TW201905957A - A plasma chamber having an electrode assembly - Google Patents

A plasma chamber having an electrode assembly

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Publication number
TW201905957A
TW201905957A TW107119619A TW107119619A TW201905957A TW 201905957 A TW201905957 A TW 201905957A TW 107119619 A TW107119619 A TW 107119619A TW 107119619 A TW107119619 A TW 107119619A TW 201905957 A TW201905957 A TW 201905957A
Authority
TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
bus
rf
plasma
plurality
workpiece
Prior art date
Application number
TW107119619A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
肯尼士S 柯林斯
麥可R 萊斯
卡提克 拉馬斯瓦米
詹姆士D 卡度希
沙西德 羅夫
卡羅 貝拉
Original Assignee
美商應用材料股份有限公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US15/630,828 priority Critical
Priority to US201762523768P priority
Priority to US15/630,828 priority patent/US20180374686A1/en
Priority to US62/523,768 priority
Priority to US15/630,658 priority
Priority to US15/630,658 priority patent/US20180374685A1/en
Application filed by 美商應用材料股份有限公司 filed Critical 美商應用材料股份有限公司
Publication of TW201905957A publication Critical patent/TW201905957A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32532Electrodes
    • H01J37/32568Relative arrangement or disposition of electrodes; moving means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32082Radio frequency generated discharge
    • H01J37/32091Radio frequency generated discharge the radio frequency energy being capacitively coupled to the plasma
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32082Radio frequency generated discharge
    • H01J37/321Radio frequency generated discharge the radio frequency energy being inductively coupled to the plasma
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32082Radio frequency generated discharge
    • H01J37/321Radio frequency generated discharge the radio frequency energy being inductively coupled to the plasma
    • H01J37/32119Windows
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32458Vessel
    • H01J37/32513Sealing means, e.g. sealing between different parts of the vessel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32532Electrodes
    • H01J37/32541Shape
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32532Electrodes
    • H01J37/32577Electrical connecting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32623Mechanical discharge control means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32715Workpiece holder
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32733Means for moving the material to be treated
    • H01J37/32752Means for moving the material to be treated for moving the material across the discharge

Abstract

A processing tool for plasma processing includes a chamber body, a workpiece support, an actuator, a gas distributor, an electrode assembly, and a first RF power source, the chamber body having an interior space that provides a plasma chamber The chamber body has a top plate and an opening on a side opposite the top plate, the workpiece support holding the workpiece such that at least a portion of the front surface of the workpiece faces the opening, the actuator being in the chamber body and the Relative movement between the workpiece supports such that the opening moves laterally across the workpiece, the gas distributor delivers process gas to the plasma chamber, the electrode assembly comprising a plurality of coplanar filaments, the plurality of The filament extends laterally through the plasma chamber between the workpiece support and the top plate, each of the plurality of filaments comprising a conductor, the first RF power source providing a first to the conductors of the electrode assembly RF power to form a plasma.

Description

Plasma chamber with electrode assembly

The present disclosure is directed to a processing tool that includes a plasma chamber, such as a plasma chamber for depositing a film on a workpiece (such as a semiconductor wafer), etching the workpiece, or processing the workpiece.

Plasma is typically produced using a capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) source or an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. The basic CCP source contains two metal electrodes similar to a parallel plate capacitor, which are separated by a small distance in a gaseous environment. One of the two metal electrodes is driven by a fixed frequency radio frequency (RF) power supply and the other electrode is connected to the RF ground, creating an RF electric field between the two electrodes. The generated electric field ionizes the gas atoms and releases electrons. The electrons in the gas are accelerated by the RF electric field and ionize the gas directly or indirectly by collision, resulting in a plasma.

The basic ICP source typically contains a spiral or coil shaped conductor. When an RF current flows through the conductor, an RF magnetic field is formed around the conductor. The RF magnetic field is accompanied by an RF electric field that ionizes the gas atoms and produces a plasma.

Plasmas of various process gases are widely used in the manufacture of integrated circuits. For example, plasma can be used for thin film deposition, etching, and surface treatment.

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique based on sequential gas phase chemical processes. Part of the ALD process uses plasma to provide the necessary activation energy for chemical reactions. The plasma enhanced ALD process can be performed at lower temperatures than non-plasma enhanced (eg, "hot") ALD processes.

In one aspect, a processing tool for plasma processing includes a chamber body, a workpiece support, an actuator, a gas distributor, an electrode assembly, and a first RF power source, the chamber body having an interior space, the interior The space provides a plasma chamber having a top plate and an opening on a side opposite the top plate, the workpiece support holding the workpiece such that at least a portion of the front surface of the workpiece faces the opening, the actuator being A relative movement between the chamber body and the workpiece support is caused such that the opening moves laterally across the workpiece, the gas distributor delivers process gas to the plasma chamber, the electrode assembly comprising a plurality of coplanar filaments (coplanar filaments), the plurality of coplanar filaments extending laterally through the plasma chamber between the workpiece support and the top plate, each of the plurality of filaments comprising a conductor, the first RF power source The conductors of the electrode assembly provide a first RF power to form a plasma.

Implementations may include one or more of the following features.

The workpiece support is rotatable about a rotational axis, and the actuator can rotate the workpiece support such that rotation of the support carries the workpiece across the opening.

A plurality of coplanar filaments can extend across the wedge region. The workpiece can be fully fitted within the wedge shaped region such that the entire front surface of the workpiece is exposed to the plasma during operation. The workpiece may be larger than the wedge region such that the wedge portion of the front surface of the workpiece is exposed to the plasma during operation. The opening can be wedge shaped.

The plurality of coplanar filaments can be linear filaments, and the different filaments can have different lengths to define the wedge shaped regions. A plurality of coplanar filaments may extend in parallel. A plurality of coplanar filaments can be evenly spaced apart. Different wires can be oriented at different angles. The plurality of coplanar filaments can be oriented such that the plasma density produced in the wedge region is lower at the apex of the wedge region than at the base of the wedge region. The plurality of coplanar filaments can be oriented to have a longitudinal axis that is at a non-zero angle relative to a direction of motion of the portion of the substrate below the opening. The non-zero angle can be greater than 10°.

The spacing between the coplanar filaments may be sufficient to avoid pinching of the plasma region between the region above the electrode assembly within the chamber and the region below. The bottom of the chamber can be open. The tool can include a top electrode on the top plate of the chamber.

The ends of the plurality of coplanar filament conductors may be coupled to the first RF power source by a recursive RF feed structure. The opposite ends of the plurality of coplanar wires can be connected to a common bus. The bus can be connected to the first RF power source at two opposite locations.

A first plurality of conductors of the plurality of coplanar filaments may be coupled to the first RF power source, and a second plurality of conductors of the plurality of coplanar filaments may be floating or grounded. A first end of the plurality of coplanar wire conductors can be coupled to the first RF power source via a common bus. The conductors of the first set and the conductors of the second set may be arranged to alternate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the wire.

In another aspect, a plasma reactor includes a chamber body, a gas distributor, a workpiece support, an electrode assembly, a first RF power source and a dielectric substrate, the chamber body having an interior space that provides plasma a chamber that delivers process gas to the plasma chamber, the workpiece support holding the workpiece, the electrode assembly including a plurality of conductors in a parallel coplanar array with the workpiece support Interspersed and laterally across the workpiece support, the first RF power source provides a first RF power to the electrode assembly, the dielectric substrate being between the electrode assembly and the workpiece support, the dielectric substrate being An RF window is provided between the electrode assembly and the plasma chamber.

Implementations may include one or more of the following features.

A plurality of conductors can be positioned between the dielectric top plate and the dielectric window. The dielectric top plate may be a ceramic body, and the dielectric substrate may be quartz or tantalum nitride.

The lower surface of the bottom plate can have a plurality of parallel grooves, and a plurality of parallel coplanar conductors can be positioned in the plurality of parallel grooves. A plurality of wires can be positioned in a plurality of slots. Each wire may include a conductor and a non-metallic shell surrounding the conductor. The shell can form a conduit and the conductor can be suspended in the conduit and extend through the conduit. The conductor can include a hollow conduit.

A plurality of conductors can be coated on the dielectric top plate. A plurality of conductors can be embedded in the dielectric top plate.

The plurality of conductors can be evenly spaced apart. The spacing between the workpiece support and the plurality of conductors may be from 2 mm to 50 cm.

The plurality of conductors can include a first multiple conductor and a second multiple conductor, the second multiple conductors being arranged in a pattern alternating with the first multiple conductors. The RF power source can be configured to apply a first RF input signal to the first multiple conductor and a second RF input signal to the second multiple conductor. The RF power source can be configured to generate the first RF signal and the second RF signal at the same frequency. The RF power source can be configured to generate the first RF signal and the second RF signal such that the phase difference between the first RF signal and the second RF signal is 180°. The RF power source can be configured to provide an adjustable phase difference between the first RF signal and the second RF signal.

The plurality of conductors can have a plurality of first ends on a first side of the plasma chamber and a plurality of second ends on opposite second sides of the plasma chamber. The RF power source can be configured to apply a first RF input signal to the first end of the first multiple conductor and a second RF input signal to the second end of the second multiple conductor. The second end of the first multiple conductor may be floating, and the first end of the second multiple conductor may be floating. A first end of the first multiple conductor may be coupled to the first shared bus, and a second end of the second multiple conductor may be coupled to the second shared bus. The first multifilament may be grounded and the first end of the second multifilament may be grounded.

a first end of the first multiple conductor may be coupled to a first common bus external to the plasma chamber on a first side of the chamber, and a second end of the second multiple conductor may be coupled to the first chamber a second common bus outside the plasma chamber on the two sides. a second end of the first multiple conductor may be coupled to a third common bus external to the plasma chamber on the second side of the chamber, and a first end of the second multiple conductor may be coupled to the first chamber The fourth shared bus outside the plasma chamber on the side.

In another aspect, the plasma reactor includes a chamber body, a gas distributor, a pump, a workpiece support, a chamber electrode assembly, a first bus and a second bus, an RF power source, and at least one RF switch. The chamber body has an internal space that provides a plasma chamber that delivers process gas to the plasma chamber, the pump coupled to the plasma chamber to evacuate the chamber, the workpiece support held a workpiece, the intracavity electrode assembly comprising a plurality of wires extending laterally through the plasma chamber between the top plate of the plasma chamber and the workpiece support, each wire comprising a cylindrical insulation a conductor surrounded by a casing, wherein the plurality of wires comprise a first multifilament and a second multifilament, the second multifilament and the first multifilament being arranged in an alternating pattern, the first bus coupling a first multi-wire coupled to the second multi-wire, the RF power source applying an RF signal to the intra-chamber electrode assembly, the at least one RF switch configured to controlably control the first bus to One of each is electrically coupled and decoupled: i) , Ii) RF power supply, or iii) the second bus.

Implementations may include one or more of the following features.

The at least one RF switch can include a plurality of RF switches connected in parallel between the first bus and one of: i) ground, ii) RF power, or iii) a second bus.

At least one RF switch can be configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus from the second bus. The at least one RF switch can include a plurality of switches connected in parallel between different pairs of locations on the first bus and the second bus to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the second bus.

The at least one RF switch can include a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground and includes at least one second RF switch configured to The second bus is controllably coupled and decoupled to ground. The at least one RF switch can include a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between different locations on the first bus and ground, and the at least one second switch can include parallel connection between different locations on the second bus and ground The second plurality of switches connected. Different locations on the first bus can include opposite ends of the first bus, and different locations on the second bus can include opposite ends of the second bus.

The at least one RF switch can include a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between different locations on the first bus and the RF power source, and the at least one second switch can include different locations on the second bus and RF power A second plurality of switches connected in parallel. Different locations on the first bus can include opposite ends of the first bus, and different locations on the second bus can include opposite ends of the second bus. The at least one RF switch can include a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between the RF power source at different locations on the first bus, and the at least one second switch can include different locations on the second bus and ground A second plurality of switches connected in parallel. Different locations on the first bus can include opposite ends of the first bus, and different locations on the second bus can include opposite ends of the second bus.

The at least one RF switch includes a first switch and includes at least one second switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the RF power source, the at least one second switch configured to be controllably The second bus is electrically coupled and decoupled from the RF power source.

Some implementations can include a third bus coupled to the first multi-wire, the fourth bus coupled to the second multi-filament, wherein the plurality of wires have a plurality of first ends and a plurality of wires Second ends, and the first ends of the respective filaments are closer to the first side wall of the plasma chamber than the second end of the corresponding filament, and wherein the first bus is coupled to the first multifilament a first end, the second bus is coupled to the first ends of the second multi-wire, the third bus is coupled to the second ends of the first multi-filament, and the fourth bus coupling Connected to the second ends of the second multifilament.

The at least one RF switch can be configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the second bus, and can include at least one second RF switch configured to controllably The three bus is electrically coupled and decoupled to the fourth bus.

The at least one RF switch can include a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground, and can include at least one second RF switch, the second RF switch The configuration controllably couples and decouples the third bus to ground.

The RF source can be coupled to the fourth bus via a first tap and to the second bus via a second tap.

Some implementations can include at least one third RF switch configured to controllably couple and decouple the third bus to ground, and including at least one fourth RF switch configured to be controllable The fourth bus is electrically coupled and decoupled to ground. The at least one RF switch can include a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground, and including at least one second RF switch, at least one third RF switch, The second RF switch is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to the RF source, the third RF switch configured to controllably couple and decouple the third bus to ground. And including at least one fourth RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the fourth bus from the RF source.

The at least one RF switch includes a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the RF source, and includes at least one second RF switch, at least one third RF switch The second RF switch is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to the RF source, the third RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and disconnect the third bus to the RF source And coupled to at least one fourth RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the fourth bus from the RF source.

In another aspect, the plasma reactor includes a chamber body, a gas distributor, a pump, a workpiece support, a chamber electrode assembly, a bus, an RF power source, and a plurality of RF switches, the chamber body having an interior space, The internal space provides a plasma chamber that delivers process gas to the plasma chamber, the pump coupled to the plasma chamber to evacuate the chamber, the workpiece support holding the workpiece, the chamber electrode assembly A plurality of wires are included that extend laterally through the plasma chamber between the top plate of the plasma chamber and the workpiece support, each wire comprising a conductor surrounded by a cylindrical insulating shell, the bus An RF power source applies an RF signal to the intracavity electrode assembly outside the chamber and coupled to the opposite ends of the plurality of wires, the plurality of RF switches configured to controlably control a plurality of different positions on the bus to One of the parties is electrically coupled and decoupled: i) ground or ii) the RF power source.

Some implementations may have one or more of the following advantages. Improve plasma uniformity. It can improve the repeatability of the plasma process. Can reduce metal pollution. Can reduce particle generation. Can reduce plasma charging damage. The uniformity of the plasma can be maintained under different process operating conditions. It can improve the power coupling efficiency of plasma. For workpieces of a given size, the plasma area can be reduced. Can improve the plasma process output. The workpiece can be continuously carried through the plurality of chambers while remaining on the support. The effect of the relative velocity during exposure to the plasma can be compensated for, thereby improving uniformity within the wafer. By switching, the effect of local unevenness in the plasma region can be reduced, thereby improving uniformity within the wafer. Low impedance RF grounding is available. Can reduce particle generation. Can reduce plasma charging damage. The uniformity of the plasma can be maintained under different process operating conditions. It can improve the power coupling efficiency of plasma. A grounded top electrode integrated with the gas distribution showerhead can be implemented for introducing gas in a uniform manner without creating undesirable gas decomposition in the nozzle orifice.

In a conventional plasma reactor, the workpiece remains stationary within the reaction chamber. A plasma region is created above the stationary workpiece, which in turn processes the workpiece surface. However, certain plasma processing applications may benefit from moving the workpiece through the plasma region, ie the relative motion between the plasma region and the workpiece. Additionally, for some tools, the substrate is moved between different chambers for a series of processing steps.

One way to achieve relative motion between the workpiece and the plasma region is by placing the workpiece on a workpiece support that moves along a linear path, such as a conveyor belt. In such a configuration, the workpiece can be passed a single pass in one direction through the plasma zone and exit on the other side of the chamber. This may be advantageous for certain sequential processes in which the workpiece travels through multiple chambers of different types as part of the manufacturing process.

Another way to achieve relative motion between the workpiece and the plasma region is by placing the workpiece on a rotating workpiece support. Rotating the workpiece support can pass through the plasma region multiple times without changing the direction of travel, which can increase throughput because the workpiece support does not need to continuously change its direction of travel. However, if the support rotates, different regions of the workpiece may move at different speeds relative to the regional plasma.

In conventional CCP sources, plasma uniformity is typically determined by electrode size and distance between electrodes as well as gas pressure, gas composition, and applied RF power. At higher radio frequencies, additional effects may become significant or even dominate non-uniformities due to the presence of standing waves or skin effects. This additional effect becomes more pronounced at higher frequencies and plasma densities.

