得以緩解。The measurement error in the multi-bend sensor is more tolerant. In one embodiment, error accumulation is alleviated because the measurement errors of each arc are not independent.

考量第n個點處之一單一移位量測誤差之情況。與理想情況相比,移位點將引起兩個相鄰片段之曲率半徑之一誤差。一個片段上之誤差將為一個方向,而另一片段上之誤差將在相反方向上,從而趨於將事物抵消為一階。片段誤差之此性質趨於產生某種程度之補償誤差,且此性質一般保持且為給出至該點之總累積移位之移位量測的一結果。Consider the measurement error of a single displacement at the nth point. Compared with the ideal situation, the shifted point will cause an error in the radius of curvature of two adjacent segments. The error on one segment will be in one direction, and the error on the other segment will be in the opposite direction, thus tending to cancel things to a first order. This property of segment error tends to produce a certain degree of compensation error, and this property is generally maintained and is a result of a displacement measurement that gives the total cumulative displacement to that point.

為展示對誤差之敏感性,採取具有以下座標之兩個連續片段之實例:

Figure 02_image082
To demonstrate the sensitivity to errors, take an example of two consecutive segments with the following coordinates:
Figure 02_image082

給出

Figure 02_image083
Figure 02_image084
之理想量測。然而,
Figure 02_image085
將受
Figure 02_image086
之一量測誤差干擾。接著,找到此誤差如何累積至
Figure 02_image087
。Gives
Figure 02_image083
and
Figure 02_image084
The ideal measurement. However,
Figure 02_image085
Will be affected by
Figure 02_image086
One measurement error interference. Next, find out how this error accumulates to
Figure 02_image087
.

在未受干擾情況中(且應注意,

Figure 02_image088
):
Figure 02_image089
In the undisturbed situation (and it should be noted that
Figure 02_image088
):
Figure 02_image089

假定隔開1個單位之相等間隔量測點。

Figure 02_image091
It is assumed that the measurement points are equally spaced apart by 1 unit.
Figure 02_image091

使用單引號來指示在

Figure 02_image093
處具有量測誤差
Figure 02_image094
之情況之變數。此容許具有及不具有中途點量測誤差之所得角度為。
Figure 02_image095
Figure 02_image096
Use single quotes to indicate
Figure 02_image093
Measurement error
Figure 02_image094
The variables of the situation. This allowable angle is obtained with and without halfway point measurement error.
Figure 02_image095
Figure 02_image096

此展示兩個弧之後之終止角不受中途點之一誤讀影響。角度誤差未累積。This shows that the end angle after two arcs is not affected by the misreading of one of the halfway points. The angle error is not accumulated.

考量點位置之誤差。

Figure 02_image098
Figure 02_image100
Figure 02_image102
Consider the error of the point position.
Figure 02_image098
Figure 02_image100
Figure 02_image102

使用此等方程式,可標繪不同條件下之端點誤差。顯然,第一片段之端處之位置誤差某種程度上藉由下一片段中之一帶相反正負號之誤差補償。Using these equations, the endpoint error under different conditions can be plotted. Obviously, the position error at the end of the first segment is compensated to some extent by an error with an opposite sign in the next segment.

進一步考量具有兩個量測點之一多彎曲感測器之情況。藉由判定第一量測點處之相對移位而找到第一片段之曲率。在此實例中,量測被雜訊破壞且記錄一錯誤的低移位讀數。接著,藉由採取第二量測點處之總移位且從第一量測點減去該移位而找到第二片段之相對移位。第一點處之誤差現在將引起第二片段中之一對應誤差,該誤差之正負號與第一片段中之誤差相反。因此,兩個片段將以趨於彼此抵消之曲率誤差結束。在一實施例中,最終角之誤差完全不受第一量測點處之誤差影響。Further consider the case of a multi-bend sensor with one of the two measuring points. The curvature of the first segment is found by determining the relative displacement at the first measurement point. In this example, the measurement was corrupted by noise and an erroneous low-shift reading was recorded. Then, the relative displacement of the second segment is found by taking the total displacement at the second measurement point and subtracting the displacement from the first measurement point. The error at the first point will now cause a corresponding error in the second segment, the sign of which is the opposite of the error in the first segment. Therefore, the two segments will end up with curvature errors that tend to cancel each other out. In one embodiment, the error of the final angle is completely unaffected by the error at the first measurement point.

為展示對誤差之敏感性,吾人回到兩個連續片段之實例。吾人將曲線之起始點定義為:

Figure 02_image104
To demonstrate the sensitivity to errors, we return to the example of two consecutive segments. We define the starting point of the curve as:
Figure 02_image104

藉由定義,

Figure 02_image105
Figure 02_image106
。吾人現在可計算片段0之終止角:
Figure 02_image107
By definition,
Figure 02_image105
and
Figure 02_image106
. We can now calculate the end angle of segment 0:
Figure 02_image107

接著,吾人找到片段1之終止角。

Figure 02_image108
Then, we find the ending angle of segment 1.
Figure 02_image108

如可見,終止角計算不依賴任何較早量測。此意謂較早量測之任何誤差不會促成各片段之終止角之誤差。As can be seen, the end angle calculation does not rely on any earlier measurements. This means that any error in the earlier measurement will not contribute to the error in the end angle of each segment.

雖然上文論述之實施例及實例使用弧來執行分析,但可採用其他量測技術及分析。在一實施例中,使用橢圓來近似表示曲線。在一實施例中,可使用拋物線來執行曲線之分析。在一實施例中,使用樣條來近似表示一曲線。在一實施例中,使用一多項式函數來近似表示曲線。在一實施例中,使用本文中論述之全部方法論來近似表示曲線。Although the embodiments and examples discussed above use arcs to perform analysis, other measurement techniques and analysis can be used. In one embodiment, an ellipse is used to approximate the curve. In one embodiment, a parabola can be used to perform the analysis of the curve. In one embodiment, a spline is used to approximate a curve. In one embodiment, a polynomial function is used to approximate the curve. In one embodiment, all the methodology discussed in this article is used to approximate the curve.

如熟習此項技術者將提及,上文提及之結果證明優於依賴於一系列角度編碼器之傳統解決方案,該等傳統解決方案對可串在一起之編碼器數目具有一實際限制。As those familiar with this technology will mention, the results mentioned above prove to be superior to traditional solutions that rely on a series of angle encoders, which have a practical limit on the number of encoders that can be stringed together.

一曲線之另一可能模型係將其表示為一系列經連接筆直線性片段。Another possible model of a curve is to represent it as a series of linear segments connected by pens.

參考圖8及圖9,針對一分段線性模型,假定彎曲係完全尖銳的,且僅在一參考條帶84上之固定間隔處發生。將假定滑動條帶82符合與參考條帶84之一固定距離。此將針對參考條帶84之各彎曲產生對應尖銳彎曲。彎曲朝向參考條帶84將意謂在滑動條帶82上將需要額外長度以符合新形狀。類似地,彎曲朝向滑動條帶82將耗費較少長度以符合。Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, for a piecewise linear model, it is assumed that the bending is completely sharp and only occurs at fixed intervals on a reference strip 84. It will be assumed that the sliding strip 82 meets a fixed distance from one of the reference strips 84. This will produce a corresponding sharp bend for each bend of the reference strip 84. Bending towards the reference strip 84 will mean that additional length will be required on the sliding strip 82 to conform to the new shape. Similarly, bending towards the sliding strip 82 will take less length to conform.

給定朝向參考條帶84之一彎曲,藉由計算滑動條帶82上所需之額外長度而開始計算。查看圖9,多彎曲感測器具有一彎曲角A。垂直相對角亦為A。符合彎曲所需之滑動條帶82之額外長度被展示為

Figure 02_image109
。兩個彎曲點對分彎曲角。垂直相對角亦為
Figure 02_image110
。運用直角建構,藉由減去直角而找到
Figure 02_image111
角。最終,將與
Figure 02_image112
相對之角運算為
Figure 02_image113
。此角度之切線等於相對邊長(s)除以相鄰邊長(t)。
Figure 02_image114
Given a bend toward one of the reference strips 84, the calculation is started by calculating the additional length required on the sliding strip 82. Looking at Figure 9, the multi-bend sensor has a bending angle A. The vertical relative angle is also A. The extra length of the sliding strip 82 that meets the bending requirements is shown as
Figure 02_image109
. The two bending points bisect the bending angle. The vertical relative angle is also
Figure 02_image110
. Use right angle construction, find by subtracting right angle
Figure 02_image111
Horn. Eventually, it will be with
Figure 02_image112
The relative angle is calculated as
Figure 02_image113
. The tangent to this angle is equal to the relative side length (s) divided by the adjacent side length (t).
Figure 02_image114

且針對所加之總長度:

Figure 02_image116
And for the total length added:
Figure 02_image116

當彎曲角超過180且向上彎曲朝向滑動條帶82時,此公式亦為正確的。在此情況中,額外長度為負。This formula is also correct when the bending angle exceeds 180 and it is bent upward toward the sliding strip 82. In this case, the extra length is negative.

為方便起見,可相對於無彎曲為0來定義彎曲角B。

Figure 02_image117
For convenience, the bending angle B can be defined relative to zero without bending.
Figure 02_image117

代入:

Figure 02_image118
Substitute:
Figure 02_image118

給定移位之一量測,計算將產生其之角度。

Figure 02_image120
Given a measurement of displacement, the calculation will produce its angle.
Figure 02_image120

如同圓弧模型,此分段線性模型仍具有一個移位量測中之量測誤差在下一移位量測中產生一互補誤差之一般行為,從而部分抵消潛在相加誤差之影響。Like the circular arc model, this piecewise linear model still has the general behavior that a measurement error in a displacement measurement generates a complementary error in the next displacement measurement, thereby partially offsetting the influence of potential addition errors.

考量一理想量測對其中在第一片段中存在量測誤差之量測。

Figure 02_image122
Consider an ideal measurement versus a measurement in which there is a measurement error in the first segment.
Figure 02_image122

最後片段之所得角度簡單為相對於該點之角度之總和。

Figure 02_image124
The resulting angle of the last segment is simply the sum of the angles relative to the point.
Figure 02_image124

重複具有量測誤差之計算:

Figure 02_image126
Repeat calculations with measurement errors:
Figure 02_image126

此等總彎曲並非相同的,然而,可顯示,經由圍繞

Figure 02_image128
之級數展開,誤差抵消為一階。電容式感測技術 These total bends are not the same, however, it can be shown that by surrounding
Figure 02_image128
The series is expanded, and the error cancellation is a first-order. Capacitive sensing technology

電容式感測可與一多彎曲感測器一起使用且為上文關於圖1至圖2論述之方法論。例如,查看圖10,指叉式電極20之一圖案容許吾人藉由比較重疊電極20之電容以判定相對移位而執行差分量測。此量測之差分性質使其對各種類型之誤差高度不敏感。除圖10中展示之電極圖案之外,亦可實施將進一步提供可幫助判定多彎曲感測器之整體移動及形狀之量測的其他電極圖案。Capacitive sensing can be used with a multi-bend sensor and is the methodology discussed above with respect to FIGS. 1 to 2. For example, looking at FIG. 10, a pattern of interdigitated electrodes 20 allows us to perform a differential measurement by comparing the capacitance of the overlapping electrodes 20 to determine the relative displacement. The differential nature of this measurement makes it highly insensitive to various types of errors. In addition to the electrode patterns shown in FIG. 10, other electrode patterns can also be implemented that will further provide measurements that can help determine the overall movement and shape of the multi-bend sensor.

仍參考圖10,複數個電極20經調適以傳輸信號且複數個電極20經調適以自傳輸信號之電極20接收信號。在一實施例中,取決於實施方案,經調適以傳輸信號之電極20及經調適以接收信號之電極20可切換或交替。在一實施例中,經調適以傳輸一信號之一電極20可在一不同時間亦經調適以接收一信號。使用經接收信號以判定一個條帶相對於另一條帶之移動。Still referring to FIG. 10, the plurality of electrodes 20 are adapted to transmit signals and the plurality of electrodes 20 are adapted to receive signals from the electrodes 20 that transmit signals. In one embodiment, depending on the implementation, the electrodes 20 adapted to transmit signals and the electrodes 20 adapted to receive signals can be switched or alternated. In an embodiment, an electrode 20 adapted to transmit a signal may also be adapted to receive a signal at a different time. The received signal is used to determine the movement of one strip relative to another.

在一實施例中,正交分頻多工可與採用複數個電極20之一多彎曲感測器一起使用,該複數個電極20經調適以接收及傳輸正交信號。在一實施例中,使用獨有頻率正交信號。在一實施例中,在正在傳輸之電極20之各者上傳輸一獨有頻率正交信號。經調適以接收信號之電極20可接收經傳輸信號且處理其等以獲得關於參考條帶相對於滑動條帶之相對移位之資訊。此接著可用於判定由多彎曲感測器形成之曲線之形狀。In one embodiment, quadrature frequency division multiplexing can be used with a multi-bend sensor that uses a plurality of electrodes 20 that are adapted to receive and transmit quadrature signals. In one embodiment, a unique frequency quadrature signal is used. In one embodiment, a unique frequency quadrature signal is transmitted on each of the electrodes 20 being transmitted. The electrode 20 adapted to receive the signal can receive the transmitted signal and process it to obtain information about the relative displacement of the reference strip with respect to the sliding strip. This can then be used to determine the shape of the curve formed by the multi-bend sensor.

