RU2713114C1 - Two-dome greenhouse - Google Patents

Two-dome greenhouse Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2713114C1
RU2713114C1 RU2019118492A RU2019118492A RU2713114C1 RU 2713114 C1 RU2713114 C1 RU 2713114C1 RU 2019118492 A RU2019118492 A RU 2019118492A RU 2019118492 A RU2019118492 A RU 2019118492A RU 2713114 C1 RU2713114 C1 RU 2713114C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
frame
greenhouse
dome
domed
transparent
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RU2019118492A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Виталий Михайлович Устинович
Виктор Сергеевич Волков
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Виталий Михайлович Устинович
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Priority to RU2019118492A priority Critical patent/RU2713114C1/en
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Publication of RU2713114C1 publication Critical patent/RU2713114C1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses

Abstract

FIELD: agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, to cultivation of plants in greenhouses, namely to design of domed greenhouse with double frame. Two-dome greenhouse comprises two spherical frames arranged one inside the other with a gap. Outer frame is made of zinc-plated pipes. Outer frame is coated with wear-resistant transparent material. Inner frame repeats the structure of the external frame and has a coating of transparent inflatable sectors. Inner frame is suspended to outer frame by means of suspension devices.
EFFECT: such design ensures heat preservation in the greenhouse at minus temperatures, and also increases wear resistance of the external and internal domes of the greenhouse.
8 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Description