Plasma uniformity in conventional ICP sources is typically determined by the configuration of the ICP coil, including its size, geometry, distance to the workpiece, and associated RF window position, as well as gas pressure, gas composition, and power. In the case of multiple coils or coil segments, the current or power distribution and its relative phase may also be significant factors if driven at the same frequency. Due to the skin effect, power deposition tends to occur within a few centimeters below or near the ICP coil, and such localized power deposition typically results in process non-uniformities that reflect coil geometry. This plasma non-uniformity results in a potential difference across the workpiece, which can also cause damage to the plasma charge (eg, dielectric gate dielectric breakdown).

A large diffusion distance is usually required to improve the uniformity of the ICP source. However, due to low power coupling, conventional ICP sources with thick RF windows are typically inefficient at high air pressures, which results in high drive currents resulting in high resistive power losses. Conversely, the chamber electrode assembly does not need to have an RF window, but only a cylindrical shell. This can provide better power coupling and higher efficiency.

In a plasma chamber having a moving workpiece support, the moving workpiece support can be DC grounded through, for example, a rotating mercury coupler, brush or slip ring. However, the moving workpiece support may not be sufficiently grounded at the radio frequency. The RF ground path should have a much lower impedance than the plasma to make it sufficient RF ground. The lack of sufficient RF ground path may make it difficult to control the ion energy at the workpiece and reduce process repeatability.

Therefore, there is a need for a plasma source having the following properties: it can efficiently produce a uniform plasma having desired characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature, ion energy, dissociation, etc.) in the size of the workpiece; it can adjust the operation window evenly Sex (such as pressure, power, gas composition); it has stable and repeatable electrical properties even when the workpiece moves; and it does not produce excessive metal contaminants or particles. The intrachamber electrode assembly may better provide one or more of these properties.

FIG. 1 is a schematic side view of an example of a processing tool. The processing tool 100 has a chamber body 102 that encloses an interior space 104. The interior space 104 can be cylindrical, such as for receiving a circular workpiece support. At least part of the internal space is used as a plasma chamber or a plasma reactor. The chamber body 102 has a support 106 for providing mechanical support for various components within the interior space 104. For example, the support 106 can provide support for the top electrode 108. The top electrode can be suspended within the interior space 104 and can be spaced apart from the top plate, abutting the top plate, or forming a portion of the top plate. Portions of the sidewalls of the chamber body 102 may be grounded independently of the top electrode 108.

The gas distributor 110 is located adjacent the top plate of the plasma reactor section of the processing tool 100. In some implementations, gas distributor 110 and top electrode 108 are integrated into a single component. Gas distributor 110 is coupled to gas supply 112. The gas supply 112 delivers one or more process gases to the gas distributor 110, the composition of which may depend on the process to be performed, such as deposition or etching.

A vacuum pump 113 is coupled to the interior space 104 to evacuate the processing tool. For some processes, the chamber operates in the Torr range, and the gas distributor 110 supplies argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and/or other gases.

A workpiece support 114 for supporting the workpiece 115 is positioned in the processing tool 100. The workpiece support 114 has a workpiece support surface 114a that faces the top plate of the processing tool 100. For example, the workpiece support surface 114a can face the top electrode 108. The workpiece support 114 is operatively rotatable about the shaft 150. For example, the actuator 152 can rotate the drive shaft 154 to rotate the workpiece support 114. In some implementations, the shaft 150 is coincident with the center of the workpiece support 114.

In some implementations, the workpiece support 114 includes a workpiece support electrode 116 inside the workpiece support 114. In some implementations, the workpiece support electrode 116 can be grounded or connected to a grounded impedance or circuit. In some implementations, RF bias power generator 142 is coupled to workpiece support electrode 116 via impedance matching 144. The workpiece support electrode 116 can additionally include an electrostatic chuck, and the workpiece bias voltage supply 118 can be coupled to the workpiece support electrode 116. The RF bias power generator 142 can be used to generate plasma, control electrode voltage or electrode sheath voltage, or to control the ion energy of the plasma.

Additionally, the workpiece support 114 can have an internal passage 119 for heating or cooling the workpiece 115. In some implementations, an embedded resistive heater can be disposed inside the internal passage 119.

In some implementations, the workpiece support 114 is heated by radiation, convection, or conduction from a heating element located within the bottom interior space 133.

The chamber electrode assembly 120 is positioned in the interior space 104 between the top electrode 108 and the workpiece support 114. This electrode assembly 120 includes one or more coplanar filaments 300 that extend laterally within the chamber and over the support surface 114a of the workpiece support 114. At least a portion of the coplanar filaments of the electrode assembly 120 above the workpiece support 114 extends parallel to the support surface 114a. Although the left side of FIG. 1 depicts the direction of motion of the wire 300 parallel to the workpiece 115 (in and out of the page), the wire 300 may be at a non-zero angle relative to the direction of motion, such as substantially perpendicular to the direction of motion.

A top gap 130 is formed between the top electrode 108 and the chamber electrode assembly 120. A bottom gap 132 is formed between the workpiece support 114 and the chamber electrode assembly 120.

The interior space 104 can be divided into one or more regions 101a, 101b by a barrier, at least one of which serves as a plasma chamber. The barrier defines one or more openings 123 above the workpiece support. In some implementations, the electrode assembly 120 is positioned within the opening 123. In some implementations, the electrode assembly is placed over the opening 123. In some implementations, the barrier is integrally formed from the support 106 and the opening 123 is formed on the support 106. In some implementations, the opening 123 formed on the support 106 is configured to support the electrode assembly 120.

Electrode assembly 120 is driven by RF power source 122. The RF power source 122 can supply power to one or more coplanar wires of the electrode assembly 120 at a frequency of 1 MHz to over 300 MHz. For some processes, the RF power source 120 provides 100 W to a total RF power of greater than 2 kW at a frequency of 60 MHz.

In some implementations, it may be desirable to select the bottom gap 132 to allow the free radicals, ions, or electrons generated by the plasma to interact with the surface of the workpiece. The choice of gap depends on the application and on the method of operation. For some applications where a free radical flux (but very low ion/electron flux) needs to be delivered to the surface of the workpiece, operation at larger gaps and/or higher pressures can be selected. For other applications where a free radical flux and a large amount of plasma ion/electron flux need to be delivered to the surface of the workpiece, operation at smaller gaps and/or lower pressures may be selected. For example, in some low temperature plasma enhanced ALD processes, free radicals of the process gas are necessary for the deposition or processing of the ALD film. A free radical is an atom or molecule that has unpaired electrons. Free radicals are generally highly chemically active against other substances. The reaction of free radicals with other chemicals often plays an important role in membrane deposition. However, free radicals are usually short-lived due to their high chemical activity and therefore cannot be transported very far during their life cycle. Placing a source of free radicals (i.e., the chamber electrode assembly 120 as a source of plasma) adjacent the surface of the workpiece 115 can add a supply of free radicals to the surface to improve the deposition process.

The life cycle of free radicals usually depends on the pressure of the surrounding environment. Thus, the height of the bottom gap 132 that provides a satisfactory free radical concentration can vary depending on the expected chamber pressure during operation. In some implementations, if the chamber is operated at a pressure in the range of 1 to 10 Torr, the bottom gap 132 is less than 1 cm. In other (less) low temperature plasma enhanced ALD processes, exposure to plasma ion flux (and accompanying electron flux) and free radical flux may be necessary to deposit and process ALD films. In some implementations, if the chamber is operated at a pressure in the range of 1-10 Torr, the bottom gap 132 is less than 0.5 cm. Due to the lower volumetric recombination rate relative to the distance, lower operating pressures can operate at larger gaps. In other applications, such as etching, a lower operating pressure (less than 100 mTorr) is typically used and the gap can be increased.

In such applications where the bottom gap 132 is small, the plasma generated by the electrode assembly 120 may have significant non-uniformities between the filaments, which may be detrimental to the processing uniformity of the workpiece. By moving the workpiece through a plasma having spatial inhomogeneities, the time averaging effect (i.e., the amount of accumulated plasma received in any given region of the workpiece after a single pass through the plasma is substantially similar) can be mitigated. The effect of plasma space non-uniformity on the process.

A sufficiently large top gap can be chosen to allow the plasma to develop between the chamber electrode assembly and the top electrode (or chamber top). In some implementations, if the chamber is operated at a pressure in the range of 1-10 Torr, the top gap 130 can be between 0.5-2 cm, such as 1.25 cm.

The top electrode 108 can be configured in a variety of ways. In some implementations, the top electrode is connected to the RF ground 140. In some implementations, the top electrode is electrically isolated ("floating"). In some implementations, the top electrode 108 is biased to a bias voltage. The bias voltage can be used to control the characteristics of the plasma produced (including ion energy). In some implementations, the top electrode 108 is driven with an RF signal. For example, driving the top electrode 108 relative to the workpiece support electrode 116 that has been grounded can increase the plasma potential at the workpiece 115. The increased plasma potential can increase the ion energy to the desired value.

The top electrode 108 can be formed from a different process compatible material. Various criteria for process computability include resistance of the material to process gas etching and resistance to sputtering from ion strikes. Moreover, where the amount of material is etched, the process compatible material preferentially forms volatile or gaseous compounds (which may be evacuated by vacuum pump 113) and does not form particles that may contaminate workpiece 115. Thus, in some implementations, the top electrode is made of tantalum. In some implementations, the top electrode is made of tantalum carbide.

In some implementations, the top electrode 108 can be omitted. In such an implementation, the RF ground path may be provided by the workpiece support electrode, a subset of the coplanar filaments of the electrode assembly 120, or by a chamber wall or other ground-referenced surface in communication with the plasma. provide.

In some implementations, the fluid supply 146 circulates fluid through the passages in the chamber electrode assembly 120. In some implementations, the heat exchanger 148 is coupled to the fluid supply 146 to remove heat or supply heat to the fluid.

Depending on the chamber configuration and the supplied process gas, the plasma reactor in the processing tool 100 can provide an ALD device, an etching device, a plasma processing device, a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition device, a plasma doping device, or a plasma. Surface cleaning equipment.

2A is a schematic top view of an example of a processing tool 200. Processing tool 200 is similar to processing tool 100 except as described. The processing tool 200 has a cylindrical chamber body 202, an interior space 204 having a cylindrical shape, a support 206, an electrode assembly 220, and a precursor station 260. The support 206 is located at the center of the processing tool 200, and a plurality of radial spacers 270 are formed to divide the interior space 204 into multiple processing regions. For example, the plurality of processing regions may be configured to have a wedge shape (eg, a circular cross section or an equilateral triangle), or may be cut at the apex. The processing area can be configured in various ways to achieve the various functions required for the operation of the processing tool 200.

The precursor processing region is configured to process the workpiece 115 with one or more precursors (eg, for an ALD process). For example, the first precursor station 260a positioned within the precursor processing region 280a can be configured to flow or pump the chemical precursor A such that the workpiece 115 is processed as the workpiece 115 moves under the precursor station 260a. Precursor station 260a can then process workpiece 115 with chemical precursor B to prepare the surface of workpiece 115, such as for surface treatment of ALD film forming plasma.

In some implementations, the precursor processing region 280 includes a plurality of sub-regions having respective precursor stations 260 for respective chemical precursors. In some implementations, the sub-regions are sequentially arranged along the path of the workpiece 115. In some implementations, the movement of the workpiece 115 is stopped during the precursor surface treatment. In some implementations, workpiece 115 is continuously moved through precursor processing region 280.

The gas isolation region 281 is configured to provide spatial isolation of individual processing environments of a plurality of processing regions, such as the first processing region and the second processing region. The gas isolation zone 281 can include a first pumping zone 282, a purge zone 283, and a second pumping zone 284, each zone being separated by a respective radial spacer 270. In conventional systems, isolation of the processing environment may be provided by a hermetic seal between the first and second processing zones. However, due to the rotating workpiece support 114, it may not be practical to provide such a seal. Conversely, an isolation level sufficient for plasma processing applications (e.g., ALD) can be provided by interposing a gas isolation region 281 between the first and second processing regions.

Referring to FIG. 2B, a cross-sectional view of a portion of the processing tool 200 along section line B is depicted. During operation, the first pumping zone 282 adjacent the first processing zone (e.g., precursor processing zone 280a) produces a negative pressure differential relative to the first processing zone. For example, a vacuum pump can be used to create a negative pressure differential. The negative pressure differential causes the process gas leaking from the first processing zone to be pumped through the first pumping zone 282 as indicated by the arrows. Similarly, the second pumping zone 284 adjacent the second processing zone provides a negative pressure differential relative to the second processing zone (e.g., plasma processing zone 285a).

A purge zone 283 located between the first pumping zone 282 and the second pumping zone 284 supplies purge gas. Examples of the purge gas include inert gases such as argon and nitrogen. Due to the negative pressure difference generated by the first and second pumping zones, the purge gas supplied by the purge zone 283 is pumped to the first and second pumping zones as indicated by the arrows. The presence of the purge gas may prevent the respective process gases of the first and second processing zones from mixing with one another, and mixing the respective process gases of the first and second process zones with each other may cause unnecessary chemical reactions, resulting in unnecessary deposition, etching, or The residue is produced.

Providing a first radial gap height H 1 114 of spacer 270 and the gap between the workpiece support. The first gap height can be determined based on providing sufficient clearance for the workpiece 115 to pass while reducing process gas leakage into the pumping zones 282 and 284. For example, the first gap height can be in the range of 2-4 mm, such as 3 mm.

Referring back to FIG. 2A, the plasma processing region 285 is configured to treat the workpiece 115 with plasma. For example, electrode assembly 220a located within plasma processing region 285a can produce a plasma for processing the surface of workpiece 115. The precursor-treated surface of the workpiece 115 that has moved through the gas isolation region 281 is treated with a plasma generated by the electrode assembly 220a. In some implementations, the plasma treatment completes a deposition cycle of a single atomic layer of the first ALD film.

In some implementations, electrode assembly 220 is formed in a rectangular shape as shown. In some implementations, the electrode assembly 220 is formed in a wedge shape.

Referring back to FIG. 2B, in some implementations, the process gas for the plasma processing region 285 is provided through a gas inlet 210 formed adjacent the electrode assembly 220. In particular, the gas inlet 210 may be disposed adjacent the edge of the gas isolation zone 281 of the plasma processing zone 285a. For example, a channel may be formed between one of the spacers 270 and the outer wall 221 of the electrode assembly 220a.

The second gap height H 2 provides a gap between the electrode assembly 220 and the workpiece support 114. The second gap height can be determined based on providing sufficient clearance for the workpiece 115 to pass and provide processing gas to the interior region of the electrode assembly 220 while reducing process gas leakage into the pumping regions 282 and 284. For example, the second gap height may be in the range of 1-3 mm, such as 2 mm. In some implementations, a gas inlet is formed on the entry side of the workpiece 115. In some implementations, the gas inlet is formed toward the radially outer edge of the electrode assembly, which is adjacent the chamber wall 202. In some implementations, the gas inlet is formed toward the center of the workpiece support 114, such as near the shaft 150.

In some implementations, the top electrode 208 is formed as part of or supported by the electrode assembly 220a. For example, the top electrode 208 can be supported by the top plate 221a.

Referring to FIG. 2C, a cross-sectional view of a portion of the processing tool 200 along section line C is depicted. In some implementations, as shown, the support 206 is configured to provide mechanical support for the electrode assemblies 220a and 220b.

In some implementations, the processing tool 200 includes a second precursor processing region 280b and a second plasma processing region 285b. Regions 280b and 285b can be configured to deposit a second ALD film. In some implementations, the second ALD film is the same as the first ALD film deposited by regions 280a and 285a. Such an implementation can improve the deposition rate of a single ALD film. In some implementations, the second ALD film is different from the first ALD. In such an implementation, two different ALD films can be deposited in an alternating manner. In general, processing tool 200 can be configured to deposit 2, 3, 4 or more types of ALD films.

In general, the workpiece 115 can be passed a single pass or can pass through the processing area multiple times. For example, the direction of rotation can be alternated to pass through a particular processing region multiple times.

In general, the processing regions can be arranged in any order. For example, the precursor treatment zone may be followed by 2 different plasma treatment zones having the same or different plasma characteristics.

With respect to Figure 1 or Figures 2A-2C, the electrode assembly 120 or 220 includes one or more coplanar filaments 300 that extend laterally within the chamber and over the support surface of the workpiece support. At least a portion of the coplanar filaments of the electrode assembly above the workpiece support extend parallel to the support surface. The wire 300 can be at a non-zero angle relative to the direction of motion, such as substantially perpendicular to the direction of motion.

The electrode assembly can include a sidewall 221 that surrounds the electrode plasma chamber region. The sidewalls can be formed from process compatible materials such as quartz. In some implementations, the filaments project laterally from the sidewall. In some implementations, the ends of the wires 300 extend out of the top plate of the electrode assembly and are turned to provide a portion parallel to the support surface of the workpiece (see Figure 2C).