一般而言,可藉由形成參考條帶及滑動條帶之一網格而判定多個維度之曲率,其中各多彎曲感測器判定其自身之各自曲線。在判定各多彎曲感測器之曲線之後,可模擬一平面之整個曲率。在一實施例中,可將複數個多彎曲感測器放置於一三維物件上,該三維物件跨其3D表面經受各種變形。複數個多彎曲感測器可能夠在重建自多彎曲感測器之各者取得之曲率之後準確地判定一3D物件之彎曲變形。Generally speaking, the curvature of multiple dimensions can be determined by forming a grid of a reference strip and a sliding strip, wherein each multi-bend sensor determines its own respective curve. After determining the curve of each multi-bend sensor, the entire curvature of a plane can be simulated. In one embodiment, a plurality of multi-bend sensors can be placed on a three-dimensional object that undergoes various deformations across its 3D surface. A plurality of multiple bending sensors may be able to accurately determine the bending deformation of a 3D object after reconstructing the curvature obtained from each of the multiple bending sensors.

在另一實施例中,運用在3個維度上可撓之光纖取代條帶。接著,將此等光纖圍繞一中央參考光纖堆積,使得在彎曲時,外滑動光纖相對於參考光纖移動。在一實施例中,間隔件維持全部光纖之間之一恆定間隔。可藉由多種手段量測相對移位,包含經由沿著光纖之圖案化電極。In another embodiment, an optical fiber that is flexible in 3 dimensions is used instead of the ribbon. Then, these optical fibers are stacked around a central reference optical fiber, so that when bending, the outer sliding optical fiber moves relative to the reference optical fiber. In one embodiment, the spacer maintains a constant interval between all optical fibers. The relative displacement can be measured by a variety of methods, including through patterned electrodes along the fiber.

在一實施例中,感測器可由更緊密類似一撓性導線而能夠在平面外撓曲之窄片產生。若此等裝置之兩者固持在一起,則可量測在正交方向上之感測、平面中及平面外之撓曲。In one embodiment, the sensor can be produced by a narrow sheet that more closely resembles a flexible wire and can bend out of the plane. If the two of these devices are held together, the sensing in the orthogonal direction, the in-plane and out-of-plane deflection can be measured.

在圖11中展示另一實施例。此實施例提供能夠判定在一個以上平面方向上之曲率之一多彎曲感測器110。存在一滑動平面112及一參考平面114。在圖11中,該等平面未展示為在彼此之頂部上,然而,應瞭解,此係為了便於觀看平面,滑動平面112及參考平面114以類似於上文論述之條帶定位之一方式相對於彼此定位。電極115放置於滑動平面112及參考平面114上。在圖11中,電極115形成為列及行。在一實施例中,電極形成為墊。在一實施例中,電極形成為點天線。可額外存在放置於滑動平面112與參考平面114之間之一間隔件平面,以建立滑動平面112與參考平面114之間之一距離。在一實施例中,在不具有一間隔件層之情況下實施參考平面114及滑動平面112,其中電極115放置於面向外之表面上,且平面之基板用作一間隔件層。此外,雖然可存在放置於兩個平面上之電極115,但可存在放置於滑動平面112及參考平面114上之傳輸電極及定位於兩個平面之間之一間隙區處之接收電極。再者,電極115可為傳輸的或接收的。Another embodiment is shown in FIG. 11. This embodiment provides a multi-bend sensor 110 that can determine the curvature in more than one plane direction. There is a sliding plane 112 and a reference plane 114. In FIG. 11, the planes are not shown as being on top of each other. However, it should be understood that this is for the convenience of viewing the plane, and the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114 are opposed to each other in a manner similar to the strip positioning discussed above. To locate each other. The electrode 115 is placed on the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114. In FIG. 11, the electrodes 115 are formed in columns and rows. In one embodiment, the electrode is formed as a pad. In one embodiment, the electrode is formed as a point antenna. There may additionally be a spacer plane placed between the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114 to establish a distance between the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114. In one embodiment, the reference plane 114 and the sliding plane 112 are implemented without a spacer layer, wherein the electrode 115 is placed on the outward facing surface, and the flat substrate is used as a spacer layer. In addition, although there may be electrodes 115 placed on two planes, there may be a transmission electrode placed on the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114 and a receiving electrode positioned at one of the gaps between the two planes. Furthermore, the electrode 115 may be transmitting or receiving.

仍參考圖11,滑動平面112及參考平面114係能夠彎曲之撓性平面。參考平面114及滑動平面112在各種附接點處附接。附接點可定位於平面之間之任何位置處,只要其等建立藉由其確定一個平面相對於另一平面之移動的一參考位置。在一實施例中,附接點可為平面之中心位置。在一實施例中,存在自其建立平面之相對移動之一個以上附接點。在一實施例中,平面在一邊緣處彼此固定。在一實施例中,平面在沿著邊緣之多個點處固定。在一實施例中,平面在沿著一邊緣之點處且在平面之區域內固定。Still referring to FIG. 11, the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114 are flexible planes that can be bent. The reference plane 114 and the sliding plane 112 are attached at various attachment points. The attachment point can be positioned at any position between the planes, as long as they establish a reference position by which the movement of one plane relative to another plane is determined. In one embodiment, the attachment point may be the center of the plane. In one embodiment, there is more than one attachment point from which the relative movement of the plane is established. In an embodiment, the planes are fixed to each other at an edge. In one embodiment, the plane is fixed at multiple points along the edge. In one embodiment, the plane is fixed at a point along an edge and within the area of the plane.

轉至圖12及圖13,展示用於量測相對移位之一電容式電極設計之另一實施例。雖然多層撓曲電路係廣泛可用的,但存在可能強加之對設計之某些限制。一常見限制係不容許彎曲區段上之通孔。因此,不需要彎曲區域中之層間連接之圖案有時係較佳的。Turning to FIGS. 12 and 13, another embodiment of a capacitive electrode design for measuring relative displacement is shown. Although multilayer flex circuits are widely available, there are certain restrictions that may be imposed on the design. A common restriction is that through holes on curved sections are not allowed. Therefore, a pattern that does not require interlayer connections in the bending area is sometimes preferable.

圖12展示形成參考條帶124之兩個三角形電極120及形成於滑動條帶122上之一系列矩形電極121。藉由針對滑動條帶122上之矩形電極121之各者量測A電極120及B電極120之相對電容,可判定矩形電極121之相對位置。FIG. 12 shows two triangular electrodes 120 forming a reference strip 124 and a series of rectangular electrodes 121 formed on the sliding strip 122. By measuring the relative capacitance of the A electrode 120 and the B electrode 120 for each of the rectangular electrodes 121 on the sliding strip 122, the relative positions of the rectangular electrodes 121 can be determined.

圖12及圖13中展示之此圖案不需要多個層連接。在參考條帶124上,可自任一端直接製造連接。可經由匯流排126製造滑動條帶122上之矩形電極121,如圖13中展示。在一實施例中,可圍繞矩形電極121及三角形電極120採用屏蔽。屏蔽可有助於緩解干擾。正在傳輸之電極可藉由接地包圍且接收電極可用一主動屏蔽驅動以緩解干擾。The pattern shown in Figures 12 and 13 does not require multiple layer connections. On the reference strip 124, connections can be made directly from either end. The rectangular electrode 121 on the sliding strip 122 can be manufactured via the bus bar 126, as shown in FIG. 13. In an embodiment, a shield can be used around the rectangular electrode 121 and the triangular electrode 120. Shielding can help alleviate interference. The transmitting electrode can be surrounded by ground and the receiving electrode can be driven by an active shield to alleviate interference.

圖12及圖13中展示之設計對參考條帶124與滑動條帶122之間之輕微旋轉敏感。例如,若間隔在頂部上比在底部上更大,則其可引起一系統誤差。此可藉由校準來校正。亦可藉由使用一較不敏感圖案來改善敏感性。The design shown in FIGS. 12 and 13 is sensitive to slight rotation between the reference strip 124 and the sliding strip 122. For example, if the interval is larger on the top than on the bottom, it can cause a systematic error. This can be corrected by calibration. The sensitivity can also be improved by using a less sensitive pattern.

在圖14中展示具有降低敏感性之一圖案之一實例。圖14中展示之圖案採用放置於參考條帶144上之額外三角形電極140。矩形電極141放置於滑動條帶142上。圖14中展示之電極圖案關於參考條帶144之中心線對稱。與圖12中展示之圖案相比,此降低敏感性。因為三角形電極140在一個側上較遠且在另一側上較近而發生降低的敏感性。此距離大致上平衡可存在之任何傾斜之影響。An example of a pattern with reduced sensitivity is shown in FIG. 14. The pattern shown in FIG. 14 uses additional triangular electrodes 140 placed on the reference strip 144. The rectangular electrode 141 is placed on the sliding strip 142. The electrode pattern shown in FIG. 14 is symmetrical about the center line of the reference strip 144. Compared to the pattern shown in Figure 12, this reduces sensitivity. The reduced sensitivity occurs because the triangular electrode 140 is farther on one side and closer on the other side. This distance roughly balances the effects of any tilt that may exist.

圖15展示感測器電極之另一實施例。圖15展示一參考條帶154及滑動條帶152之一配置。參考條帶154具有複數個三角形電極150。滑動條帶152具有複數個矩形電極151。與圖12中展示之電極圖案相比,圖15中之圖案複製三角形電極150之配置。在各量測附近以一較小尺度複製成角度之圖案以改良解析度。圖15中展示之感測器圖案亦可與屏蔽及對稱技術組合。Figure 15 shows another embodiment of the sensor electrode. FIG. 15 shows a configuration of a reference strip 154 and a sliding strip 152. The reference strip 154 has a plurality of triangular electrodes 150. The sliding strip 152 has a plurality of rectangular electrodes 151. Compared with the electrode pattern shown in FIG. 12, the pattern in FIG. 15 replicates the configuration of the triangular electrode 150. Reproduce the angular pattern at a smaller scale near each measurement to improve the resolution. The sensor pattern shown in Figure 15 can also be combined with shielding and symmetry techniques.

圖16展示感測器電極之另一實施例。圖16展示一參考條帶164及滑動條帶162之一配置。參考條帶164具有複數個三角形電極160。滑動條帶162具有複數個矩形電極161。與圖12中展示之電極圖案相比,圖16中之圖案複製三角形電極160之配置。在各量測附近以一較小尺度複製成角度之圖案以改良解析度。圖16中展示之感測器圖案亦可與屏蔽及對稱技術組合。當移位引起一矩形電極161接近一三角形電極160之端時,將導致一些非線性。解決此之一方式係使用多組三角形電極160。該等組經移位使得當一矩形電極161在一個三角形電極160上之一邊緣附近時,其未在另一三角形電極160上之一邊緣處。光學 Figure 16 shows another embodiment of the sensor electrode. FIG. 16 shows a configuration of a reference strip 164 and a sliding strip 162. The reference strip 164 has a plurality of triangular electrodes 160. The sliding strip 162 has a plurality of rectangular electrodes 161. Compared with the electrode pattern shown in FIG. 12, the pattern in FIG. 16 replicates the configuration of the triangular electrode 160. Reproduce the angular pattern at a smaller scale near each measurement to improve the resolution. The sensor pattern shown in Figure 16 can also be combined with shielding and symmetry techniques. When the displacement causes a rectangular electrode 161 to approach the end of a triangular electrode 160, some nonlinearity will result. One way to solve this is to use multiple sets of triangular electrodes 160. The groups are shifted so that when one rectangular electrode 161 is near an edge on one triangular electrode 160, it is not at an edge on the other triangular electrode 160. Optics

除基於電容之感測之外,亦可使用光學技術而非電容技術產生多彎曲感測器。代替指叉式電極,可使用光學傳輸器及接收器。可透過定位於一參考條帶與滑動條帶之間之一光學透射間隔件來傳輸信號。波導技術允許將電子器件放置於一個端處而非沿著感測器分佈其等。In addition to capacitance-based sensing, optical technology instead of capacitive technology can also be used to produce multi-bend sensors. Instead of interdigitated electrodes, optical transmitters and receivers can be used. The signal can be transmitted through an optically transmissive spacer positioned between a reference strip and the sliding strip. Waveguide technology allows electronics to be placed at one end instead of distributing them along the sensor.

使用標準撓曲電路技術,可將標準電光組件(諸如LED及光電二極體)放置於一撓性條帶上。然而,因為此等組件本身並非撓性,所以可需要在量測點處進行局部加強。某些技術可用於解決局部加強之問題。一般而言,撓性電子器件可應用於製造多彎曲感測器(例如,進行局部電場感測,且經由一共用匯流排將資料報告回)。特定言之,呈一撓性形式之OLED及其他光學裝置之可用性使得可沿著一撓性條帶建立分佈式光學編碼器。Using standard flex circuit technology, standard electro-optical components (such as LEDs and photodiodes) can be placed on a flexible strip. However, because these components themselves are not flexible, they may need to be locally reinforced at the measurement point. Certain techniques can be used to solve the problem of partial reinforcement. Generally speaking, flexible electronic devices can be used to manufacture multiple bending sensors (for example, to perform local electric field sensing and report data back through a common bus). In particular, the availability of OLEDs and other optical devices in a flexible form makes it possible to build distributed optical encoders along a flexible strip.