The invention relates to agriculture, to growing plants in greenhouses, and in particular to the construction of a double-domed greenhouse.
Known spherical greenhouse in the form of a geodesic dome according to patent CN204860327, where the frame is made of galvanized pipes forming a triangular grid. The greenhouse is resistant to wind loads and is convenient to use, because it is easy to assemble and cover with any transparent material, for example, plastic wrap. The disadvantages of the design of the greenhouse are heat loss and seasonality of use.
A known design of a greenhouse of two domes in the form of spheres located one in another, which are rigidly connected by arched elements, according to patent CN202310732. In this case, plants can be placed both inside the greenhouse and between the domes on the slope of the inner dome. The greenhouse of two domes is the most stable and withstands large wind loads. The disadvantages of the design of the greenhouse are heat loss and seasonality of use.
Known insulated dome in the form of inflatable compartments in a two-layer cladding on a cellular cellular structure, implemented in the Eden Project - a botanical garden in Cornwall, in the UK (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Edem »). The geodesic dome has a frame of steel pipes forming hexagonal frames with outer panels of ETFE thermoplastic - ethylene tetrafluoroethylene "pillows". The panels are fastened around the perimeter and filled with air, thus forming a large air cushion that protects the greenhouses from heat loss. The disadvantage of the design of the insulated dome in the form of inflatable pillows is a short service life when operating it at outside minus temperatures, snowfalls. This is due to the fact that freezing zones will form along the edges of the frame, and pillow-shaped cells will contribute to snow retention on the surface. The use of such a coating at sub-zero temperatures reduces its wear resistance and leads to heat loss.
Known dome greenhouse c multifunctional two-layer frame structure according to patent CN108738914. The design provides for heat and ventilation systems. The outer and inner frames are connected through an intermediate frame, which serves to support the frames, which makes the entire structure more stable. This domed greenhouse is the closest analogue to the claimed utility model. The design disadvantages of the domed greenhouse are a complex system of joining frames, an unstable system for maintaining heat at sub-zero temperatures, and low wear resistance.
The present invention solves the technical problem of eliminating these disadvantages, namely, the stable conservation of heat and increase wear resistance, due to the design of the outer and inner domes of the greenhouse.
The technical result of the invention is to ensure the conservation of heat at sub-zero temperatures in the greenhouse, as well as the durability of the external and internal domes of the greenhouse.
The technical result is realized due to the following design features. The claimed double-domed greenhouse consists of two geodesic domes - hemispheres, where the outer dome is made of a tubular frame with a transparent wear-resistant coating, and the inner dome is suspended from the outside with suspensions, made of a steel cable with a diameter of the greenhouse less than 12 m or galvanized pipes with a diameter of the greenhouse more than 12 m, repeats the design of the exterior and has a coating of transparent inflatable sectors.
The hemisphere-shaped external geodesic dome is a self-supporting power frame made of a galvanized pipe with a bolted joint at the convergence nodes of the beams - ribs, through a washer-shaped connector - connector. The outer skin is made of a transparent wear-resistant film. Since an air gap is formed between the domes, this allows the outer dome to remain cold due to the fact that there is no temperature difference due to heat retention by the inner dome. As a result, the outer dome does not lose strength characteristics.
The hemisphere-shaped internal geodesic dome is heat-insulating. The dome is made of 99% transparent film and consists of triangular individual auto-inflated sectors, reinforced additionally at the place of gluing the joints, either with a diameter of the greenhouse less than 12 m with a steel cable 3-5 mm in a PVC sheath, or with a diameter of the greenhouse more than 12 m with a pressure strip attached to the tubular frame. The frame of the inner dome repeats the tubular frame of the outer dome and connects to it on suspensions at the vertices of the junction of the edges of the frame. This gives additional strength to the dome structure itself, since when the frame of the outer dome is deformed, the frame of the inner dome will additionally hold it to break. Inflated sectors retain the main heat in the domed greenhouse, separating it from the outer stretched dome. As a result, the inner dome does not come into contact with the external aggressive environment, does not have a sharp temperature difference, which increases its service life.
A double-domed greenhouse may contain a central support column. The central support column is made in the form of a truss beam, placed in the center of the greenhouse and serves as an additional supporting mechanism for the central part of the dome, its crown against bursting, as well as for the possible fastening of level ceilings in the greenhouse and for lifting to the upper levels of the greenhouse, as with a ladder with one side, and the elevator mechanism on the opposite side. In addition, the presence of a central supporting column and an elevator system allows without the use of a crane to assemble the dome frame from its upper part, collecting it from top to bottom, gradually lifting it up the column using an elevator winch, which will make it possible to install domed greenhouses in marshy areas or places with a floating soil, as well as on the roof of buildings, without risky high-rise expensive work.
Thus, the design of the greenhouse with two geodesic domes, where the outer dome is separated from the inner dome by an air gap that prevents the exchange of temperatures between the air outside the greenhouse and inside, while the outer dome is covered with a wear-resistant transparent film, and the inner dome is formed by inflatable air sectors that keep the positive temperature inside the greenhouse, allows you to ensure the preservation of heat at subzero temperatures and increase the wear resistance of the external and internal domes tiles.