3A-C are schematic illustrations of various examples of filaments within a chamber electrode assembly. Referring to Figure 3A, a wire 300 of a chamber electrode assembly 120 is shown. The wire 300 includes a conductor 310 and a cylindrical shell 320 that surrounds the conductor 310 and extends along the conductor 310. The passage 330 is formed by a gap between the conductor 310 and the cylindrical case 320. The cylindrical casing 320 is formed of a non-metallic material compatible with the process. In some implementations, the cylindrical shell is semi-conductive. In some implementations, the cylindrical shell is insulated.

Conductor 310 can be formed from a variety of materials. In some implementations, the conductor 310 is a solid wire, such as a single solid wire having a diameter of 0.063". Alternatively, the conductor 310 can be provided by a plurality of stranded wires. In some implementations, the conductor contains three parallel 0.032" stranded wires . Multiple stranded wires can reduce RF power loss through the skin effect. In some implementations, the conductor 310 is formed of a Litz wire that further reduces the skin effect.

Using materials with high electrical conductivity (eg higher than 10 7 Siemens / meter (Siemen / m)), this can reduce the resistance power loss. In some implementations, the conductor 310 is made of copper or a copper alloy. In some implementations, the conductor is made of aluminum.

Unnecessary material sputtering or etching can result in process contamination or particle formation. Irrespective sputtering or etching may occur regardless of whether the intracavity electrode assembly 120 is used as a CCP or as an ICP source. Unnecessary sputtering or etching may be caused by excessive ion energy on the surface of the electrode. When operating as a CCP source, an oscillating electric field around the cylindrical shell is required to drive the plasma discharge. Since the sputtering energy threshold of all known materials is lower than the corresponding minimum operating voltage of the CCP source, this oscillation causes sputtering or etching of the material. When operated as an ICP source, the capacitive coupling of the wire 300 to the plasma creates an oscillating electric field at the nearby surface, which also causes sputtering of the material. By using process compatible materials for the outer surface of the wire 300 exposed to the interior space 104 (e.g., the cylindrical casing 320), problems caused by unnecessary material sputtering or etching can be alleviated.

In some implementations, the cylindrical shell 320 is formed from a process compatible material such as tantalum (e.g., high resistivity tantalum), an oxide material, a nitride material, a carbide material, a ceramic material, or a combination of the above. Examples of the oxide material include cerium oxide (e.g., vermiculite, quartz) and alumina (e.g., sapphire). Examples of the carbide material include tantalum carbide. Ceramic materials or sapphire may be required for certain chemical environments, including fluorinated environments or fluorocarbon-containing environments. In a chemical environment containing ammonia, dichlorosilane, nitrogen and oxygen, helium, tantalum carbide or quartz may be required.

In some implementations, the cylindrical shell 320 has a thickness of 0.1 mm to 3 mm, such as 2 mm.

In some implementations, fluid is provided in channel 330. In some implementations, the fluid is a non-oxidizing gas to purify oxygen to mitigate oxidation of the conductor 310. Examples of non-oxidizing gases are nitrogen and argon. In some implementations, the non-oxidizing gas is continuously flowed through the passage 330, such as by the fluid supply 146, to remove residual oxygen or water vapor.

Heating the conductor 310 can make the conductor more susceptible to oxidation. The fluid may provide cooling to the conductors 310 that may be heated from the supplied RF power. In some implementations, fluid is circulated through passage 330, such as by fluid supply 146, to provide forced convection temperature control, such as cooling or heating.

In some implementations, the fluid can be near or above atmospheric pressure to prevent fluid breakdown. For example, gas decomposition or unnecessary plasma formation in the tube can be prevented by providing a fluid pressure above 100 Torr.

Referring to FIG. 3B, in some implementations of wire 300, conductor 310 has a coating 320. In some implementations, the coating 320 is an oxide of a material that forms a conductor (such as alumina on an aluminum conductor). In some implementations, the coating 320 is cerium oxide. In some implementations, the coating 320 is formed in situ in the plasma reactor of the processing tool 100, such as by the reaction of decane, hydrogen, and oxygen to form a cerium oxide coating. An in situ coating may be advantageous because the in situ coating may be replenished during etching or sputtering. The in-situ coating may have a thickness ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

Referring to FIG. 3C, in some implementations of wire 300, conductor 310 is hollow and a hollow channel 340 is formed inside conductor 310. In some implementations, as described in Figure 3A, the hollow channel 340 can carry a fluid. A coating of process compatible material can cover conductor 310 to provide a cylindrical shell 320. In some implementations, the coating 320 is an oxide of a material that forms a conductor (such as alumina on an aluminum conductor). In some implementations, the hollow conductor 310 has an outer diameter of 2 mm with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm.

4A is a schematic illustration of a portion of an intrachamber electrode assembly. The chamber electrode assembly 400 includes a plurality of coplanar filaments 300 attached at a support 402. The electrode array is formed from a plurality of coplanar wires 300. The electrode assembly 400 can provide the electrode assembly 120. In some implementations, the wires 300 extend parallel to each other at least over a region corresponding to where the workpiece has been processed.

The wires 300 are separated from each other by a wire pitch 410. The spacing 410 can affect plasma uniformity. If the spacing is too large, the silk will cause shadowing and unevenness. On the other hand, if the pitch is too small, the plasma cannot move between the top gap 130 and the bottom gap 132, and the unevenness will increase or the radical density will decrease.

In general, the value required for the wire spacing 410 depends on several factors. Examples of such factors include chamber pressure, RF power, distance between wire 300 and workpiece 115, and process gas composition. For example, the wire spacing 410 can be increased when operating at lower pressures (e.g., below 2 Torr) and having a large distance between the wire and the workpiece (e.g., greater than 3 mm).

In some implementations, the wire spacing 410 is uniform across the assembly 400. The wire pitch 410 can range from 3 mm to 20 mm, such as 8 mm.

4B-C are schematic cross-sectional views of a chamber electrode assembly having different plasma region states. Referring to Figure 4B, under some operating conditions, the plasma region 412 surrounds the wire 300. Examples of such operating conditions may include driving all of the filaments with the same RF signal (ie, "monopolar") and having a grounded top electrode. The plasma region 412 has an upper plasma region 414 and a lower plasma region 416. The upper plasma region 414 can be located at the top gap 130 and the lower plasma region 416 can be located at the bottom gap 132. As shown in FIG. 4B, the upper plasma region 414 and the lower plasma region 416 are joined by a gap between the wires 300 to form a continuous plasma region 412. This continuity of the plasma region 412 is contemplated because the regions 414 and 416 are "connected" to each other by the exchange of plasma. The exchange of plasma helps maintain the electrical balance of the two regions, which contributes to the stability and repeatability of the plasma.

Referring to FIG. 4C, in this state, the upper plasma region 414 and the lower plasma region 416 are not connected to each other. For plasma stability, this "shrinkage" of the plasma region 412 is undesirable. The shape of the plasma region 412 can be varied by various factors to remove plasma region discontinuities or to improve plasma uniformity.

In general, regions 412, 414, and 416 can have a wide range of plasma densities and are not necessarily uniform. Furthermore, the discontinuity between the upper plasma region 414 and the lower plasma region 416 shown in Figure 4C represents a substantially low plasma density relative to the two regions, and does not necessarily have no electricity in the gap. Pulp.

Under some operating conditions, such as the absence or floating of the top electrode, and the grounding of the workpiece support electrode, there may be no plasma region 414 formed or a low plasma density.

In some implementations, the chamber electrode assembly 400 can include a first set and a second set of wires 300. The first set and the second set may be spatially aligned such that the filaments alternate between the first set and the second set. For example, the first set can include wires 302 and the second set can include wires 300 and 304. The first group can be driven by the first terminal 422a of the RF power source 422, and the second group can be driven by the second terminal 422b of the RF power source 422. The RF power source 422 can be configured to provide a first RF signal at terminal 422a and a second RF signal at terminal 422b. The first and second RF signals may have the same frequency and a stable phase relationship to each other. For example, the phase difference between the first and second RF signals can be 0 degrees or 180 degrees. In some implementations, the phase relationship between the first and second RF signals provided by RF power supply 422 can be adjustable between 0 and 360. In some implementations, the RF supply 422 can include two individual RF power supplies that are phase locked to each other.

Under some operating conditions, for example, when the phase difference between the first and second RF signals is 180, the resulting plasma regions can be concentrated between the filaments.

The top gap 130 is a factor that affects the shape of the plasma region. When the top electrode 108 is grounded, reducing the top gap 130 generally results in a decrease in the plasma density in the upper plasma region 414. The specific value of the top gap 130 can be determined based on computer simulation of the plasma chamber. For example, the top gap 130 can be from 3 mm to 8 mm, such as 4.5 mm.

The bottom gap 132 is a factor that affects the shape of the plasma region. When the workpiece support electrode 116 is grounded, reducing the bottom gap 132 generally reduces the plasma density in the lower plasma region 416. The specific value of the bottom gap 132 can be determined based on a computer simulation of the plasma chamber. For example, the bottom gap 132 can be from 3 mm to 9 mm, such as 4.5 mm.

In general, chamber pressure is a factor that affects the shape of the plasma region.

5A and 5B are schematic illustrations of various examples of intra-chamber electrode assembly configurations. Referring to Figures 5A and 5B, in some implementations, electrode assembly 106 can include a first set of conductors 120a and a second set of conductors 120b. At least within the plasma chamber 104, the first and second sets of conductors 120a, 120b can be arranged in an alternating pattern. The first group can be driven by the first terminal 122a of the RF power source 122 and the second group can be driven by the second terminal 122b of the RF power source 122. The RF power source 122 can be configured to provide a first RF signal at terminal 122a and a second RF signal at terminal 122b. The first and second RF signals may have the same frequency and a stable phase relationship to each other. For example, the phase difference between the first and second RF signals can be 180 degrees. By driving the conductors 120a, 120b with an RF signal having a phase difference of 180 degrees, the resulting plasma distribution can have a lower sensitivity to imperfect RF grounding of the electrodes 116. Without being bound by any particular theory, this may be because the RF current is returned through the adjacent electrodes due to the differential nature of the drive signal. In some implementations, the phase relationship between the first and second RF signals provided by RF power supply 122 can be adjustable from 0 to 360.

In order to generate a signal, the unbalanced output signal of the oscillator from the RF power supply can be coupled to a balun (balance-unbalance transformer) 124, and the balun 124 is A balance signal is output on the terminals 122a, 122b. Alternatively, RF supply 122 may include two separate RF power supplies that are phase locked to each other.

Referring to FIG. 5A, the electrode assembly 120 includes a first electrode subassembly 510 that includes a first set of conductors 120a and a second electrode subassembly 520 that includes a second set of conductors 120b. The conductor 120a of the first electrode subassembly 510 and the conductor 120b of the second electrode subassembly 520 are interdigited.

The subassemblies 510, 520 each have a plurality of parallel conductors 120a, 120b that extend across the chamber 104. Each of the other electrodes 120 (e.g., electrode 120a) is coupled to a first bus 530 on one side of the chamber 104. The remaining (alternating) electrodes 120 (i.e., electrodes 120b) are each connected to a second bus 540 on the other side of the chamber 104. The ends of the individual conductors 120 that are not connected to the RF power supply bus may remain unconnected, such as floating.

The first bus 530 can be connected to the first terminal 122a, and the second bus can be connected to the second terminal 122b. The first electrode subassembly 510 and the second electrode subassembly 520 are oriented parallel to each other such that the conductors of the subassemblies 510 and 520 are parallel to each other.

In some implementations, the buses 530, 540 that connect the conductors 120a, 120b are located outside of the interior space 104. This is better for improving uniformity within the chamber 104. However, in some implementations, the buses 530, 540 that connect the conductors 120a, 120b are located in the interior space 104.

Figure 5B illustrates an electrode assembly 106 similar to that shown in Figure 5A, but the ends of the individual conductors 120 that are not connected to the RF power supply bus can be grounded, such as to a grounded bus. For example, electrode 120a can be coupled to chamber 104 as a third bus 550 on the side of second bus 550, and electrode 120b can be coupled to fourth bus 560 on the same side of chamber 104 as first bus 530. Each bus 550, 560 can be grounded through an adjustable impedance 580, such as an impedance matching network.

For FIG. 5A or FIG. 5B, a low frequency common mode bias can optionally be applied between the electrode subassemblies 510, 520. This can controllably increase the plasma potential.

5C illustrates a chamber electrode assembly 106 that includes a first electrode subassembly 522 and a second electrode subassembly 532 that are configured such that the wires of subassemblies 522 and 532 are They extend at a non-zero angle to each other (eg, perpendicular to each other).

The intracavity electrode assembly 106 can be driven with RF signals in a variety of ways. In some implementations, subassembly 522 and subassembly 532 are driven with the same RF signal relative to the RF ground. In some implementations, subassembly 522 and subassembly 532 are driven with differential RF signals. In some implementations, subassembly 522 is driven with an RF signal and subassembly 532 is connected to RF ground.

5D illustrates a chamber electrode assembly 106 that includes a first electrode subassembly 524 and a second electrode subassembly 534 that are overlaid with the second electrode subassembly 534. The first electrode subassembly 524 and the second electrode subassembly 534 each have a plurality of parallel wires 300 connected by respective buses 530, 540, 550 and 560 at respective ends of the respective bus. The first electrode subassembly 524 and the second electrode subassembly 534 are configured such that the wires of the subassemblies 524 and 534 are parallel to each other and the wires of the subassemblies 524, 534 are arranged in an alternating pattern.

The intracavity electrode assembly 106 can be driven with RF signals in a variety of ways. In some implementations, subassembly 524 and subassembly 534 are driven with the same RF signal relative to the RF ground. In some implementations, subassembly 524 and subassembly 534 are driven with a differential RF signal. In some implementations, subassembly 524 is driven with an RF signal and subassembly 534 is coupled to RF ground.

In some implementations, the chamber electrode assembly 106 is driven with an RF signal in a single-ended manner using a center feed 590. The center feed 590 is connected to the X-shaped current separator 592 at the center. The four corners of sub-assemblies 524 and 534 are connected to X-shaped current separator 592 using a vertical feed structure.

In general, when sufficient RF grounding is not provided (eg, by rotating a mercury coupler, brush, or slip ring for RF grounding), the differentials of sub-assemblies 510, 522, 524 and corresponding sub-assemblies 520, 532, 534 Drives can improve plasma uniformity or process repeatability.

FIG. 6A is a schematic top view of an interior region of an example of a processing tool 650. In the processing tool 650, the workpiece support 114 rotates about the shaft 150, and the rotation of the workpiece support 114 causes the workpiece 115 to move under the electrode assembly 600 through the plasma region created by the electrode assembly 600. Processing tool 650 is similar to processing tool 200, and electrode assembly 600 is similar to electrode assembly 400, unless otherwise stated.

As the workpiece 115 rotates about the axis 150 through the plasma region, the speed experienced by the different surface regions of the workpiece varies as a function of their radial distance from the axis 150. For example, the area of the workpiece that is away from the shaft 150 moves faster than the area that is closer to the shaft 150. For rectangular or linear plasma regions, the workpiece region further away from the shaft 150 experiences a correspondingly shorter dwell time in the plasma region. This radial non-uniformity of residence time results in non-uniformity in the amount of plasma received on the workpiece, causing unnecessary process non-uniformities.

One method of compensating for the aforementioned residence time non-uniformity is to vary the local density of the plasma region in proportion to the local velocity of the wafer. For example, the local plasma density can be increased in proportion to the radial distance from the shaft 150. By increasing the plasma density at regions of higher local velocity, these regions receive an equal amount of plasma during their respective shorter residence times. However, spatial inhomogeneities in plasma density may result in uneven charging of the surface of the workpiece, creating a potential difference across the surface of the workpiece. Depending on the grain size and component sensitivity, a sufficiently large potential difference on the surface (eg, greater than 2 volts, 5 volts, 10 volts, 15 volts, 25 volts) may result in damage to components fabricated on the workpiece, such as thin transistor gates. The dielectric breakdown of the dielectric layer.

Another way to compensate for the non-uniformity of the residence time is by changing the geometry of the plasma region. The geometry of the plasma region can be varied such that regions of higher local velocity travel through respective longer portions of the plasma region to equalize residence times of different regions of the workpiece surface. For the configuration shown in Figure 6A, the wedge plasma region can be used to achieve dwell time equalization. In such a configuration, the radial increase in local velocity by movement away from the shaft 150 can be counteracted by a proportional increase in the arc length of the wedge shaped plasma regions on each region.

The aforementioned wedge-shaped plasma regions can be formed by configuring the coplanar wires and openings 627 of the electrode assembly 600 in various ways. One way is to configure the electrode array formed by the wires of the electrode assembly 600 in a wedge-like manner. For example, the respective lengths of the individual coplanar filaments of the electrode array can be varied such that the overall contour of the electrode array defines a wedge shape. In some implementations, the support 206 can provide support at respective ends of the coplanar filaments of the electrode array.

Another way to form the wedge shaped plasma region is to form a plasma region larger than the size of the opening 627 by forming an opening 627 to have a wedge shape and using an electrode array of the electrode assembly 600 that is larger than the opening 627 (such as the electrode assembly 400). A portion of the resulting plasma region can then be blocked by the wedge shaped opening to create a wedge shaped plasma region. For example, the support 206 can provide a wedge shaped opening 627.