亦可採用撓性波導以使光學信號往返於沿著條帶分佈之量測點。以此方式,光電子器件可聚集在一個位置處。例如,可將光電子器件放置於連結條帶之端處。在此位置處,一剛性PCB可固持電光組件。A flexible waveguide can also be used to make the optical signal go back and forth between measurement points distributed along the strip. In this way, optoelectronic devices can be gathered at one location. For example, optoelectronic devices can be placed at the ends of the connecting strips. At this position, a rigid PCB can hold the electro-optical components.

另外,為減少光學連接之所需數目,可採用多工技術。例如,各感測位置可採用光學濾光片,使得不同色彩之光、不同偏振或此等之某一組合在沿著多彎曲感測器之不同位置處在作用中,且可在具有光電子器件之端處被區分。In addition, in order to reduce the required number of optical connections, multiplexing techniques can be used. For example, optical filters can be used for each sensing position, so that light of different colors, different polarizations, or a certain combination of these are active at different positions along the multi-bend sensor, and can be used with optoelectronic devices. Be distinguished at the end.

此等系統具有供光自一個條帶行進至另一條帶之一路徑。此可以數種不同方式適應。在一實施例中,間隔件可由透明材料製成。在一實施例中,可在量測點附近提供狹槽。在一實施例中,間隔件可維持條帶之間之一氣隙。在一實施例中,光纖可具有允許光從一個纜線滲至另一纜線之縫隙(nick)。在一實施例中,可存在於中間繫結之光纖束,其中能夠判定光纖束之兩端之相對移位。These systems have a path for light to travel from one strip to another. This can be adapted in several different ways. In an embodiment, the spacer may be made of a transparent material. In an embodiment, a slot may be provided near the measurement point. In one embodiment, the spacer can maintain an air gap between the strips. In one embodiment, the optical fiber may have a nick that allows light to penetrate from one cable to another cable. In one embodiment, there may be an optical fiber bundle bound in the middle, wherein the relative displacement of the two ends of the optical fiber bundle can be determined.

參考圖17,亦可使用廉價相機晶片來製造多彎曲感測器。可在沿著條帶之各個點處使用此等晶片以量測移位。仍參考圖17,使用在交錯附接點176處附接至一參考條帶174之多個平行滑動條帶172。接著,此等滑動條帶172之端可延伸以藉由一相機晶片175觀察到。因此,一單一相機可以高精度追蹤多個滑動條帶172之運動,從而有效地給出與在不同位置處量測移位相同之結果。Referring to FIG. 17, inexpensive camera chips can also be used to manufacture multi-bend sensors. These wafers can be used at various points along the strip to measure displacement. Still referring to FIG. 17, multiple parallel sliding strips 172 attached to a reference strip 174 at staggered attachment points 176 are used. Then, the ends of these sliding strips 172 can be extended to be observed by a camera chip 175. Therefore, a single camera can track the movement of multiple sliding strips 172 with high accuracy, thereby effectively giving the same result as measuring displacement at different positions.

雖然撓性電子器件係一選項,但存在用於沿著一撓性條帶分佈光電子器件之其他選項。在一實施例中,一剛性PCB可經由彈性部件附接至一撓性條帶。以此方式,條帶仍可自由地彎曲,而浮動電光模組朝著另一撓性條帶上之編碼器標記。為幫助維持對準,電光模組可經設計以具有透過撓性條帶中之一較小孔隙查看之一較大光學區域。即使剛性PCB相對於條帶稍微搖擺,仍將始終相對於條帶中之孔隙完成量測。Although flexible electronic devices are an option, there are other options for distributing optoelectronic devices along a flexible strip. In an embodiment, a rigid PCB may be attached to a flexible strip via elastic components. In this way, the strip can still bend freely, and the floating electro-optical module faces the encoder mark on the other flexible strip. To help maintain alignment, the electro-optical module can be designed to have a larger optical area viewed through a smaller aperture in the flexible strip. Even if the rigid PCB is slightly swayed relative to the strip, the measurement will always be completed relative to the pores in the strip.

當感測移位時,存在於超出範圍之前吾人必須感測多少移位之一問題。查看圖18中展示之接收電極182及傳輸電極184之配置,可說明移位範圍之一實例。在此情況中,存在放置於一滑動條帶上之少量接收電極182及放置於一參考條帶上之大量傳輸電極184。代替在每一傳輸電極184上提供獨有信號,週期性地重用信號。經編號傳輸電極184之各者表示一不同信號。若移位限於一組傳輸電極184之區,則可獨有地判定位置。若移位大於此,則無法藉由最接近傳輸電極184獨有地判定移位讀數。在此例項中,其可已移位許多使得已經捲繞至下一組傳輸電極184中。因為沿著條帶進行一序列量測,所以來自較早片段之組合移位可見且有可能指示已發生一捲繞。因為可發生增量展開(upwrapping),所以約束不在停留在一組傳輸電極184之範圍內之任何特定接收電極182上。其僅受展開能力之限制。若已知連續接收電極182之間之傳輸電極184之數目限於標稱地在傳輸電極184之間之接收電極182之數目的+/-一半,則吾人可獨有地判定下一片段之位置,此係因為已知哪些傳輸電極184可在先前片段之範圍內。更複雜技術可例如藉由作出關於較高階導數之假定而甚至進一步擴展此。儘管在一電容式感測器之內容背景中說明此技術,但相同技術可應用於其他實施例。使用光學多條帶設置而非僅偵測一端,條帶可具有經偵測及分析以找到一精確位置之重複變動。可使用具有許多邊緣之校準目標以容許藉由組合全部其等之資料而判定位置。其他方法 When sensing displacement, there is a problem of how much displacement we must sense before going out of range. Looking at the configuration of the receiving electrode 182 and the transmitting electrode 184 shown in FIG. 18, an example of the displacement range can be illustrated. In this case, there are a small number of receiving electrodes 182 placed on a sliding strip and a large number of transmitting electrodes 184 placed on a reference strip. Instead of providing a unique signal on each transmission electrode 184, the signal is reused periodically. Each of the numbered transmission electrodes 184 represents a different signal. If the displacement is limited to the area of a group of transmission electrodes 184, the position can be determined uniquely. If the displacement is greater than this, the displacement reading cannot be uniquely determined by the closest transmission electrode 184. In this example, it may have been shifted a lot so that it has been wound into the next set of transfer electrodes 184. Because a sequence of measurements is taken along the strip, combined shifts from earlier segments are visible and may indicate that a wrap has occurred. Because upwrapping can occur, the constraint is not on any particular receiving electrode 182 that stays within the range of a set of transmitting electrodes 184. It is only limited by the ability to expand. If it is known that the number of transmission electrodes 184 between consecutive receiving electrodes 182 is limited to +/- half of the number of receiving electrodes 182 between the transmission electrodes 184 nominally, we can uniquely determine the position of the next segment. This is because it is known which transmission electrodes 184 can be within the range of the previous segment. More complex techniques can extend this even further, for example by making assumptions about higher order derivatives. Although this technique is described in the context of a capacitive sensor, the same technique can be applied to other embodiments. Using an optical multi-strip setting instead of just detecting one end, the strips can have repeated changes that are detected and analyzed to find a precise position. A calibration target with many edges can be used to allow the position to be determined by combining all of its data. Other methods

在上文,論述電容及光學技術,然而,可採用其他機制。例如,類似於一電位計,一個條帶可用作一分佈式電阻器,且另一條帶可具有在沿著電阻式條帶之許多點處進行接觸之多個刮掃器(wiper)。各刮掃器處之電壓可經配置以指示沿著電阻式條帶之相對位置。一電阻式條帶定位於一個條帶上,且跨其放置一電壓。此沿著條帶產生位置相依之一電壓梯度。沿著頂部條帶之刮掃器與條帶進行滑動接觸,從而感測其等位置處之電壓。可藉由具有形成於各刮掃器之區中之一單獨電位計以容許更準確量測而達成上文論述之捲繞偵測。機械地,刮掃器亦可起到維持層之間之間隔之一作用,此係因為其等本身係間隔件。In the above, capacitive and optical technologies are discussed, however, other mechanisms can be used. For example, similar to a potentiometer, one strip can be used as a distributed resistor, and another strip can have wipers that make contact at many points along the resistive strip. The voltage at each wiper can be configured to indicate the relative position along the resistive strip. A resistive strip is positioned on one strip and a voltage is placed across it. This generates a position-dependent voltage gradient along the strip. The wiper along the top strip makes sliding contact with the strip to sense the voltage at the same position. The winding detection discussed above can be achieved by having a separate potentiometer formed in the area of each wiper to allow more accurate measurement. Mechanically, the wiper can also play a role in maintaining the interval between the layers, because it is a spacer itself.

對上文設計之一改良係可在各刮掃器附近放置單獨電阻條紋而非沿著條帶具有一單一電阻條紋。接著,各較小電阻條紋可在一遠更小位移內具有整個電壓梯度,從而極大增加量測之解析度。應注意,至具有電阻條紋之條帶之連接之數目仍僅為兩個。An improvement to the above design is to place a separate resistance stripe near each wiper instead of having a single resistance stripe along the strip. Then, each smaller resistance stripe can have the entire voltage gradient within a much smaller displacement, thereby greatly increasing the resolution of the measurement. It should be noted that the number of connections to the strips with resistance stripes is still only two.

可採用其他方法而非機械刮掃器來產生移位相依電阻率變化。例如,磁阻材料在存在一磁場之情況下改變電阻。可在不同位置處有效地橋接平行於一導體延行之一電阻跡線(包含此等跡線之間之磁阻材料),可選擇性地藉由另一條帶上之一磁體使其變得更導電。Other methods than mechanical wipers can be used to produce shift-dependent resistivity changes. For example, magnetoresistive materials change resistance in the presence of a magnetic field. It can effectively bridge a resistance trace (including the magnetoresistive material between these traces) parallel to a conductor at different positions, and can be selectively made by a magnet on another strip More conductive.

另一實施例採用一個條帶上之一系列磁體及另一條帶上之霍爾(Hall)效應感測器以便量測移位。時域技術亦可用於量測長度。電、光學或聲域中之時域反射量測技術可用於在多個點處量測移位。為使用此等,量測點產生以路徑以供信號返回。亦可使用磁伸縮位置換能器方法來量測移位。Another embodiment uses a series of magnets on one strip and a Hall effect sensor on the other strip to measure displacement. Time domain technology can also be used to measure length. Time-domain reflectometry techniques in electrical, optical or acoustic domains can be used to measure displacement at multiple points. In order to use this, the measurement point is generated as a path for the signal to return. The magnetostrictive position transducer method can also be used to measure displacement.

在一實施例中,可採用電感式近接感測。一線圈之電感將回應於某些材料接近其等而改變。例如,在一實施例中,一個條帶承載一系列線圈,而另一條帶具有具由線圈偵測之不同磁導率之區段。偵測可以數種方式完成,包含獨立地註記各線圈之電感之變化或尋找不同線圈間之耦合之變化。亦可在兩個條帶上具有線圈,且量測其等之間之耦合。線性可變差分變壓器(LVDT)可直接應用於此類型之量測。In one embodiment, inductive proximity sensing can be used. The inductance of a coil will change in response to some material approaching it. For example, in one embodiment, one strip carries a series of coils, while the other strip has sections with different magnetic permeability detected by the coils. The detection can be done in several ways, including independently noting the change in the inductance of each coil or looking for the change in coupling between different coils. It is also possible to have coils on two strips and measure the coupling between them. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) can be directly applied to this type of measurement.

在一實施例中,可使用條帶之間之射頻(RF)耦合來利用電磁耦合。In one embodiment, radio frequency (RF) coupling between strips can be used to take advantage of electromagnetic coupling.

在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器經設計以經由RF進行遠端詢問。使用一簡單儲能電路(LC),其中L或C之任一者取決於條帶之間之相對移位。可僅使用導電材料之圖案化在條帶上產生此類型之電路。儲能電路之諧振頻率取決於相對移位,且可使用標準RFID技術遠端地讀取。條帶可經設計以含有各自取決於局部相對移位之多個諧振。若在頻率上合理地分離諧振,則一遠端頻率掃描可獨立地揭露各諧振之變化。在添加主動組件之情況下,可採用其他技術(諸如時域多工)來讀取多個點上方之移位。In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor is designed for remote interrogation via RF. A simple tank circuit (LC) is used, where either L or C depends on the relative displacement between the strips. This type of circuit can be produced on the strip using only patterning of conductive materials. The resonance frequency of the tank circuit depends on the relative displacement and can be read remotely using standard RFID technology. The strip can be designed to contain multiple resonances each dependent on the local relative displacement. If the resonances are reasonably separated in frequency, a remote frequency sweep can independently reveal the changes in each resonance. In the case of adding active components, other techniques (such as time domain multiplexing) can be used to read the shifts above multiple points.