Therefore, the totality of these design features implements the specified technical result, which consists in ensuring the conservation of heat at sub-zero temperatures in the greenhouse, as well as the high wear resistance of the external and internal domes of the greenhouse.
In turn, the placement in the center of the greenhouse of the central support column, as an additional structural element to maintain the upper part of the dome from punching, gives additional convenience in using the space of the greenhouse and can simplify the assembly of the greenhouse.
The design of the two-domed greenhouse and its assembly is illustrated by drawings.
In the drawings, Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show a greenhouse in an assembled form with coatings and in detail construction elements of a greenhouse, where:
1 - outer frame
2 - inner frame
3 - suspension
4 - frame rib,
5 - connector,
6 - outer dome made of wear-resistant transparent film,
7 - inner dome of transparent inflatable sectors.
In Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the ribs (4) of the outer frame (1), the suspensions (3) between the frames, the connector (5) and the inflatable sectors of the inner dome (7) are clearly visible.
In the drawing, Fig. 5 shows a view of a connector (5) with attached ribs of the frame (4), where:
8 - a bolt
9 - nut mount suspension.
The drawing of Fig.6 shows the appearance of the connector.
The drawing of Fig.7 shows a view of a greenhouse with a central supporting column and with inter-level ceilings, where:
10 - Central support column,
11 - inter-level overlap.
The invention of a two-domed greenhouse is formed and assembled as follows.
The outer frame (1) is made of galvanized pipe, depending on the designed hemisphere diameter. An integral element in the frame is the rib of the frame (4). The ends of the frame rib (4) are flattened under the press and, at the projected distance from the end of the frame rib (4), the holes for the bolt fastening (8) are drilled. The tapered edges of the frame rib (4) with holes are bent 3-7 degrees for tight connection with the washer-shaped connector (5). The dependence of the diameter of the pipe on the diameter of the base of the geodesic dome structure, as well as the number of elements and dimensions of the structure are presented in Table No. 1.
Table number 1
n / n sphere diameter, m base diameter, m frequency part of the sphere height from the base, meter base area, sq.m. coverage area, sq.m. total length of ribs, meter pipe diameter, mm * wall thickness wind load number of ribs number of connectors
1 4 3.94 V3   7/12 2,3 11.8 28.5 130 20 * 1.5 80-100 km / h 165 61
2 5 4.92 V3   7/12 2.93 18.5 44.6 162 20 * 1.5 80-100 km / h 165 61
3 6 5.92 V3   7/12 3,5 26 64 194 20 * 1.5 80-100 km / h 165 61
4 8 7.74 V4   5/8 5 46 123 367 20 * 1.5 80-100 km / h 310 111
5 10 10 V4   1/2 5 77 154 371 32 * 2 80-100 km / h 250 91
6 fifteen 14.92 V5   9/20 6.7 172 312 624 38 * 3 80-100 km / h 350 126
7 20 20 V6   1/2 10 311 622 1104 48 * 3 80-100 km / h 555 196
8 thirty 29.28 V7  11/28 11.7 669 1098 1520 60 * 3 80-100 km / h 595 211
9 35 33.88 V8   3/8 13.1 897 1433 1934 76 * 3 80-100 km / h 740 261
10 40 38,44 V9 13/36 14.5 1150 1810 2395 76 * 4 80-100 km / h 900 316
The supporting outer frame (1) can be assembled in two ways:
1. Assembly from the lower tier. The ribs of the frame (4) at the base are laid in a circle according to the marking on the rib, and according to the assembly diagram in its place. The ribs of the frame (4) are connected to each other through a connecting washer-shaped connector (5) using bolts (8). Subsequent ribs of the frame (4) are connected in the same way according to the assembly diagram, moving from bottom to top in rows by means of scaffolding, moving in a circle inside the outer dome of the greenhouse. Assembly can be carried out simultaneously by several pairs symmetrically located around the circumference of the structure. Having reached the crown of the outer frame (1), the ribs of the frame (4) are closed and the outer dome acquires its design strength.
2. Build from the top. This assembly uses an additional lifting mechanism, it can be a truck crane or a central support column (10), as in our case, with a system of vertical elevator lifting. First, the top of the outer frame (1) is assembled from its vertex pentahedron. Then it is attached to the lifting mechanism and the subsequent ribs of the frame (4) are connected in a circle by belts with a gradual stepwise lifting by an elevator on the central support column. In such an assembly scheme, the outer frame (1) of the dome immediately has a design strength and, when fully assembled, falls to the base.
Further, with the diameter of the greenhouse more than 12 m, the dome is assembled from galvanized pipes of the inner frame (2) of the dome according to the same scheme and method as the outer one, with the connection of each connecting connector (5) of the inner frame (2) with the connector (5) of the outer frame ( 1) through their central holes with suspensions (3) in the form of studs with bolt connection (8).
With small diameters of the greenhouse up to 12 m, the inner frame (2) of the dome is made of a cable together with a coating of air-inflated sectors of the internal dome (7) and by means of suspensions (3) in the form of a cable connection at the points of convergence of the vertices of the formed triangles with connectors (5) outer frame (1) through their central holes with a bolt clamp (8).
After assembling the outer frame (1), the outer shell of the outer dome (6) is mounted, which is a fully welded hemispherical transparent cover that repeats the contours of the outer frame (1) for frames with a diameter of up to 16 m or consisting of 6 dome skin elements, combining which results in a single shell of the outer dome (6), for frames with a diameter of more than 16 meters.
As the film can be used:
- greenhouse film Terramic sh-14m. 150 microns, service life 6 years, 5-layer, low cost;