In general, various factors may affect the size of the wedge-shaped plasma region. In some applications, partial or incomplete plasma coverage on the surface of the workpiece can lead to unfavorable results. For example, workpiece 115 may contain components that are susceptible to damage to the charge, such as a transistor having a thin gate dielectric layer. In this case, the potential generated between the region of the workpiece 115 exposed to the plasma and the region not exposed to the plasma may cause dielectric breakdown of the gate dielectric layer, causing permanent damage to the sensitive element. . This problem can be alleviated by adjusting the size of the plasma region to be larger than the workpiece, thereby achieving complete plasma coverage over the entire surface of the workpiece. In some implementations, the size of the plasma region is adjusted such that the workpiece can move through the plasma region while maintaining complete plasma coverage.

In some implementations, such as where the plasma region is larger than the workpiece, the timing of applying RF power to the electrode assembly 600 can be coordinated with the movement of the workpiece 115 to ensure that the entire surface experienced by the workpiece is uniformly exposed to the plasma. For example, the plasma can be generated (ignited) after the entire workpiece is moved under opening 627 or electrode assembly 600, and the plasma is turned off (extinguished) before the workpiece exits the plasma region. In this case, the plasma region need not be wedge shaped.

However, in some cases, the use of electrode assembly 600 to create large plasma regions (eg, greater than 300 mm x 300 mm) can be challenging. If the workpiece to be treated can withstand an incomplete plasma coating on its surface, the size of the plasma region can be adjusted to be smaller than the surface of the workpiece in one direction of the workpiece. For example, as shown in FIG. 6A, the wedge electrode assembly 600 (and thus the plasma region) is smaller than the workpiece diameter in the direction of travel of the workpiece 115, but is larger than the diameter of the workpiece relative to the shaft 150 in the radial direction to achieve the diameter. Complete coverage in the direction.

Other considerations for adjusting the size of the plasma region include workpiece moving speed, target processing rate, and target plasma exposure time to achieve the desired processing duration or throughput.

In some implementations, the plasma can be coordinated with the movement of the workpiece to ensure that a stable plasma is established before the workpiece enters the plasma region. For example, in the process of requiring a relatively short plasma exposure time, the time it takes to strike the plasma can be a significant fraction of the overall plasma exposure time. Because the plasma is relatively unstable during the impact phase, the resulting process repeatability may be compromised. By establishing a stable plasma prior to introduction of the workpiece, the plasma exposure time and amount can be precisely controlled by controlling the speed of the workpiece as it moves through the plasma region. For such an implementation, regardless of whether the plasma region is larger or smaller than the workpiece, it is advantageous that the plasma region is wedge shaped to compensate for differences in exposure time. In some implementations, the generated plasma is maintained on the processing of multiple workpieces.

Assuming that the processing tool 650 has a fixed plasma region size, various process parameters can be controlled to achieve the desired plasma processing characteristics. Examples of process parameters that can be controlled include processing rate, exposure time, workpiece moving speed profile, number of plasma exposures, and total plasma exposure. For example, the workpiece may pass through the plasma region multiple times or may oscillate at a location within the plasma region.

Figure 6B is a schematic top view of an example of a wedge electrode assembly for producing a wedge shaped plasma region. The wedge electrode assembly 600 has a plurality of coplanar filaments 610 and a frame 620. The electrode assembly 600 is similar to the electrode assemblies 120, 220, and 400 unless otherwise stated. The frame 620 has a first end 602, a second end 604, a central angle θca, an inner radius R 1 , an outer radius R 2 and a flat line 605. The first end 602 is the short end of the electrode assembly 600, sometimes referred to as a vertex. The second end 604 is the longer end of the electrode assembly 600, sometimes referred to as the base. Multiple coplanar filaments 610 are similar to filaments 300 unless otherwise stated. Each coplanar filament 610 has a respective length L, an angle θ (theta) relative to the bisector 605. The length L is defined as the linear portion of the coplanar filament 610 in a region parallel and adjacent to the workpiece support surface (e.g., 114a). Each pair of adjacent coplanar filaments 610 is separated by a respective spacing S, which is defined as the center-to-center distance between adjacent filaments. For non-parallel wires, the spacing S is defined as the minimum center-to-center spacing along the length of the pair of adjacent filaments.

There are various considerations for determining the angle theta of the wire 610. One consideration in determining the angle theta is the trajectory of the workpiece 115 as the workpiece 115 moves under the electrode assembly 600. In some cases, the plasma produced by electrode assembly 600 can have non-uniformities in the plasma that extend along the direction of wire 610. For example, under certain operating conditions, there may be an elongated region of reduced plasma density between a pair of filaments 610. If the point on the surface of the workpiece travels along a region of reduced plasma density, then that point will receive a reduced amount of plasma exposure, resulting in a non-uniform process. By arranging the filaments to have an appropriate theta value (e.g., less than or greater than 90, but not including 90), such tangential travel along the reduced plasma density region can be reduced, thereby improving process uniformity. For example, by setting the theta to 60°, the points on the surface of the workpiece pass under a plurality of filaments, exposing to a localized plasma zone having a reduced density and nominal density along the way, resulting in a time average of the amount of plasma exposure. In some implementations, the respective theta of the plurality of coplanar filaments 610 are equal, ie, the filaments are parallel.

In some implementations, the respective θ of the filaments 610 differ based on their respective locations within the electrode assembly 600. For example, for filaments near the base 604 of the wire-to-assembly 600 near the apex 602, the respective theta monotonically increases to maintain the length of the wire 610 across the electrode assembly 600 equal. When the assembly 600 is operated as an ICP source, filaments of equal length can improve uniformity.

In general, the number of coplanar filaments 610 is determined by the size of the plasma region, theta, and spacing S to achieve desired plasma region characteristics, such as plasma density, uniformity.

In general, the spacing S can be determined based on the considerations regarding the wire spacing 410 discussed in FIG.

The frame 620 defines the shape of the electrode assembly 600 and the shape of the plasma region formed by the electrode assembly 600. The inner radius, the outer radius and the central angle determine the size of the wedge electrode, which in turn defines the size of the plasma region. The size of the frame can be determined based on the previous discussion regarding the size of the adjusted plasma region of Figure 6B.

Frame 620 can be formed from different process compatible materials. Suitable process compatible materials include materials described with respect to the cylindrical shell 320, such as quartz. Other examples of process compatible materials include ceramics (such as aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride) and various tantalum nitrides (such as SiN, Si 3 N 4 ).

Although the frame 620 has been described with respect to the wedge electrode assembly 600, the wire 610 can be formed and arranged to have the wedge shape described without the need for the frame 620 to achieve similar results.

An example of a wedge electrode assembly has the following design characteristics: R 1 = 91 mm, R 2 = 427 mm, center angle = 31°, theta = 60°, wire center to center spacing = 15 mm, wire number = 20, frame material = quartz.

Referring to FIG. 6C, in some implementations, the frame 620 has a cutout 622. The slit 622 can be shaped to cut the wedge shaped top electrode 624. The wedge top electrode 624 can be grounded or biased to a bias voltage. The wedge shaped top electrode 624 can be formed from a variety of process compatible materials such as germanium. In some implementations, the wedge electrode is shaped to be inserted into the slit 622 to fill the slit 622.

Referring to FIG. 6D, a cross-sectional view of a portion of the frame 620 along section line A is depicted. In some implementations, the frame has an upper portion 625, an inner sidewall 626, and an opening 627.

In general, the respective lengths L of the plurality of coplanar filaments 610 are set to produce a plasma region of the desired shape. The frame 620 can be shaped to provide support for the coplanar filaments 610. In some implementations, the end of the coplanar filament 610 is supported by the inner sidewall 626 of the frame 620, similar to the configuration shown in Figure 6B. In some implementations, the ends of the coplanar filaments 610 are supported by the upper portion 625 of the frame 620 by bending (e.g., 90°), as shown in electrode assembly 220a of Figure 2B. In some implementations, the opening 627 of the frame 620 can determine the shape of the plasma region.

In some implementations, theta is close to zero, such as <20°. Referring to Figure 6E, assembly 601 has two wires and the wires are arranged at θ = 0°, i.e., the wires are parallel to bisector 605. The frame 620 of assembly 601 has a cutout 622 and a wedge electrode 624. The wedge electrode 624 can be grounded. In such a configuration, the shape of the plasma region produced by electrode assembly 601 is affected by the interaction between wire 610 and wedge electrode 624, creating a wedge shaped plasma region. In configurations where the theta is close to 0°, as the direction of travel of the workpiece 115 is substantially close to 90° relative to the orientation of the wire 610, the effect of plasma non-uniformity parallel to the wire 610 can be reduced.

7A-7D are conceptual diagrams of various electrical configurations of a wedge electrode assembly. The wires of the electrode assembly can be electrically connected in a variety of different configurations. Referring to FIG. 7A, the electrode assembly 700 is similar to the electrode assembly 600, and has a first bus 730 and a second bus 740. The first bus 730 and the second bus 740 can be located on opposite sides of the chamber body 102, such as outside of the chamber.

The first bus 730 has a first end 750 and a second end 751 opposite the first end 750. The first bus 730 and the second bus 740 are electrically connected to respective opposite ends of the respective wires 710 of the electrode assembly 700. Wire 710 is similar to wire 300 unless otherwise stated. The electrode assembly 700 can be driven in various ways using one or more RF power sources.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 730 and the second bus 740 is connected to the RF ground. In such a configuration, RF current flows through the wire 710, and the electrode assembly can be used primarily as a source of ICP plasma.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 730 and the second bus 740 is electrically floating. In such a configuration, the electrode assembly can be used primarily as a CCP plasma source. The RF current return path may be provided by the chamber body 102, the upper electrode 108, the wedge top electrode 624, or the workpiece support electrode 116.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 730 at the first end 750, the second RF power source drives the first bus 730 at the second end 751, and the second bus 740 is connected to the RF ground. In such a configuration, the electrode assembly can be used primarily as a source of ICP plasma.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 730 and the second RF power source drives the second bus 740.

In general, RF power is selected to be connected to the RF drive point of the bus to optimize the uniformity of the resulting plasma. For example, the drive point position can be selected based on minimizing the non-uniformity of the RF signal amplitude experienced by the individual wires 710.

In some implementations, the intrachamber electrode assembly can include a first set and a second set of coplanar filaments. The first and second sets of filaments may be arranged in an alternating pattern in a direction perpendicular to their longitudinal axes. As a result, the coplanar filaments alternate between the first group and the second group.

Referring to FIG. 7B, electrode assembly 702, similar to electrode assembly 600, has a first set and a second set, a first set may include coplanar filaments 710 and 714, and a second set includes coplanar filaments 712. The first group is electrically coupled to the first bus 732 and the second group is electrically coupled to the second bus 742. One end of each wire away from the bus to which it is connected may be "floating" or grounded. If the ends of the filaments are floating, the two sets of filaments can be considered to form an array of interdigitated fingers.

The first bus 732 can have a first end 752 and a second end 753 opposite the first end 752. In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 732 with the first RF signal and the second RF power source drives the second bus 742 with the second RF signal. The first and second RF signals may have the same frequency and a stable phase relationship as each other. For example, the phase difference between the first RF signal and the second RF signal may be 0 degrees or 180 degrees. In some implementations, the phase relationship between the first and second RF signals provided by RF power supply 422 can be adjustable between 0 and 360. In some implementations, the RF supply 422 can include two individual RF power supplies 422a and 422b that are phase locked to each other.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 732 and the second bus 742 is connected to the RF ground. In this case, the second bus 742 and the even array of wires connected to the second bus 742 can be used as an RF current return path.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 732 at the first end 752, and the second RF power source drives the first bus 732 at the second end 753, and the second bus 742 is connected to the RF ground.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 732 and the second RF power source drives the second bus 742. In this case, the electrode assembly 702 can be primarily used as a CCP plasma source. The RF current return path may be provided by the chamber body 102, the top electrode 108, the wedge top electrode 624, or the workpiece support electrode 116.

Referring to FIG. 7C, the electrode assembly 704, similar to the electrode assembly 600, has a single bus 734. Bus 734 is electrically coupled to both ends of wire 710.

In some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 734. The first bus 734 can have a first end 754 and a second end 755, and in some implementations, the first RF power source drives the first bus 734 at the first end 754 and the second RF power source is driven at the second end 755 First bus 734. In such a configuration, the electrode assembly can be used primarily as a CCP plasma source. The RF current return path may be provided by the chamber body 102, the top electrode 108, the wedge top electrode 624, or the workpiece support electrode 116.

Referring to FIG. 7D, the electrode assembly 706, similar to the electrode assembly 600, has a first bus 736 and a second bus 746. First bus 736 and second bus 746 are electrically coupled to respective opposite ends of wire 710 of electrode assembly 706. The first RF power source drives the first bus 736 at a drive point 756. The second bus 746 can be connected to the RF ground.

The first RF signal generated by the first RF power source can be attenuated by various RF loss sources. For example, the RF transmission line forming bus 736 is lossy due to the limited conductivity of the conductor or the loss tangent due to the dielectric material forming the transmission line. As another example, the plasma load of the RF transmission line affects the RF loss. Thus, wires 710 that are connected at different locations along the direction of propagation of the RF signal may experience different RF signal amplitudes. For example, referring to FIG. 7A, the RF signal transmitted at the first end 750 will attenuate as it propagates down the length of the first bus 730. As such, the amplitude of the RF signal at wire 710 near second end 751 will be less than the amplitude of the RF signal at wire 710 near first end 750 where the RF signal is being transmitted.

Standing waves generated by reflection of RF signals due to imperfect RF impedance matching/terminals may also produce non-uniformities in RF signal amplitude along the length of the first bus 730. For example, the RF signal transmitted at the first end 750 upon reaching the second end 751 may be reflected back to the first end 750 due to the lack of an impedance matching terminal, thereby generating a standing wave along the length of the first bus 730.

This non-uniformity of the amplitude of the RF signal across the length of the first bus 730 may cause plasma non-uniformities.

By using a recursive RF feed structure, the non-uniformity of the amplitude of the RF signal across the first bus 730 can be reduced. Referring back to Figure 7D, the first bus 736 is configured to form a recursive RF feed structure to deliver a first RF signal generated by the first RF power source to the wire 710 such that for all of the wires 710, from the drive point 756 to the respective wire The signal path length of 710 and the loss experienced by the RF signal are approximately equal. This approximately equal path length can enable approximately equal RF signal amplitude at the driven end of the wire 710, i.e., the end connected to the first bus 736. In some implementations, the non-uniformity of the RF signal amplitude is further mitigated by configuring the recursive RF feed structure such that each branch of the structure is connected to a wire of approximately equal total length. For example, 7, 6, 5, and 4 wires are connected to individual branches of the recursive RF feed structure from left to right, respectively. This approximately equal total length of each branch can help improve uniformity when the electrode assembly 706 is operated as an ICP source. In some implementations, the levels of the feed structure are recursively shielded by respective ground planes, and the respective levels of vertical via connections that penetrate the ground plane.

In the case where the electrode assembly is driven by two RF signal sources, various factors affect the shape of the plasma region produced. Examples of factors include the frequency and phase relationship of the two RF signals. Referring to FIG. 7B, for example, when the frequencies of the first and second RF signals driving the first bus 732 and the second bus 742 are the same and the phase difference is set to 0 degrees ("unipolar" or "single-ended"), The pulp regions are pushed out of the gap between the coplanar filaments 710, resulting in discontinuities or unevenness, for example, in some cases where the spacing between the cylindrical shells is small. When the phase difference of the RF signal driving the adjacent coplanar filament 710 is set to 180 degrees ("differential"), the plasma region is more strongly confined between the coplanar filaments 710. Any phase difference between 0 and 360 degrees can be used to influence the shape of the plasma region.

In general, the grounding of the workpiece support electrode 116 is a factor that affects the shape of the plasma region. The imperfect RF ground of electrode 116 in combination with the 0 degree phase difference between the RF signals driving adjacent coplanar filaments pushes the plasma region toward the top gap. However, if an adjacent coplanar filament (such as a coplanar filament) is driven with an RF signal having a phase difference of 180 degrees, the resulting plasma distribution is much less sensitive to the imperfect RF grounding of the electrode 116. Without being bound by any particular theory, this may be because the RF current is returned through the adjacent electrodes due to the differential nature of the drive signal.

The electrical configuration and characteristics of the aforementioned electrode assemblies (e.g., 400, 500, 502, 504, 600, 601, 700, 702, and 704) can be dynamically changed using RF switches that are coupled to various locations of the electrode assembly in a variety of configurations.

Referring to FIG. 8A, the electrode assembly 800 includes a wire 810, a first bus 820, and a second bus 824. As shown, buses 820 and 824 can have respective third ends 821 and corresponding fourth ends 822. Wire 810 is similar to wires 610 and 300 unless otherwise stated. Each wire 810 has a respective first end 811 and a corresponding second end 812. The first bus 820 and the second bus 824 can be located inside the chamber body 102, in the chamber ceiling or outside the chamber, and can be at individual ends of the wire 810 to along the buses 820 and 824 (eg, along the bus) The lengths of 820 and 824) form electrical connections between the various locations.