磁性感測器(霍爾效應、巨大磁阻等)可用於量測局部磁場。可在另一條帶上偵測一個條帶之一磁化圖案以判定許多點處之相對移位。可採用磁路以將通量量測帶至一方便實體位置。高磁導率材料用於引導通量,類似於攜載電流之一導電線。使用此等技術,若干磁性感測器可定位於條帶之結合端上,從而在沿著條帶之各個點處進行量測。Magnetic sensors (Hall effect, huge magnetoresistance, etc.) can be used to measure local magnetic fields. The magnetization pattern of one strip can be detected on another strip to determine the relative displacement at many points. A magnetic circuit can be used to bring the flux measurement to a convenient physical location. High-permeability materials are used to guide flux, similar to a conductive wire carrying current. Using these techniques, a number of magnetic sensors can be positioned on the joint ends of the strip, so that measurements can be taken at various points along the strip.

磁伸縮換能器已用於在嚴酷工業環境中量測位置。藉由在一磁伸縮元件中脈送電流而判定一移動磁體之位置,此引起在磁體之區中之元件中產生一機械脈衝。此脈衝累積回至一量測點之時間依據磁體位置而變化。在一實施例中,磁體放置於一個條帶上,且磁伸縮材料放置於另一條帶上。Magnetostrictive transducers have been used to measure position in harsh industrial environments. The position of a moving magnet is determined by pulsing current in a magnetostrictive element, which causes a mechanical pulse to be generated in the element in the area of the magnet. The time for this pulse to accumulate back to a measuring point varies according to the position of the magnet. In one embodiment, the magnet is placed on one strip, and the magnetostrictive material is placed on the other strip.

可採用使用光電導材料之類似技術。滑動條帶上之一光可使橋接之位置移位。此可為安裝於條帶上之一LED或其他光源或容許一單獨光源選擇性地通過之一簡單孔隙。Similar techniques using photoconductive materials can be used. A light on the sliding strip can shift the position of the bridge. This can be an LED or other light source mounted on the strip or a simple aperture that allows a single light source to selectively pass through.

可透過機械手段在更傳統臂/編碼器系統上獲得多彎曲感測器之一些量測誤差累積性質。通常使用平行連桿組以維持兩個部件之平行性。Some measurement error accumulation properties of multi-bend sensors can be obtained by mechanical means on more traditional arm/encoder systems. Parallel linkage groups are usually used to maintain the parallelism of the two components.

圖19展示保證水平線保持彼此平行之三組平行連桿組。點1901表示編碼器。在各編碼器處量測之角度始終係相對於頂部線。以此方式,在於各編碼器處量測絕對出射角時,各編碼器處之量測誤差未累積。可採用齒輪、皮帶及其他連桿組之各種組合以獲得類似效應。Figure 19 shows three sets of parallel links to ensure that the horizontal lines remain parallel to each other. Point 1901 represents the encoder. The angle measured at each encoder is always relative to the top line. In this way, when the absolute exit angle is measured at each encoder, the measurement error at each encoder is not accumulated. Various combinations of gears, belts and other linkage groups can be used to obtain similar effects.

上文論述之多彎曲感測器提供沿著其長度之曲率資料。可以更複雜方式使用此資料以給出更詳細模型。例如,吾人可內插或擬合一較高階函數以模擬沿著感測器之曲率之變化,且因此產生有效地具有更多片段之一模型。吾人亦可將一片段之基礎模型自一圓弧改變為一不同功能形式。The multiple bending sensors discussed above provide curvature data along its length. This information can be used in more complex ways to give a more detailed model. For example, one can interpolate or fit a higher order function to simulate the change in curvature along the sensor, and thus generate a model that effectively has more segments. We can also change the basic model of a segment from a circular arc to a different functional form.

多彎曲感測器之上述實施例可準確地判定一曲線或彎曲表面之形狀。此技術之一些應用可為在判定機器人系統之定位中。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於柔韌介面。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於人體關節運動復健。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於虛擬實境中之人體關節運動。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於判定一背部之曲率、一頭部之移動或腿部之彎曲。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於量測複曲線。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於複雜振動理解及主動控制。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於汽車、輪胎及座椅變形。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於姿態監測。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於表現性樂器介面。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器用於針對諸如鼓泡(bubbling out)之變形監測槽/壓力囊(例如,監測飛機、潛水艇等)。The above-mentioned embodiment of the multi-bend sensor can accurately determine the shape of a curve or curved surface. Some applications of this technology can be in determining the positioning of a robotic system. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor is used for a flexible interface. In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor is used for human joint movement rehabilitation. In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor is used for human joint movement in virtual reality. In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor is used to determine the curvature of a back, the movement of a head, or the bending of a leg. In one embodiment, a multi-bend sensor is used to measure the complex curve. In one embodiment, multiple bending sensors are used for complex vibration understanding and active control. In one embodiment, multiple bending sensors are used for automobile, tire and seat deformation. In one embodiment, multiple bending sensors are used for attitude monitoring. In one embodiment, multi-bend sensors are used for expressive instrument interfaces. In an embodiment, the multi-bend sensor is used to monitor the trough/pressure bladder for deformation such as bubbling out (for example, to monitor airplanes, submarines, etc.).

多彎曲感測器亦可用於理解一加壓系統之形狀。例如,具有加壓機艙之飛機在其等被重複加壓及減壓時經歷顯著應力及變形。若一特定區域透過重複應力而變弱,則其將開始相對於其他區域鼓泡(或凹陷(bubble in),此取決於吾人查看哪一側)。採用多彎曲感測器以便偵測此,以理解系統疲勞率及可即將發生故障之位置。潛水艇、貯留槽及全部種類之加壓容器具有可獲益於多彎曲感測器之應用之類似問題。在一實施例中,當判定鑽頭之曲率時,多彎曲感測器用於輔助油氣勘探。Multi-bend sensors can also be used to understand the shape of a pressurized system. For example, airplanes with pressurized cabins experience significant stress and deformation when they are repeatedly pressurized and decompressed. If a particular area becomes weakened by repeated stress, it will begin to bubble (or bubble in) relative to other areas, depending on which side we look at. Multi-bend sensors are used to detect this in order to understand the fatigue rate of the system and the location of the impending failure. Submarines, storage tanks, and all kinds of pressurized vessels have similar problems that can benefit from the application of multi-bend sensors. In one embodiment, when determining the curvature of the drill bit, the multi-bend sensor is used to assist oil and gas exploration.

在負載下變形之其他機械系統亦可獲益於多彎曲感測器。上文描述之多彎曲感測器之另一優點係精度自幾何關係而非電性質(其等易受歸因於環境條件之變化影響且經受老化及磨損)產生,此使所揭示多彎曲感測器適用於在結構之壽命內監測橋樑、支撐樑等。Other mechanical systems that deform under load can also benefit from multiple bending sensors. Another advantage of the multi-bend sensor described above is that the accuracy is derived from geometrical relationships rather than electrical properties (which are easily affected by changes in environmental conditions and are subject to aging and wear), which makes the disclosed multi-bending sense The detector is suitable for monitoring bridges, supporting beams, etc. during the life of the structure.

上文描述之多彎曲感測器之另一優點係精度自幾何關係而非電性質(其等易受歸因於環境條件之變化影響且經受老化及磨損)產生。本申請案之實施方案可採用在實施以下案中揭示之正交分頻多工感測器及其他介面時使用之原理:美國專利第9,933,880號;第9,019,224號;第9,811,214號;第9,804,721號;第9,710,113號;及第9,158,411號。假定熟悉此等專利內之揭示內容、概念及命名法。該等專利及以引用的方式併入其中之申請案之全部揭示內容以引用的方式併入本文中。本申請案亦可採用在以下案中揭示之快速多點觸控感測器及其他介面中使用之原理:美國專利申請案15/162,240;15/690,234;15/195,675;15/200,642;15/821,677;15/904,953;15/905,465;15/943,221;62/540,458;62/575,005;62/621,117;62/619,656及PCT公開案PCT/US2017/050547,假定熟悉其中之揭示內容、概念及命名法。該等申請案及以引用的方式併入其中之申請案之全部揭示內容以引用的方式併入本文中。實體實施方案 Another advantage of the multi-bend sensor described above is that the accuracy is derived from geometric relationships rather than electrical properties (which are susceptible to changes due to environmental conditions and are subject to aging and wear). The implementation of this application can adopt the principles used in implementing the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing sensor and other interfaces disclosed in the following cases: US Patent No. 9,933,880; No. 9,019,224; No. 9,811,214; No. 9,804,721; No. 9,710,113; and No. 9,158,411. It is assumed that they are familiar with the disclosures, concepts and nomenclature in these patents. The entire disclosures of these patents and applications incorporated by reference are incorporated herein by reference. This application can also adopt the principles used in the fast multi-touch sensor and other interfaces disclosed in the following cases: US Patent Application 15/162,240; 15/690,234; 15/195,675; 15/200,642; 15/ 821,677; 15/904,953; 15/905,465; 15/943,221; 62/540,458; 62/575,005; 62/621,117; 62/619,656 and PCT publication PCT/US2017/050547, assuming familiarity with the disclosure, concepts and nomenclature . The entire disclosures of these applications and applications incorporated by reference are incorporated herein by reference. Entity implementation plan

現在參考圖20A及圖20B,提供一多彎曲感測器之一參考條帶及一滑動條帶。複數個傳輸電極沿著接收電極之一對應圖案移動。在一實施例中,藉由檢查傳輸電極與接收電極之間之耦合電容之變化而判定位置。在一實施例中,指叉式電極之一圖案容許吾人藉由比較重疊電極之電容以判定相對移位而執行差分量測。此量測之差分性質使其對各種類型之誤差高度不敏感。如上文提及,除圖20中展示之電極圖案之外,亦可實施將進一步提供可幫助判定多彎曲感測器之整體移動及形狀之量測的其他電極圖案。Referring now to FIGS. 20A and 20B, a reference strip and a sliding strip of a multi-bend sensor are provided. The plurality of transmission electrodes move along a pattern corresponding to one of the reception electrodes. In one embodiment, the position is determined by checking the change of the coupling capacitance between the transmitting electrode and the receiving electrode. In one embodiment, a pattern of interdigitated electrodes allows us to perform a differential measurement by comparing the capacitance of the overlapping electrodes to determine the relative displacement. The differential nature of this measurement makes it highly insensitive to various types of errors. As mentioned above, in addition to the electrode patterns shown in FIG. 20, other electrode patterns can also be implemented that will further provide measurements that can help determine the overall movement and shape of the multi-bend sensor.

在一實施例中,複數個電極經調適以傳輸信號且複數個電極經調適以自傳輸信號之電極接收信號。在一實施例中,取決於實施方案,經調適以傳輸信號之電極及經調適以接收信號之電極可切換或交替。在一實施例中,經調適以傳輸一信號之一電極可在一不同時間亦經調適以接收一信號。使用經接收信號以判定一個條帶相對於另一條帶之移動。在一實施例中,當產生參考條帶及滑動條帶時,可在標準撓性印刷電路板(PCB)上圖案化電極。可量測通過間隔件之電容,且判定相對位置。In one embodiment, the plurality of electrodes are adapted to transmit signals and the plurality of electrodes are adapted to receive signals from the signal-transmitting electrodes. In one embodiment, depending on the implementation, the electrodes adapted to transmit signals and the electrodes adapted to receive signals can be switched or alternated. In one embodiment, an electrode adapted to transmit a signal may also be adapted to receive a signal at a different time. The received signal is used to determine the movement of one strip relative to another. In one embodiment, when the reference strip and the sliding strip are generated, the electrodes can be patterned on a standard flexible printed circuit board (PCB). The capacitance through the spacer can be measured, and the relative position can be determined.

在一實施例中,傳輸條帶具有與接收條帶上之相等數目個差分電極對對準之複數個相等間隔電極。當條帶平坦時,各傳輸電極將在一接收對上方居中,使得差分電容為零。在兩個條帶相對於彼此移位時,傳輸墊將移動而不與接收墊對準,從而使差分電容失衡。在一實施例中,電極經配置以具有顯著重疊而最小化偏斜及邊緣場之影響,從而給出差分電容相對於移位之一線性改變。In one embodiment, the transmission strip has a plurality of equal-spaced electrodes aligned with an equal number of differential electrode pairs on the receiving strip. When the strip is flat, each transmission electrode will be centered above a receiving pair, so that the differential capacitance is zero. When the two strips are displaced relative to each other, the transmission pad will move out of alignment with the receiving pad, thereby unbalanced differential capacitance. In one embodiment, the electrodes are configured to have significant overlap while minimizing the effects of skew and fringing fields, thereby giving a linear change in differential capacitance with respect to displacement.

在一實施例中,藉由插置複數個聚醯亞胺條帶而使傳輸墊及接收墊保持一固定間隔。在一實施例中,移位量與間隔之厚度成比例。在一實施例中,厚度係0.5 mm。在一實施例中,使用一單一間隔件。在一實施例中,複數個間隔件用於維持準確間隔,同時容許裝置柔韌。In one embodiment, the transmission pad and the receiving pad are kept at a fixed interval by inserting a plurality of polyimide strips. In one embodiment, the amount of displacement is proportional to the thickness of the gap. In one embodiment, the thickness is 0.5 mm. In one embodiment, a single spacer is used. In one embodiment, a plurality of spacers are used to maintain accurate spacing while allowing the device to be flexible.

