RU2717264C1 - Method of using platinum metallization in system of redistribution of contact pads of crystals of integrated microcircuits and semiconductor devices - Google Patents

Method of using platinum metallization in system of redistribution of contact pads of crystals of integrated microcircuits and semiconductor devices Download PDF

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RU2717264C1
RU2717264C1 RU2019103914A RU2019103914A RU2717264C1 RU 2717264 C1 RU2717264 C1 RU 2717264C1 RU 2019103914 A RU2019103914 A RU 2019103914A RU 2019103914 A RU2019103914 A RU 2019103914A RU 2717264 C1 RU2717264 C1 RU 2717264C1
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contact pads
platinum
metallization
semiconductor
tin
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RU2019103914A
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Russian (ru)
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Никита Владимирович Рогозин
Виталий Владимирович Побединский
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Акционерное общество "Научно-исследовательский институт электронной техники"
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/28Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/268

Abstract

FIELD: physics; electricity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and is intended for redistribution of contact areas of semiconductor crystals of integrated microcircuits, hybrid integrated circuits, micro-assemblies, modules, microelectromechanical systems and sensors on a semiconductor wafer by creating additional thin-film layers and platinum-based plating. Summary of invention is that method of redistribution of contact areas of crystal based on platinum metallisation of integrated circuits involves depositing on semiconductor plate with formed semiconductor structures of aluminum metal coating contact pads and passivation layer SiO2 or Si3N4, additional repassiving layer of SiO2 or Si3N4 with subsequent opening of windows for initial contact pads of crystals on semiconductor plate, applying on the entire surface of the plate of the conducting adhesive and barrier layers of titanium nitride TiN or together titanium and titanium nitride Ti/TiN, application on the adhesive layer of the main metallisation layer - platinum Pt to create topological thin-film structures of electrical communication lines for redistribution of contact areas in the matrix of contact pads over the entire surface area of the crystal, application of plating of adhesion and barrier layers of titanium nitride TiN or together titanium and titanium nitride Ti/TiN, application of upper protective layer, opening in it of windows under contact pads to surface of platinum metallisation, formation in opened windows of contact areas of solder ball leads on platinum metallization.
EFFECT: technical result is possibility of forming uniformly redistributed on planar side of contact pads on entire surface of semiconductor plate, which enables to create a free matrix of soldered joints, which is limited only by the geometric dimensions of the semiconductor crystal and the required number of electrical contacts for mounting by flip-chip method.
1 cl, 15 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of electronics and is intended for the redistribution of pads of semiconductor crystals of integrated circuits (IMS), hybrid integrated circuits (GIS), microassemblies, modules, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of sensors and other semiconductor devices (PP) on the plate by creating additional thin-film layers and platinum-based metallization. Limitations on the performance and scope of microcircuits can lead to significant problems and introduce additional constraints in their assembly and packaging. The consideration of such problems in the initial stages of product design is often ignored, although these issues are key. Especially if when designing an IC chip, it does not take into account the possibility of using the technology of an inverted crystal (hereinafter “flip-chip”), and during the development and assembly of products with this crystal there is a need to use it, then the application of the invention allows to solve this problem.

The electrical connections between the semiconductor crystal and the substrate (body) can be realized by micro-welding with wire, soldering on solder balls or a sticker using electrically conductive adhesives. For this kind of electrical connection, the upper metallization levels of semiconductor crystals are usually made of aluminum, copper or gold. One of the technical requirements of the flip-chip technology to ensure the reliability of electrical connections in the upper metallization levels of semiconductor crystals, it is necessary to make modifications, such as multilayer metallization of contact pads for solder ball lead. The structure of such metallization includes diffusion barrier, adhesive and protective layers [1]. After the preparation of the contact pads by creating a multilayer metallization during the technological process, solder ball leads are formed on them. In this case, one of the key limitations for the assembly of the crystal by the flip-chip method is the small step of the contact pads on the crystal.

For microwelding technology, the contact pads are usually located on the periphery of the crystal. Only high-performance microprocessors with a huge number of inputs / outputs (up to several thousand) have arrays of pads evenly distributed over the entire planar side of the crystal for solder ball leads for installation using the flip-chip method. This configuration of the contact pads allows you to create a free matrix of soldered joints, which is limited only by the geometric dimensions of the semiconductor crystal and the required number of contact pads. Such a system that connects the contact pads around the periphery of the crystal and converts them into a matrix configuration over the entire area of the crystal using thin-film metallization is called a technological system of redistribution of contact pads.

