TW201740417A - Switching device including an insulative housing, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection device, and a first heat generating component - Google Patents

Switching device including an insulative housing, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection device, and a first heat generating component Download PDF

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Publication number
TW201740417A
TW201740417A TW106122796A TW106122796A TW201740417A TW 201740417 A TW201740417 A TW 201740417A TW 106122796 A TW106122796 A TW 106122796A TW 106122796 A TW106122796 A TW 106122796A TW 201740417 A TW201740417 A TW 201740417A
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TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
electrode
terminal electrode
switching element
terminal
fusible conductor
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Application number
TW106122796A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
Pao-Hsuan Chen
Sha-Li Chen
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Pao-Hsuan Chen
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Application filed by Pao-Hsuan Chen filed Critical Pao-Hsuan Chen
Priority to TW106122796A priority Critical patent/TW201740417A/en
Publication of TW201740417A publication Critical patent/TW201740417A/en
Priority to CN201810734787.2A priority patent/CN109216120A/en
Priority to TW107123481A priority patent/TWI689961B/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H71/00Details of the protective switches or relays covered by groups H01H73/00 - H01H83/00
    • H01H71/10Operating or release mechanisms
    • H01H71/12Automatic release mechanisms with or without manual release
    • H01H71/14Electrothermal mechanisms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H71/00Details of the protective switches or relays covered by groups H01H73/00 - H01H83/00
    • H01H71/10Operating or release mechanisms
    • H01H71/12Automatic release mechanisms with or without manual release
    • H01H71/14Electrothermal mechanisms
    • H01H71/16Electrothermal mechanisms with bimetal element
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H71/00Details of the protective switches or relays covered by groups H01H73/00 - H01H83/00
    • H01H71/10Operating or release mechanisms
    • H01H71/12Automatic release mechanisms with or without manual release
    • H01H71/14Electrothermal mechanisms
    • H01H71/20Electrothermal mechanisms with fusible mass

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Abstract

The present invention provides a switching device. The switching device includes an insulative housing, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection device, and a first heat generating component. The plurality of terminal electrodes include a first terminal electrode, a second terminal electrode, a third terminal electrode and a fourth terminal electrode. The terminal electrodes respectively penetrate through the insulative housing and are respectively supported by the insulative housing. The first overcurrent protection device provides a first bi-directional current path between the first terminal electrode and the second terminal electrode of the switching device. The first heat generating component is disposed below the first terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode. When the first heat generating component is powered to generate heat, the switching device responses to the heat generated by the first heat generating component to electrically connect the fourth terminal electrode with another terminal electrode.

Description

開關元件 Switching element

本發明是有關於一種開關元件,且特別是有關於一種依據外部信號來切換開關元件的電流路徑,或者是,切換開關元件不同的端電極之間的短路或斷路狀態,達到電路保護或切換的功能。 The present invention relates to a switching element, and more particularly to a current path for switching a switching element according to an external signal, or switching a short circuit or an open circuit state between different terminal electrodes of the switching element to achieve circuit protection or switching. Features.

先前具有開關功能的單一被動元件,大多不具備保護功能,或者是,具備開關的功能,卻無法切換電流的路徑,特別是應用在大電流的電路。 A single passive component that previously had a switching function mostly does not have a protection function, or has a switching function, but cannot switch the path of the current, especially in a circuit with a large current.

因此,為了因應市場未來大額定電流的需求,具備大額定電流的開關元件,必須可以將原來導通的大電流路徑斷開,或者是,將原來的大電流路徑切換至其他的電流路徑。 Therefore, in order to meet the demand for large current rating in the market, a switching element with a large rated current must be able to disconnect the large current path that was originally turned on, or switch the original large current path to another current path.

為了符合上述的需求,本發明提出一種開關元件。開關元件包括:絕緣外殼體、多個端電極、第一過電流保護元件以及第一熱產生組件。多個端電極包括第一端電極、第二端電極、第三端電極以及第四端電極,該些端電極分別貫穿絕緣外殼體,且分別被絕緣外殼體所支撐。第一過電流保護元件用以在開關元件的第一端電極與第二端電極之間提供第一雙向的電流路徑。第一熱產生組件配置在第一端電極或第二端電 極的下方。當第一熱產生組件通電發熱時,開關元件反應於第一熱產生組件所產生的熱而使第四端電極電氣連接另一端電極。 In order to meet the above needs, the present invention proposes a switching element. The switching element includes: an insulating outer casing, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection component, and a first heat generating component. The plurality of terminal electrodes include a first end electrode, a second end electrode, a third end electrode, and a fourth end electrode, and the end electrodes respectively penetrate the insulating outer casing and are respectively supported by the insulating outer casing. The first overcurrent protection component is configured to provide a first bidirectional current path between the first end electrode and the second end electrode of the switching element. The first heat generating component is configured to be electrically connected to the first terminal electrode or the second terminal Below the pole. When the first heat generating component is energized and heated, the switching element reacts with heat generated by the first heat generating component to electrically connect the fourth terminal electrode to the other terminal electrode.

888、888a、888b、888c‧‧‧開關元件 888, 888a, 888b, 888c‧‧‧ switching components

7(1)‧‧‧第一熱產生組件 7(1)‧‧‧First heat generating component

7a、7b‧‧‧發熱體電極 7a, 7b‧‧‧heating electrode

7aa‧‧‧發熱體電極的斜邊部 7aa‧‧‧ oblique part of the heating element electrode

7c‧‧‧第一發熱體 7c‧‧‧First heating element

8‧‧‧第一可熔導體或第一過電流保護元件 8‧‧‧First fusible conductor or first overcurrent protection element

8a‧‧‧第二可熔導體 8a‧‧‧second fusible conductor

8b‧‧‧第三可熔導體 8b‧‧‧ third fusible conductor

8c‧‧‧第四可熔導體 8c‧‧‧fourth fusible conductor

9(1)、9(2)‧‧‧焊料或焊錫 9(1), 9(2)‧‧‧ solder or solder

10‧‧‧絕緣基板 10‧‧‧Insert substrate

11、21、31、41、51‧‧‧端電極 11, 21, 31, 41, 51‧‧‧ terminal electrodes

21a‧‧‧端電極的斜邊部 21a‧‧‧ oblique side of the terminal electrode

16‧‧‧絕緣導熱層 16‧‧‧Insulation and heat conduction layer

18‧‧‧開口 18‧‧‧ openings

18a‧‧‧多孔洞陶瓷結構 18a‧‧‧ Porous hole ceramic structure

19‧‧‧絕緣外殼體 19‧‧‧Insulated outer casing

19a‧‧‧絕緣外殼體蓋體 19a‧‧‧Insulated outer casing cover

19b‧‧‧絕緣外殼體基體 19b‧‧‧Insulated outer casing base

19c‧‧‧絕緣外殼體側體 19c‧‧‧Insulated outer casing side body

19x1、19x2、19x3、19x4、19x5、19x6‧‧‧絕緣外殼體的六個面 Six sides of 19x1, 19x2, 19x3, 19x4, 19x5, 19x6‧‧ ‧ insulating outer casing

S1‧‧‧彈性構件或第一過電流保護元件 S1‧‧‧ Elastic members or first overcurrent protection components

G1‧‧‧間隙 G1‧‧‧ gap

I7‧‧‧第一熱產生組件電流 I 7 ‧‧‧First heat generating component current

Ic1、Id1‧‧‧輸出入電流或第一雙向電流路徑 Ic1, Id1‧‧‧Input current or first bidirectional current path

Ic2、Id2‧‧‧輸出入電流或第二雙向電流路徑 Ic2, Id2‧‧‧Input current or second bidirectional current path

OCP‧‧‧第一過電流保護元件 OCP‧‧‧ first overcurrent protection component

圖1為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖1A為開關元件888中第一雙向電流路徑斷開的剖面示意圖。 1A is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the first bidirectional current path being broken in the switching element 888.

圖1B為開關元件888中第一熱產生組件通電發熱後的剖面示意圖。 FIG. 1B is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the first heat generating component of the switching element 888 after being energized and heated.

圖1C為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。。 1C is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention. .

圖1D為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1D is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖1E為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1E is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖1F為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1F is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖1G為本發明之一種開關元件888c的剖面示意圖。 1G is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888c of the present invention.

圖1H為本發明之一種開關元件888c的剖面示意圖。 1H is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888c of the present invention.

圖1I為開關元件888c中第一熱產生組件通電發熱後的剖面示意圖。 FIG. 1I is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the first heat generating component of the switching element 888c after being energized and heated.

圖1J為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1J is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖1K為本發明之一種開關元件888的剖面示意圖。 1K is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖2為本發明之一種開關元件888的外觀示意圖。 2 is a schematic view showing the appearance of a switching element 888 of the present invention.