在一實施例中,條帶經由一彈性套筒保持壓在一起,同時仍容許其等沿著長度抵靠彼此移位。在一實施例中,一夾箝穿過條帶上之對準孔以約束該端上之運動。在一實施例中,金製指狀接觸件容許將條帶插入至一控制器板之相對側上之連接器中。在一實施例中,與一控制器板一體地製造條帶。In one embodiment, the straps are kept pressed together via an elastic sleeve while still allowing them to shift against each other along the length. In one embodiment, a clamp passes through an alignment hole in the strap to restrict movement on the end. In one embodiment, gold finger contacts allow the strip to be inserted into the connector on the opposite side of a controller board. In one embodiment, the strip is manufactured integrally with a controller board.

圖21A及圖21B分別展示一多彎曲感測器2100之一透視圖及一側視圖。在一實施例中,滑動條帶及參考條帶係一單一連續組件之部分,該組件接著摺疊至自身上。在一實施例中,至少一個間隔件定位於滑動條帶部分與參考條帶部分之間。21A and 21B respectively show a perspective view and a side view of a multi-bend sensor 2100. In one embodiment, the sliding strip and the reference strip are part of a single continuous component, which is then folded onto itself. In an embodiment, at least one spacer is positioned between the sliding strip portion and the reference strip portion.

在一實施例中,用於放置於滑動部分及參考部分中之電極(未展示)之電連接可往回佈線通過連續組件之一個或兩個端而至電路。在一實施例中,屬於滑動部分之電極及屬於參考部分之電極附裝至一件連續材料,其中全部電連接佈線到一個或兩個端。該件連續材料接著將被摺疊且端部彼此固定。在一實施例中,至少一個間隔件放置於滑動部分與參考部分之間且固定至材料之端。In one embodiment, the electrical connections for the electrodes (not shown) placed in the sliding part and the reference part can be routed back to the circuit through one or both ends of the continuous component. In one embodiment, the electrodes belonging to the sliding part and the electrodes belonging to the reference part are attached to a piece of continuous material, in which all electrical connections are wired to one or both ends. The piece of continuous material will then be folded and the ends fixed to each other. In one embodiment, at least one spacer is placed between the sliding part and the reference part and fixed to the end of the material.

圖22A及圖22B分別繪示在一平坦位置及一彎曲位置中之一多彎曲感測器。在一實施例中,電極在感測器撓曲時移位。圖22C繪示當多彎曲感測器處於一平坦位置及一彎曲位置時,相對移位與差分電容之間之關係。在一實施例中,當多彎曲感測器處於一平坦位置時,傳輸電極在兩個接收電極之間居中(即,無移位)且差分電容為零。在一實施例中,當多彎曲感測器在感測器之至少一部分中彎曲時,至少一個傳輸電極與來自該組接收電極之一個接收電極重疊多於(若干)其他接收電極(即,移位),從而產生一非零差分電容。22A and 22B show a multi-bend sensor in a flat position and a bent position, respectively. In one embodiment, the electrode is displaced when the sensor is flexed. FIG. 22C shows the relationship between the relative displacement and the differential capacitance when the multi-bend sensor is in a flat position and a bent position. In one embodiment, when the multi-bend sensor is in a flat position, the transmitting electrode is centered between the two receiving electrodes (ie, there is no shift) and the differential capacitance is zero. In one embodiment, when the multi-bend sensor is bent in at least a part of the sensor, at least one transmission electrode overlaps with one receiving electrode from the set of receiving electrodes more than (several) other receiving electrodes (ie, shifting) Bit), resulting in a non-zero differential capacitance.

在一實施例中,使用一單通道24位元差分電容轉數位轉換器來執行電容量測。在一實施例中,使用一系列超低電容多工器,可連續量測沿著條帶之8個點處之移位。在一實施例中,所量測之電容係亞微微法拉。In one embodiment, a single-channel 24-bit differential capacitance-to-digital converter is used to perform capacitance measurement. In one embodiment, a series of ultra-low capacitance multiplexers are used to continuously measure the displacement at 8 points along the strip. In one embodiment, the measured capacitance is sub picofarad.

在一實施例中,當註記歸因於各種跡線之近接之實質寄生電容時,可使用一校準程序。首先,當感測器放平時,量測寄生電容之靜態影響。接著,從稍後讀數減去此值以找到歸因於電極之差分電容。在一實施例中,電路可每秒對多彎曲感測器進行約10次之全掃描,同時汲取小於100 mW。精密單彎曲感測器 In one embodiment, a calibration procedure can be used when noting the substantial parasitic capacitance due to the proximity of various traces. First, when the sensor is placed flat, the static effect of parasitic capacitance is measured. Then, subtract this value from the later reading to find the differential capacitance attributed to the electrode. In one embodiment, the circuit can perform a full scan of the multi-bend sensor about 10 times per second while drawing less than 100 mW. Precision single bending sensor

轉至圖23,其展示具有不同於例如圖1及圖2中展示之多彎曲感測器之一幾何形狀的單彎曲感測器2300之一版本。在上文論述之實施例中,多彎曲感測器具有在控制器部分及感測器條帶(諸如滑動條帶及參考條帶)上之電路。在電路之位置處(即,控制器板端,亦稱為近端)保持或固定參考條帶及滑動條帶。另一遠端不受約束,使得滑動條帶相對於參考條帶移動。在一實施例中,在沿著滑動條帶及參考條帶之若干點處進行量測以偵測相對於彼此之相對運動。藉由運用電容元件沿著條帶進行多個量測,可歸因於從量測點至電子組件之距離而出現問題。此外,不受約束之遠端亦可產生關於在條帶橫向分離時將其等固持在一起之一些機械問題。Turning to FIG. 23, it shows a version of the single bend sensor 2300 with a different geometry than one of the multiple bend sensors shown in, for example, FIGS. 1 and 2. In the embodiments discussed above, the multi-bend sensor has circuits on the controller part and the sensor strips (such as the sliding strip and the reference strip). The reference strip and the sliding strip are held or fixed at the location of the circuit (ie, the controller board end, also called the proximal end). The other distal end is unconstrained so that the sliding strip moves relative to the reference strip. In one embodiment, measurements are made at several points along the sliding strip and the reference strip to detect relative movement relative to each other. By using capacitive elements to perform multiple measurements along the strip, problems can be attributed to the distance from the measurement point to the electronic component. In addition, the unconstrained distal end can also create some mechanical problems with holding the strips together when they are separated laterally.

將注意,存在僅返回彎曲範圍之一單一量測之彎曲感測器。然而,現有彎曲感測器具有與校準、漂移、疲勞等相關之問題。雖然本文中別處之感測器已集中於多彎曲應用,但所描述技術亦可應用於單彎曲感測器。It will be noted that there are bending sensors that only return a single measurement of one of the bending ranges. However, existing bending sensors have problems related to calibration, drift, fatigue, and so on. Although sensors elsewhere in this article have focused on multi-bend applications, the techniques described can also be applied to single-bend sensors.

圖23繪示一單彎曲感測器2300,其藉由利用一單一量測點而解決先前技術中發現之運用其他多彎曲感測器所具有之一些問題。藉由權衡多彎曲能力,可產生一非常廉價的精密單彎曲感測器,其具有極佳抗擾性,同時使用一較簡單機械設計。FIG. 23 shows a single bending sensor 2300, which uses a single measurement point to solve some of the problems found in the prior art when using other multiple bending sensors. By weighing multiple bending capabilities, a very inexpensive precision single bending sensor can be produced, which has excellent noise immunity and uses a simpler mechanical design.

在圖23中繪示之實施例中,電極2312定位成靠近單彎曲感測器2300之近端2301處之量測電路2310。運用單彎曲感測器2300,在近端2301處進行移位之量測,而遠端2302處之摺疊作為單彎曲感測器2300之約束端。藉由在近端處量測移位,可將量測電路放置於該點處,其中約束端遠離該電路。將注意,單彎曲感測器2300之翻折(folded over)設計類似於圖21A及圖21B中繪示之實施例之設計。本文中描述之感測器之實施例(包含但不限於針對一單一彎曲、多個彎曲或輪廓)可以圖21A及圖21B中描述之外觀尺寸以及其他外觀尺寸來實施。In the embodiment shown in FIG. 23, the electrode 2312 is positioned close to the measurement circuit 2310 at the proximal end 2301 of the single bend sensor 2300. The single bending sensor 2300 is used to measure the displacement at the proximal end 2301, and the fold at the distal end 2302 is used as the restraining end of the single bending sensor 2300. By measuring the displacement at the proximal end, the measurement circuit can be placed at that point with the restraining end far away from the circuit. It will be noted that the folded over design of the single bend sensor 2300 is similar to the design of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 21A and 21B. The embodiments of the sensor described herein (including but not limited to a single bend, multiple bends or contours) can be implemented with the external dimensions described in FIGS. 21A and 21B and other external dimensions.

在一實施例中,使用一單一撓曲印刷電路板來形成單彎曲感測器2300,其中量測電路2310在感測器部分之一者上且電極圖案2312在另一者上。接著,在沿著印刷電路板之中途點2314處翻折單彎曲感測器2300而形成一頂部部分2315及一底部部分2316,使得具有傳輸電極及接收電極2312之至少一者之電極圖案可位於量測電路2310之頂部上。運用此配置,中途點2314處之摺疊產生約束端,其中電極2312在量測電路2310上方橫向移位。在一實施例中,傳輸電極及接收電極位於彼此之頂部上。在一實施例中,傳輸電極及接收電極之一者位於量測電路之頂部上而另一者位於相同於量測電路之部分上。在一實施例中,一電極可在不同時間間隔期間為一傳輸電極及一接收電極。由於摺疊處不存在電子組件且該位置處不存在相對移位,故遠端2302可使用一機械外殼來保持摺疊。一遠端外殼2320亦可提供用於簡單機械附接至物件之其他組件之一點。In one embodiment, a single flex printed circuit board is used to form the single flex sensor 2300, with the measurement circuit 2310 on one of the sensor portions and the electrode pattern 2312 on the other. Then, the single bending sensor 2300 is folded along the midway point 2314 of the printed circuit board to form a top portion 2315 and a bottom portion 2316, so that the electrode pattern having at least one of the transmission electrode and the receiving electrode 2312 can be located On the top of the measurement circuit 2310. With this configuration, the folding at the halfway point 2314 produces a constrained end, where the electrode 2312 is laterally displaced above the measurement circuit 2310. In an embodiment, the transmitting electrode and the receiving electrode are on top of each other. In one embodiment, one of the transmitting electrode and the receiving electrode is located on the top of the measurement circuit and the other is located on the same part of the measurement circuit. In one embodiment, an electrode can be a transmission electrode and a receiving electrode during different time intervals. Since there is no electronic component at the fold and there is no relative displacement at this position, the distal end 2302 can use a mechanical housing to keep the fold. A distal housing 2320 can also provide a point for simple mechanical attachment to other components of the object.

仍參考圖23,在一實施例中,一間隔件2317可用於維持頂部部分2315與底部部分2316之間之一已知間隙。量測電路2310定位於近端2301處且電極圖案2312相對於量測電路2310自由移位。Still referring to FIG. 23, in one embodiment, a spacer 2317 may be used to maintain a known gap between the top portion 2315 and the bottom portion 2316. The measurement circuit 2310 is positioned at the proximal end 2301 and the electrode pattern 2312 is freely displaced relative to the measurement circuit 2310.

近端2301可具有用於量測電路2310之一近端外殼2330。用於裝納近端2301之近端外殼2330可經設計以圍封近端2301,使得機械地保護橫向分離層。另外,此端可為容置於其中之組件提供電屏蔽。The proximal end 2301 may have a proximal housing 2330 for the measurement circuit 2310. The proximal housing 2330 for receiving the proximal end 2301 may be designed to enclose the proximal end 2301 so as to mechanically protect the lateral separation layer. In addition, this end can provide electrical shielding for the components contained therein.

因為量測電路2310之移動受限且較佳地不撓曲,所以將在量測電路2310上方之此區域內移動的自由端較佳在此區中係平坦的,以避免不同幾何形狀之電極之任何潛在問題。此避免可歸因於複雜幾何形狀而出現之問題且可提供更佳量測。Because the movement of the measuring circuit 2310 is limited and is preferably not flexed, the free end that will move in this area above the measuring circuit 2310 is preferably flat in this area to avoid interfering with electrodes of different geometric shapes. Any potential problems. This avoids problems that can be attributed to complex geometric shapes and can provide better measurements.

另外,可在單彎曲感測器2300之一長度上方進行移位量測,可採用在諸如數位卡尺之裝置中使用之位置量測技術。此有效地使用空間來提供較高信雜比。因為其中量測電路2310平坦之區,系統可經機械配置使得定位於遠端2302處之電極2312直接位於量測電路2310之頂部上(即,其等不需要在此區中間隔開)。在一實施例中,撓性電路板在此區中緊密地形成在一起而不具有一間隔件。在一實施例中,此區中之剛性PCB用於使電極向上延伸以跨越間隙。In addition, the displacement measurement can be performed over a length of the single bending sensor 2300, and the position measurement technology used in devices such as digital calipers can be used. This effectively uses space to provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Because of the area where the measurement circuit 2310 is flat, the system can be mechanically configured such that the electrode 2312 positioned at the distal end 2302 is directly on top of the measurement circuit 2310 (ie, they do not need to be spaced apart in this area). In one embodiment, the flexible circuit boards are formed closely together in this area without a spacer. In one embodiment, the rigid PCB in this area is used to extend the electrodes upward to span the gap.