Such a system should satisfy certain requirements, namely, the system of redistribution of the contact pads of semiconductor crystals should not degrade the specified technical characteristics and reduce the reliability of the initial crystals.

The use of redistribution of contact pads from the periphery of the crystal over its entire area allows you to adapt the crystal to the flip-chip method and increase the lead pitch, which significantly reduces the requirements for substrates and cases for flip-chip mounting and, as a result, reduces their cost and reduces overall dimensions of the microcircuit.

For the manufacture of high-performance products with design standards of less than 0.18 microns, copper is currently used as a material for the redistribution of contact pads. The use of copper made it possible to reduce the size of current-carrying tracks and to reduce the delay time of signals, which is an important moment in the production of microprocessors consisting of elements with submicron sizes [2]. The transition to copper is due to a lower value of resistivity compared to other metals widely used in microelectronics, for example, aluminum. For passivation and interlayer insulation, various thin-film polymeric materials, epoxy-based films, and even glass can be used.

Nevertheless, one of the drawbacks of using copper is its high diffusion mobility, which leads to the need to use diffusion barrier layers around copper interconnects, the application of which is required not only in the area of the contact area, but also on the insulating dielectric layer, since copper actively diffuses through it even at low temperatures. Another limitation of the widespread use of copper is the presence of volatile compounds at relatively low temperatures, which makes it impossible to use the technology of direct etching of copper through a photoresist mask. In addition, the use of copper metallization leads to problems of applying thin barrier layers for the diffusion of copper into adjacent layers of an insulating dielectric on the walls and bottom of narrow and deep holes of interlayer transition compounds [3]. The high diffusing ability of copper through dielectric layers, such as silicon dioxide, leads to the failure of the integrated circuit.

The introduction of platinum in the technological process of redistribution of contact pads is based on the experience of using platinum metallization on aluminum contact pads of semiconductor crystals without the use of redistributing layers [4], in which “stud-bump” (the first point of thermosonic welding on a crystal was used as metallization under a solder ball lead) in a ball-wedge connection) of platinum wire. The application of this method allows the formation of solder ball leads on aluminum contact pads of semiconductor crystals. This method is convenient for rapid prototyping. The formation of ball conclusions without the use of templates reduces the cost of manufactured semiconductor products, but at the same time the complexity of technological processes does not allow making this technology massive.

The use of platinum as a metallization system for the redistribution of contact pads is due to the following main advantages:

- good wettability with solders (adhesion to solders);

- good barrier properties (practically insoluble in

solders);

- good protective properties (practically not oxidized, resistance to chemical attack);

- high electrical conductivity (for example, compared with tungsten).

As a prototype of the invention, a method for manufacturing semiconductor devices with copper layers of redistribution of contact pads [1] is adopted. The method includes technological operations of forming copper metallization layers with a polymer interlayer dielectric on semiconductor crystals of a silicon wafer and multilayer metallization technology for contact pads for solder ball leads for mounting flip-chip crystals.

The problem to which this invention is directed is to achieve a technical result consisting in the possibility of adapting existing semiconductor devices with aluminum and copper metallization in the composition of semiconductor wafers to the flip-chip assembly technology.

In the present invention, to achieve the requirements for a system of redistribution of contact pads of semiconductor crystals, which should not impair the specified technical characteristics of the initial crystals and reduce their reliability, platinum-based metallization is used, and inorganic thin-film dielectrics are used as passivation and interlayer insulation.

