RU2703797C1 - Method and system for transmitting media information from unmanned aerial vehicles to a data collection point on a low-directivity optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream - Google Patents

Method and system for transmitting media information from unmanned aerial vehicles to a data collection point on a low-directivity optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream Download PDF

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RU2703797C1
RU2703797C1 RU2019103181A RU2019103181A RU2703797C1 RU 2703797 C1 RU2703797 C1 RU 2703797C1 RU 2019103181 A RU2019103181 A RU 2019103181A RU 2019103181 A RU2019103181 A RU 2019103181A RU 2703797 C1 RU2703797 C1 RU 2703797C1
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aircraft
system
information
receiver
data collection
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RU2019103181A
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Russian (ru)
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Сергей Александрович Магницкий
Павел Павлович Гостев
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Гарант" (ООО "Гарант")
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Abstract

FIELD: communication.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems for transmitting digital information over a low-directivity optical laser communication channel with an aircraft to a data collection station constructed using optical information quantum reception technology. Essence of the disclosed solution lies in the fact that a method and a system for transmitting media information from aircraft to a data collection point on a low-directivity optical channel with a quantum reception of a media stream is that when an input signal containing streaming video information is transmitted to a transmitter mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle or spacecraft, the signal is encrypted, encoded with a Reed-Solomon code correcting errors, packing Ethernet frames, generating pulses, transmission of pulses by means of a laser to a receiver mounted on the Earth or other carrier, where the obtained pulses, when falling on the photosensitive surface of the multisection matrix, form a spot of several millimeters, after which the sequence of frames in time is analyzed and compared with the threshold operation coefficient of the system to determine random noise with intensity below the trigger threshold, dropping the frame with random noise, further, Ethernet frames are decompressed, Reed-Solomon code is decoded and decrypted, then information is sent to computer.
EFFECT: technical result consists in provision of possibility of use both with stationary (ground stations, tower operators of cellular network, et cetera), and mobile carriers (satellites, airplanes, airships, trains, cars, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles).
9 cl, 10 dwg

Description

The invention relates to systems for transmitting digital information via a weakly directed optical laser communication channel from an unmanned aerial vehicle (BVS) or small spacecraft (MCA) to a data collection point constructed using the technology of quantum reception of optical information, i.e. receiving optical information encoded in light pulses with energy at the level of single photons (quantum-limited optical communication, QLOC) and processed by proprietary algorithms for quantum reception of information and can be used to broadcast a multi-component media stream and transmit sensory information from (BVS / MKA) to the ground , to the data collection point, incl. to other BVS / MKA (hereinafter “Aircraft” (LA)), to moving objects (train, car, plane, etc.); for the organization of relaying of satellite or radio-stream broadcasting signals, in particular in jamming zones; creating a mobile repeater for the “last mile” phase of the Internet; for collecting data from a swarm of small-sized BVS / MKA

The prior art systems for broadcasting media information from aircraft are known:

• Broadcast media systems with BVS (FPV systems): analog (0.43, 0.9, 1.2, 2.4, 5.8 GHz) and digital (WiFi 2.4 GHz).

• Analog systems are subject to interference from both the aircraft itself (engines, radio control channels, wiring, etc.) and from the environment.

• WiFi systems are limited in range and subject to interference with other WiFi transmitters.

• FPV system creates significant radio interference in full solid angle.

• Omnidirectional antennas “dissipate” significant power, reducing the effective communication distance

In all FPV radio systems, electromagnetic interference leads to poor quality (errors occur) and a decrease in communication distance. Optical systems are resistant to electromagnetic interference, but are not suitable for this task.

Over a dozen companies are developing wireless optical communication systems, for example, Mostcom (Mostcom), SCHOTT, Canon, LightPointe, FSONA, Wireless Excellence, Aoptix, PAV, Optelix Wireless, WirelessGuys Inc.

Among the main market trends are market segmentation by system applicability areas. Among the main technological trends are an increase in the data transfer rate through signal multiplexing, a decrease in the energy consumed by devices, and the creation of adaptive optical systems to increase the channel operator availability.

The prior art systems for transmitting media information from unmanned aerial vehicles, in particular the M1-MG model of the company Mostkom JSC.

However, all these companies mainly produce systems that can be effectively used in point-to-point mode, i.e. for stationary receiver and transmitter, since they are constructed according to the symmetrical principle using duplex channels, i.e. There are two identical devices, between which an optical or radio communication channel is established, both devices being active and, as a result, quite bulky cannot be placed on the BVS / MKA.

In addition, they have a fundamental limitation on the angular accuracy of the alignment. Their angular radiation pattern (UDD) does not exceed 0.01 deg. (Bridge M1-GE), which makes it impossible to aim at a moving target. The mass of such systems is also high (15 kg for the M1-GE Bridge). Existing low-power VLC systems, despite wide UDN, are effective at very small distances. The VLC of the RONJA system with a communication range of 1.4 km has a UDN width of 0.1 degrees and an electric power of 20 kV, which is also not suitable for mobile applications. Powerful air-based VLC systems are dangerous for both humans and animals.