The wire 810 can be divided into a first multiplicity 816 wire and a second multiple 817 wire. In some implementations, the filaments 810 of the first multiple 816 and the second multiple 817 can be arranged in an alternating pattern in a direction perpendicular to their longitudinal axes such that the coplanar filaments alternate between the first set and the second set, as the picture shows.

The first end 811 of the wire of the first multiplex 816 can be coupled to the first bus 820. The first end 811 of the wire of the second multiple 817 can be coupled to the second bus 822. The coupling between the wire 810 and the bus can be achieved using a simple wire or metal strip (if the length is shorter than a fraction of the wavelength of the RF frequency), or by using an RF transmission line such as a coaxial cable.

In some implementations, electrode assembly 800 additionally includes a third bus 826 and a fourth bus 828. In such an implementation, the second end 812 of the wire of the first multiple 816 can be coupled to the third bus 824. The second end 812 of the wire of the second multiple 817 can be coupled to the fourth bus 826.

Buses 820, 824, 826, and 828 are configured to be electrically coupled to individual wires 810 that are coupled thereto. The RF transmission line forming the bus may have a length that is comparable to or greater than a significant portion of the wavelength of the RF frequency (e.g., > 1/10 wavelength), as well as loss due to the plasma load of the intended wire array, i.e., absorption of RF power. Thus, wires 810 that are connected at different locations along the direction of propagation of the RF signal may experience different RF signal amplitudes. For example, the RF signal transmitted at the third end 821 of the first bus 820 will attenuate as it propagates down the length of the first bus 820. As such, the amplitude of the RF signal at the wire 810 near the second end 822 will be less than the amplitude of the RF signal at the wire 810 near the first end 821 where the RF signal is being transmitted. This non-uniformity of the amplitude of the RF signal across the length of the first bus 820 or 824 may cause plasma non-uniformities.

In general, the plasma regions produced by electrode assembly 800 over a relatively large area may contain substantial non-uniformities in plasma density. For example, for a plasma region of 40 cm long by 40 cm wide, a significant difference in plasma uniformity can be observed between RF signal frequencies of 13.56 MHz and 60 MHz. When driven at a lower frequency (e.g., 13.56 MHz), the plasma density can be removed from ends 811 and 812 and toward the center portion of wire 810. However, the time average of the plasma density remains substantially spatially uniform along the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the filament. When driven at a higher frequency (e.g., 60 MHz), the plasma density becomes more uneven along the filament and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the filament. For example, a periodic distribution of local maximums and minimums can be formed in both directions. Without wishing to be bound by theory, this pattern of inhomogeneities may be caused, at least in part, by the presence of standing waves.

By using the RF switch to dynamically change the electrical characteristics of the electrode assembly 800, it may be possible to mitigate this non-uniformity. It may also be possible to intentionally introduce non-uniformities into the voltage signal to compensate for other sources of non-uniformity in the workpiece, such as uneven layer thickness, or plasma density (e.g., uneven gas distribution).

Referring to FIG. 8B, the switched electrode system 802 includes a first RF switch 830, a second RF switch 834, a third RF switch 836, a fourth RF switch 838, a first tap 840, and a second tap 842. In general, the first and second taps 840 and 842 can be coupled to various signals and potentials to produce a plasma, such as to the first and second RF signals, RF ground.

Each RF switch includes a first terminal 831 and a second terminal 832. In general, RF switch 830 operates bi-directionally, and first and second ends 831 and 832 are not dependent on the particular physical terminal of the RF switch, but are instead used to represent two different terminals of the RF switch. Various RF switch components can be used to provide RF switches 830, 834, 836, and 838. Examples of RF switching components include mechanical relays or switches, PIN diodes, saturable inductors/reactors, MOSFETs, electronic circuits including these components, and when combined with RF power generators having adjustable RF signal frequencies Frequency dependent impedance circuit.

In general, the first and second taps 840 and 842 can be positioned along individual lengths of the buses 820, 824, 826, and 828, for example, in the middle of the bus. In some implementations, the first tap 840 is located in the middle of the first bus 820 and the second tap 842 is located in the middle of the fourth bus 828.

In some implementations, the first and second taps 840 and 842 are differentially driven by two RF signals having the same frequency (e.g., 60 MHz) and having a relative phase difference of 180 degrees.

In general, the first and second terminals 831 and 832 of the RF switch can be coupled to the bus in a variety of ways to achieve various effects. For example, the individual first terminals of RF switches 830, 834, 836, and 838 are connected to the ends of buses 820, 824, 826, and 828, as shown. In such a configuration, the closing of any of the RF switches 830, 834, 836, and 838 electrically connects or "shorts" the respective ends ("corners") of the bus. A short circuit in the corner may cause a change in the RF reflection coefficient at that location such that the RF signal amplitude and power coupling at a localized region of the wire 810 near the corner of the short circuit is reduced, thereby reducing the generation of localized plasma. Short circuits in the corners may also shift and/or change the spatial distribution of the maximum and minimum values in the plasma density.

In general, electrical connections and couplings can be provided by wires, coaxial cables, waveguides, or by physical contact (eg, forging, welding, single piece manufacturing).

In general, the process uniformity of the workpiece can be improved by averaging the plasma exposure time. One way to achieve a time average of plasma exposure is through the spatial distribution of inhomogeneities in the moving plasma region. For example, the plasma density distribution (non-uniformity) can be shifted by turning the RF switches coupled to the four corners of the electrode assembly on and off ("modulation").

The RF switches 830, 834, 836, and 838 can be modulated in a variety of ways to achieve the desired time averaged plasma density. An example of a program for modulating an RF switch is to cyclically connect pairs of points on different buses. For example, the system can operate as follows: (1) turn off the RF switch 830 for a first duration and then turn it on, (2) turn off the RF switch 834 for a second duration, then turn it on, (3) turn off the RF switch 836 for a third duration Then, turn on, (4) turn off the RF switch 838 for the fourth duration. The first to fourth durations can be determined based on the desired program repetition rate. For example, the repetition rate can be set to be much faster than the time scale of certain effects, such as device charging. For example, in a program having four states, each state duration including the dead time can be set to 50 μs to achieve a repetition rate of 5 kHz.

In some implementations, the dead time is inserted between the steps of the program. The lag time provides a "break before make" contact to prevent two or more generators from shorting in some configurations. In some implementations, the closing of the switches can overlap in time. For example, two switches can be tuned simultaneously, such as paired diagonal switches (830-838, 834-836), pairs of adjacent switches (830-834 and 836-838, 832-836, and 834-838) . As another example, all four switches can be turned on and off simultaneously.

Referring to Figure 8C, an example of a switched electrode system 804 is shown. Switched electrode system 804 is similar to system 802 unless otherwise stated. The switched electrode system 804 includes a first RF switch set 850, a second RF switch set 854, a third RF switch set 856, and a fourth RF switch set 858. The first RF switch group 850 includes sub-switches 860a and 860b, the second RF switch group 854 includes sub-switches 860c and 860d, the third RF switch group 836 includes sub-switches 860e and 860f, and the fourth RF switch group 838 includes sub-switches 860g And 860h. The sub-switch is similar to the RF switch 830.

The first terminal 831 of the sub-switch is connected to the terminals of the buses 820, 824, 826 and 828. In some implementations, the second terminal 832 of the sub-switch is connected to the RF ground. In such a configuration, the closing of any one of the sub-switches electrically couples the individual ends of the bus to the RF ground or grounds the ends of the bus. Grounding of the ends of the bus may result in a reduction in the amplitude of the RF signal in a localized region of the wire 810 near the RF ground of the bus, as well as a reduction in the magnitude of the electric field or a lower power coupling in that region. A reduction in the magnitude of the electric field may result in a reduction in plasma production in this region.

The RF switch block and individual sub-switches can be modulated in a variety of ways to provide modulation of the plasma density profile. For example, each RF switch bank can operate as a single unit with the sub-switches of the RF switch group being turned on and off as a single unit. As another example, the sub-switches of each RF switch group can be turned on and off independently.

The switches can be modulated in a variety of different programs in a manner similar to the various procedures described with respect to Figure 8B. For example, the switched electrode system can be operated by: once (optionally with time delay) cyclically turning off one switch group, cyclically turning off the switch group, alternating switch groups, or simultaneously turning on during different sets of off time And turn off all switches.

As another example, the system can operate as follows: (1) turning off the first and third RF switch groups 850 and 856 for a first duration and then turning it on, (2) turning on all switches, and (3) turning off the second and fourth RFs. Switch sets 854 and 858 are then turned on for a second duration.

As yet another example, the system can operate as follows: (1) turning off the first switch group 850 for a first duration and then turning it on, (2) turning off the second switch group 854 for a second duration and then turning it on, (3) turning off the third The switch block 856 is turned on for a third duration and then turned on, (4) the fourth switch group 858 is turned off for a fourth duration and then turned on, (5) all switch groups are turned on, and (6) all switch groups are turned off.

In some implementations, the RF switch can be used to dynamically reconfigure the RF signal to feed at various locations on the bus. Referring to Figure 8D, an example of a switched electrode system 806 is shown. Switched electrode system 806 is similar to system 804 and can operate in a similar manner unless otherwise stated.

The first multiplex 816 is driven with RF signals at taps 844 and 846. The RF signals driving the taps 844 and 846 can be the same frequency or different frequencies. For the same frequency case, the phase relationship of the two signals can be any value between 0, 180 or 0 to 360. For some implementations, the phase relationship can be modulated over time. As shown, the second terminals 832 of the sub-switches 860a, 860c, 860f, and 860h are coupled to respective taps 844 and 846.

In such a configuration, the corresponding sub-switches can be used to modulate the ground characteristics of the second multiplex 817, and the RF signals can be transmitted from different locations (e.g., from terminals 821 and 822) to buses 820 and 826. A combination of grounding characteristics and modulation of the RF signal distribution can be used to modulate the plasma density to improve processing uniformity by time averaging.

In such a configuration, it may be advantageous to maintain at least one of the sub-switches 860 in a closed state to provide a continuous RF signal supply to the assembly 800.

Referring to Figure 8E, an example of a switched electrode system 808 is shown. Switched electrode system 808 is similar to system 804 and can operate in a similar manner unless otherwise stated. The second terminal 832 of the sub-switch is connected to a single tap 848. A symmetric distribution network as shown can be used to improve the uniformity of RF signals delivered to the four corners of system 808. The sub-switches can be modulated in various ways as previously described to change the plasma distribution and improve processing uniformity.

In some implementations, the switches can be distributed across the bus to allow for finer control of instantaneous plasma uniformity, thereby improving time averaged plasma uniformity. Referring to Figure 8F, an example of a switched electrode system 801 is shown. Switched electrode system 801 is similar to system 808 and can operate in a similar manner unless otherwise stated. The first bus 820 is coupled to a first RF switch group 870, such as three or more sub-switches. Each RF switch group includes a plurality of sub-switches 860. The first terminals of the sub-switches 860 of the first RF switch group 870 are electrically coupled to the first bus at various locations across the length of the first bus 820. In some implementations, the coupling points are approximately equally spaced as shown. The second terminal of sub-switch 860 of first RF switch block 870 is electrically coupled to tap 848 to receive an RF signal.

Second, third, and fourth buses 824, 826, and 828 are coupled to second, third, and fourth RF switch groups 874, 876, and 878, respectively, each similar to first bus 820 and first RF switch group 870 way to connect.

In such a configuration, additional level control of the location of the RF signal along the length of the bus may result in improved time averaged plasma uniformity.

In general, the number of sub-switches included in the RF switch group can be determined based on, for example, the length of the bus, the size of the plasma region, the RF signal frequency and power, and the chamber pressure.

In some implementations, the RF signal feed and ground locations can be dynamically reconfigured using RF switches to provide a mode selectable plasma source that can be switched between the primary CCP mode and the primary ICP mode. . Referring to Figure 9A, an example of a switched electrode system 900 is shown. Switched electrode system 900 is similar to system 802 and can operate in a similar manner unless otherwise stated. First terminals 831 of RF switches 830 and 834 are coupled to respective third and fourth ends 821, 822 of second bus 824, and first terminals 831 of RF switches 836 and 838 are coupled to respective third ends of third bus 826 821 and fourth end 822, as shown. The second terminal 832 is connected to the RF ground.

The RF switches 830, 834, 836, and 838 can be controlled in various ways to change the primary mode of plasma generation by the switching electrode assembly 900. For example, by turning off all four RF switches, the RF current flows along the length of the wire 810, creating a magnetic field and producing a plasma that is primarily inductively coupled. By turning on all four switches, the RF current is reduced, and component 900 produces a primary capacitively coupled plasma.

In some implementations, the first and second RF signals that drive the respective taps 840 and 842 have a phase difference of 180 degrees, ie, differential drive. In this case, the alternating wires 810 belonging to the first and second multiples 816 and 817 are fed from opposite ends of the RF signal having a phase difference of about 180 degrees, resulting in the generation of an auxiliary RF magnetic field. In some implementations, the first and second RF signals that drive respective taps 840 and 842 have a phase difference of about 0 degrees. In this case, alternating filaments 810 belonging to the first and second multiplexes 816 and 817 are fed from opposite ends of the RF signal having a phase difference of about 0 degrees, resulting in an opposite RF magnetic field.

In some implementations, the switches can be distributed across the bus to allow for finer control of instantaneous plasma uniformity, thereby improving time-averaged plasma uniformity. Referring to Figure 9B, an example of a switched electrode assembly 902 is shown. Switched electrode assembly 902 is similar to system 801 unless otherwise stated. The first bus 820 is coupled to a first RF switch group 870 that includes a plurality of sub-switches 860.

The first terminals of the sub-switches 860 of the first RF switch group 870 are electrically coupled to the first bus at various locations across the length of the first bus 820. In some implementations, the coupling points are approximately equally spaced as shown. The second terminal of the sub-switch 860 of the first RF switch block 870 is electrically coupled to the tap 940 to receive the first RF signal.

The second bus is connected to the second RF switch group 874 at the first terminal of the sub-switch and the second terminal of the sub-switch is connected to the RF ground.

The third bus is connected to the third RF switch group 876 at the first terminal of the sub-switch 860, and the second terminal 832 of the sub-switch 860 of the third RF switch group 876 is connected to the RF ground.

The fourth bus is coupled to the fourth RF switch group 878 at a first terminal of the sub-switch, and the second terminal of the sub-switch is electrically coupled to the tap 942 to receive a second RF signal.

The first and second RF signals driving the taps 940 and 942 can be at the same frequency or at different frequencies. For the same frequency case, the phase relationship of the two signals can be any value between 0, 180 or 0 to 360. For some implementations, the phase relationship can be modulated over time.

The RF switch sets 870, 874, 876, and 878 can be controlled in various ways to change the primary mode of plasma generation by the switched electrode assembly 902. For example, by turning off at least one sub-switch from each of the first set 870 and the fourth set 878, and turning on the second and third RF switch sets 874 and 876, component 902 produces a primary capacitively coupled plasma.

As another example, component 902 generates primary by turning off at least one of the sub-switches from each of the first set 870 and the fourth set 878, and turning off all of the sub-switches of the second and third RF switch sets 874 and 876. Inductively coupled plasma. In some implementations, the first and second RF signals driving the respective taps 940 and 942 have a phase difference of 180 degrees, i.e., differential drive. In this case, the alternating wires 810 belonging to the first and second multiples 816 and 817 are fed from opposite ends of the RF signal having a phase difference of about 180 degrees, resulting in the generation of an auxiliary RF magnetic field. In some implementations, the first and second RF signals that drive respective taps 940 and 942 have a phase difference of about 0 degrees. In this case, alternating filaments 810 belonging to the first and second multiplexes 816 and 817 are fed from opposite ends of the RF signal having a phase difference of about 0 degrees, resulting in an opposite RF magnetic field.

In some processing applications, the use of an ICP that can deposit RF power in the opposite RF field in the plasma in a manner substantially parallel to the strip of the filament provides a more uniform plasma, especially when the workpiece is close to the plasma source (eg The electrode assembly) is a small bottom gap 132. Therefore, it may be beneficial to have the ability to change the phase relationship of the first and second RF signals.

In general, the individual sub-switches of the first and fourth groups 870 and 878 can be modulated to vary the plasma density distribution. Additionally, where the switched electrode assembly 902 is configured to produce a primary inductively coupled plasma, the sub-switches of the second and third sets 874 and 876 can be individually modulated to further change the plasma density distribution.

In general, although the digital display bus is driven near the center and floating at the end or with a grounded termination, depending on the application, RF configuration, frequency and working area (plasma load), at other locations (eg driven, terminated) It may be advantageous to drive or terminate the end or center.

In general, where the second terminal of the RF switch is connected to the RF ground, the variable impedance can be placed in series to the RF ground to provide a variable RF termination impedance to further control the change in plasma density.