The solution consists in a new method of redistributing the contact pads of a crystal based on platinum metallization of integrated circuits and semiconductor devices, including technological operations of applying passivating dielectric and metal layers, photolithography and the formation of topological thin-film structures, selective etching, applying barrier and adhesive layers. This method differs proposed technological scheme: the original wafer with the formed semiconductor structures Aluminum (Al) metallization pads and the layer of passivation (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4) is applied to additional repassiviruyuschy layer (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4) subsequent opening of windows for the initial contact pads of crystals on a semiconductor wafer. A conductive adhesive and barrier layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) is applied to the entire surface of the plate. A layer of basic metallization is applied to the adhesive layer - platinum (Pt) in order to create topological thin-film structures of electric communication lines for redistributing contact pads into the matrix of contact pads over the entire surface area of the crystal. To increase the adhesion of the main metallization and to prevent diffusion into the adjacent dielectric layers, an adhesion and barrier layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) is applied to platinum (Pt). The width of the tracks made by this technology and the gap between them can reach the initial topological design standards of the crystal, and the thickness is up to 4 microns. After applying the upper protective layer (passivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ), windows are opened under it under the contact pads to the platinum metallization surface. In the opened windows of the contact pads of the crystal of the semiconductor wafer, solder balls are formed on platinum (Pt) metallization, which in itself is an adhesive and barrier layer for solder balls. This makes it possible to create contact pads evenly redistributed on the planar side of the crystal on the entire surface of the semiconductor wafer, to create a free matrix of soldered joints, which is limited only by the geometric dimensions of the semiconductor crystal and the required number of electrical contacts for installation using the flip-chip method. When the number of contact pads and the step between them on the crystal does not allow one redistributing layer, it is possible to create additional thin-film metallization layers (TiN / Pt / TiN) separated by an interlayer dielectric (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ). Solder balls are applied to the pads redistributed in this way by electrochemical deposition, or by mechanical means, for example, mounting finished calibrated balls, or by screen printing of solder paste. Depending on the purpose and technical requirements for the products, solders of various compositions can be used as solder balls: SnAg, SnCu, SnAgCu, PbSn, AuSn and others. After the semiconductor wafer is divided into crystals, with the pads redistributed in this way, they are ready for further assembly.

The invention is illustrated by illustrations, which schematically depict crystals of a semiconductor wafer:

in FIG. 1 is a diagram of an initial semiconductor crystal with an open aluminum contact pad and passivation from (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

in FIG. 2 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying additional passivation (repassivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

in FIG. 3 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after opening a repassivating layer (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

in FIG. 4 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying an adhesion layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN);

in FIG. 5 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying a platinum (Pt) metallization layer;

in FIG. 6 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying the upper adhesive layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN);

in FIG. 7 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal with a topological thin-film structure of a platinum (Pt) metallization layer formed;

in FIG. 8 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying an interlayer dielectric layer (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

In FIG. 1-8, a method for forming a first redistribution layer (TiN / Pt / TiN) is shown.

in FIG. 9 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after opening windows for contact pads in the dielectric layer;

in FIG. 10 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying an adhesion layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) and a platinum (Pt) metallization layer;

in FIG. 11 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying the upper adhesive layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN);

in FIG. 12 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal with a topological thin-film structure of a platinum (Pt) metallization layer formed;

in FIG. 13 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after applying the upper protective layer (passivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

In FIG. 9-13 show a method of forming a second redistribution layer (TiN / Pt / TiN).

in FIG. 14 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after opening windows for contact pads in the upper protective layer (passivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 );

in FIG. 15 is a diagram of a semiconductor crystal after the formation of a solder ball lead.

The invention is implemented as follows.

There is an initial semiconductor wafer with crystals 3, aluminum (Al) contact pads 1 and passivation 2 of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 (Fig. 1). A passivation layer 4 is applied to the plate with initial passivation 2 for additional protection and providing the necessary surface relief (Fig. 2). After applying the passivation layer 4, windows are created in it and the contact pads 1 are opened (Fig. 3). On the entire surface of the crystals 3 of the semiconductor wafer, an adhesive and barrier layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) 5 is applied ( Fig. 4). Platinum (Pt) metallization 6 is applied over layer 5 (FIG. 5). After platinum (Pt) metallization 6 is applied to increase the adhesion of the main metallization to the adjacent dielectric layer, an upper adhesive layer 7 of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) is applied to it (Fig. 6). Applying the sequence of technological operations of photolithography, we form the topological structure of the contact pads and current paths (Fig. 7). An interlayer dielectric layer 8 (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ) is deposited on the crystals 3 of the semiconductor wafer with the obtained structures (Fig. 8). The sequence of operations described in FIG. 1-8 allow the formation of a first redistribution layer (TiN / Pt / TiN). After applying the interlayer dielectric layer 8, the windows 9 are opened under the contact pads in the dielectric layer 8 (Fig. 9). On the entire surface of the crystals 3 of the semiconductor wafer, an adhesive layer of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) and a platinum (Pt) metallization layer 10 (FIG. 10) are applied. On the platinum (Pt) metallization 10, an upper adhesive layer 11 of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) is applied (FIG. 11). In FIG. 12 illustrates a diagram of a semiconductor crystal 3 with a topological thin-film structure of a platinum (Pt) metallization layer formed. The upper protective layer 12 (passivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ) is applied to the surface of the formed topological structure (Fig. 13). The sequence of operations described in FIG. 9-13 allow the formation of a second redistribution layer (TiN / Pt / TiN). After applying the upper protective layer 12, the windows 13 are opened under the contact pads in the upper protective layer 12 (passivation of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ) and the adhesive layer 11 to the platinum metallization surface 10 (Fig. 14). In the opened windows of the contact pads of the crystal 3 of the semiconductor wafer, solder balls 14 are formed on platinum (Pt) metallization 10, which is both an adhesive and barrier layer for solder balls (Fig. 15).