The prior art optical media transmission systems from unmanned aerial vehicles, in particular prototypes developed by Exelis & FALCON (USAF contract) and Aoptix & John Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (DARPA Contract). The only such system on the Russian market is the M1-MG model of Mostkom JSC, which is at the design stage. The systems under development, by their overall dimensions, are not suitable for installation on small-sized aircraft.

In the developed design, the receiving and transmitting devices are fundamentally different, which allows them to be manufactured in a compact form. In addition, the developed system uses a diverging laser beam, which covers a significant portion of the surface on the plane of the receiver, radically reducing the accuracy requirements of the guidance system. Another distinguishing feature is the reception of information in photon counting mode.

The technical problem of the claimed invention is to create a system for transmitting media information from aircraft to a data collection point via a weakly directed optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream.

The technical result is the creation of a system for transmitting media information from aircraft to a data collection point via a weakly directed optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream that does not require critical alignment of the receiver-transmitter.

The specified technical result is achieved in a system for transmitting media information from aircraft, including from unmanned aerial vehicles, to a data collection point via a weakly directed optical channel with a quantum reception of a media stream containing a transmitter mounted on an aircraft in which an input signal containing streaming video information is supplied to the input of the encoder, the output of which is connected to the input of the Reed-Solomon encoder, is then transmitted to the input of the Ethernet frame packer, the output of which is connected to the input of the forms pulse generator, from the output of which optical pulses using a laser configured to produce a diverging beam are transmitted to a receiver mounted at a data collection point, configured to receive a signal in a low-photon mode, in which they enter a highly sensitive SiPM-based matrix detector, output which is connected to the input of a signal processing processor consisting of a series-connected frame analyzer and a frame selection unit; from the output of the signal processing processor, the signal goes to the decoder, namely, sequentially to the input of the Ethernet frame unpacker, the Reed-Solomon decoder, the decoder, and then to the computer.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the receiver is mounted on a fixed object.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the receiver is mounted on a moving object.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that it is made with the possibility of guidance on a conventional navigation system GPS / TTOHACC / Galileo / BeiDou.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the system transmitter installed on the aircraft has a low weight of not more than 100 g, dimensions of not more than 10 × 5 × 2 cm and power consumption of not more than 5 W and is configured to be installed on any aircraft , with a loading capacity of more than 100 g.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the transmitter is configured to reduce the accuracy of pointing at the receiver depending on the distance, which averages 12 degrees, and the accuracy of pointing the receiving module to the transmitting module is ~ 10 degrees.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that one receiver can serve a large number of aircraft, sequentially switching from one aircraft to another.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that one receiver can serve a large number of aircraft using several photosensitive matrices.

Also, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of transmitting media information from aircraft to a data collection point via a low-directional optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream, the input signal containing streaming video information to a transmitter mounted on an aircraft they encrypt the signal, encode using the Reed-Solomon code, which performs error correction, Ethernet frame packing, pulse shaping, pulse transmission c using a laser to the receiver installed at the data collection point, where the received pulses, falling on the photosensitive surface of the multi-section matrix, form a spot of several millimeters, after which the sequence of frames is analyzed in time and compared with the threshold coefficient of response of the system to determine random noise , in case of exceeding the threshold coefficient, a frame with random noise is discarded, then Ethernet frames are unpacked, decoded e of the Reed-Solomon decoding, further information is transmitted to a computer or other processing device or accumulating.

An additional feature is that, due to the modularity of the system, it is possible to combine a receiver and a transmitter to create a compact transceiver and a system that provides two-way optical laser communication with quantum reception of transmitted information

The claimed invention is illustrated by drawings of FIG. 1-10.

In FIG. Figure 1 shows a general diagram of a system for transmitting media information from unmanned aerial vehicles to a data collection point via a weakly directed optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream, containing a transmitter mounted on an aircraft, a receiver installed on Earth, and a computer.

In FIG. 2 shows a block diagram and the principle of operation of the transmitter.

In FIG. 3 shows a block diagram and the principle of operation of the receiver.

In FIG. 4 is a timing chart of frame selection.

In FIG. 5 shows the technology of quantum reception of optical information.

In FIG. 6 presents an example of a potential application of the claimed invention: broadcasting media information from drones at a long distance with 4K quality.

In FIG. 7 presents an example of the potential application of the claimed invention, namely the collection of information from small reconnaissance and monitoring devices, providing high-speed data collection of reconnaissance and monitoring from small-sized drones.