圖3為本發明之一種開關元件888a的剖面示意圖。 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a switching element 888a of the present invention.

圖3A為開關元件888a中第一熱產生組件通電發熱後的剖面示意圖。 FIG. 3A is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the first heat generating component of the switching element 888a after being energized and heated.

圖4為本發明之一種開關元件888b的剖面示意圖。 4 is a cross-sectional view showing a switching element 888b of the present invention.

圖5為開關元件888的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888.

圖5A為開關元件888中第一熱產生組件通電發熱後的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5A is an equivalent circuit diagram after the first heat generating component of the switching element 888 is energized and heated.

圖5B為開關元件888c的等效電路圖。 Fig. 5B is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888c.

圖5C為開關元件888c中第一熱產生組件通電發熱後的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5C is an equivalent circuit diagram after the first heat generating component of the switching element 888c is energized and heated.

圖5D為開關元件888b的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5D is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888b.

圖5E為開關元件888的第一熱產生組件連接第一端電極的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5E is an equivalent circuit diagram of the first heat generating component of the switching element 888 connected to the first terminal electrode.

圖5F為開關元件888的第一熱產生組件連接第一端電極的等效電路圖。 FIG. 5F is an equivalent circuit diagram of the first heat generating component of the switching element 888 connected to the first terminal electrode.

為使能更進一步瞭解本發明之特徵和技術內容,請參閱以下相關的實施例,並配合所附圖式作詳細說明如下。另外,凡可能之處,在圖式及實施方式中使用相同標號的元件/構件代表相同或類似部分。此外,圖示是以示意方式繪示,會有各尺寸的比率與實際不同的情形,應參酌以下的說明自行判斷。實施例說明如下: In order to further understand the features and technical contents of the present invention, reference should be made to the following related embodiments, which are described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings. In addition, wherever possible, the same reference numerals in the drawings In addition, the illustrations are shown in a schematic manner, and there are cases where the ratio of each size is different from the actual one, and the discretion should be made according to the following description. The examples are as follows:

【開關元件888】 [Switching element 888]

圖1繪示為本發明之一種實施形態的開關元件888的剖面示意圖。圖5繪示為開關元件888的等效電路圖。請同時參考圖1以及圖5。本實施例的開關元件888包括:絕緣外殼體19、多個端電極、第一過電流保護元件OCP以及第一熱產生組件7(1)。 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a switching element 888 according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888. Please refer to Figure 1 and Figure 5 at the same time. The switching element 888 of the present embodiment includes an insulating outer casing 19, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection element OCP, and a first heat generating component 7(1).

【開關元件888的絕緣外殼體19】 [Insulation Housing 19 of Switching Element 888]

絕緣外殼體19包含絕緣外殼體蓋體19a、絕緣外殼體基體19b以及絕緣外殼體側體19c。絕緣外殼體19的成分包含聚合物(polymer)與陶瓷材料等其中之一者或兩者的組合。其中,該陶瓷材料包含碳化矽SiC、氧化鋁、氮化鋁、氮化矽SiN、石墨等其中任一者或 其中的兩者以上的組合。其中,聚合物包含耐熱性良好的工程塑膠中的任一種或二種以上的組合。本實施例之開關元件888的絕緣外殼體19的主成分為聚合物(polymer),包含聚苯硫醚(Polyhenylenesulfide)。絕緣外殼體19在成形為圖1或圖2的形狀或結構時,可以分成絕緣外殼體蓋體19a、絕緣外殼體基體19b以及絕緣外殼體側體19c,如圖1,分別成型。其中,絕緣外殼體側體19c也可以同時使用嵌入成型的製程,將第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41以及絕緣外殼體側體19c(或絕緣外殼體基體19b)一體化成型。絕緣外殼體19具有左面部19x1、右面部19x2、上面部19x3、底面部19x4、前面部19x5以及後面部19x6等六個面部(如圖2)。絕緣外殼體19具有保護絕緣外殼體19內元件的功用,包含如:彈性元件S1、第一可熔導體8、第二可熔導體8a、第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41、第五端電極51的第二端以及第一熱產生組件7(1)等。 The insulating outer casing 19 includes an insulating outer casing cover 19a, an insulating outer casing base 19b, and an insulating outer casing side body 19c. The composition of the insulating outer casing 19 includes one or a combination of a polymer and a ceramic material. Wherein, the ceramic material comprises any one of SiC, alumina, aluminum nitride, tantalum nitride SiN, graphite, or the like. A combination of two or more of them. Among them, the polymer contains any one or a combination of two or more kinds of engineering plastics having good heat resistance. The main component of the insulating outer casing 19 of the switching element 888 of the present embodiment is a polymer comprising polyhenylene sulfide. When the insulating outer casing 19 is formed into the shape or structure of Fig. 1 or Fig. 2, it can be divided into an insulating outer casing cover 19a, an insulating outer casing base 19b, and an insulating outer casing side body 19c, as shown in Fig. 1, respectively. Wherein, the insulating outer casing side body 19c can also simultaneously use the process of insert molding, and the first end electrode 11, the second end electrode 21, the third end electrode 31, the fourth end electrode 41, and the insulating outer casing side body 19c (or The insulating outer casing base 19b) is integrally formed. The insulating outer casing 19 has six faces (such as FIG. 2) such as a left surface portion 19x1, a right surface portion 19x2, an upper surface portion 19x3, a bottom surface portion 19x4, a front surface portion 19x5, and a rear surface portion 19x6. The insulating outer casing 19 has the function of protecting the components in the insulating outer casing 19, and includes, for example, an elastic member S1, a first fusible conductor 8, a second fusible conductor 8a, a first terminal electrode 11, a second terminal electrode 21, and a third The terminal end 31, the fourth end electrode 41, the second end of the fifth end electrode 51, and the first heat generating component 7(1) and the like.

又,絕緣外殼體19可另包含開口18(請參考圖2)或多孔洞陶瓷結構18a(請參考圖1)。開口18(開口之形狀可以是圓形、多邊形等任何習知的任一形狀)的特徵是:在絕緣外殼體19六個面部(左面部19x1、右面部19x2、上面部19x3、底面部19x4、前面部19x5以及後面部19x6)中的任一面部,具有至少一開口18,開口18是從絕緣外殼體19的外表面直通絕緣外殼體19的內表面。多孔洞陶瓷結構18a(習知的技術)的特徵是:在絕緣外殼體19六個面部(左面部19x1、右面部19x2、上面部19x3、底面部19x4、前面部19x5以及後面部 19x6)中的任一面部,其整面或局部的主要成份是由陶瓷粉體所組成,藉由燒結的製程將之燒結成型,並在陶瓷顆粒之間產生間隙或孔洞,因此絕緣外殼體19的其中一面部或局部具有的多孔洞的最小直徑比開口18的直徑小,或者是,絕緣外殼體19的多孔洞的數量多於絕緣外殼體19的開口18,多孔洞陶瓷結構18a大部分孔洞是互通的。開口18與多孔洞陶瓷結構18a的功用是:將絕緣外殼體19內氣體所產生的高壓,可經由絕緣外殼體19的開口18或多孔洞陶瓷結構18a排洩出去,讓絕緣外殼體19的結構,不致於受到氣體高壓而造成損壞。 Further, the insulating outer casing 19 may further include an opening 18 (please refer to FIG. 2) or a porous hole ceramic structure 18a (please refer to FIG. 1). The opening 18 (the shape of the opening may be any conventional shape such as a circular shape or a polygonal shape) is characterized by six faces of the insulating outer casing 19 (the left surface portion 19x1, the right surface portion 19x2, the upper surface portion 19x3, and the bottom surface portion 19x4, Any of the front portion 19x5 and the rear portion 19x6) has at least one opening 18 which is straight from the outer surface of the insulating outer casing 19 to the inner surface of the insulating outer casing 19. The porous hole ceramic structure 18a (a conventional technique) is characterized in that: six faces of the insulating outer casing 19 (left surface portion 19x1, right surface portion 19x2, upper surface portion 19x3, bottom surface portion 19x4, front portion 19x5, and rear portion) In any of the faces of 19x6), the entire surface or part of the main component is composed of ceramic powder, which is sintered by a sintering process, and a gap or a hole is formed between the ceramic particles, so that the insulating outer casing 19 One of the faces or portions has a minimum diameter of the porous hole smaller than the diameter of the opening 18, or the number of the porous holes of the insulating outer casing 19 is larger than the opening 18 of the insulating outer casing 19, and most of the holes of the porous ceramic structure 18a It is interoperable. The function of the opening 18 and the porous ceramic structure 18a is such that the high pressure generated by the gas in the insulating outer casing 19 can be drained through the opening 18 of the insulating outer casing 19 or the porous ceramic structure 18a, so that the structure of the insulating outer casing 19 is It will not be damaged by high gas pressure.