The above sequence of basic technological operations makes it possible to create contact pads evenly distributed on the planar side of the crystal, to create a free matrix of soldered joints, which is limited only by the geometric dimensions of the semiconductor crystal and the required number of electrical contacts for installation using the flip-chip method. When the number of contact pads and the step between them on the crystal does not allow one redistribution layer to be created, it is possible to create additional thin-film redistribution layers (TiN / Pt / TiN) separated by an interlayer dielectric (SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 ).

An advantage of the invention is that it is not necessary to introduce specialized multilayer metallization of the contact pads of the crystal for the transition from wire microwelding technology to soldering and flip-chip mounting technology, since the proposed system of redistribution of contact pads already includes all the functionality of specialized multilayer metallization of contact pads for soldering, and namely: good wettability with various solders, surface protection of contact pads against oxidation and corrosion, b -barrier function for preventing diffusion of metal contact pads in adjacent dielectric layers and metallization diffusion solder pads.

In addition, the application of this approach makes it possible to change the size, geometry and structure of existing contact pads for wire mounting, which allows it to be used in biocompatible medical devices, such as pacemakers and cardiodefibrillators. Thus, due to the good biocompatibility and the receptive (measuring) properties of platinum, it becomes the best choice for use in the medical field, for example, in the field of electronic cardiac implants.

Based on the foregoing, it was concluded that the proposed system of redistributing pads based on platinum provides the following advantages compared to existing methods:

1. The ability to form contact pads evenly redistributed on the planar side of the crystal on the entire surface of the semiconductor wafer, which allows you to create a free matrix of soldered joints, which is limited only by the geometric dimensions of the semiconductor crystal and the required number of electrical contacts for installation by the flip-chip method;

2. The ability to change the size and geometry of existing contact pads;

3. The absence of shortcomings in the aluminum, copper and gold metallization of contact pads, namely: inability to solder, susceptibility to oxidation and reaction with weak acids and alkalis for aluminum metallization; rapid oxidation and relatively fast diffusion of solder into the metallization of contact pads for copper metallization; solubility in solders for gold plating of pads;

4. No need to introduce specialized multilayer metallization of the contact pads of the crystal for the transition from wire microwelding technology to soldering and flip-chip mounting technology, since the proposed system of redistribution of contact pads already includes all the functionality of specialized multilayer metallization of contact pads for soldering, namely : good wettability by various solders, surface protection of contact pads against oxidation and corrosion, barrier functions to prevent i diffusion of the metal of the contact pads into adjacent dielectric layers and diffusion of solder into the metallization of the contact pads;

5. Given the inertness of platinum and good resistance to acids and alkalis, the proposed redistribution system has no restrictions on the use of fluxes, both for the technological process of applying solder balls to a crystal and for the process of soldering a crystal onto a substrate or into a housing using the flip-chip method ";

6. Stability of semiconductor devices in chemically aggressive environments;

7. Lack of oxidation and degradation of contact pads;

8. Possibility of use in biocompatible medical devices;

9. Lack of ion pollution. The technological processes of redistributing the contact pads of semiconductor crystals on a semiconductor wafer by creating additional thin-film layers and platinum-based metallization are typical and, unlike the technological processes for manufacturing semiconductor wafers with copper metallization, are compatible with the technological processes for manufacturing wafers with aluminum metallization and can be performed on one production line.