In general, although the illustration shows a tap connected to the center of the respective bus, the tap for applying RF power to the electrode assembly can be located at one or more ends, centers, or other locations on the bus.

The switch can be used to improve the time average plasma uniformity of the wedge electrode assembly. Referring to Figure 10, an example of a switched electrode assembly 1000 is shown. The switching electrode assembly 1000 includes a wedge electrode assembly 1010. The wedge electrode assembly 1010 is similar to the wedge electrode assembly 704 unless otherwise stated. Assembly 1010 includes a wedge shaped top electrode 624 that can be grounded. The switching electrode assembly 1000 includes a first RF switch 1030, a second RF switch 1034, a third RF switch 1036, a fourth RF switch 1038, and a tap 1040. The RF switch is similar to the RF switch 830. The first terminals of the RF switches 1030 and 1034 are coupled to the first end 754 of the assembly 1010, and the first terminals of the RF switches 1036 and 1038 are coupled to the second end 755 of the assembly 1010. The second terminals of the first and fourth RF switches 1030 and 1038 are connected to each other and to the tap 1040, and the second terminals of the second and third RF switches 1034 and 1036 are connected to the RF ground.

The first and fourth RF switches 1030 and 1038 can be turned on and off to selectively feed RF signals to the first end 754, the second end 755, or both ends of the assembly 1010. The second and third RF switches 1034 and 1036 can be turned on and off to selectively ground the first end 754 or the second end 755 of the assembly 1010.

The RF switch can be modulated in a variety of ways to improve time averaged plasma uniformity. The following are examples of procedures: (1) Turn off the RF switch 1030 for the first duration, and turn on the switches 1034, 1036, and 1038 (eg, up to 30 microseconds), (2) turn off 1030, 1036, turn on 1034, 1038 (if 40 microseconds, then (3) turn off 1036, turn on 1030, 1034, and 1036 (eg, up to 30 microseconds). Alternatively, after a brief delay after applying the RF signal to the other end, the unpowered end can be grounded, and the ground can be ungrounded before the RF signal is applied to the end.

The following is another example of the program: (1) 1030 = ON, 1038, 1034, 1036 = OFF up to 30 microseconds, (2) 1030, 1038 = ON, 1034, 1036 = OFF up to 40 microseconds, (3) 1038 =ON, 1034, 1030, 1036 = OFF for 30 microseconds, then repeat the cycle multiple times until the process step is completed or the cycle is alternately reversed. Alternatively, the power-free terminal can be grounded after a short delay after power is applied to the other end, and the ground terminal can be ungrounded before power is applied to the terminal.

In general, the wedge electrode assembly 1010 can be similar to an electrode. In general, the switch can be applied to other electrode assemblies such as 600, 601, 700, 702, 704.

Various circuit implementations can be used to provide an RF switch suitable for switching RF signals for plasma generation. There are various considerations for implementing RF switches (such as RF switch 830, sub-switch 860) to be used in a switched electrode system. Examples of such considerations include RF power handling capability, switching speed, ON-state impedance, OFF-state impedance, and bidirectionality.

In general, when the impedance between the two terminals of the switch is low, the switch is considered to be in an "ON" or closed state, and when the impedance is high, the switch is considered to be "off" (OFF) ) or open state.

A PIN diode switch can be used to provide a suitable RF switch. Referring to FIG. 11A, the PIN diode switch 1100 includes a PIN diode 1110, a first capacitor 1120 having a capacitance C1, a second capacitor 1122 having a capacitance C2, and an inductor 1140 having an inductance L1. The switch 1100 has a first terminal 1131, a second terminal 1132, and a control terminal 1134. The first terminal 1131 may provide the first terminal 831, and the second terminal 1132 may provide the second terminal 832 of the RF switch 830.

The first capacitor 1120 and the inductor 1150 may be connected in parallel between the first terminal 1131 and the second capacitor 1122. Next, the PIN diode 1110 may be connected in parallel with the first capacitor 1120, the inductor 1150, and the second capacitor 1122 between the first terminal 1131 and the second terminal 1132. Control terminal 1134 can be coupled between second capacitor and 1122 and first capacitor 1120.

The PIN diode 1110 is a diode having a wide undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between the p-type semiconductor and the n-type semiconductor region, and a fast switch that can be well suited for high power RF signals. The PIN diode has an anode (+) and a cathode (-), and can be provided for RF when a forward bias is established between the anode and cathode (eg > 0.7 V and/or diode current > 100 mA) The low impedance conduction path of the signal, such as <1 ohm.

The PIN diode switch 1100 operates based on the following principles of operation. The impedance of the PIN diode 1110 can be controlled by providing a control signal to the control terminal 1134. The control signal is a quasi static voltage that switches between a first level (eg, 0.7V) and a second level (eg, -2kV). Due to the quasi-static nature of the control signal, the control voltage and any resulting diode current can be conducted through inductor 1140. Additionally, the second capacitor 1122 prevents the control voltage from reaching the cathode. By providing the anode with a sufficiently large negative control voltage (e.g., -2 kV) relative to the cathode, the PIN diode 1110 can be set to the "OFF" state, exhibiting a high impedance between its cathode and anode. When a sufficiently large positive control voltage (e.g., 0.7V) is applied, the PIN diode 1110 can be set to the "ON" state, presenting a low impedance path (e.g., <1 ohm) for the RF signal between the terminals 1131 and 1132. .

The first capacitor 1120 and the inductor 1140 connected in parallel as shown form a parallel LC resonator 1150. Resonator 1150 has an equation Determine the resonant frequency. At resonant frequency f 0 , resonator 1150 exhibits a high impedance close to an open circuit, such as >1000 ohms, depending on the quality factor of the resonator. By aligning the resonant frequency with the frequency of the RF signal present at the terminal 1131 or 1132 by selecting the values of C1 and L1, the RF signal can be prevented from passing through the resonator 1150.

In general, the capacitance C2 of the second capacitor 1122 can be set to provide a low impedance path at the frequency of the RF signal.

In some implementations, the first capacitor 1120 is a variable capacitor ("capacitor") having a tunable capacitor C1 that can be varied to optimize the resonance of the parallel LC circuit formed by the first capacitor 1120 and the inductor 1140 to The frequency of the RF signal is aligned.

In some implementations, a control signal buffer amplifier 1136 can be provided to buffer and/or amplify the control signals applied at the control terminal 1134 to the anode of the PIN diode 1110.

In general, multiple PIN diode switches can be used in combination to achieve a range of impedance values between the first and second terminals 1131 and 1132. A control signal can also be placed between the first and second levels to provide a variable impedance.

In some implementations, the first terminal 1131 is connected to a bus (such as bus 820) and the second terminal 1132 is connected to RF ground to form a path to RF ground. In some implementations, the first terminal is connected to a first bus (such as bus 820) and the second terminal 1132 is connected to a second bus (such as bus 824), in which case the switch can be considered "floating". The potential of the second terminal 1132 is defined by an external factor.

As another example, a saturable inductor switch can be used to provide a suitable RF switch. Referring to FIG. 11B, the saturable inductor switch 1102 includes a saturable inductor 1160, a first capacitor 1124 having a capacitor C1, and a second capacitor 1126 having a capacitor C2. The switch 1102 has a first terminal 1131, a second terminal 1132, and a control terminal 1135. The first terminal 1131 may provide the first terminal 831, and the second terminal 1132 may provide the second terminal 832.

The saturable inductor 1160 has a primary winding 1162 with an inductance L1 and a control winding 1164 with an inductance L2. In some literature, a saturable inductor can also be referred to as a saturable inductor or a magnetic amplifier. A saturable inductor is an inductor having a magnetic core that allows current to flow through the control winding 1164 to deliberately saturate the core. Once saturated, the inductance L1 of the primary winding 1162 drops dramatically. The reduced inductance of the primary winding reduces the impedance of the RF signal, which can be used to implement the switch.

The primary winding 1162 of the inductor 1160 can be connected in series with the second capacitor 1126, and the first capacitor 1124 can be connected in parallel with the primary winding 1162 and the second capacitor 1126 between the first terminal 1131 and the second terminal 1131. Control terminal 1135 is coupled to control winding 1164, which may then be connected to ground.

The saturable inductor switch 1102 operates based on the following principles of operation. The first capacitor 1124 in parallel with the series combination of the primary winding 1162 and the second capacitor 1126 forms a parallel LC resonator that operates similarly to the LC resonator 1150. For example, the values of C1, C2, and L1 can be set such that when the control signal is set to "OFF" or low state, the resonance of the switch 1102 occurs at the RF signal frequency (eg, 60 MHz), and there is no "OFF" or low state. Current flows through the control winding 1164. In this state, the switch 1102 is in an "open" state, exhibiting a high impedance between the first and second terminals 1131 and 1132. When the control signal applied to the control terminal 1135 is set to "ON" or a high state, the magnetic field generated by the current flowing through the secondary winding 1164 saturates the core of the saturable inductor 1160, thereby reducing the primary winding 1162. Inductance L1. The decrease in inductance L1 changes the resonant frequency of switch 1102, exhibiting a low impedance between the first and second terminals 1131 and 1132 at the same RF signal frequency. This low impedance state can be used as the closed state of the switch 1102.

In some implementations, a control signal buffer amplifier 1137 can be provided to amplify and/or buffer the control signals applied at the control terminal 1135 such that a current sufficient to saturate the saturable inductor 1160 can be applied to the control winding 1164.

In some implementations, a low pass filter 1138 can be provided between the control signal terminal 1135 and the control winding 1164 to mitigate noise coupling from the control signal and/or RF signal propagation to the control signal terminal.

In general, by adjusting the control signal to provide a range of current to the control winding 1164, the switch presented between the first terminal 1131 and the second terminal 1132 can be controlled between the "ON" state and the "OFF" state. impedance.

In some implementations, the first terminal 1131 is connected to a bus (such as bus 820) and the second terminal 1132 is connected to RF ground. In some implementations, the first terminal is connected to a first bus (such as bus 820) and the second terminal 1132 is connected to a second bus (such as bus 824).

The impedance exhibited by the aforementioned switches 1100 and 1102 and its switching state are controlled by the application of a control signal. However, in some implementations, the characteristics of the switch can remain static, but the frequency of the RF signal can be modulated such that the switch presents an "open" or "off" condition to RF signals having different frequencies. For example, the frequency dependent impedance of the circuit can be used to provide such a frequency based switch.

Referring to FIG. 12A, the frequency based switch 1200 includes a first capacitor 1220 having a capacitance C1, a second capacitor 1222 having a capacitance C2, a first inductor 1240 having an inductance L1, and a second inductor 1242 having an inductance L2. The switch 1200 has a first terminal 1231 and a second terminal 1232.

The first capacitor 1220 and the first inductor 1240 may be connected in series, and the second capacitor 1222 and the second inductor 1242 may be connected in series. The pair of circuits may be connected in parallel between the first terminal 1231 and the second terminal 1232.

A combination of L1, C1, L2, and C2 may be set such that at a first frequency (eg, 58 MHz), a low impedance (eg, <0.1 ohms) is presented between the first and second terminals 1231 and 1232, and at a second frequency (eg 62MHz), exhibits high impedance (eg > 100 ohms). For example, L1 = L2 = 0.1 μH, C1 = 75.3 pF, and a value of C2 = 58.6 pF can provide low impedance resonance at 58 MHz and high impedance resonance at 62 MHz.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, low impedance resonance can be provided by series LC resonance, and high impedance resonance can be provided by parallel LC resonance.

Capacitance and inductance can be set to form a frequency based switch that has an approximately complementary response to the examples provided above. For example, the following values L1 = L2 = 0.1μH, C1 = 65.9pF, C2 = 87.8pF can provide low impedance resonance at 62 MHz, high impedance resonance at 58 MHz, approximately complementary or opposite to the first example response. This complementary behavior can be used to form various frequency switching electrode systems.

In some implementations, discrete capacitors and inductors can be implemented with distributed circuit components such as transmission line segments, stubs.

Referring to FIG. 12B, the frequency switching electrode system 1202 includes an electrode assembly 800, a first frequency based switch 1200a, a second frequency based switch 1200b, and a tap 1260. RF signals of different frequencies may be provided to tap 1260, for example, using a variable frequency RF generator with a matching network and a series of isolators or circulators.

In this configuration, the frequency of the RF signal supplied through the tap 1260 can alternate from the first frequency to the second frequency such that more RF signals are coupled to the left side of the electrode assembly 800 through the switch 1200a, or through the switch 1200b. It is coupled to the right side of the electrode assembly 800. Alternatively, the frequency of the RF signal provided by tap 1260 can be driven as a ramp function to vary between the first frequency and the second frequency.

For example, by setting the component value to L1a = L2a = 0.1 μH, C1a = 75.3 pF, C2a = 58.6 pF, the first switch 1200a can provide low impedance resonance at 58 MHz and high impedance resonance at 62 MHz. The component values of the second switch 1200b can be set to L1 = L2 = 0.1 μH, C1 = 65.9 pF, C2 = 87.8 pF to provide low impedance resonance at 62 MHz, and high impedance resonance at 58 MHz. In such a configuration, by switching the frequency of the RF signal to a first frequency (e.g., 58 MHz), most of the RF signal can be coupled to the left side of the electrode assembly 800 through the first switch 1200a, and by the frequency of the RF signal. Switching to the second frequency (e.g., 62 MHz), most of the RF signal can be coupled to the right side of component 800 through second switch 1200b. When the frequency is in the middle between two frequencies, approximately at approximately 60 MHz, the power is substantially similarly coupled to both ends and may result in high center non-uniformities.

In some implementations, the transmission line segment can be used to vary the frequency dependent impedance of the switch 1200. For example, considering the speed factor of the transmission line, a transmission line segment having a length of one quarter wavelength can be used to connect the corners of the electrode assembly 800 to the terminals of the switches 1200a and 1200b. The impedance presented at the first and second frequencies can be exchanged by using a quarter-wavelength transmission line. For example, the low impedance of the series resonance can be converted to a high impedance of about 1000 ohms, and the high impedance of the parallel resonance can be converted to a low impedance of about 1 ohm.

In some implementations, the frequency based switch 1200 can be used as a frequency selective termination to provide an impedance matching terminal at different frequencies to control the coupling of the RF signal into the electrode assembly. Referring to FIG. 12C, the frequency switching electrode system 1204 includes an electrode assembly 800, a first frequency selective terminal 1250a, a second frequency selective terminal 1250b, and a tap 1260. Frequency selective terminals 1250a and 1250b may be provided by frequency based switch 1200 and operate in a similar manner unless otherwise stated.

In some implementations, the component values of frequency selective terminals 1250a and 1250b can be set such that at the first frequency, terminal 1250a presents the characteristic impedance of the RF generator and transmission line, while terminal 1250b exhibits a high impedance. In such a configuration, terminal 1250a provides an impedance matching terminal to the RF ground, minimizing RF signal reflection and coupling to the left side of the electrode assembly 800. At the same time, the high impedance presented by terminal 1200b allows the RF signal to be coupled to the right side of electrode assembly 800.

In some implementations, the component values of frequency selective terminals 1250a and 1250b can be set such that at the first frequency, terminal 1250a presents a low impedance path to RF ground and terminal 1250b exhibits a high impedance. In such a configuration, the low impedance path provided by terminal 1250a to the RF ground minimizes the RF signal coupled to the left side of electrode assembly 800. At the same time, the high impedance presented by terminal 1200b allows the RF signal to be coupled to the right side of electrode assembly 800.

In general, frequency based switches and frequency selective terminations can be coupled to various locations along the bus. For example, an additional pair of coupling points to the tap can be provided at substantially the center of the bus, and additional switches or terminals can be provided at those coupling points.

In general, the frequency switching is not limited to two states corresponding to the high impedance state and the low impedance state, but may advantageously operate continuously between and outside the first and second switching frequencies.

In general, various combinations of frequency based switches having various resonant frequencies can be used to extend frequency based switching to 3, 4 or more frequencies.

In some plasma chambers, the workpiece moves through a plasma processing region on, for example, a linear or rotating workpiece support. In such a chamber, the moving workpiece support can be DC grounded through, for example, a rotating mercury coupler, brush or slip ring. However, the moving workpiece support may not be sufficiently grounded at the radio frequency. The RF ground path should have a much lower impedance than the plasma to make it sufficient RF ground. The lack of sufficient RF ground path may make it difficult to control the ion energy at the workpiece and reduce process repeatability.

Therefore, there is a need for a plasma source having the following characteristics: it can efficiently produce a uniform plasma having desired characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature, ion energy, dissociation, etc.) in the size of the workpiece; it can adjust the operation window evenly Sex (such as pressure, power, gas composition); it has stable and repeatable electrical properties even when the workpiece moves; and it does not produce excessive metal contaminants or particles.