【開關元件888的多個端電極】 [Multiple terminal electrodes of the switching element 888]

開關元件888的多個端電極包括四個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41)貫穿絕緣外殼體側體19c且由絕緣外殼體側體19c支撐。每一個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41)的其中一端(第一端)配置(外露)於絕緣外殼體19外,另一端(第二端)配置或浮設於絕緣外殼體19內或延伸至絕緣外殼體19內(請參考圖1)。更進一步來說,因第一熱產生組件7(1)配置在第二端電極21第二端的下方,所以,第二端電極21的第二端與絕緣外殼體基體19b之間具有間隙G1(請參考圖1A),且第二端電極21的第二端包含斜邊部21a(當然也可以不包含斜邊部21a,請參考圖1D)。另,第一端電極11具有二個第二端(請參考圖1),當然,第一端電極11也可只具有一個第二端(請參考圖4)。另,其他端電極的第二端與絕緣外 殼體基體19b之間也可以具有間隙,或者是,其他端電極也可具有多個第二端,或者是,其他端電極也可包含斜邊部,上述的技術特徵都可視需要而自由調整。另,每一個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41)的第一端(外露於絕緣外殼體19外)的高度也可以依需要而自由調整(請參考圖1、圖1D)。除此之外,由於該些端電極並非以印刷製程而是以其他製程(如:壓合製程)成型,設計者可根據實際應用或設計需求而調整該些端電極的厚度與密度,以降低該些端電極的內阻。本發明所有的端電極的材料包含以金、銀、銅、錫、鉛、鋁、鎳、鈀、白金等中任一種作為主成份或其部分的組合作為主成分的材料所製成的片狀或長條狀的金屬。另,端電極的表面可以鍍上一層或多層較不易氧化或較穩定的金屬材料如:鎳、錫、鉛、鋁、鎳、金等。如此一來,該些端電極可避免大電流流經時產生高溫而使任一端電極被熔融。本發明的所有端電極都可採用類似於上述說明的方式來實現。 The plurality of terminal electrodes of the switching element 888 include four terminal electrodes (ie, the first terminal electrode 11, the second terminal electrode 21, the third terminal electrode 31, and the fourth terminal electrode 41) penetrate the insulating outer casing side body 19c and are insulated by the outer casing. The body side body 19c is supported. One end (first end) of each of the terminal electrodes (ie, the first end electrode 11, the second end electrode 21, the third end electrode 31, and the fourth end electrode 41) is disposed (exposed) outside the insulating outer casing 19, and One end (second end) is disposed or floated in the insulating outer casing 19 or extends into the insulating outer casing 19 (please refer to FIG. 1). Further, since the first heat generating component 7(1) is disposed below the second end of the second terminal electrode 21, there is a gap G1 between the second end of the second terminal electrode 21 and the insulating outer casing base 19b ( Please refer to FIG. 1A), and the second end of the second end electrode 21 includes a beveled portion 21a (of course, the beveled portion 21a may not be included, please refer to FIG. 1D). In addition, the first terminal electrode 11 has two second ends (please refer to FIG. 1). Of course, the first terminal electrode 11 may also have only one second end (please refer to FIG. 4). In addition, the other end of the second electrode and the outside of the insulation The housing bases 19b may also have a gap therebetween, or the other end electrodes may have a plurality of second ends, or the other end electrodes may also include beveled portions, and the above technical features may be freely adjusted as needed. In addition, the height of the first end (exposed to the outside of the insulating outer casing 19) of each of the terminal electrodes (ie, the first terminal electrode 11, the second terminal electrode 21, the third terminal electrode 31, and the fourth terminal electrode 41) may also be Free adjustment if needed (please refer to Figure 1, Figure 1D). In addition, since the terminal electrodes are not formed by a printing process but by other processes (such as a pressing process), the designer can adjust the thickness and density of the terminal electrodes according to actual application or design requirements to reduce The internal resistance of the terminal electrodes. The material of all the terminal electrodes of the present invention comprises a sheet made of a material containing as a main component a combination of any one of gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, aluminum, nickel, palladium, platinum, or the like as a main component. Or long strips of metal. In addition, the surface of the terminal electrode may be plated with one or more layers of metal materials that are less susceptible to oxidation or stability, such as nickel, tin, lead, aluminum, nickel, gold, and the like. In this way, the terminal electrodes can avoid a high temperature when a large current flows, so that either terminal electrode is melted. All of the terminal electrodes of the present invention can be implemented in a manner similar to that described above.

又,當然本發明中之多個端電極也可另包括第五端電極51(請參考圖4)。 Further, of course, the plurality of terminal electrodes in the present invention may further include a fifth terminal electrode 51 (please refer to FIG. 4).

【開關元件888b】 [Switching element 888b]

圖4繪示為本發明之另一種實施形態的開關元件888b的剖面示意圖。圖5D繪示為開關元件888b的等效電路圖。本實施例的開關元件888b包括:絕緣外殼體19、多個端電極、第一過電流保護元件OCP以及第一熱產生組件7(1)。開關元件888b與開關元件888相 似,其主要的差異是:開關元件888b中的多個端電極包括五個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41以及第五端電極51),其中,每個端電極只有一個第二端。開關元件888中的多個端電極包括四個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41),其中,第一端電極11具有二個第二端。其他有關結構的相關說明與開關元件888相似,請自行參閱,在此不再贅述。 4 is a cross-sectional view showing a switching element 888b according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5D is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888b. The switching element 888b of the present embodiment includes an insulating outer casing 19, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection element OCP, and a first heat generating component 7(1). Switching element 888b and switching element 888 Similarly, the main difference is that the plurality of terminal electrodes in the switching element 888b include five terminal electrodes (ie, the first terminal electrode 11, the second terminal electrode 21, the third terminal electrode 31, the fourth terminal electrode 41, and the fifth The terminal electrode 51), wherein each of the terminal electrodes has only one second end. The plurality of terminal electrodes in the switching element 888 include four terminal electrodes (ie, the first terminal electrode 11, the second terminal electrode 21, the third terminal electrode 31, and the fourth terminal electrode 41), wherein the first terminal electrode 11 has two The second end. Other related descriptions of the structure are similar to the switching element 888, please refer to it yourself, and will not be repeated here.

【開關元件888的第一過電流保護元件OCP】 [The first overcurrent protection element OCP of the switching element 888]

本發明之開關元件中的第一過電流保護元件OCP包括:可熔導體、彈性構件、正溫度係數元件(PTC元件)(或稱熱敏電阻)、雙金屬構件、溫度保險絲以及記憶金屬等其中的任一者或其中的部分組合。本實施例之開關元件888中的第一過電流保護元件OCP,選擇的是第一可熔導體8,第一可熔導體8可用任何習知的方式將第一可熔導體8固定在第一端電極11與第二端電極21上(例如:迴焊方式,請參考圖3),將第一可熔導體8固定在第一端電極11與第二端電極21的上表面,且分別電氣連接第一端電極11與第二端電極21,用以在開關元件888的第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間提供第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)。第一可熔導體8可以是多層結構,具有低熔點導體層與高熔點導體層,其中低熔點導體層與高熔點導體層的熔點不相同。當然,第一可熔導體8也可是單層結構,只包含單一熔點的金屬導體層(低熔點導體層或高熔點導體層)。第一可熔導體8中的低熔點導體層的材料包含以錫為主成分的有鉛或無鉛金屬合金。第一可熔導體8中的高熔點導體層的材料包 含以銀、銅、錫、鉍、銦、鋅、鋁等部分組成的合金。本發明的所有可熔導體都適用上述的說明。需特別說明的是:本實施例之第一可熔導體8可以是任何形狀。例如:第一可熔導體8的兩端分別配置在第一端電極11與第二端電極21上(請參考圖1D),或者是,第一可熔導體8的其中一端分支延伸至斜邊部21a(請參考圖1),或者是,第一可熔導體8的中央部具有斜率的變化(請參考圖1)。迴焊方式中的焊料9(1)、9(2)可選擇使用高熔點的材料包含以銀、銅、錫、鉍、銦、鋅、鋁等部分組成的有鉛或無鉛金屬,也可選擇使用低熔點導體層的材料包含以錫為主成分的有鉛或無鉛金屬合金。 The first overcurrent protection element OCP in the switching element of the present invention includes: a fusible conductor, an elastic member, a positive temperature coefficient element (PTC element) (or a thermistor), a bimetal member, a temperature fuse, a memory metal, and the like. Either or part of it. The first overcurrent protection component OCP in the switching element 888 of the present embodiment is selected as the first fusible conductor 8, and the first fusible conductor 8 can be used to fix the first fusible conductor 8 in the first place in any conventional manner. On the terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 (for example, a reflow method, please refer to FIG. 3), the first fusible conductor 8 is fixed on the upper surfaces of the first end electrode 11 and the second end electrode 21, and electrically respectively. The first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 are connected to provide a first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) between the first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 of the switching element 888. The first fusible conductor 8 may have a multilayer structure having a low melting point conductor layer and a high melting point conductor layer, wherein the low melting point conductor layer and the high melting point conductor layer have different melting points. Of course, the first fusible conductor 8 may also be a single layer structure containing only a single melting point metal conductor layer (low melting point conductor layer or high melting point conductor layer). The material of the low-melting-point conductor layer in the first fusible conductor 8 contains a lead-containing or lead-free metal alloy containing tin as a main component. Material package of high melting conductor layer in first fusible conductor 8 It contains an alloy composed of silver, copper, tin, antimony, indium, zinc, aluminum, and the like. All of the fusible conductors of the present invention are suitable for the above description. It should be particularly noted that the first fusible conductor 8 of the embodiment may be of any shape. For example, both ends of the first fusible conductor 8 are respectively disposed on the first end electrode 11 and the second end electrode 21 (please refer to FIG. 1D), or one end branch of the first fusible conductor 8 extends to the oblique side The portion 21a (please refer to FIG. 1), or the central portion of the first fusible conductor 8 has a change in slope (refer to FIG. 1). The solders 9(1) and 9(2) in the reflow method may be selected from high-melting materials including lead or lead-free metals composed of silver, copper, tin, antimony, indium, zinc, aluminum, etc. The material using the low melting conductor layer contains a lead-based or lead-free metal alloy containing tin as a main component.