在一實施例中,感測電極可沿著單彎曲感測器之長度延伸,且可使用在縱向方向上之移動以便判定與長度相關之特定量測。在一實施例中,感測電極可沿著單彎曲感測器之長度延伸,且諸如彈簧之偏壓構件可定位於近端處,以便使感測器之各自長度返回至起始位置。在一實施例中,單彎曲感測器之部分可散口(frayed)且階梯化,以便在沿著長度之不同點處提供不同量測。In one embodiment, the sensing electrode may extend along the length of the single bend sensor, and movement in the longitudinal direction may be used to determine a specific measurement related to the length. In one embodiment, the sensing electrode may extend along the length of the single bend sensor, and a biasing member such as a spring may be positioned at the proximal end to return the respective length of the sensor to the starting position. In one embodiment, portions of the single bend sensor can be frayed and stepped to provide different measurements at different points along the length.

在一實施例中,可在工業及商業應用中使用單彎曲感測器而非編碼器。在一實施例中,在一機器人臂中使用單彎曲感測器。多輪廓感測器 In one embodiment, a single bend sensor can be used instead of an encoder in industrial and commercial applications. In one embodiment, a single bend sensor is used in a robot arm. Multi-contour sensor

轉至圖24至圖26,展示包括固定至一外殼2405之複數個多彎曲感測器2410 (在本文中揭示之實施例中所描述)之一多輪廓感測器2400。如熟習此項技術者可瞭解,複數個多彎曲感測器2410之配置及定位係非限制性的且可經選擇以準確地描述或量測一表面、一輪廓及一剖面之至少一者。在一些實施例中,複數個多彎曲感測器2410之配置及定位可經選擇以描述或量測一不可展表面。如本文中所使用,術語「可展」表面可意謂以下之至少一者:具有零高斯(Gaussian)曲率之一平滑表面、可在不扭曲(即,「拉伸」或「壓縮」)之情況下平坦化至一平面上之一表面,及可藉由一張紙捲繞之一表面,其中該張紙不會引起摺疊或摺痕。此外,如本文中所使用,術語「不可展表面」可意謂以下之至少一者:可具有一非零高斯曲率之一表面及無法在不扭曲之情況下平坦化至一平面上之一表面。Turning to FIGS. 24 to 26, a multi-contour sensor 2400 including a plurality of multi-bend sensors 2410 (described in the embodiments disclosed herein) fixed to a housing 2405 is shown. Those familiar with the art can understand that the configuration and positioning of the plurality of multi-bend sensors 2410 are non-limiting and can be selected to accurately describe or measure at least one of a surface, a profile, and a cross-section. In some embodiments, the configuration and positioning of a plurality of multi-bend sensors 2410 can be selected to describe or measure a non-developable surface. As used herein, the term "developable" surface can mean at least one of the following: a smooth surface with zero Gaussian curvature, which can be undistorted (ie, "stretched" or "compressed") In this case, it is flattened to a surface on a plane, and can be wound on a surface by a piece of paper, where the piece of paper does not cause folds or creases. In addition, as used herein, the term "non-developable surface" can mean at least one of the following: a surface that can have a non-zero Gaussian curvature and a surface that cannot be flattened onto a plane without distortion .

返回至圖24,在一實施例中,複數個多彎曲感測器2410可彼此平行配置,其中複數個多彎曲感測器2410之各者之參考條帶及對應滑動條帶相對於彼此且相對於相鄰多彎曲感測器2410之相鄰參考條帶及滑動條帶移動。Returning to FIG. 24, in one embodiment, a plurality of multi-bend sensors 2410 may be arranged parallel to each other, wherein the reference strips and corresponding sliding strips of each of the plurality of multi-bend sensors 2410 are relative to each other and opposite to each other The adjacent reference strip and the sliding strip in the adjacent multi-bend sensor 2410 move.

圖25繪示包括配置成具有列及行之一交織圖案之複數個多彎曲感測器2510之一多輪廓感測器2500之一實施例。圖26繪示包括複數個多彎曲感測器2610之一多輪廓感測器2600之一實施例,該複數個多彎曲感測器2610以使得全部行在全部列上方或反之亦然之一配置覆疊。FIG. 25 illustrates an embodiment of a multi-contour sensor 2500 including a plurality of multi-bend sensors 2510 configured to have an interlaced pattern of columns and rows. FIG. 26 shows an embodiment of a multi-contour sensor 2600 including a plurality of multi-bend sensors 2610, which are configured such that all rows are above all columns or vice versa Overlay.

在一實施例中,一多輪廓感測器包括呈不同配置之複數個多彎曲感測器。在一實施例中,複數個多彎曲感測器配置成相對於彼此成不同角度且交織。在一實施例中,複數個多彎曲感測器配置成層,藉此各層相對於彼此成角度。在一實施例中,複數個多彎曲感測器配置成相對於至少一個其他多彎曲感測器不對稱地交織、分層或成角度。In one embodiment, a multi-contour sensor includes a plurality of multi-bend sensors in different configurations. In an embodiment, a plurality of multi-bend sensors are arranged at different angles relative to each other and are interleaved. In one embodiment, a plurality of multi-bend sensors are arranged in layers, whereby the layers are angled with respect to each other. In an embodiment, the plurality of multi-bend sensors are configured to be asymmetrically interwoven, layered, or angled with respect to at least one other multi-bend sensor.

如熟習此項技術者可提及,與圖11中繪示之多彎曲感測器110實施例相比,相對於具有滑動平面112及參考平面114,此章節中描述之多輪廓感測器藉由配置數個多彎曲感測器以達成一特定圖案而形成。多輪廓致動器 As those familiar with the art can mention, compared with the embodiment of the multi-bend sensor 110 shown in FIG. 11, the multi-contour sensor described in this section borrows from the sliding plane 112 and the reference plane 114. It is formed by arranging several multi-bend sensors to achieve a specific pattern. Multi-contour actuator

轉至圖27,其展示一多輪廓致動器2700之一繪示。在一實施例中,一多輪廓致動器2700包括本文中在別處描述之至少一個多彎曲感測器及至少一個致動部分。在一實施例中,多彎曲感測器包括一滑動條帶及一參考條帶。在一實施例中,一多輪廓致動器2700包括至少一個多彎曲感測器2710,多彎曲感測器2710進一步包括一滑動條帶2712及一參考條帶2714。Turning to FIG. 27, which shows a drawing of one of a multi-contour actuator 2700. In one embodiment, a multi-profile actuator 2700 includes at least one multi-bend sensor and at least one actuation portion described elsewhere herein. In one embodiment, the multi-bend sensor includes a sliding strip and a reference strip. In one embodiment, a multi-contour actuator 2700 includes at least one multi-bend sensor 2710, and the multi-bend sensor 2710 further includes a sliding strip 2712 and a reference strip 2714.

多彎曲感測器2710提供關於由致動部分2716實現之移動之資訊,以達成多輪廓致動器2700之一特定形狀。在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器包括可操作地連接至多彎曲感測器及致動部分以產生一控制迴路的控制電路。The multi-bend sensor 2710 provides information about the movement achieved by the actuating portion 2716 to achieve a specific shape of the multi-profile actuator 2700. In one embodiment, the multi-contour actuator includes a control circuit operably connected to the multi-bend sensor and the actuation part to generate a control loop.

如熟習此項技術者可提及,可藉由複數種機制及技術達成致動部分2716。在一實施例中,至少一個致動部分2716包括一電活性聚合物。如本文中所使用,術語「電活性聚合物」指代當藉由一電場刺激時展現大小或形狀之一變化之聚合物;然而,其亦可指代當藉由一電場刺激時改變大小或形狀之任何類型之材料。在一實施例中,致動部分2716包括複數種可定址電活性聚合物,其中各可定址電活性聚合物可獨立於其他者被激發以產生一特定形狀。在一實施例中,至少一個多彎曲感測器2710機械地固定至至少一個致動部分2716。在一實施例中,至少一個多彎曲感測器2710藉由以下之至少一者機械地固定至至少一個致動部分2716:接合、膠合、熔接、焊接及緊固。在一實施例中,致動部分包括一電動馬達。Those who are familiar with this technology can mention that the actuation part 2716 can be achieved by a plurality of mechanisms and technologies. In one embodiment, at least one actuation portion 2716 includes an electroactive polymer. As used herein, the term "electroactive polymer" refers to a polymer that exhibits a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field; however, it can also refer to a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field. Any type of material in shape. In one embodiment, the actuating portion 2716 includes a plurality of addressable electroactive polymers, wherein each addressable electroactive polymer can be excited independently of the others to produce a specific shape. In an embodiment, the at least one multi-bend sensor 2710 is mechanically fixed to the at least one actuation portion 2716. In an embodiment, the at least one multi-bend sensor 2710 is mechanically fixed to the at least one actuation portion 2716 by at least one of the following: bonding, gluing, welding, welding, and fastening. In one embodiment, the actuation part includes an electric motor.

在其他實施例中,致動部分2716係一熱激發致動器。如本文中所使用,術語「熱致動器」或「熱激發致動器」係能夠在其經歷一熱變化時產生運動之任何材料或裝置。在一實施例中,一熱致動器係在曝露於一熱變化時改變其機械性質之一件雙金屬材料。In other embodiments, the actuation portion 2716 is a thermally activated actuator. As used herein, the term "thermal actuator" or "thermally activated actuator" refers to any material or device capable of generating motion when it undergoes a thermal change. In one embodiment, a thermal actuator is a bimetallic material that changes its mechanical properties when exposed to a thermal change.

在一實施例中,致動部分2716係一液壓或氣動致動器。在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器包括複數個腔,該複數個腔可經獨立地充氣或放氣至選定體積以產生一特定形狀。可注意,腔之配置係非限制性的且腔配置可經選擇以達成所期望之任何形狀。In one embodiment, the actuating portion 2716 is a hydraulic or pneumatic actuator. In one embodiment, the multi-contour actuator includes a plurality of cavities that can be independently inflated or deflated to a selected volume to produce a specific shape. It may be noted that the configuration of the cavity is non-limiting and the cavity configuration can be selected to achieve any desired shape.

在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器2700之致動部分2716及多彎曲感測器2710係相同實體元件,藉此,藉由利用一電容力、一電阻力及一電感力之至少一者以引起多彎曲感測器2710之元件之間的相對運動而達成運動(在整個本說明書內之數個實施例中所描述)。In one embodiment, the actuating portion 2716 of the multi-profile actuator 2700 and the multi-bend sensor 2710 are the same physical element, thereby, by using at least one of a capacitive force, a resistive force, and an inductive force The movement is achieved by causing relative movement between the elements of the multi-bend sensor 2710 (described in several embodiments throughout this specification).

現轉至圖28,在一實施例中,除至少一個多彎曲感測器2810及至少一個致動部分2816之外,一多輪廓致動器2800亦包括額外元件,諸如觸控感測器及其他感測器。在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器2800包括一感測器2818。在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器2800包括至少一個量測裝置以提供關於來自使用者、其他系統或實體現象之互動之資訊以動態地改變多輪廓致動器2800之形狀。例如,多輪廓致動器2800及本文中描述之其他實施例可用於產生在汽車中使用之輸入感測器,諸如踏板、資訊娛樂系統及方向盤。然而,如熟習此項技術者可提及,可在一人與一裝置或機器互動之任何處實施本文中描述之技術及實施例。Turning now to FIG. 28, in one embodiment, in addition to at least one multi-bend sensor 2810 and at least one actuation portion 2816, a multi-profile actuator 2800 also includes additional components, such as touch sensors and Other sensors. In one embodiment, the multi-contour actuator 2800 includes a sensor 2818. In one embodiment, the multi-contour actuator 2800 includes at least one measurement device to provide information about the interaction from the user, other systems, or physical phenomena to dynamically change the shape of the multi-contour actuator 2800. For example, the multi-contour actuator 2800 and other embodiments described herein can be used to generate input sensors used in automobiles, such as pedals, infotainment systems, and steering wheels. However, those who are familiar with the technology may mention that the techniques and embodiments described herein can be implemented at any place where a person interacts with a device or machine.