Sources of information

1. Chan Seung Hwang, Seung Ouk Jung. METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES HAVING REDISTRIBUTION PATTERNS WITH A CONCAVE PATTERN IN A BUMP PAD AREA, United States Patent (10) US (ID 6455408 Bl (51) H01L 21/44 (52) 438/613 Filed Sep.28,2000.

2. G.Ya. Krasnikov, A.C. Valeev, H.A. Shelepin et al. Method for the manufacture of multilevel copper metallization by VLSI, Patent of the Russian Federation (19) RU (ID 240827 (13) C1 (51) H01L 21/283 (2006.01) with priority dated January 11, 2010.

3. M. Damon and T. Chevolleau, T. David, J. Ducote, N. Posseme, R. Bouyssou, F. Bailly, D. Perret, O. Joubert. Patterning of porous SiOCH using an organic mask: Comparison with a metallic masking strategy. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. In (28) 45 No. 1, Jan / Feb 2010 149-156).

4. B.B. Zenin, H.B. Rogozin, B.B. Pobedinsky [et al.]. The method of forming the ball leads on the aluminum metallization of the contact pads of the crystal, Patent of the Russian Federation (19) RU (ID 2671383 (13) C1 (51) H01L 21/321 (2006.01) with priority dated 12/20/2017.

Claims (2)

1. The method of redistributing the contact pads of the crystal based on platinum metallization of integrated circuits and semiconductor devices, including applying to the semiconductor wafer with the formed semiconductor structures aluminum metallization of contact pads and a passivation layer of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4 , characterized in that the semiconductor wafer with the formed semiconductor structures, aluminum metallization of the contact pads and a passivation layer cause an additional passivation layer S iO 2 or Si 3 N 4 followed by opening the windows for the initial contact pads of the crystals on the semiconductor wafer, applying conductive adhesive and barrier layers of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN) on the entire surface of the wafer, applying to the adhesive a layer of the main metallization layer - platinum (Pt) for creating topological thin-film structures of electric communication lines for the redistribution of contact pads into the matrix of contact pads over the entire surface area of the crystal; well (Pt) of the adhesive and barrier layers of titanium nitride (TiN) or together titanium and titanium nitride (Ti / TiN), applying the upper protective layer, opening windows under it in the contact pads to the platinum metallization surface, forming soldered ball pads in the opened windows of the contact pads findings on platinum (Pt) metallization.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solder balls are applied using electrochemical deposition, the installation of finished calibrated balls or screen printing of solder paste.
RU2019103914A 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 Method of using platinum metallization in system of redistribution of contact pads of crystals of integrated microcircuits and semiconductor devices RU2717264C1 (en)

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6455408B1 (en) * 1999-09-30 2002-09-24 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing semiconductor devices having redistribution patterns with a concave pattern in a bump pad area
RU71476U1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2008-03-10 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Научно-исследовательский институт электронной техники" Multilayer thin film metallization
RU2420827C1 (en) * 2010-01-11 2011-06-10 Открытое акционерное общество "НИИ молекулярной электроники и завод "Микрон" Manufacturing method of multi-level copper metallisation of vlsic
US20150194409A1 (en) * 2014-01-03 2015-07-09 Wire Technology Co., Ltd. Stud bump and package structure thereof and method of manufacturing the same
RU2671383C1 (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-10-30 Акционерное общество "Научно-исследовательский институт электронной техники" Method for forming ball leads based on aluminum metalization of crystal contact areas

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6455408B1 (en) * 1999-09-30 2002-09-24 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing semiconductor devices having redistribution patterns with a concave pattern in a bump pad area
RU71476U1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2008-03-10 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Научно-исследовательский институт электронной техники" Multilayer thin film metallization
RU2420827C1 (en) * 2010-01-11 2011-06-10 Открытое акционерное общество "НИИ молекулярной электроники и завод "Микрон" Manufacturing method of multi-level copper metallisation of vlsic
US20150194409A1 (en) * 2014-01-03 2015-07-09 Wire Technology Co., Ltd. Stud bump and package structure thereof and method of manufacturing the same
RU2671383C1 (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-10-30 Акционерное общество "Научно-исследовательский институт электронной техники" Method for forming ball leads based on aluminum metalization of crystal contact areas

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