【彈性構件S1】 [elastic member S1]

又,當然也可以使用其他種類的第一過電流保護元件OCP,例如:彈性構件S1(請參考圖3)。 Further, of course, other kinds of first overcurrent protection elements OCP, such as the elastic member S1 (please refer to FIG. 3), may be used.

【開關元件888a】 [Switching element 888a]

圖3繪示為本發明之另一種實施形態的開關元件888a的剖面示意圖。圖5繪示為開關元件888a的等效電路圖。本實施例的開關元件888a包括:絕緣外殼體19;四個端電極、彈性構件S1(或稱第一過電流保護元件OCP)以及第一熱產生組件7(1)。開關元件888a與開關元件888相似,其主要的差異是:開關元件888a中的第一過電流保護元件OCP,選擇的是彈性構件S1,開關元件888中的第一過電流保護元件OCP,選擇的是第一可熔導體8。本實施例是用焊料或焊錫,將彈性構件S1固定在第一端電極11與第二端電極21上,焊料包含焊料9(1)與焊料9(2),焊料9(1)將彈性元件S1(或稱為第一過電流保護元件OCP)的第一端固 定在第二端電極21上且電氣連接第二端電極21,焊料9(2)將彈性元件S1的第二端固定在第一端電極11上電氣連接第一端電極11,用以在該開關元件的第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間提供第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)。本發明專利說明書中所述之電氣連接,都可適用以上述焊料9為電氣連接的方法之一。焊料9的材料包含以錫為主成分的有鉛或無鉛組合物。彈性元件S1之構成材料並無特別限制,較佳地,彈性元件S1是具有強彈性、強拉伸力、高硬度、高導電的導體或金屬材料,且彈性元件S1之構成材料最好與焊料9或金屬有很好的結合性。原始狀態的彈性元件S1是保持在水平狀態,彈性元件S1是可以藉由外力向下或向上折彎(當然,也可以向任何方向或角度折彎),當外力移除後,彈性元件S1會回復原始水平狀態。本實施例將彈性元件S1的第一端向下折彎,並藉由焊料9(1)將彈性元件S1的第一端固定在第二端電極21上且電氣連接第二端電極21。當焊料9(1)部分熔融時,彈性元件S1的技術特徵是藉由本身的彈性,強制脫離第二端電極21(即回復至原始水平狀態,請參考圖3A),使彈性元件S1與第二端電極21之間呈現開路狀態(open circuit),等同於彈性元件S1與第二端電極21之間的電流路徑被斷開,或者是,等同於第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)被斷開。本發明中六種不同種類之第一過電流保護元件OCP,其與端電極電氣連接的方式或斷開的方式或許各有些不同,但其效果卻是相同的。其他有關結構的相關說明與開關元件888相似,請自行參閱,在此不再贅述。 3 is a cross-sectional view showing a switching element 888a according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888a. The switching element 888a of the present embodiment includes: an insulating outer casing 19; four terminal electrodes, an elastic member S1 (or a first overcurrent protection element OCP), and a first heat generating component 7(1). The switching element 888a is similar to the switching element 888. The main difference is that the first overcurrent protection element OCP in the switching element 888a is selected from the elastic member S1, the first overcurrent protection element OCP in the switching element 888, selected It is the first fusible conductor 8. In this embodiment, the elastic member S1 is fixed on the first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 by solder or solder. The solder contains the solder 9(1) and the solder 9(2), and the solder 9(1) will be the elastic member. The first end of S1 (or the first overcurrent protection element OCP) The second terminal electrode 21 is electrically connected to the second terminal electrode 21, and the solder 9(2) fixes the second end of the elastic member S1 on the first terminal electrode 11 to electrically connect the first terminal electrode 11 for A first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) is provided between the first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 of the switching element. The electrical connection described in the specification of the present invention can be applied to one of the methods of electrically connecting the above-mentioned solder 9. The material of the solder 9 contains a lead-containing or lead-free composition containing tin as a main component. The constituent material of the elastic member S1 is not particularly limited. Preferably, the elastic member S1 is a conductor or a metal material having strong elasticity, strong tensile force, high hardness, and high electrical conductivity, and the constituent material of the elastic member S1 is preferably soldered. 9 or metal has a good combination. The original state of the elastic member S1 is maintained in a horizontal state, and the elastic member S1 can be bent downward or upward by an external force (of course, it can also be bent in any direction or angle), and when the external force is removed, the elastic member S1 will Revert to the original level. In this embodiment, the first end of the elastic member S1 is bent downward, and the first end of the elastic member S1 is fixed to the second end electrode 21 by the solder 9(1) and electrically connected to the second end electrode 21. When the solder 9(1) is partially melted, the technical feature of the elastic member S1 is to forcibly detach from the second terminal electrode 21 by its own elasticity (ie, return to the original horizontal state, refer to FIG. 3A), so that the elastic member S1 and the first An open circuit is formed between the two end electrodes 21, which is equivalent to the current path between the elastic element S1 and the second end electrode 21 being disconnected, or equivalent to the first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) Was disconnected. In the present invention, the six different types of first overcurrent protection components OCP may be somewhat different in electrical connection or disconnection from the terminal electrodes, but the effects are the same. Other related descriptions of the structure are similar to the switching element 888, please refer to it yourself, and will not be repeated here.

【開關元件888的第一熱產生組件7(1)】 [The first heat generating component 7 (1) of the switching element 888]