在需要一動態表面之情況下,可將上文描述之多輪廓致動器按比例調整至任何必要尺寸。例如,一多輪廓致動器可經整合至一飛機升力面以產生改變其尺寸及輪廓之一動態形狀,以匹配所需參數、修改升力或修改不同高度及飛行姿態下之阻力。作為另一實例,多輪廓致動器可用於汽車中以產生面板及表面,以達成一所要下壓力或管理汽車中別處之氣流。力感測器 In cases where a dynamic surface is required, the multi-contour actuator described above can be scaled to any necessary size. For example, a multi-profile actuator can be integrated into an aircraft's lift surface to generate a dynamic shape that changes its size and profile to match required parameters, modify lift, or modify drag at different altitudes and flight attitudes. As another example, multi-profile actuators can be used in automobiles to generate panels and surfaces to achieve a desired downforce or manage airflow elsewhere in the automobile. Force sensor

在一些實施例中,多輪廓致動器之元件可用於偵測與一輸入相關聯之一力。藉由量測至少一個多彎曲感測器之偏轉且將其與實施方案或致動部分之實體性質組合,可特性化至多輪廓致動器之一輸入。在一實施例中,多輪廓致動器可判定藉由一外部輸入施加至其之力。電池感測器 In some embodiments, the elements of the multi-contour actuator can be used to detect a force associated with an input. By measuring the deflection of at least one multi-bend sensor and combining it with the physical properties of the implementation or the actuation part, it is possible to characterize one input of the multi-profile actuator. In one embodiment, the multi-contour actuator can determine the force applied to it by an external input. Battery sensor

一多彎曲感測器之一可能應用係附接至鋰電池或與鋰電池整合。鋰電池用於各種電子裝置中,諸如一膝上型電腦。隨著時間推移及電池經歷重複充電及放電循環,電池之化學組合物改變,從而導致化學品之積聚,此使電池之表面膨脹及變形。鋰電池亦可經歷熱散逸,其中一鋰電池由於一內部或外部短路、一過量充電或一快速充電而經歷儲存能量之一快速放電。接著,電池經歷非常高溫且其內之化學品變成氣態且膨脹,最終使外殼破裂且產生一火災。因此,電池之表面之膨脹可能指示何時一電池即將發生故障或何時電池之健康已劣化。藉由在實體改變之區域中實施一多彎曲感測器,可確定關於電池之狀態之資訊。One of a number of bending sensors may be attached to or integrated with lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are used in various electronic devices, such as a laptop computer. As time goes by and the battery undergoes repeated charging and discharging cycles, the chemical composition of the battery changes, resulting in the accumulation of chemicals, which swells and deforms the surface of the battery. Lithium batteries can also experience heat dissipation, where a lithium battery undergoes a rapid discharge of stored energy due to an internal or external short circuit, an overcharge or a rapid charge. Then, the battery experiences a very high temperature and the chemicals in it become gaseous and expand, which eventually ruptures the casing and generates a fire. Therefore, the swelling of the surface of the battery may indicate when a battery is about to fail or when the health of the battery has deteriorated. By implementing a multi-bend sensor in the area of physical change, information about the state of the battery can be determined.

轉至圖29,其繪示具有一體地形成於電池之表面上之一彎曲感測器2910之一電池2900。在一實施例中,彎曲感測器可操作地附接至電池之表面。在一實施例中,彎曲感測器在電池之內表面上。Turning to FIG. 29, it shows a battery 2900 having a bending sensor 2910 integrally formed on the surface of the battery. In one embodiment, the bending sensor is operatively attached to the surface of the battery. In one embodiment, the bending sensor is on the inner surface of the battery.

可根據上文論述之實施例之任何者製造彎曲感測器2910。彎曲感測器2910連同電池2900之表面一起移動且判定電池之表面之移動。彎曲感測器2910能夠彎曲以便符合電池2900之表面。此移動指示電池之狀態。此狀態資訊可用於判定由電池保持之電荷及電池之健康。The bend sensor 2910 can be manufactured according to any of the embodiments discussed above. The bending sensor 2910 moves together with the surface of the battery 2900 and determines the movement of the surface of the battery. The bending sensor 2910 can be bent so as to conform to the surface of the battery 2900. This movement indicates the status of the battery. This status information can be used to determine the charge held by the battery and the health of the battery.

彎曲感測器可用於判定其他系統之狀態,其中可量測之移動可歸因於系統之一狀況。例如,彎曲感測器可併入至系統中,其中系統之重量之變化影響槓桿之彎曲量。在一瓦斯燒烤爐中,儲槽之改變的重量可指示儲槽是否為滿的或空的。在一實施例中,彎曲感測器併入至一槓桿中,且隨著儲槽清空,儲槽之重量減小,此反映在由彎曲感測器進行之量測中。The bending sensor can be used to determine the state of other systems, where the measurable movement can be attributed to a state of the system. For example, a bending sensor can be incorporated into the system, where the change in the weight of the system affects the amount of bending of the lever. In a gas grill, the changed weight of the storage tank can indicate whether the storage tank is full or empty. In one embodiment, the bending sensor is incorporated into a lever, and as the tank is emptied, the weight of the tank decreases, which is reflected in the measurement performed by the bending sensor.

本發明之一態樣係一種多輪廓感測器,其包括複數個多彎曲感測器。各多彎曲感測器包括:一參考條帶,其具有第一複數個電極,其中該第一複數個電極之各者經調適以接收一信號;及一滑動條帶,其具有第二複數個電極,其中該第二複數個電極之各者經調適以傳輸至少一個信號。該複數個多彎曲感測器之各者之各滑動條帶及各參考條帶經調適以相對於一對應滑動條帶或參考條帶在至少一個維度上彈性地移動,且相對於至少一個其他滑動條帶或參考條帶自由地移動。該多輪廓感測器進一步包括量測電路,該量測電路經調適以處理由該複數個多彎曲感測器之至少一者之該第一複數個電極接收之信號,其中該等經處理信號提供關於該多輪廓感測器之輪廓之資訊。One aspect of the present invention is a multi-contour sensor including a plurality of multi-bend sensors. Each multi-bend sensor includes: a reference strip having a first plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the first plurality of electrodes is adapted to receive a signal; and a sliding strip having a second plurality of electrodes Electrodes, wherein each of the second plurality of electrodes is adapted to transmit at least one signal. Each sliding strip and each reference strip of each of the plurality of multiple bending sensors are adapted to move elastically in at least one dimension relative to a corresponding sliding strip or reference strip, and relative to at least one other The sliding strip or reference strip moves freely. The multi-contour sensor further includes a measurement circuit adapted to process signals received by the first plurality of electrodes of at least one of the plurality of multi-bend sensors, wherein the processed signals Provide information about the contour of the multi-contour sensor.

本發明之另一態樣係一種多輪廓致動器,該多輪廓致動器包括:一多彎曲感測器,該多彎曲感測器包括:一參考條帶,其具有第一複數個電極,其中該第一複數個電極之各者經調適以接收一信號;及一滑動條帶,其具有第二複數個電極,其中該第二複數個電極之各者經調適以傳輸至少一個信號,且其中該滑動條帶相對於該參考條帶移動。該多輪廓致動器進一步包括:一致動部分,其經組態以實現該多彎曲感測器上之至少一個彎曲;及控制電路,其經調適以控制該致動部分且處理由該第一複數個電極接收之信號,其中該等經處理信號提供關於該多彎曲感測器及該致動部分之該至少一個彎曲之資訊。Another aspect of the present invention is a multi-contour actuator, the multi-contour actuator includes: a multi-bend sensor, the multi-bend sensor includes: a reference strip, which has a first plurality of electrodes , Wherein each of the first plurality of electrodes is adapted to receive a signal; and a sliding strip having a second plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the second plurality of electrodes is adapted to transmit at least one signal, And wherein the sliding strip moves relative to the reference strip. The multi-contour actuator further includes: an actuating portion configured to achieve at least one bend on the multi-bend sensor; and a control circuit adapted to control the actuating portion and processing by the first Signals received by a plurality of electrodes, wherein the processed signals provide information about the at least one bend of the multi-bend sensor and the actuation part.

本發明之又一態樣係一種感測器,該感測器包括:一感測器條帶,其包括定位於其之一表面上之複數個電極,其中該感測器條帶具有一第一端及一第二端,其中該感測器條帶在沿著該感測器條帶之縱向方向之一點處摺疊,其中摺疊該感測器條帶在其中該感測器條帶摺疊之該點處形成該感測器之一遠端,其中歸因於在沿著該縱向方向之該點處之該摺疊,該第一端變得靠近該第二端,其中該第一端靠近該第二端固定;及量測電路,其定位成靠近該第一端及該第二端定位,其中該量測電路經調適以偵測該第一端相對於該第二端之移動。Another aspect of the present invention is a sensor. The sensor includes: a sensor strip including a plurality of electrodes positioned on one of its surfaces, wherein the sensor strip has a first One end and a second end, wherein the sensor strip is folded at a point along the longitudinal direction of the sensor strip, wherein the sensor strip is folded in which the sensor strip is folded The point forms a distal end of the sensor, wherein due to the folding at the point along the longitudinal direction, the first end becomes close to the second end, wherein the first end is close to the The second end is fixed; and a measurement circuit positioned close to the first end and the second end, wherein the measurement circuit is adapted to detect the movement of the first end relative to the second end.

如在本文中且特別是在發明申請專利範圍內使用,諸如第一及第二之序數術語本身並不意欲暗示序列、時間或唯一性,而是用於區分一個所主張構造與另一所主張構造。在內容背景所指定之一些使用中,此等術語可暗示第一及第二係唯一的。例如,在於一第一時間發生一事件且在一第二時間發生另一事件的情況下,不意欲暗示第一時間發生在第二時間之前、在第二時間之後或與第二時間同時發生。然而,在於發明申請專利範圍中呈現第二時間在第一時間之後之進一步限制的情況下,內容背景將需要將第一時間及第二時間理解為唯一時間。類似地,在內容背景如此指定或允許之情況下,意欲廣義地解釋序數術語,使得兩個所識別請求項構造可具有相同特性或具有不同特性。因此,例如,在缺乏進一步限制之情況下,一第一頻率及一第二頻率可為相同頻率,例如,第一頻率係10 Mhz且第二頻率係10 Mhz;或可為不同頻率,例如,第一頻率係10 Mhz且第二頻率係11 Mhz。內容背景可以其他方式指定,例如,其中將一第一頻率及一第二頻率進一步限制為彼此頻率正交,在該情況中,其等可能並非相同頻率。As used herein and especially within the scope of patent applications, ordinal terms such as first and second are not intended to imply sequence, time, or uniqueness, but are used to distinguish one claimed structure from another. structure. In some usages specified in the context of the content, these terms may imply that the first and second series are unique. For example, when an event occurs at a first time and another event occurs at a second time, it is not intended to imply that the first time occurs before, after, or at the same time as the second time. However, in the case that the second time is further restricted after the first time in the scope of the invention application, the content background will require the first time and the second time to be understood as the only time. Similarly, where the content context is so specified or permitted, it is intended to interpret ordinal terms broadly so that the two identified request constructions may have the same characteristics or have different characteristics. Therefore, for example, in the absence of further restrictions, a first frequency and a second frequency may be the same frequency, for example, the first frequency is 10 Mhz and the second frequency is 10 Mhz; or they may be different frequencies, for example, The first frequency is 10 Mhz and the second frequency is 11 Mhz. The content background can be specified in other ways, for example, where a first frequency and a second frequency are further restricted to be frequency orthogonal to each other. In this case, they may not be the same frequency.

雖然已參考本發明之一較佳實施例特別展示及描述本發明,但熟習此項技術者將瞭解,在不脫離本發明之精神及範疇的情況下,可在其中做出形式及細節之各種改變。Although the present invention has been specifically shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, those skilled in the art will understand that various forms and details can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Change.

10:多彎曲感測器 12:滑動條帶 14:參考條帶 16:遠端/端部分/端點 18:間隔件 20:電極/指叉式電極 22:保持器 24:電路 30:對應點 31:對應點 71:起始點 72:起始角/初始已知角 73:終止點 74:終止角 75:中心 76:曲率半徑 77:角範圍 82:滑動條帶 84:參考條帶 110:多彎曲感測器 112:滑動平面 114:參考平面 115:電極 120:三角形電極 121:矩形電極 122:滑動條帶 124:參考條帶 126:匯流排 140:三角形電極 141:矩形電極 142:滑動條帶 144:參考條帶 150:三角形電極 151:矩形電極 152:滑動條帶 154:參考條帶 160:三角形電極 161:矩形電極 162:滑動條帶 164:參考條帶 172:滑動條帶 174:參考條帶 175:相機晶片 176:附接點 182:接收電極 184:傳輸電極 1901:點 2100:多彎曲感測器 2300:單彎曲感測器 2301:近端 2302:遠端 2310:量測電路 2312:電極/電極圖案 2314:中途點 2315:頂部部分 2316:底部部分 2317:間隔件 2320:遠端外殼 2330:近端外殼 2400:多輪廓感測器 2405:外殼 2410:多彎曲感測器 2500:多輪廓感測器 2510:多彎曲感測器 2600:多輪廓感測器 2610:多彎曲感測器 2700:多輪廓致動器 2710:多彎曲感測器 2712:滑動條帶 2714:參考條帶 2716:致動部分 2800:多輪廓致動器 2810:多彎曲感測器 2816:致動部分 2818:感測器 2900:電池 2910:彎曲感測器 L:長度 r:半徑 t:厚度10: Multi-bend sensor 12: Sliding strip 14: Reference strip 16: far end/end part/end point 18: Spacer 20: Electrode / finger electrode 22: retainer 24: Circuit 30: Corresponding point 31: Corresponding point 71: starting point 72: starting angle/initial known angle 73: End point 74: End Angle 75: Center 76: radius of curvature 77: Angle range 82: Sliding Strip 84: reference strip 110: Multi-bend sensor 112: Sliding plane 114: Reference plane 115: Electrode 120: Triangular electrode 121: rectangular electrode 122: Sliding Strip 124: reference strip 126: Bus 140: Triangular electrode 141: rectangular electrode 142: Sliding Strip 144: reference strip 150: Triangular electrode 151: rectangular electrode 152: Sliding Strip 154: Reference Strip 160: Triangular electrode 161: Rectangular electrode 162: Sliding Strip 164: Reference Strip 172: Sliding Strip 174: Reference Strip 175: camera chip 176: attachment point 182: Receiving electrode 184: Transmission electrode 1901: point 2100: Multi-bend sensor 2300: Single bending sensor 2301: near end 2302: remote 2310: measurement circuit 2312: Electrode/electrode pattern 2314: halfway point 2315: top part 2316: bottom part 2317: spacer 2320: remote housing 2330: Proximal shell 2400: Multi-contour sensor 2405: shell 2410: Multi-bend sensor 2500: Multi-contour sensor 2510: Multi-bend sensor 2600: Multi-contour sensor 2610: Multi-bend sensor 2700: Multi-contour actuator 2710: Multi-bend sensor 2712: Sliding Strip 2714: reference strip 2716: Actuation part 2800: Multi-contour actuator 2810: Multi-bend sensor 2816: Actuation part 2818: Sensor 2900: battery 2910: Bend Sensor L: length r: radius t: thickness

從如隨附圖式中所繪示之實施例之以下更特定描述將明白本發明之前述及其他目的、特徵及優點,其中在各個視圖各處,元件符號指代相同零件。圖式不一定按比例,而是將重點放在繪示所揭示實施例之原理。The foregoing and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will be understood from the following more specific description of the embodiments as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, where the reference numerals refer to the same parts throughout the various views. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, but instead focus on illustrating the principles of the disclosed embodiments.