Figure 13 is a schematic side view of another example of a plasma reactor. The plasma reactor 2100 has a chamber body 2102 that surrounds an internal space that serves as a plasma chamber. The chamber body 2102 can have one or more side walls 2102a, a top plate 2102b and a bottom plate 2102c. The interior space 2104 can be cylindrical, such as for processing a circular semiconductor wafer. The plasma reactor includes a top electrode array assembly 2106 at the top of the plasma reactor 2100. The top electrode array assembly 2106 can abut the top plate (as shown in Figure 13), or be suspended within the interior space 2104 and spaced apart from the top plate, or form part of the top plate. The side walls of the chamber body 2102 and portions of the bottom plate may be separately grounded.

The gas distributor is located near the top plate of the plasma reactor 2100. The gas distributor can include one or more ports 2110 in the side wall 2102 that are coupled to the process gas supply 2112. Or alternatively, the gas distributor can be integrated with the top electrode assembly 2106 as a single component. For example, a passage connected to the process gas supply 2112 can be formed by a dielectric plate in the assembly 2112 to provide an opening in the top plate of the plasma chamber. The gas supply 2112 delivers one or more process gases to the gas distributor 2110, the composition of which may depend on the process to be performed, such as deposition or etching.

A vacuum pump 2113 is connected to the interior space 2104 to evacuate the plasma reactor. For some processes, the chamber operates in the Torr range and the gas distributor supplies argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and/or other gases.

Depending on the chamber configuration and the supplied process gas, the plasma reactor 100 can provide an ALD device, an etching device, a plasma processing device, a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition device, a plasma doping device, or a plasma surface cleaning device.

The plasma reactor 2100 includes a workpiece support 2114 (e.g., a susceptor) for supporting the workpiece, the top surface of the support workpiece being exposed to the plasma formed in the chamber 2104. The workpiece support 2114 has a workpiece support surface 2114a that faces the top electrode 2108. In some implementations, the workpiece support 2114 includes a workpiece support electrode 2116 located inside the support 2114, and a workpiece bias voltage supply 2118 is coupled to the workpiece support electrode 2116. The voltage supply 2118 can apply a voltage to clamp the workpiece 2115 to the support 2114 and/or supply a bias voltage to control the characteristics (including ion energy) of the generated plasma. In some implementations, the RF bias power generator 2142 is AC coupled to the workpiece support electrode 2116 of the workpiece support 2114 through impedance matching 2144.

Additionally, the support 2114 can have an internal passage 2119 for heating or cooling the workpiece 2115, and/or an embedded resistive heater (2119).

The electrode assembly 2106 is positioned at the top plate of the chamber 2104. The electrode assembly 2106 includes a plurality of conductors 2120 that extend laterally above the workpiece support 2114. At least in the region above the desired location on the support 2114, the conductors 2120 are coplanar. For example, in this region, the conductors may extend parallel to the support surface 2114a. The plurality of conductors 2120 can be arranged in a parallel line array. In some implementations, the conductors can have a "U-shape" with ends connected to respective buses on the same side of the chamber 2104. Alternatively, the conductors may be arranged in staggered spirals (staggered circular spirals or staggered rectangular spirals). The longitudinal axis of the conductor 2120 can be disposed at a non-zero angle (e.g., an angle greater than 20 degrees) from the direction of motion of the workpiece 10 below the electrode assembly 2106. For example, the longitudinal axis of the conductor 2120 can be substantially perpendicular to the direction of motion of the workpiece 10.

A gap 2132 is formed between the workpiece support 2114 and the electrode assembly 2106. For high pressures (eg, 1-10 Torr), the gap 2132 can be 2-25 mm. Fixing the workpiece may require a larger minimum gap, for example about 5 mm, depending on the electrode to electrode spacing on the source and the thickness of the dielectric cover. At lower pressures (e.g., less than 100 mTorr), the gap 2132 can be from 1 cm to 50 cm.

In some implementations, the fluid supply 2146 circulates fluid through the electrode assembly 2106. In some implementations, the heat exchanger 2148 is coupled to the fluid supply 2146 to remove heat or supply heat to the fluid.

The electrode assembly 2106 is driven by an RF power source 2122. The RF power source 2122 can apply power to the conductor 2120 of the electrode assembly 2106 at a frequency of, for example, 1 to 300 MHz. For some processes, the RF power source 2122 provides a total RF power greater than 2 kW at a frequency of 60 MHz.

In some implementations, a heat sink 2150, such as an aluminum plate, is attached to the top plate 2102b of the chamber body 2102. Channel 2152 can be formed through heat sink 2150 and coolant can be circulated through channel 2152. Heat exchanger 2154 can be coupled to passage 152 to remove heat or supply heat to the coolant.

14A-14C are schematic illustrations of another example of a plasma reactor. In this example, the operation is the same as that of FIG. 13 unless otherwise stated, and the multi-chamber processing tool 200 includes a plasma reactor 100.

The processing tool 2200 has a body 2202 that surrounds the interior space 2204. The body 2102 can have one or more side walls 2202a, a top plate 2202b and a bottom plate 2202c. The interior space 2204 can be cylindrical.

The processing tool 2200 includes a workpiece support 2214 (eg, a pedestal) for supporting one or more workpieces 10 (eg, a plurality of workpieces). The workpiece support 2214 has a workpiece support surface 2214a. The workpiece support 2214 can include a workpiece support electrode 2116, and the workpiece bias voltage source 2118 can be coupled to the workpiece support electrode 2116.

The space between the top of the workpiece support 2214 and the top plate 2202b can be divided into a plurality of chambers 2204a-2204d by the barrier 2270. The barrier 2270 can extend radially from the center of the workpiece support 2214. Although four chambers are illustrated, there may be two, three or more than four chambers.

The workpiece can be rotated about the shaft 2260 by the motor 2262. As such, any workpiece 10 on the workpiece support 2214 will be sequentially carried through the chambers 2204a-2204d.

The chambers 2204a-2204d may be at least partially isolated from each other by the pump-purification system 2280. The pump-purification system 2280 can include a plurality of channels formed through the barrier 2210 that allow a purge gas (eg, an inert gas, such as argon) to flow into the space between adjacent chambers, and/or to gas from adjacent The space between the chambers is pumped out. For example, the pump-purification system 2280 can include a first passage 2282 that, as by pumping a purge gas through the first passage 2282, into the space 2202 between the barrier 2272 and the workpiece support 2214. Either side of the first passage 2282 (relative to the direction of movement of the workpiece support 2214) may be flanked by the second passage 2284 and the third passage 2286, the second passage 2284 and the third passage 2286 being connected to the pump to draw gas (including Purge the gas and any gas from an adjacent chamber (such as chamber 2204a). Each channel may be an elongated slot that extends generally radially.

At least one of the chambers 2204a-2204 provides a plasma chamber of the plasma reactor 2100. The plasma reactor includes a top electrode array assembly 2106 and an RF power source 2122, and may also include a fluid supply 2146 and/or a heat exchanger. Process gas may be supplied through port 2210 that is positioned along one or both barriers 2270 to chamber 2104. In some implementations, the port 2210 is only positioned on the front side of the chamber 2104 (relative to the direction of motion of the workpiece support 2214). Alternatively, the process gas may be supplied through the port of the side wall 2202a of the tool body 2202.

FIG. 15A illustrates an example of an electrode assembly 2106. The electrode assembly 2106 includes a dielectric top plate 2130, a plurality of conductors 2120, and a dielectric backplane 2132. As noted above, the conductors 2120 can be arranged as parallel linear strips that extend laterally above the workpiece support 2114. Dielectric top plate 2130 can be a ceramic material.

The dielectric backplane 2132 provides a window for RF power, i.e., substantially transparent to the RF radiation used to generate the frequency of the plasma. For example, the bottom plate 2132 can be quartz or tantalum nitride. The base plate protects the plasma process and the workpiece environment from metal contamination or particle formation that might otherwise occur if the conductor or ceramic is exposed to the plasma. The bottom plate 2132 can be a consumable element that is periodically replaced. The bottom plate can be relatively thin, such as 0.25 mm to 2 mm, such as 0.5 mm.

The conductors may have a width of 1-5 mm, and the spacing W between the conductors 120 may be 0.5 to 3 mm. The conductor can be wider than the spacing, as about twice as wide.

The thickness T of the lower dielectric plate 2132 should be less than twice the spacing W between the conductors 2120, for example, less than the spacing W between the conductors. At higher pressures, the gap between the lower dielectric plate 2132 and the upper dielectric plate 2130 should be "small", such as less than 0.5 mm, such as less than 0.25 mm, to avoid plasma formation behind the plates.

The conductor 2120 can be formed directly on the lower surface of the dielectric top surface 2130. For example, the conductor 2120 can form the conductor 2120 by depositing a thin layer (e.g., electroplating, sputtering, or CVD) across the bottom surface and then patterning by etching to form a stripline structure. The conductor can then be covered by a dielectric bottom dielectric plate 2132.

Conductor 2120 can also be embedded (ie, buried) beneath the surface of the dielectric top plate. For example, the top plate 2130 can be a ceramic structure that is similar in structure to an electrostatic wafer chuck. For buried conductors, the dielectric backplane becomes optional, but can still be used as a dielectric cover (such as quartz) to protect the bottom surface of the top plate.

In an exemplary implementation, 45 pairs (90 total) of parallel conductors 2120 are deposited on a square structured ceramic top plate 2130. The conductors 2120 have a line width of 3 mm each with a spacing of 1.5 mm (so the conductors are arranged at a pitch of 4.5 mm). The conductor may be 400 mm long with a vertical feedthrough through the ceramic top plate 2130 and an electrical connection formed on the back side at atmospheric pressure. Every other electrode is connected to the bus on one side, and the remaining (alternating) electrodes are each connected to the bus on the other side, thereby forming two arrays. The RF power at 60 MHz and a phase difference of 180 degrees is connected across the two arrays.

Referring to Figure 15B, a plurality of slots 2136 can be formed in the bottom surface 2130a of the dielectric top plate 2130, and the conductors 2120 can be cut into the slots. The slots 2136 can be arranged as parallel linear stripes.

In some implementations, each conductor 2120 is part of wire 2150. The wire 2150 can be cut into its corresponding groove 2136. The wire 2150 can include a shell that surrounds and protects the conductor 2120. Wire 2150 can be provided by the various wires 300 described with reference to Figures 3A-C.

Referring to Figure 15C, in some implementations, the conductor 2120 can be provided by a conductive coating on the top plate 2130. For example, the conductor 2120 can be a strip line electrode plated on the ceramic top plate 2130. Each conductor 2120 can be a coating on one or more inner surfaces of individual slots 2136. A space between the conductor 2120 and the bottom plate 2132 can provide a conduit 2450. Catheter 2450 can carry the fluid as described in Figure 3A.

Plasma simulation was performed using a 2-D model to investigate the dependence of plasma parameters on gas pressure. The calculation domain has more than two half-pairs of electrodes. It is assumed that the process conditions are 1450 sccm Argon + 50 sccm N 2 per source, 6 Torr, and 200 W per pair of half electrodes. The simulations show that the plasma density is usually higher in the area below the electrodes. The Ar+ density is similar to the electron density (N 2 + density is much lower), mainly due to the high ratio of argon to N 2 gas supply.

Particular embodiments of the invention have been described. While this specification contains many specific implementation details, many other variations are possible. For example: • The workpiece can move linearly through a series of chambers, such as on a belt or linearly actuated platform, rather than rotating the platform. Additionally, the workpiece can be stationary, such as the workpiece support does not move relative to the wire. • Connect the RF power to the conductor bus at the combination of the center, end or other location of the bus or the location on the bus. • The grounding of the electrode bus can be performed at the center, end or other location or combination of locations of the bus. • The RF power supply can apply signals in the RF, VHF, UHF or microwave range.

Other embodiments are within the scope of the following patent claims.