第一熱產生組件7(1)配置在該絕緣外殼體19內,並且配置在第二端電極21的下方,介於第二端電極21與第三端電極31之間,第一 熱產生組件7(1)包括二個發熱體電極7a(或稱第一發熱體電極)、7b(或稱第二發熱體電極)以及第一發熱體7c,且三者形成所謂三明治的結構,第一發熱體7c被夾在二個第一發熱體電極7a、7b之間(例如:晶片型的正溫度係數元件或稱晶片型PTC元件),第一發熱體7c的其中一端電氣連接發熱體電極7a,另一端電氣連接發熱體電極7b。當然,第一熱產生組件7(1)不一定都是所謂三明治的結構,也可以將第一熱產生組件7(1)配置在絕緣基板上或絕緣基板內(請參考圖1J、1K)。需特別說明的是:本實施例中的發熱體電極7a是藉由焊錫或焊料固定在第二端電極21上,並且電氣連接第二端電極21,發熱體電極7b是藉由焊錫或焊料固定在第三端電極31上,並且電氣連接第三端電極31。或者是,第一熱產生組件7(1)電氣串聯於該第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)與第三端電極31之間。發熱體7c是電阻值相對較高的元件(相較於第一可熔導體8或第三可熔導體8b),且具有電流通過就會發熱的特性,其材料包括二氧化釕(RuO2)、氧化釕、氧化鋅、釕、銅、鈀、白金、碳化鈦、碳化鎢、鉑、鉬、鎢、碳黑、有機結合劑或無機結合劑等其中之一為主成分或其中部分組合物為主成分的陶瓷元件,或者是,其材料包括高分子(polymer)為主成分以及導電材料所組成之組合物或高分子元件。發熱體電極7a、7b可以是單層金屬或多層金屬結構,其各層的材料包括銅、錫、鉛、鐵、鎳、鋁、鈦、鉑、鎢、鋅、銥、鈷、鈀、銀、金、羰基鐵、羰基鎳、羰基鈷等其中之一或其部分組合成的合金。 The first heat generating component 7(1) is disposed in the insulating outer casing 19 and disposed under the second terminal electrode 21 between the second terminal electrode 21 and the third terminal electrode 31, first The heat generating unit 7 (1) includes two heat generating body electrodes 7a (or first heat generating body electrodes), 7b (or second heat generating body electrodes), and a first heat generating body 7c, and the three form a so-called sandwich structure. The first heating element 7c is sandwiched between the two first heating element electrodes 7a, 7b (for example, a wafer type positive temperature coefficient element or a wafer type PTC element), and one end of the first heating element 7c is electrically connected to the heating element. The other end of the electrode 7a is electrically connected to the heating body electrode 7b. Of course, the first heat generating component 7(1) does not necessarily have to be a so-called sandwich structure, and the first heat generating component 7(1) may be disposed on or in the insulating substrate (please refer to FIGS. 1J and 1K). It is to be noted that the heat generating body electrode 7a in the present embodiment is fixed to the second terminal electrode 21 by solder or solder, and is electrically connected to the second terminal electrode 21, and the heat generating body electrode 7b is fixed by solder or solder. The third terminal electrode 31 is electrically connected to the third terminal electrode 31. Alternatively, the first heat generating component 7(1) is electrically connected in series between the first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) and the third terminal electrode 31. The heating element 7c is an element having a relatively high resistance value (compared to the first fusible conductor 8 or the third fusible conductor 8b), and has a characteristic of generating heat when a current passes, and the material thereof includes ruthenium dioxide (RuO2), One of or a part of the composition of cerium oxide, zinc oxide, cerium, copper, palladium, platinum, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide, platinum, molybdenum, tungsten, carbon black, organic binder or inorganic binder The ceramic component of the component, or the material thereof comprises a polymer as a main component and a composition or a polymer component composed of a conductive material. The heating body electrodes 7a, 7b may be a single layer metal or a multilayer metal structure, and the materials of the respective layers include copper, tin, lead, iron, nickel, aluminum, titanium, platinum, tungsten, zinc, lanthanum, cobalt, palladium, silver, gold. An alloy of one or a combination of carbonyl iron, nickel carbonyl, cobalt carbonyl, or the like.

又,當然,發熱體電極7a也可以藉由焊錫或焊料固定在第一端電極11上,並且電氣連接第一端電極11,發熱體電極7b是藉由焊錫或焊 料固定在第三端電極31上,並且電氣連接第三端電極31(請參考圖5E、圖5F)。或者是,第一熱產生組件7(1)電氣串聯於該第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)與第三端電極31之間。 Further, of course, the heating body electrode 7a may be fixed to the first terminal electrode 11 by solder or solder, and electrically connected to the first terminal electrode 11, and the heating body electrode 7b is soldered or soldered. The material is fixed on the third terminal electrode 31, and is electrically connected to the third terminal electrode 31 (please refer to FIG. 5E, FIG. 5F). Alternatively, the first heat generating component 7(1) is electrically connected in series between the first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) and the third terminal electrode 31.

【絕緣導熱層16】 [Insulation Heat Conduction Layer 16]

又,上述之開關元件888可另包括絕緣導熱層16,該絕緣導熱層16配置在第三端電極31上,其中,第四端電極41與第一端電極11配置在絕緣導熱層16上(請參考圖1C),或者是,第四端電極41與第二端電極21配置在絕緣導熱層16上,或者是,第四端電極41與第五端電極51配置在絕緣導熱層16上。絕緣導熱層16的功效是將第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能,經由第三端電極31、絕緣導熱層16,快速的傳導至第四端電極41與第一端電極11或第五端電極51(如:圖4)或第二端電極21,有助於第四端電極41電氣連接另一端電極(即第一端電極11或第五端電極51或第二端電極21)。絕緣導熱層16同樣適用於本發明中其他的開關元件(如:888a、888b、888c) Moreover, the above-mentioned switching element 888 may further include an insulating and thermally conductive layer 16 disposed on the third terminal electrode 31, wherein the fourth terminal electrode 41 and the first terminal electrode 11 are disposed on the insulating and thermally conductive layer 16 ( Referring to FIG. 1C), the fourth terminal electrode 41 and the second terminal electrode 21 are disposed on the insulating and thermally conductive layer 16, or the fourth terminal electrode 41 and the fifth terminal electrode 51 are disposed on the insulating and thermally conductive layer 16. The function of the insulating and thermally conductive layer 16 is to rapidly transfer the thermal energy generated by the first heat generating component 7 (1) to the fourth terminal electrode 41 and the first terminal electrode 11 via the third terminal electrode 31 and the insulating and thermally conductive layer 16 or The fifth end electrode 51 (eg, FIG. 4) or the second end electrode 21 helps the fourth end electrode 41 to electrically connect the other end electrode (ie, the first end electrode 11 or the fifth end electrode 51 or the second end electrode 21) ). The insulating and thermally conductive layer 16 is also applicable to other switching elements of the present invention (eg, 888a, 888b, 888c)

【第二熱產生組件7(2)】 [Second heat generating component 7 (2)]

又,上述之開關元件888可另包括第二熱產生組件7(2)(未繪示),其一端電氣連接第一端電極11或第二端電極21,另一端電氣連接第三端電極31。第二熱產生組件7(2)的功效是單獨加熱第四端電極41與第一端電極11或第五端電極51或第二端電極21,可縮短第四端電極41電氣連接另一端電極的時間。 Moreover, the switching element 888 may further include a second heat generating component 7 (2) (not shown), one end of which electrically connects the first terminal electrode 11 or the second terminal electrode 21, and the other end of which electrically connects the third terminal electrode 31. . The effect of the second heat generating component 7(2) is to separately heat the fourth terminal electrode 41 and the first terminal electrode 11 or the fifth terminal electrode 51 or the second terminal electrode 21, and the fourth terminal electrode 41 can be shortened to electrically connect the other terminal electrode. time.

【絕緣基板10】 [Insulating substrate 10]

上述的開關元件888另包括絕緣基板10,其中,第一熱 產生組件7(1)配置在絕緣基板10上(請參考圖1J),或者是,配置在絕緣基板10內(請參考圖1K)。第一熱產生組件7(1)的一端電氣連接第二端電極21,另一端電氣連接第三端電極31。絕緣基板10,同樣適用於本發明中其他的開關元件(如:888a、888b、888c)。 The above switching element 888 further includes an insulating substrate 10, wherein the first heat The generating unit 7(1) is disposed on the insulating substrate 10 (refer to FIG. 1J) or is disposed in the insulating substrate 10 (please refer to FIG. 1K). One end of the first heat generating component 7(1) is electrically connected to the second terminal electrode 21, and the other end is electrically connected to the third terminal electrode 31. The insulating substrate 10 is also applicable to other switching elements (e.g., 888a, 888b, 888c) of the present invention.

【第三可熔導體8b】 [third fusible conductor 8b]

開關元件888另包括第三可熔導體8b,第三可熔導體8b的配置方式有許多不同的態樣,如:第三可熔導體8b配置在第二端電極21的斜邊部21a上(請參考圖1C)。 The switching element 888 further includes a third fusible conductor 8b, and the third fusible conductor 8b is arranged in many different ways, such as: the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed on the oblique side portion 21a of the second end electrode 21 ( Please refer to Figure 1C).

又,第三可熔導體8b,配置在第一端電極11上(請參考圖1D)。 Further, the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed on the first terminal electrode 11 (please refer to FIG. 1D).

又,第三可熔導體8b,配置在第二端電極21上(若第一熱產生組件7(1)配置在第一端電極11的下方,未繪示)。 Further, the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed on the second terminal electrode 21 (if the first heat generating component 7(1) is disposed below the first terminal electrode 11, not shown).

又,第三可熔導體8b,配置在第四端電極41上(請參考圖1E)。 Further, the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed on the fourth terminal electrode 41 (please refer to FIG. 1E).

又,第三可熔導體8b,可配置在第五端電極51上(請參考圖4)。上述第三可熔導體的功用是使第四端電極41電氣連接另一端電極(例如:第一端電極11或第二端電極21或第五端電極51)。 Further, the third fusible conductor 8b may be disposed on the fifth terminal electrode 51 (please refer to FIG. 4). The function of the third fusible conductor is to electrically connect the fourth terminal electrode 41 to the other end electrode (for example, the first terminal electrode 11 or the second terminal electrode 21 or the fifth terminal electrode 51).