- PVC film from 100 to 2000 microns thick - has maximum transparency like ordinary glass, less frost-resistant, more expensive in cost;
- ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) film, used in architecture as the most durable coating with a light transmission of up to 95% of sunlight and resistance to ultraviolet radiation, aggressive environments, high and low temperatures, with a guaranteed service life of up to 20 years, high cost.
The external sheathing of the outer dome (6) is fastened, depending on the material, using a greenhouse profile with a lock, a grommet on the edge of the canvas and a screed on the clamps.
The execution of the inner frame (2) with dome diameters of less than 12 meters is possible from a cable system. Ropes in the PVC sheath are soldered by temperature gluing into the seams of the inner dome from transparent inflatable sectors (7) during its manufacture. Thus, the inner dome (7) with the inner frame (2) are a single structure. In this case, the inner dome (7) and the inner frame (2) are fastened by hanging on suspensions (3) in the form of cables coming out of the vertices of the formed triangles and connected into a bundle with fixation by a u-shaped bolt clamp.
With large diameters of the inner dome (7) of more than 12 m, the lining of transparent inflatable sectors is mounted separately in each triangle. The sector of the inner dome (7) consists of two triangular films glued together at the edges, creating an airtight cushion in which the connecting nozzle system is mounted and the sectors are connected to each other through a plastic corrugated tube. The injected air creates an inflatable sector in the form of a swollen pillow, which provides basic thermal insulation. The pillow is held in a triangular cell on the inner frame (2) using a pressure strip along the ribs of the inner frame (2).
Additionally, in the center of the two-domed greenhouse, a central support column (10) can be installed in the form of a truss beam with inter-level ceilings (11), which ensures the upper part of the dome is kept from being pushed, and inter-level ceilings (11) provide additional convenience in using the space of the greenhouse.
The double-domed greenhouse withstands wind loads of 80-100 km / h, retains heat at sub-zero outside temperatures, snow does not stick to the surface of the outer dome, because it is cold on both sides, the inner dome does not come in contact with the outside air and heat losses are minimal, since the gap between the domes of the greenhouse also retains heat, the heat inside the greenhouse is sufficient for growing plants, while the domes are highly durable, which increases the life of the greenhouse. The conditions of a two-domed greenhouse allow growing plants on aeroponics year-round in volumes larger than in ordinary greenhouses.
Example 1
Consider the design of a geodesic double-domed greenhouse with a diameter of 20 meters, a height of 10 meters, a frequency of V6, part of a sphere ½, the material of the supporting frame - a galvanized pipe 48 mm with a wall thickness of 3 mm. We get the base area - 311.86 m² and the coverage area - 622.99 m², we use faces - 6 types, 360 pieces, edges - 9 types, 555 pieces, connectors - 6 types, 196 pieces. The total length of the ribs is 1120 m. The method of connecting the ribs of the frame at the vertices consists in flattening the ends of the pipes, drilling a connecting hole in them at the required distance from the pipe edge and bolt fastening with a metal plate of 5 or 6 final shapes - a connector with similar bolt holes with a flattened pipe end. We use atmospheric-resistant transparent PVC material 1000 microns thick to cover the outer surface of the dome. The whole shell of the outer dome is made up of 6 film elements, which, when combined, results in a single surface, which we fasten with clamps through the eyelets in the lower edge to the lower belt of the tubular frame. To cover the inner dome, we use a two-layer transparent inflatable cover, which we mount separately in each triangle of the inner tube frame and fix it with a clamping strip to the frame. We suspend the inner dome to the outer one using studs, which are bolted to the centers of the frame connectors. In the greenhouse, we establish a central support column with inter-level ceilings for placing plants on them at aeroponics.
This greenhouse withstands wind loads of 80-100 km / h, retains heat at sub-zero outside temperatures of -30 ° C, and allows you to grow plants on aeroponics year-round.
Example 2
Consider the construction of a geodesic double-domed greenhouse with a diameter of 4 meters, a height of 2.3 meters, a frequency of V3, part of a 7/12 sphere, the material of the supporting frame is a galvanized pipe of 20 mm with a wall thickness of 1.5 mm. We get the base area - 11.8 m² and the coating area - 28.5 m², use ribs - 3 types, 165 pieces, connectors - 3 types, 61 pieces. The total length of the ribs is 130 m. The method of connecting the ribs of the outer frame at the vertices is to flatten the ends of the pipes, drill a connecting hole in them at the required distance from the pipe edge and bolt fasteners with a metal plate of 5 or 6 final shapes - a connector with similar bolt holes with a flattened pipe end. To cover the outer surface of the dome, we use an atmospheric-resistant transparent film of greenhouse Terramic with a thickness of 150 microns, seamlessly soldered into a single surface, and fix it using a greenhouse profile with a lock to the lower zone of the tubular frame. The inner frame is made of a 3mm cable in a PVC sheath, together with a coating of triangular-shaped air-inflated two-layer transparent sheathing by soldering into the seams of the sheathing of the inner dome during its manufacture. We suspend the inner dome to the outer one using cables coming from the vertices of the connection of the triangles, which are fixed in the centers of the connectors of the outer frame with a bolt clamp. In the greenhouse we place plants on aeroponics along the entire inner surface of the greenhouse, growing plants by placing them in height.
This greenhouse withstands wind loads of 80-100 km / h, retains heat at sub-zero outside temperatures of -30 ° C, and allows you to grow plants on aeroponics year-round.