100‧‧‧Processing tools

102‧‧‧ chamber body

104‧‧‧Internal space

106‧‧‧Support

108‧‧‧Top electrode

110‧‧‧ gas distributor

112‧‧‧ gas supply

113‧‧‧vacuum pump

114‧‧‧Workpiece support

114a‧‧‧Workpiece support surface

115‧‧‧Workpiece

116‧‧‧Workpiece support electrode

118‧‧‧Workpiece bias voltage supply

119‧‧‧Internal passage

120‧‧‧In-chamber electrode assembly

122‧‧‧RF power supply

123‧‧‧ openings

124‧‧‧Balanced unbalance converter

130‧‧‧ dielectric roof

132‧‧‧ bottom clearance

133‧‧‧ bottom internal space

140‧‧‧RF grounding

142‧‧‧RF bias power generator

144‧‧‧ impedance matching

146‧‧‧ Fluid supply

148‧‧‧ heat exchanger

150‧‧‧Axis

152‧‧‧Actuator

154‧‧‧ drive shaft

200‧‧‧Processing tools

202‧‧‧Cylindrical chamber body

204‧‧‧Internal space

206‧‧‧Support

208‧‧‧Top electrode

210‧‧‧ gas inlet

220‧‧‧electrode assembly

220a‧‧‧electrode assembly

220b‧‧‧electrode assembly

221‧‧‧ outer wall

221a‧‧‧ top board

260‧‧‧Precursor Station

260a‧‧‧First Precursor Station

270‧‧‧ radial spacers

280‧‧‧Precursor treatment area

280a‧‧‧Precursor treatment area

280b‧‧‧Second precursor treatment area

281‧‧‧Gas Quarantine

282‧‧‧First pumping area

283‧‧‧Staining area

284‧‧‧Second pumping area

285a‧‧‧plasma processing area

285b‧‧‧Second plasma processing area

300‧‧‧ silk

302‧‧‧ silk

304‧‧‧ silk

310‧‧‧Conductor

320‧‧‧ cylindrical shell

330‧‧‧ channel

340‧‧‧ hollow channel

400‧‧‧In-chamber electrode assembly

402‧‧‧Support

410‧‧‧ spacing

412‧‧‧The plasma area

414‧‧‧Upper plasma area

416‧‧‧The lower plasma area

422‧‧‧RF power supply

422a‧‧‧ first terminal

422b‧‧‧second terminal

510‧‧‧First Electrode Subassembly

520‧‧‧Second electrode subassembly

522‧‧‧First Electrode Subassembly

524‧‧‧First electrode subassembly

530‧‧‧First bus

532‧‧‧Second electrode subassembly

534‧‧‧Second electrode subassembly

540‧‧‧Second bus

550‧‧‧ third bus

560‧‧‧fourth bus

580‧‧‧ Adjustable impedance

590‧‧‧Center Feed

592‧‧‧X-shaped current separator

600‧‧‧electrode assembly

601‧‧‧electrode assembly

602‧‧‧ first end

604‧‧‧ second end

605‧‧ bisector

610‧‧‧Coplanar wire

620‧‧‧Frame

622‧‧‧ incision

624‧‧‧Wedge electrode

625‧‧‧ upper

626‧‧‧ inner side wall

627‧‧‧ openings

650‧‧‧Processing tools

700‧‧‧electrode assembly

702‧‧‧electrode assembly

704‧‧‧electrode assembly

706‧‧‧electrode assembly

710‧‧‧ silk

712‧‧‧Coplanar wire

714‧‧‧Coplanar wire

730‧‧‧First bus

732‧‧‧First bus

734‧‧‧First bus

736‧‧‧First bus

740‧‧‧Second bus

742‧‧‧Second bus

746‧‧‧Second bus

751‧‧‧second end

752‧‧‧ first end

753‧‧‧second end

754‧‧‧ first end

755‧‧‧ second end

756‧‧‧ drive point

800‧‧‧electrode assembly

801‧‧‧Switching electrode system

802‧‧‧Switching electrode system

804‧‧‧Switching electrode system

806‧‧‧Switching electrode system

808‧‧‧Switching electrode system

810‧‧‧ silk

811‧‧‧ first end

812‧‧‧ second end

816‧‧‧ first multiple

817‧‧‧ second multiple

820‧‧‧First bus

821‧‧‧ third end

822‧‧‧Second bus

824‧‧‧ Third bus

826‧‧‧fourth bus

828‧‧‧fourth bus

830‧‧‧First RF switch

831‧‧‧ first terminal

832‧‧‧second terminal

834‧‧‧Second RF switch

836‧‧‧ Third RF switch

838‧‧‧fourth RF switch 838

840‧‧‧First tap

842‧‧‧Second tap

844‧‧‧ Tap

846‧‧‧ tap

848‧‧ ‧ tap

850‧‧‧First RF switch group

854‧‧‧Second RF switch group

856‧‧‧ Third RF switch group

858‧‧‧Fourth RF switch group

860‧‧‧Sub-switch

860a-860h‧‧‧Sub-switch

870‧‧‧First RF switch group

874‧‧‧Second RF switch group

876‧‧‧ Third RF switch group

878‧‧‧Fourth RF switch group

900‧‧‧Switching electrode system

902‧‧‧Switching electrode assembly

940‧‧‧ tap

942‧‧‧Tip

1000‧‧‧Switching electrode assembly

1010‧‧‧Wedge electrode assembly

1030‧‧‧First RF switch

1034‧‧‧Second RF switch

1036‧‧‧ Third RF switch

1038‧‧‧Fourth RF switch

1040‧‧‧ Tap

1100‧‧‧PIN diode switch

1102‧‧‧Saturable Inductor Switch

1110‧‧‧PIN diode

1120‧‧‧First capacitor

1122‧‧‧second capacitor

1124‧‧‧First capacitor

1126‧‧‧second capacitor

1131‧‧‧ first terminal

1132‧‧‧second terminal

1134‧‧‧Control terminal

1135‧‧‧Control terminal

1136‧‧‧Control signal buffer amplifier

1137‧‧‧Control signal buffer amplifier

1138‧‧‧Low-pass filter

1140‧‧‧Inductors

1150‧‧‧Inductors

1160‧‧‧Saturable Inductors

1162‧‧‧Primary winding

1164‧‧‧Control winding

1200‧‧‧ Frequency-based switch

1200a‧‧‧First frequency-based switch

1200b‧‧‧second frequency-based switch

1204‧‧‧frequency switching electrode system

1220‧‧‧First capacitor

1222‧‧‧second capacitor

1231‧‧‧First terminal

1232‧‧‧second terminal

1240‧‧‧First Inductor

1242‧‧‧second inductor

1250a‧‧‧First frequency selective terminal

1250b‧‧‧Second frequency selective terminal

1260‧‧‧ Tap

2100‧‧‧ plasma reactor

2102‧‧‧ Chamber body

2102a‧‧‧ Sidewall

2102b‧‧‧ top board

2102c‧‧‧floor

2104‧‧‧Internal space

2106‧‧‧electrode assembly

Port 2110‧‧‧

2112‧‧‧ gas supply

2113‧‧‧Vacuum pump

2114‧‧‧Workpiece support

2114a‧‧‧Workpiece support surface

2116‧‧‧Workpiece support electrode

2118‧‧‧Workpiece bias voltage supply

2119‧‧‧Internal passage

2120‧‧‧Multiple conductors

2122‧‧‧RF power supply

2130‧‧‧ dielectric roof

2130a‧‧‧ bottom surface

2132‧‧‧floor

2136‧‧‧ slots

2142‧‧‧RF bias power generator

2144‧‧‧ impedance matching

2146‧‧‧ Fluid supply

2148‧‧‧ heat exchanger

2150‧‧‧ radiator

2152‧‧‧ channel

2154‧‧‧ heat exchanger

2200‧‧‧Processing tools

2202‧‧‧ Subject

2202a‧‧‧ Sidewall

2202b‧‧‧ top board

2202c‧‧‧floor

2204‧‧‧Internal space

2204a-2204d‧‧‧ chamber

2210‧‧‧Resistors

2214‧‧‧Workpiece support

2214a‧‧‧Workpiece support surface

2260‧‧‧Axis

2262‧‧‧Motor

2270‧‧‧Resistors

2272‧‧‧Barriers

2280‧‧‧Pump-purification system

2282‧‧‧First Passage

2284‧‧‧second channel

2286‧‧‧ third channel

2450‧‧‧ catheter

H 1 ‧‧‧First gap height

H 2 ‧‧‧Second gap height

R 1 ‧ ‧ inner radius

R 2 ‧‧‧ outer radius

S‧‧‧ interval

Θca‧‧‧central angle

The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the drawings Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and appended claims.

DRAWINGS

1 is a schematic side view of an example of a processing tool including a plasma chamber.

2A is a schematic top view of an example of a processing tool including a plasma chamber.

2B-2C are cross-sectional side views of the processing tool of Fig. 2A along section lines B-B and C-C, respectively.

3A-3C are schematic cross-sectional perspective views of various examples of filaments of a chamber electrode assembly.

4A is a schematic top view of a portion of an intrachamber electrode assembly.

4B-C are cross-sectional schematic side views of chamber electrode assemblies having different plasma region states.

5A-D are schematic top views of various examples of intra-chamber electrode assembly configurations.

Figure 6A is a schematic top view of an example of a processing tool.

Fig. 6B is a schematic top view of an example of a wedge electrode assembly.

Fig. 6C is a schematic top view of an example of a frame of a wedge electrode assembly.

Figure 6D is a cross-sectional side view of an example of a frame of a wedge electrode assembly.

Fig. 6E is a schematic top view of an example of a wedge electrode assembly.

7A-7D are conceptual schematic diagrams of an example of an electrical configuration of a wedge electrode assembly.

Fig. 8A is a schematic top view of an example of an electrode assembly.

8B-8F are conceptual diagrams of an example of an electrical configuration of a switched electrode assembly.

9A-9B are conceptual diagrams of examples of mode selectable switched electrode systems.

Figure 10 is a conceptual schematic diagram of an example of a switched wedge electrode system.

Figure 11A is a schematic illustration of an example of a PIN diode switch.

Figure 11B is a schematic diagram of an example of a saturable inductive switch.

Figure 12A is a schematic diagram of an example of a frequency based switch.

12B-C are conceptual diagrams of an example of an electrical configuration of a frequency switching electrode system.

Figure 13 is a schematic side view of an example of a plasma reactor.

Figure 14A is a schematic top view of another example of a plasma reactor.

14B and 14C are schematic side views of the plasma reactor of Fig. 14A along lines 14B-14B and 14C-14C, respectively.

15A-15C are schematic cross-sectional views of an electrode assembly.

The same numerical numbers in the different figures represent the same elements.

Domestic deposit information (please note according to the order of the depository, date, number)

Foreign deposit information (please note in the order of country, organization, date, number)

Claims (50)

  1. A processing tool for a plasma process, the processing tool comprising: a chamber body having an interior space, the interior space providing a plasma chamber, the chamber body having a top plate and a top plate An opening on the opposite side, a workpiece support member holding the workpiece such that at least a portion of a front surface of the workpiece faces the opening; an actuator in which the actuator is a relative movement between the workpiece supports, such that the opening laterally moves across the workpiece; a gas distributor that delivers a process gas to the plasma chamber; An electrode assembly comprising a plurality of coplanar filaments extending laterally through the plasma chamber between the workpiece support and the top plate, each of the plurality of filaments comprising a And a first RF power source that supplies a first RF power to the conductors of the electrode assembly to form a plasma.
  2. The processing tool of claim 1 wherein the workpiece support is rotatable about a rotational axis and the actuator rotates the workpiece support such that rotation of the support carries the workpiece across the opening.
  3. The processing tool of claim 2, wherein the plurality of coplanar filaments extend across a wedge-shaped region.
  4. The processing tool of claim 3, wherein the workpiece is fully fit within the wedge-shaped region such that the entire front surface of the workpiece is exposed to the plasma during operation.
  5. A processing tool according to claim 3, wherein the workpiece is larger than the wedge-shaped region such that in operation, a wedge-shaped portion of the front surface of the workpiece is exposed to the plasma.
  6. The processing tool of claim 3, wherein the opening is wedge shaped.
  7. The processing tool of claim 3, wherein the plurality of coplanar filaments comprise linear filaments and the different filaments have different lengths to define the wedge shaped region.
  8. The processing tool of claim 7, wherein the plurality of coplanar filaments extend in parallel.
  9. The processing tool of claim 7, wherein the different filaments are oriented at different angles.
  10. The processing tool of claim 9, wherein the plurality of coplanar filaments are oriented such that a plasma density produced in the wedge region is lower at a vertex of the wedge region than at a base of the wedge region.
  11. The processing tool of claim 3, wherein the plurality of coplanar filaments are oriented to have a longitudinal axis that is at a non-zero angle relative to a direction of motion of the portion of the substrate below the opening.
  12. The processing tool of claim 11, wherein the non-zero angle is greater than 10°.
  13. The processing tool of claim 1 wherein an interval between the coplanar filaments is sufficient to avoid a pinch of a plasma region between the region above the electrode assembly within the chamber and the region below.
  14. A processing tool according to claim 1, wherein a bottom of the chamber is open.
  15. The processing tool of claim 1, wherein the ends of the conductors of the plurality of coplanar wires are connected to the first RF power source by a recursive RF feed structure.
  16. The processing tool of claim 1, wherein the opposite ends of the conductors of the plurality of coplanar wires are connected to a common bus, and the bus is connected to the first RF power source at two opposite locations.
  17. A plasma reactor comprising: a chamber body having an interior space, the interior space providing a plasma chamber; a gas distributor for delivering a process gas to the plasma a pump, the pump is coupled to the plasma chamber to evacuate the chamber; a workpiece support member, the workpiece support member holds a workpiece; a chamber inner electrode assembly, the chamber electrode assembly includes a plurality of wires, The plurality of wires extend laterally through a plasma chamber between a top plate of the plasma chamber and the workpiece support, each wire comprising a conductor surrounded by a cylindrical insulating shell, wherein the plurality of wires The wire includes a first multi-filament and a second multi-filament, the second multi-filament and the first multi-filament are arranged in an alternating pattern, a first bus and a second bus, the first bus is coupled The first multi-wire, the second bus is coupled to the second multi-wire; an RF power source, the RF power source applies an RF signal to the intra-chamber electrode assembly; and at least one RF switch, the at least one RF switch Controllably configured to connect the first bus to Each one who is electrically coupled and decoupled: i) ground, ii) RF power supply, or iii) the second bus.
  18. The plasma reactor of claim 17, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a plurality of RF switches connected in parallel between the first bus and one of: i) ground, ii) the RF Power or iii) the second bus.
  19. The plasma reactor of claim 17, wherein the at least one RF switch is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the second bus.
  20. The plasma reactor of claim 19, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a plurality of switches connected in parallel between different pairs of positions on the first bus and the second bus to controllably the first A bus is electrically coupled and decoupled to the second bus.
  21. The plasma reactor of claim 17, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground, and includes at least A second RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to ground.
  22. The plasma reactor of claim 21, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between different locations on the first bus and ground, and the at least one second switch is included a second plurality of switches connected in parallel between different locations on the second bus and ground.
  23. The plasma reactor of claim 22, wherein the different locations on the first bus comprise opposite ends of the first bus, and different locations on the second bus comprise opposite ends of the second bus.
  24. The plasma reactor of claim 17, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the RF power source, and A second RF switch is included that is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to the RF power source.
  25. The plasma reactor of claim 24, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between the RF power source at different locations on the first bus, and the at least one second switch A second plurality of switches including a different location on the second bus and the RF power source are connected in parallel.
  26. The plasma reactor of claim 24, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first plurality of switches connected in parallel between the RF power source at different locations on the first bus, and the at least one second switch A second plurality of switches including parallel connections between different locations on the second bus and ground are included.
  27. A plasma reactor as claimed in claim 25 or 26, wherein the different locations on the first bus comprise opposite ends of the first bus and the different locations on the second bus comprise opposite ends of the second bus.
  28. The plasma reactor of claim 17, comprising: a third bus coupled to the fourth bus, the third bus coupled to the first multi-wire, the fourth bus coupled to the second multi-wire, Wherein the plurality of wires have a plurality of first ends and a plurality of second ends, and the first ends of the respective wires are closer to a first side wall of the plasma chamber than the second end of the corresponding wires, and wherein the plurality of wires a first bus is coupled to the first ends of the first multi-wire, the second bus is coupled to the first ends of the second multi-wire, and the third bus is coupled to the first multiple The second ends of the wires, and the fourth bus are coupled to the second ends of the second multifilament.
  29. The plasma reactor of claim 28, wherein the at least one RF switch is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the second bus, and includes at least one second RF switch, The second RF switch is configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the third bus to the fourth bus.
  30. The plasma reactor of claim 28, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground and includes at least A second RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the third bus to ground.
  31. The plasma reactor of claim 28, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to ground and includes at least a second RF switch, the second RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to the RF source, the third RF switch configured to controllably The third bus is electrically coupled and decoupled to ground and includes at least one fourth RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the fourth bus from the RF source.
  32. The plasma reactor of claim 28, wherein the at least one RF switch comprises a first switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the first bus to the RF source, and Included at least one second RF switch, the second RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the second bus to the RF source, the third RF switch configured to be controllable Electrically coupling and decoupling the third bus to the RF source, and including at least one fourth RF switch configured to controllably electrically couple and decouple the fourth bus to the RF source .
  33. A plasma reactor comprising: a chamber body having an interior space, the interior space providing a plasma chamber; a gas distributor for delivering a process gas to the plasma a pump, the pump is coupled to the plasma chamber to evacuate the chamber; a workpiece support member, the workpiece support member holds a workpiece; a chamber inner electrode assembly, the chamber electrode assembly includes a plurality of wires, The plurality of wires extend laterally through the plasma chamber between a top plate of the plasma chamber and the workpiece support, each wire comprising a conductor surrounded by a cylindrical insulating case, a bus, The bus is outside the cavity and coupled to opposite ends of the plurality of wires; an RF power source that applies an RF signal to the intracavity electrode assembly; and a plurality of RF switches that are configured to be controllable A plurality of different locations on the bus are electrically coupled and decoupled from one of: i) ground or ii) the RF power source.
  34. A plasma reactor comprising: a chamber body having an interior space, the interior space providing a plasma chamber; a gas distributor for delivering a process gas to the plasma a workpiece support member holding a workpiece; an electrode assembly comprising a plurality of conductors spaced apart from the workpiece support in a parallel coplanar array and laterally Extending across the workpiece support; a first RF power source, the first RF power source providing a first RF power to the electrode assembly; and a dielectric backplane at the electrode assembly and the workpiece support The dielectric backplane provides an RF window between the electrode assembly and the plasma chamber.
  35. The plasma reactor of claim 34, comprising a dielectric top plate, wherein the plurality of conductors are positioned between the dielectric top plate and the dielectric window.
  36. A plasma reactor according to claim 35, wherein the dielectric top plate is a ceramic body, and the dielectric substrate is quartz or tantalum nitride.
  37. The plasma reactor of claim 35, wherein the lower surface of the bottom plate has a plurality of parallel grooves, and wherein the plurality of parallel coplanar conductors are positioned in the plurality of parallel grooves.
  38. A plasma reactor as claimed in claim 37, comprising a plurality of wires in the plurality of grooves, each wire comprising a conductor and a non-metallic shell surrounding the conductor.
  39. The plasma reactor of claim 37, wherein the shell forms a conduit, and the conductor is suspended in the conduit and extends through the conduit.
  40. A plasma reactor as claimed in claim 37, wherein the conductor comprises a hollow conduit.
  41. The plasma reactor of claim 35, wherein the plurality of conductors are coated on the dielectric top plate.
  42. The plasma reactor of claim 35, wherein the plurality of conductors are embedded in the dielectric top plate.
  43. The plasma reactor of claim 34, wherein the plurality of conductors comprise a first multiple conductor and a second multiple conductor, the second multiple conductors being arranged in a pattern alternating with the first multiple conductors, and The RF power source is configured to apply a first RF input signal to the first multiple conductor and a second RF input signal to the second multiple conductor.
  44. The plasma reactor of claim 43, wherein the RF power source is configured to generate the first RF signal and the second RF signal at the same frequency.
  45. The plasma reactor of claim 44, wherein the RF power source is configured to provide an adjustable phase difference between the first RF signal and the second RF signal.
  46. The plasma reactor of claim 43, wherein the plurality of conductors have a plurality of first ends on a first side of the plasma chamber and an opposite second side of the plasma chamber Multiple second ends.
  47. The plasma reactor of claim 46, wherein the RF power source is configured to apply the first RF input signal to the first end of the first multiple conductor and to apply the second RF input signal to the The second end of the second multiple conductor.
  48. The plasma reactor of claim 47, wherein the second end of the first multiple conductor is floating and the first end of the second multiple conductor is floating.
  49. The plasma reactor of claim 47, wherein the first ends of the first multiple conductors are connected to a first common bus, and the second ends of the second multiple conductors are connected to a first Two shared bus.
  50. The plasma reactor of claim 47, wherein the second ends of the first multifilament are grounded and the first ends of the second multifilament are grounded.
TW107119619A 2017-06-22 2018-06-07 A plasma chamber having an electrode assembly TW201905957A (en)

Priority Applications (6)

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US201762523768P true 2017-06-22 2017-06-22
US15/630,828 US20180374686A1 (en) 2017-06-22 2017-06-22 Plasma reactor with electrode assembly for moving substrate
US62/523,768 2017-06-22
US15/630,658 2017-06-22
US15/630,658 US20180374685A1 (en) 2017-06-22 2017-06-22 Plasma reactor with electrode array in ceiling
US15/630,828 2017-06-22

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JP4179337B2 (en) * 2006-05-17 2008-11-12 日新イオン機器株式会社 Ion source and operation method thereof
US8920597B2 (en) * 2010-08-20 2014-12-30 Applied Materials, Inc. Symmetric VHF source for a plasma reactor
US9373517B2 (en) * 2012-08-02 2016-06-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Semiconductor processing with DC assisted RF power for improved control
US9449795B2 (en) * 2013-02-28 2016-09-20 Novellus Systems, Inc. Ceramic showerhead with embedded RF electrode for capacitively coupled plasma reactor
US9336997B2 (en) * 2014-03-17 2016-05-10 Applied Materials, Inc. RF multi-feed structure to improve plasma uniformity
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