【第四可熔導體8c】 [fourth fusible conductor 8c]

上述開關元件888另包括第四可熔導體8c,配置在第一端電極11上,第三可熔導體8b配置在第四端極41上(請參考圖1F)。當然,第四可熔導體8c,可依據第三可熔導體8b配置在不同端電極的位置而調整第四可熔導體8c配置的位置。第四可熔導體 8c可以配置的位置包含第四端電極41、第一端電極11、第二端電極21、斜邊部21a以及第五端電極51上。上述第四可熔導體的功用是使第四端電極41電氣連接另一端電極(例如:第一端電極11或第二端電極21或第五端電極51)。上述開關元件888中的第三可熔導體8b或第四可熔導體8c,同樣地,可適用於本發明之所有開關元件。 The switching element 888 further includes a fourth fusible conductor 8c disposed on the first terminal electrode 11, and the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed on the fourth terminal 41 (please refer to FIG. 1F). Of course, the fourth fusible conductor 8c can adjust the position at which the fourth fusible conductor 8c is disposed depending on the position at which the third fusible conductor 8b is disposed at the different terminal electrodes. Fourth fusible conductor The position at which 8c can be disposed includes the fourth end electrode 41, the first end electrode 11, the second end electrode 21, the oblique side portion 21a, and the fifth end electrode 51. The function of the fourth fusible conductor is to electrically connect the fourth terminal electrode 41 to the other end electrode (for example, the first terminal electrode 11 or the second terminal electrode 21 or the fifth terminal electrode 51). The third fusible conductor 8b or the fourth fusible conductor 8c of the above-described switching element 888 is similarly applicable to all of the switching elements of the present invention.

又,開關元件888b(請參考圖4)中的多個端電極包括五個端電極(即第一端電極11、第二端電極21、第三端電極31、第四端電極41以及第五端電極51),上述的第三可熔導體8b與第四可熔導體8c同樣適用於開關元件888b。第三可熔導體8b可以配置的位置包含第四端電極41、第一端電極11、第二端電極21、斜邊部21a(11a,未繪示)以及第五端電極51等其中的任一者。第四可熔導體8c可以配置的位置包含第四端電極41、第一端電極11、第二端電極21、斜邊部21a(11a,未繪示)以及第五端電極51等其中的任一者。 Further, the plurality of terminal electrodes in the switching element 888b (please refer to FIG. 4) include five terminal electrodes (ie, the first terminal electrode 11, the second terminal electrode 21, the third terminal electrode 31, the fourth terminal electrode 41, and the fifth The terminal electrode 51), the above-described third fusible conductor 8b and the fourth fusible conductor 8c are equally applicable to the switching element 888b. The position at which the third fusible conductor 8b can be disposed includes the fourth end electrode 41, the first end electrode 11, the second end electrode 21, the oblique side portion 21a (11a, not shown), and the fifth end electrode 51. One. The fourth fusible conductor 8c can be disposed at a position including the fourth end electrode 41, the first end electrode 11, the second end electrode 21, the oblique side portion 21a (11a, not shown), and the fifth end electrode 51. One.

【開關元件888c】 [Switching element 888c]

圖1G繪示為本發明之另一種實施形態的開關元件888c的剖面示意圖。圖5B繪示為開關元件888c的等效電路圖。本實施例的開關元件888c包括:絕緣外殼體19;多個端電極、第一過電流保護元件OCP、第二可熔導體8a以及第一熱產生組件7(1)。 1G is a cross-sectional view showing a switching element 888c according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5B is an equivalent circuit diagram of the switching element 888c. The switching element 888c of the present embodiment includes: an insulating outer casing 19; a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection element OCP, a second fusible conductor 8a, and a first heat generating component 7(1).

開關元件888c與開關元件888相似,其主要的差異是:開關元件888c另包括第二可熔導體8a,其中,開關元件888c的發熱體電極7a具有斜邊部7aa,但,開關元件888c的第二端電極21 沒有斜邊部21a。其他有關結構的相關說明與開關元件888相似,請自行參閱,在此不再贅述。 The switching element 888c is similar to the switching element 888. The main difference is that the switching element 888c further includes a second fusible conductor 8a, wherein the heating element electrode 7a of the switching element 888c has a beveled portion 7aa, but the switching element 888c Two-terminal electrode 21 There is no beveled portion 21a. Other related descriptions of the structure are similar to the switching element 888, please refer to it yourself, and will not be repeated here.

【第二可熔導體8a】 [Secondary Fusible Conductor 8a]

開關元件888c的第二可熔導體8a與該第一熱產生組件7(1)二者電氣串聯於該第一雙向的電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)與第三端電極31之間(請參考圖5B)。詳細來說,第二可熔導體8a配置在絕緣外殼體19內,且配置在該第二端電極21(如圖1G)或該第一端電極11(未繪示)的下方。第二可熔導體8a的兩端分別電氣連接第二端電極21與第一熱產生組件7(1)的發熱體電極7a(且發熱體電極7a具有斜邊部7aa,如圖1G),以在第二端電極21與第三端電極31之間形成電流路徑I7(如圖5B)。需特別說明的是:第二可熔導體8a的形狀可以是任何形狀。本實施例之第二可熔導體8a的形狀較為特殊(請參考圖1G),其特徵是第二可熔導體8a在兩端的厚度較中央部的厚度厚或高。或者是,第二可熔導體8a在斜邊部7aa上的部分,其厚度較中央部的部分厚。當然,第二可熔導體8a的兩端也可以改成分別電氣連接第一端電極11與第一熱產生組件7(1)的發熱體電極7a(未繪示)。需特別說明的是,本實施例中的第二可熔導體8a的一端是藉由焊錫或焊料固定在第二端電極21的表面,並且電氣連接第二端電極21,另外一端是藉由焊錫或焊料固定在發熱體電極7a上,並且電氣連接發熱體電極7a。第二可熔導體8a的功用是:當第一熱產生組件7(1)通電發熱時,第一雙向電流路徑被斷開且第四端電極41電氣連接另一端電極後(一段時間後),第二可熔導體8a也會被第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能所熔斷(即流經第一熱產生組件7(1)的 電流I7被斷開),使第一熱產生組件7(1)停止發熱。第二可熔導體8a同樣適用於本發明中其他的開關元件(如:888、888a、888b)。另,開關元件888中的第三可熔導體8b與第四可熔導體8c也可以適用於本實施例的開關元件888(特別是第三可熔導體8b可配置在斜邊部7aa上)。 The second fusible conductor 8a of the switching element 888c and the first heat generating component 7(1) are electrically connected in series between the first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) and the third end electrode 31 (please refer to the figure) 5B). In detail, the second fusible conductor 8a is disposed in the insulating outer casing 19 and disposed under the second terminal electrode 21 (FIG. 1G) or the first terminal electrode 11 (not shown). Both ends of the second fusible conductor 8a are electrically connected to the second end electrode 21 and the heat generating body electrode 7a of the first heat generating component 7(1) (and the heating body electrode 7a has a beveled portion 7aa, as shown in FIG. 1G), A current path I 7 is formed between the second terminal electrode 21 and the third terminal electrode 31 (Fig. 5B). It should be particularly noted that the shape of the second fusible conductor 8a may be any shape. The second fusible conductor 8a of the present embodiment has a special shape (refer to FIG. 1G), and is characterized in that the thickness of the second fusible conductor 8a at both ends is thicker or higher than the thickness of the central portion. Alternatively, the portion of the second fusible conductor 8a on the oblique portion 7aa is thicker than the portion at the center portion. Of course, both ends of the second fusible conductor 8a may be modified to electrically connect the first terminal electrode 11 and the heat generating body electrode 7a (not shown) of the first heat generating component 7(1), respectively. It should be particularly noted that one end of the second fusible conductor 8a in this embodiment is fixed on the surface of the second end electrode 21 by solder or solder, and is electrically connected to the second end electrode 21, and the other end is soldered. Or solder is fixed to the heating body electrode 7a, and the heating body electrode 7a is electrically connected. The function of the second fusible conductor 8a is: when the first heat generating component 7(1) is energized, the first bidirectional current path is disconnected and the fourth end electrode 41 is electrically connected to the other end electrode (after a period of time), the second fusible conductor 8a will be blown 7 (1) a first thermal energy generated by the heat generating component (i.e., flowing through the first heat generating assembly 7 (1) the current I 7 is turned off), the first heat The generating assembly 7 (1) stops heating. The second fusible conductor 8a is equally applicable to other switching elements of the present invention (e.g., 888, 888a, 888b). Further, the third fusible conductor 8b and the fourth fusible conductor 8c of the switching element 888 can also be applied to the switching element 888 of the present embodiment (in particular, the third fusible conductor 8b can be disposed on the oblique side portion 7aa).