Claims (8)

1. A two-domed greenhouse containing two spherical frames located one in the other with a gap, the outer frame made of galvanized pipes, characterized in that the outer frame is coated with a wear-resistant transparent material, and the inner frame follows the design of the outer frame and has a coating of transparent inflatable sectors while the inner frame is suspended from the outer frame using suspensions.
2. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer frame consists of ribs that are connected to each other through a connector.
3. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner frame is made of a cable with a diameter of the greenhouse less than 12 m
4. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner frame is made of galvanized pipes with a diameter of the greenhouse more than 12 m.
5. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that a Terramic greenhouse film is used as a wear-resistant transparent material.
6. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that a PVC film is used as a wear-resistant transparent material.
7. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that ethylene tetrafluoroethylene film is used as a wear-resistant transparent material.
8. The two-domed greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a central support column in the form of a truss beam.
RU2019118492A 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 Two-dome greenhouse RU2713114C1 (en)

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN202310732U (en) * 2011-12-08 2012-07-11 上海赋民农业科技有限公司 Sphere-in-sphere greenhouse
RU167752U1 (en) * 2016-06-21 2017-01-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Ниагара" Frame construction
CN108738914A (en) * 2018-06-07 2018-11-06 杭州秀沃农业科技有限公司 The dome greenhouse of multifunction double-layer frame structure

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN202310732U (en) * 2011-12-08 2012-07-11 上海赋民农业科技有限公司 Sphere-in-sphere greenhouse
RU167752U1 (en) * 2016-06-21 2017-01-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Ниагара" Frame construction
CN108738914A (en) * 2018-06-07 2018-11-06 杭州秀沃农业科技有限公司 The dome greenhouse of multifunction double-layer frame structure

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