圖1展示一多彎曲感測器之一側視圖。Figure 1 shows a side view of a multi-bend sensor.

圖2展示不同感測器條帶之一仰視圖。Figure 2 shows a bottom view of one of the different sensor strips.

圖3係一滑動感測器條帶及一參考感測器條帶之一示意圖。Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of a sliding sensor strip and a reference sensor strip.

圖4係繪示捲繞在一間隔件周圍(wrapped around)之一參考條帶之一圖。Figure 4 is a drawing showing a reference strip wrapped around a spacer.

圖5係繪示捲繞在一間隔件周圍之一滑動條帶之一圖。Figure 5 is a drawing showing a sliding strip wrapped around a spacer.

圖6係由一滑動條帶及一參考條帶形成之一感測器條帶之另一視圖。Figure 6 is another view of a sensor strip formed by a sliding strip and a reference strip.

圖7A係繪示一片段之計算之一圖。FIG. 7A is a diagram showing the calculation of a segment.

圖7B係繪示一片段之計算之一圖。Fig. 7B is a diagram showing the calculation of a segment.

圖8係繪示對曲線使用一線性片段分析之一圖。Figure 8 is a diagram showing the use of a linear segment analysis on the curve.

圖9係繪示線性片段分析中之角度之判定之一圖。Figure 9 is a diagram showing the angle determination in linear segment analysis.

圖10係繪示經間隔電極之一圖。Figure 10 shows a diagram of the spaced electrodes.

圖11係繪示一多平面多彎曲感測器之一圖。Fig. 11 is a diagram showing a multi-plane and multi-bend sensor.

圖12係採用三角形電極及矩形電極之一多彎曲感測器之一圖。Figure 12 is a diagram of a multi-bend sensor using triangular electrodes and rectangular electrodes.

圖13係採用三角形電極及矩形電極之一多彎曲感測器之另一圖,其進一步繪示連接。FIG. 13 is another diagram of a multi-bend sensor using a triangular electrode and a rectangular electrode, which further illustrates the connection.

圖14係採用三角形電極及矩形電極之一多彎曲感測器之一圖。Figure 14 is a diagram of a multi-bend sensor using triangular electrodes and rectangular electrodes.

圖15係採用三角形電極及矩形電極之一多彎曲感測器之另一圖。Figure 15 is another diagram of a multi-bend sensor using triangular electrodes and rectangular electrodes.

圖16係採用三角形電極及矩形電極之一多彎曲感測器之另一圖。Figure 16 is another diagram of a multi-bend sensor using triangular electrodes and rectangular electrodes.

圖17係展示平行條帶與一相機晶片之使用之一圖。Figure 17 is a diagram showing the use of parallel strips and a camera chip.

圖18係展示能夠判定翹曲之一感測器之一電極圖案之一圖。FIG. 18 is a diagram showing an electrode pattern of a sensor capable of determining warpage.

圖19係機械多彎曲感測器之一圖。Figure 19 is a diagram of a mechanical multi-bend sensor.

圖20A展示一多彎曲感測器之一滑動條帶、一參考條帶及一間隔件條帶之一俯視圖。Figure 20A shows a top view of a sliding strip of a multi-bend sensor, a reference strip and a spacer strip.

圖20B展示圖20A之多彎曲感測器之一側視圖。Fig. 20B shows a side view of the multi-bend sensor of Fig. 20A.

圖21A展示一多彎曲感測器之一等角視圖。Figure 21A shows an isometric view of a multi-bend sensor.

圖21B係圖21A之多彎曲感測器之一側視圖。Fig. 21B is a side view of the multi-bend sensor of Fig. 21A.

圖22A繪示在一平坦位置中之一多彎曲感測器。Figure 22A shows a multi-bend sensor in a flat position.

圖22B繪示在一彎曲位置中之一多彎曲感測器。Figure 22B illustrates one of the multiple bending sensors in a bending position.

圖22C繪示當一多彎曲感測器處於一平坦位置及一彎曲位置時之代表性電極位置。FIG. 22C shows representative electrode positions when a multi-bend sensor is in a flat position and a bent position.

圖23係一單彎曲感測器之一示意性剖視側視圖。Figure 23 is a schematic cross-sectional side view of a single bending sensor.

圖24係一多輪廓感測器之一圖。Figure 24 is a diagram of a multi-contour sensor.

圖25係一多輪廓感測器之一圖。Figure 25 is a diagram of a multi-contour sensor.

圖26係一多輪廓感測器之一圖。Figure 26 is a diagram of a multi-contour sensor.

圖27係一多輪廓致動器之一圖。Figure 27 is a diagram of a multi-contour actuator.

圖28係一多輪廓致動器之一圖。Figure 28 is a diagram of a multi-contour actuator.

圖29係具有一多彎曲感測器之一電池之一圖。Figure 29 is a diagram of a battery with a multi-bend sensor.

12:滑動條帶 12: Sliding strip

14:參考條帶 14: Reference strip

20:電極/指叉式電極 20: Electrode / finger electrode

24:電路 24: Circuit

Claims (14)

一種多輪廓感測器,其包括: 複數個多彎曲感測器;各多彎曲感測器包括:一參考條帶,其具有第一複數個電極,其中該第一複數個電極之各者經調適以接收一信號;及一滑動條帶,其具有第二複數個電極,其中該第二複數個電極之各者經調適以傳輸至少一個信號,其中該複數個多彎曲感測器之各者之各滑動條帶及各參考條帶經調適以相對於一對應滑動條帶或參考條帶在至少一個維度上彈性地移動,且相對於至少一個其他滑動條帶或參考條帶自由地移動; 量測電路,其經調適以處理由該複數個多彎曲感測器之至少一者之該第一複數個電極接收之信號,其中該等經處理信號提供關於該多輪廓感測器之輪廓之資訊。A multi-contour sensor, which includes: A plurality of multi-bend sensors; each multi-bend sensor includes: a reference strip having a first plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the first plurality of electrodes is adapted to receive a signal; and a sliding bar A strip having a second plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the second plurality of electrodes is adapted to transmit at least one signal, wherein each sliding strip and each reference strip of each of the plurality of multiple bending sensors It is adapted to move elastically in at least one dimension relative to a corresponding sliding strip or reference strip, and to move freely relative to at least one other sliding strip or reference strip; A measurement circuit adapted to process signals received by the first plurality of electrodes of at least one of the plurality of multi-bend sensors, wherein the processed signals provide information about the contour of the multi-contour sensor News. 如請求項1之多輪廓感測器,其中該複數個多彎曲感測器平行地配置。Such as the multi-contour sensor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of multi-bend sensors are arranged in parallel. 如請求項1之多輪廓感測器,其中該複數個多彎曲感測器配置成一交織圖案。Such as the multi-contour sensor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of multi-bend sensors are arranged in an interlaced pattern. 如請求項1之多輪廓感測器,其中該複數個多彎曲感測器之一組配置成垂直於該複數個多彎曲感測器之一第二組;且其中該第一組之該等多彎曲感測器放置於該第二組之該多彎曲感測器之頂部上。Such as the multi-contour sensor of claim 1, wherein a group of the plurality of multi-bend sensors is arranged perpendicular to a second group of the plurality of multi-bend sensors; and wherein the first group of the The multi-bend sensor is placed on the top of the second group of the multi-bend sensor. 如請求項1之多輪廓感測器,其中該多輪廓之該等輪廓形成一可展表面。Such as the multi-contour sensor of claim 1, wherein the contours of the multi-contour form a developable surface. 一種多輪廓致動器,其包括: 一多彎曲感測器,其包括:一參考條帶,其具有第一複數個電極,其中該第一複數個電極之各者經調適以接收一信號;及一滑動條帶,其具有第二複數個電極,其中該第二複數個電極之各者經調適以傳輸至少一個信號,且其中該滑動條帶相對於該參考條帶移動; 一致動部分,其經組態以實現該多彎曲感測器上之至少一個彎曲;及 控制電路,其經調適以控制該致動部分且處理由該第一複數個電極接收之信號,其中該等經處理信號提供關於該多彎曲感測器及該致動部分之該至少一個彎曲之資訊。A multi-contour actuator includes: A multi-bend sensor, comprising: a reference strip having a first plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the first plurality of electrodes is adapted to receive a signal; and a sliding strip having a second A plurality of electrodes, wherein each of the second plurality of electrodes is adapted to transmit at least one signal, and wherein the sliding strip moves relative to the reference strip; The actuating part, which is configured to realize at least one bend on the multi-bend sensor; and A control circuit adapted to control the actuation part and process the signals received by the first plurality of electrodes, wherein the processed signals provide information about the at least one bending of the multi-bend sensor and the actuation part News. 如請求項6之多輪廓致動器,其中該致動部分包括一電活性聚合物。The multi-contour actuator according to claim 6, wherein the actuating part includes an electroactive polymer. 如請求項6之多輪廓致動器,其中該致動部分包括一雙金屬材料。The multi-contour actuator of claim 6, wherein the actuating part includes a bimetal material. 如請求項6之多輪廓致動器,其中該致動部分包括一液壓致動器及一氣動致動器之至少一者。Such as the multi-contour actuator of claim 6, wherein the actuation part includes at least one of a hydraulic actuator and a pneumatic actuator. 如請求項9之多輪廓致動器,其中該液壓致動器及該氣動致動器之至少一者可操作地連接至至少一個囊。The multi-contour actuator of claim 9, wherein at least one of the hydraulic actuator and the pneumatic actuator is operatively connected to at least one bladder. 如請求項6之多輪廓致動器,其中該致動部分在藉由一電容力、一電阻力及一電感力之至少一者激發之後實現該至少一個彎曲。The multi-contour actuator of claim 6, wherein the actuating part realizes the at least one bending after being excited by at least one of a capacitive force, a resistive force, and an inductive force. 一種感測器,其包括: 一感測器條帶,其包括定位於其之一表面上之複數個電極,其中該感測器條帶具有一第一端及一第二端,其中該感測器條帶在沿著該感測器條帶之縱向方向之一點處摺疊,其中摺疊該感測器條帶在其中該感測器條帶摺疊之該點處形成該感測器之一遠端,其中歸因於在沿著該縱向方向之該點處之該摺疊,該第一端變得靠近該第二端,其中該第一端靠近該第二端固定;及 量測電路,其定位成靠近該第一端及該第二端,其中該量測電路經調適以偵測該第一端相對於該第二端之移動。A sensor including: A sensor strip including a plurality of electrodes positioned on one surface thereof, wherein the sensor strip has a first end and a second end, wherein the sensor strip is positioned along the The sensor strip is folded at a point in the longitudinal direction, wherein folding the sensor strip forms a distal end of the sensor at the point where the sensor strip is folded, wherein the With the folding at the point in the longitudinal direction, the first end becomes close to the second end, wherein the first end is fixed close to the second end; and The measurement circuit is positioned close to the first end and the second end, wherein the measurement circuit is adapted to detect the movement of the first end relative to the second end. 如請求項1之感測器,其進一步包括定位成靠近該第一端及該第二端之一近端外殼。Such as the sensor of claim 1, which further includes a proximal housing positioned close to the first end and the second end. 如請求項1之感測器,其進一步包括定位於該感測器條帶之一頂部部分與該感測器條帶之下部部分之間的一間隔件。Such as the sensor of claim 1, which further includes a spacer positioned between a top part of the sensor strip and a lower part of the sensor strip.
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