【開關元件888、888a的動作說明】 [Description of the operation of switching elements 888, 888a]

狀況一:當低於額定電流值的電流流經開關元件888或開關元件888a的第一雙向電流路徑(Ic1、Id1)時,開關元件888、888a不會動作,維持開關元件888或開關元件888a的第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間初始的導通或短路(on)狀態以及第一端電極11與第四端電極41之間初始的斷路(off)狀態。(參考圖1、3) Condition 1: When a current lower than the rated current value flows through the first bidirectional current path (Ic1, Id1) of the switching element 888 or the switching element 888a, the switching elements 888, 888a do not operate, and the switching element 888 or the switching element 888a is maintained. An initial on or short state between the first end electrode 11 and the second end electrode 21 and an initial off state between the first end electrode 11 and the fourth end electrode 41. (Refer to Figures 1, 3)

狀況二:當高於額定電流值的電流流經開關元件888或開關元件888a時,開關元件888的第一可熔導體8,因本身發熱致使第一可熔導體8熔斷(如圖1A)或開關元件888a的彈性元件S1因本身發熱致使焊料9(1)被熔融,當焊料9(1)部分被熔融時,彈性元件S1的第一端是藉由本身的彈性,強制脫離第二端電極21(即回復至原始水平狀態)(參考圖3A),開關元件888或開關元件888a的第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間由導通或短路(on)轉換至斷路狀態(off),等同於第一雙向電流路徑被斷開。此時,第一端電極11與第四端電極41之間仍維持初始的斷路(off)狀態。 Condition 2: When a current higher than the rated current value flows through the switching element 888 or the switching element 888a, the first fusible conductor 8 of the switching element 888 causes the first fusible conductor 8 to be blown due to self-heating (as shown in FIG. 1A) or The elastic member S1 of the switching element 888a causes the solder 9(1) to be melted by itself, and when the solder 9(1) is partially melted, the first end of the elastic member S1 is forcibly separated from the second terminal electrode by its own elasticity. 21 (ie, returning to the original horizontal state) (refer to FIG. 3A), switching between the first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 of the switching element 888 or the switching element 888a by conduction or short circuit (on) to the open state (off) Is equivalent to the first bidirectional current path being disconnected. At this time, the initial off state is maintained between the first end electrode 11 and the fourth end electrode 41.

狀況三:當開關元件888的第一熱產生組件7(1)通電發熱時,第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能經由發熱體電極7a以及第二端電極21傳遞到第一可熔導體8,致使與第二端電極21重疊或 相接的部分第一可熔導體8被熔融,最後,第一可熔導體8被熔斷,並先後致使第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間轉換至斷路狀態(off)以及第一端電極11與第四端電極41之間轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態(參考圖1B,或致使第四端電極41電氣連接第一端電極11)。或者是,當開關元件888a的第一熱產生組件7(1)發熱時,第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能經由發熱體電極7a以及第二端電極21傳遞到焊料9(1)。因第二端電極21的熔點高於焊料9(1),所以,焊料9(1)被熔融。當焊料9(1)部分被熔融時,彈性元件S1的第一端是藉由本身的彈性,強制脫離第二端電極21(即回復至原始水平狀態),使彈性元件S1與第二端電極21之間呈現開路狀態(open circuit),第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間因此被轉換至斷路狀態(off)(請參考圖3A)。另外,被熔融的焊料9(1)沿著第二端電極21的斜邊部21a垂落至第四端電極41與第一端電極11之間,致使第四端電極41電氣連接第一端電極11,等同於將第一端電極11與第四端電極41之間由斷路(off)轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態(參考圖3A)。 Condition 3: When the first heat generating component 7 (1) of the switching element 888 is energized and heated, the heat generated by the first heat generating component 7 (1) is transferred to the first through the heating body electrode 7a and the second terminal electrode 21 Melting the conductor 8 such that it overlaps with the second terminal electrode 21 or The first portion of the first fusible conductor 8 is fused, and finally, the first fusible conductor 8 is fused, and the first end electrode 11 and the second end electrode 21 are switched to an open state (off) and the first The terminal electrode 11 and the fourth terminal electrode 41 are switched to an on state or an on state (refer to FIG. 1B, or the fourth terminal electrode 41 is electrically connected to the first terminal electrode 11). Alternatively, when the first heat generating component 7(1) of the switching element 888a generates heat, the heat energy generated by the first heat generating component 7(1) is transferred to the solder 9 via the heat generating body electrode 7a and the second terminal electrode 21 (1). ). Since the melting point of the second terminal electrode 21 is higher than that of the solder 9 (1), the solder 9 (1) is melted. When the solder 9(1) portion is melted, the first end of the elastic member S1 is forcibly separated from the second terminal electrode 21 by its own elasticity (ie, returns to the original horizontal state), so that the elastic member S1 and the second terminal electrode An open circuit is present between 21, and the first end electrode 11 and the second end electrode 21 are thus switched to an open state (off) (please refer to FIG. 3A). In addition, the molten solder 9(1) hangs along the oblique side portion 21a of the second end electrode 21 between the fourth end electrode 41 and the first end electrode 11, so that the fourth end electrode 41 is electrically connected to the first end electrode. 11. It is equivalent to switching the first terminal electrode 11 and the fourth terminal electrode 41 from an off state to an on state or an on state (refer to FIG. 3A).

【開關元件888b的動作說明】 [Description of the operation of switching element 888b]

開關元件888b在上述狀況一與狀況二的動作與開關元件888相似,請參考開關元件888的動作說明。 The operation of the switching element 888b in the first condition and the second state is similar to that of the switching element 888. Please refer to the operation description of the switching element 888.

開關元件888b在上述狀況三的動作也與開關元件888相似,唯一不同的是開關元件888b在狀況三時,被熔融的第一可熔導體8沿著第二端電極21的斜邊部21a垂落至第四端電極41與第五端電極51之間,致使第四端電極41電氣連接第五端電極51, 等同於將第五端電極51與第四端電極41之間由斷路(off)轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態。 The operation of the switching element 888b in the above-described condition 3 is also similar to that of the switching element 888, except that the switching element 888b is in the third state, and the molten first fusible conductor 8 is dropped along the oblique side portion 21a of the second end electrode 21. Between the fourth end electrode 41 and the fifth end electrode 51, causing the fourth end electrode 41 to be electrically connected to the fifth end electrode 51, It is equivalent to switching the fifth terminal electrode 51 and the fourth terminal electrode 41 from an off state to an on state or an on state.

【開關元件888c的動作說明】 [Description of the operation of switching element 888c]

開關元件888c在上述狀況一與狀況二的動作與開關元件888相似,請參考開關元件888的動作說明。 The switching element 888c is similar to the operation of the second and second states of the switching element 888c, please refer to the description of the operation of the switching element 888.

狀況三:當開關元件888c的第一熱產生組件7(1)發熱時,第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能經由發熱體電極7a、第二可熔導體8a以及第二端電極21傳遞到第一可熔導體8,致使與第二端電極21重疊或相接的部分第一可熔導體8被熔斷,致使第一端電極11與第二端電極21之間由導通或短路(on)轉換至斷路狀態(off),然後,第二可熔導體8a被第一熱產生組件7(1)所產生的熱能開始熔融,部分被熔融的第二可熔導體8a垂落至第四端電極41與第一端電極11之間,使第四端電極41電氣連接第一端電極11,等同於將第一端電極11與第四端電極41之間由斷路(off)轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態,最後第二可熔導體8a被熔斷,使第二端電極與第二可熔導體之間轉換至斷路狀態(off),第一熱產生組件7(1)無電流流過,所以停止發熱(參考圖1I或圖5C)。 Condition 3: When the first heat generating component 7(1) of the switching element 888c generates heat, the heat energy generated by the first heat generating component 7(1) passes through the heat generating body electrode 7a, the second meltable conductor 8a, and the second terminal electrode 21 is transferred to the first fusible conductor 8 such that a portion of the first fusible conductor 8 overlapping or contacting the second terminal electrode 21 is blown, causing the first terminal electrode 11 and the second terminal electrode 21 to be turned on or shorted. (on) switching to the off state (off), then, the second fusible conductor 8a is started to be melted by the heat energy generated by the first heat generating component 7(1), and partially melted to the fourth by the molten second fusible conductor 8a Between the terminal electrode 41 and the first terminal electrode 11, the fourth terminal electrode 41 is electrically connected to the first terminal electrode 11, which is equivalent to switching the first terminal electrode 11 and the fourth terminal electrode 41 from off to on. Or in an on state, finally the second fusible conductor 8a is blown to switch the second end electrode and the second fusible conductor to an open state (off), and the first heat generating component 7(1) has no current flow. After that, the fever is stopped (refer to FIG. 1I or FIG. 5C).

須說明的是,在狀況三,開關元件888c與其他開關元件(即888、888a、888b)不同之處是:開關元件888c最後會自行斷開流經第一熱產生組件7(1)的電流I7(參考圖5C),其他開關元件必須藉由外部電路的協助才能斷開流經第一熱產生組件7(1)的電流I7(參考圖5A)。 It should be noted that, in the third case, the switching element 888c is different from the other switching elements (ie, 888, 888a, 888b) in that the switching element 888c finally turns off the current flowing through the first heat generating component 7(1). I 7 (refer to FIG. 5C), other switching elements must be assisted by an external circuit to turn off the current I 7 flowing through the first heat generating component 7(1) (refer to FIG. 5A).

綜合上述所提之實施方式,本發明所述之開關元件,可用配置於不同位置的可熔導體(例如:第一可熔導體8、第二可熔導體8a、第三可熔導體8b、第四可熔導體8c、焊料9(1)等五者中之任一者或任二者以上的組合),使第四端電極電氣連接另一端電極(即第一端電極或第二端電極或第五端電極),等同於將第一端電極11或第二端電極21與第四端電極41之間轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態,或者是,將第五端電極51與第四端電極41之間轉換至導通或短路(on)狀態(參考圖4)。 In combination with the above-mentioned embodiments, the switching element of the present invention can be used as a fusible conductor disposed at different positions (for example, a first fusible conductor 8, a second fusible conductor 8a, a third fusible conductor 8b, a fourth fusible conductor 8c, a solder 9 (1), or the like, or a combination of any two or more thereof, such that the fourth terminal electrode is electrically connected to the other end electrode (ie, the first terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode or The fifth terminal electrode) is equivalent to switching the first terminal electrode 11 or the second terminal electrode 21 and the fourth terminal electrode 41 to an on or short state, or the fifth terminal electrode 51 and the fourth terminal electrode 51 The terminal electrodes 41 are switched to an on or on state (refer to FIG. 4).

雖然本發明已以實施例揭露如上,然其並非用以限定本發明,任何所屬技術領域中具有通常知識者,在不脫離本發明之精神和範圍內,當可作些許之更動與潤飾,故本發明之保護範圍當視後附之申請專利範圍所界定者為準,凡合於本發明申請專利範圍之精神與其運用本發明說明書及圖式內容所為之類似變化,均包含於本發明之專利範圍內。 Although the present invention has been disclosed in the above embodiments, it is not intended to limit the invention, and any one of ordinary skill in the art can make some modifications and refinements without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The scope of the present invention is defined by the scope of the appended claims, and the spirit of the scope of the claims of the present invention is similar to the changes in the scope of the present invention and the drawings. Within the scope.

888‧‧‧開關元件 888‧‧‧Switching elements

7(1)‧‧‧第一熱產生組件 7(1)‧‧‧First heat generating component

7a、7b‧‧‧發熱體電極 7a, 7b‧‧‧heating electrode

7c‧‧‧第一發熱體 7c‧‧‧First heating element

8‧‧‧第一可熔導體(或稱:第一過電流保護元件OCP) 8‧‧‧First fusible conductor (or: first overcurrent protection element OCP)

11、21、31、41‧‧‧端電極 11, 21, 31, 41‧‧‧ terminal electrodes

21a‧‧‧端電極的斜邊部 21a‧‧‧ oblique side of the terminal electrode

18‧‧‧開口 18‧‧‧ openings

18a‧‧‧多孔洞陶瓷結構 18a‧‧‧ Porous hole ceramic structure

19‧‧‧絕緣外殼體 19‧‧‧Insulated outer casing

19a‧‧‧絕緣外殼體蓋體 19a‧‧‧Insulated outer casing cover

19b‧‧‧絕緣外殼體基體 19b‧‧‧Insulated outer casing base

19c‧‧‧絕緣外殼體側體 19c‧‧‧Insulated outer casing side body

Claims (13)

一種開關元件,包括:絕緣外殼體;多個端電極,包括第一端電極、第二端電極、第三端電極以及第四端電極,該些端電極分別貫穿該絕緣外殼體,且分別被該絕緣外殼體所支撐;第一過電流保護元件,用以在該開關元件的該第一端電極與該第二端電極之間提供第一雙向的電流路徑;以及第一熱產生組件,配置在該第一端電極或該第二端電極的下方,當第一熱產生組件通電發熱時,該開關元件反應於該第一熱產生組件所產生的熱而使該第四端電極電氣連接另一端電極。 A switching element includes: an insulating outer casing; a plurality of terminal electrodes including a first end electrode, a second end electrode, a third end electrode, and a fourth end electrode, wherein the end electrodes respectively penetrate the insulating outer casing and are respectively Supported by the insulative housing; a first overcurrent protection component for providing a first bidirectional current path between the first end electrode and the second end electrode of the switching element; and a first heat generating component, configured Under the first terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode, when the first heat generating component is energized and heated, the switching component reacts with heat generated by the first heat generating component to electrically connect the fourth terminal electrode to another One end of the electrode. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,另包括絕緣導熱層,該絕緣導熱層配置在該第三端電極上。 The switching element according to claim 1, further comprising an insulating and thermally conductive layer disposed on the third terminal electrode. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,另包括第三可熔導體,配置在該第一端電極上或該第二端電極上或該第四端電極上或該第二端電極的斜邊部上或該第一端電極的斜邊部上。 The switching element according to claim 1, further comprising a third fusible conductor disposed on the second terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode On the beveled portion or on the beveled portion of the first end electrode. 如申請專利範圍第3項所述的開關元件,另包括第四可熔導體,配置在該第一端電極上或該第二端電極上或該第四端電極上或該第二端電極的斜邊部上或該第一端電極的斜邊部上。 The switching element according to claim 3, further comprising a fourth fusible conductor disposed on the second terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode On the beveled portion or on the beveled portion of the first end electrode. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,另包括第二可熔導體,該第二可熔導體與該第一熱產生組件二者,電氣串聯於該第一雙向的電流路徑與該第三端電極之間。 The switching element according to claim 1, further comprising a second fusible conductor, the second fusible conductor and the first heat generating component being electrically connected in series to the first bidirectional current path and the first Between the three end electrodes. 如申請專利範圍第5項所述的開關元件,另包括第三可熔導,配置在該第一端電極上或該第二端電極上或該第四端電極上或該發熱體電極的斜邊部上。 The switching element according to claim 5, further comprising a third fusible guide disposed on the first terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode or the fourth terminal electrode or the oblique of the heating body electrode On the side. 如申請專利範圍第6項所述的開關元件,另包括第四可熔導體,配置在該第一端電極上或該第二端電極上或該第四端電極上或該發熱體電極的斜邊部上。 The switching element according to claim 6, further comprising a fourth fusible conductor disposed on the first terminal electrode or the second terminal electrode or the fourth terminal electrode or the oblique of the heating body electrode On the side. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,另包括絕緣基板,該第一熱產生組件配置在該絕緣基板上或該絕緣基板內。 The switching element according to claim 1, further comprising an insulating substrate, the first heat generating component being disposed on the insulating substrate or in the insulating substrate. 如申請專利範圍第1項至第8項中任一項所述的開關元件,其中,該另一端電極為該第一端電極或該第二端電極。 The switching element according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the other end electrode is the first end electrode or the second end electrode. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,其中,該些端電極另包括第五端電極,其中,該另一端電極為該第五端電極。 The switching element of claim 1, wherein the terminal electrodes further comprise a fifth terminal electrode, wherein the other terminal electrode is the fifth terminal electrode. 如申請專利範圍第10項所述的開關元件,另包括第二可熔導體、第三可熔導體以及第四可熔導體等三者中的任一者,或者是,三者的組合。 The switching element according to claim 10, further comprising any one of a second fusible conductor, a third fusible conductor, and a fourth fusible conductor, or a combination of the three. 如申請專利範圍第1項或第2項或第3項或第5項或第10項所述的開關元件,其中,該第一過電流保護元件包括:可熔導體、彈性構件、正溫度係數元件(PTC元件)、雙金屬構件、溫度保險絲以及記憶金屬等其中的任一者或其中的部分組合。 The switching element of claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 5 or 10, wherein the first overcurrent protection element comprises: a fusible conductor, an elastic member, a positive temperature coefficient Any one or a combination of elements (PTC elements), bimetal members, thermal fuses, and memory metals. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述的開關元件,其中,該絕緣外殼體另包含開口或多孔洞陶瓷結構。 The switching element of claim 1, wherein the insulating outer casing further comprises an opening or a porous ceramic structure.
TW106122796A 2017-07-07 2017-07-07 Switching device including an insulative housing, a plurality of terminal electrodes, a first overcurrent protection device, and a first heat generating component TW201740417A (en)

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