In FIG. 8 presents an example of a potential application of the claimed invention, namely, the use of BVS as a relay of satellite signals in the conditions of its jamming or strong electromagnetic interference

In FIG. Figure 9 shows an example of the potential application of the claimed invention, namely, as an inconspicuous distributed system of radio and optical reconnaissance, in which the antenna is implemented by a swarm of UAVs.

In FIG. 10 provides an example of a potential application of the claimed invention, namely: the implementation of the last mile stage for Internet lines in difficult terrain and other conditions that impede radio communications.

The claimed invention is intended for transmitting streaming video information from unmanned aerial vehicles to data collection points, which can be located both on stationary (ground stations, in particular, towers of mobile operators or separate receiving modules installed at unmanned aerial vehicles based stations), as well as on mobile carriers, such as military vehicles with a loading capacity of more than 100 g, ICA, up to pico-satellites, trains, ships, cars, helicopters, etc.). In addition, the system can be used to organize the relay of signals from satellite or radio-stream broadcasting, in particular, in its jamming zones; creating a mobile repeater for the “last mile” phase of the Internet; to collect data from a swarm of small-sized BVS / MKA.

The claimed system provides the transmission of a multicomponent media stream with speeds of at least UMbit / s at distances between the transmitter and receiver up to 1 km with an error not exceeding 10E-10.

In addition, it does not require precision and bulky systems for maintaining the optical channel, and can be guided by the usual GPS / GLONASS / Galileo / BeiDou navigation system.

The transmitter module of the system installed on the BVS / MKA has an unprecedented low weight (100 g), dimensions (not more than 10 × 5 × 2 cm) and power consumption (not more than 5 W) and can be installed on any BVS with a carrying capacity of more than 100 g .

The accuracy of pointing the transmitting module to the receiving module depends on the distance and averages 12 degrees. The accuracy of pointing the receiving module to the transmitter is ~ 10 deg.

One receiving device can serve a large number of BVS / MKA, sequentially switching from one BVS / MKA to another or using several sensitive matrix detectors.

The problem of radically reducing the requirements on the accuracy of pointing the transmitter is solved by using a diverging beam with a diameter in the plane of the receiver of ~ 100 m. However, this leads to a sharp decrease in the radiation intensity, i.e. low-photon signal level, and without a fundamentally new reception technology, such a system would be inoperative. The problem of the dimensions and weight of the transmitter is solved by abandoning the principle of duplex communication, which is typical, for example, for the modern Internet, and switching to unidirectional communication, in which only the data transfer function remains on the module installed on the BVS / MCA. This technological solution significantly reduces the weight and dimensions of the module, but also dramatically increases errors in the transmission of information. To eliminate errors in the transmitting module, the error correction code of Reed Solomon is used, which allows bringing errors in the transmission of information to the level of 10E-10.

The design of the receiver should provide a solution to two problems: solve the problem of accuracy of pointing at the transmitting module and ensure reliable reception of information at a low-photon signal level. Both of these problems are solved by applying the technology of quantum information reception. The key device is a multi-section matrix, each pixel of which operates in the photon counting mode. Structurally, the claimed solution uses a matrix of solid-state photomultipliers (SiPM, InGaAs PMT, SNSPD, etc.). In front of the matrix is a lens that transmits an image of the laser beam of the transmitter to the photosensitive surface of the matrix, forming a spot on the matrix several mm in size. This design reduces the requirements for accuracy of pointing at the transmitter from angular seconds to ~ 10 degrees. Multipixel and photon counting mode provides reception of a low-photon signal. In this mode, the necessary noise suppression occurs simultaneously due to the use of the pulsed mode of the transmitting laser and application of the sampling mode for correlated photons.

Upon receipt of an input signal containing streaming video information to a transmitter mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle, the signal is encrypted, encoded using a Reed-Solomon cyclic code that performs error correction (Fig. 2). Encoding parameters are configured depending on the noise level of the transmission channel of the media stream.

Then the signal goes to the Ethernet frame packer, a pulse shaper, after which the optical pulses are transmitted by a laser to a receiver mounted on the Earth or other carrier.

To transmit information, a pulsed DFB laser can be used (repetition frequencies up to 10 GHz).

The resulting pulses, falling on the photosensitive surface of a multi-section matrix, form a spot with a diameter of several millimeters (Fig. 3). The main parameter limiting the data transfer rate is the dead time of the matrix detector. Examples of SiPM matrix detectors with an operating frequency of up to 2.5 GHz are known in the art.

The image of the transmitter can freely move around the matrix, however, this does not affect the transmission quality (Fig. 5). The angle of the field of view of the system, and hence the accuracy of pointing, can be adjusted through the focal length f of the lens. Optimal from the point of view of background noise and criticality of pointing, a field of view of 10 degrees seems to be.

For a 24 × 24 mm SiPM array (SensL ArrayJ-30035-64P-PCB), this angle is achieved at f = 135 mm.

Next, an analysis of the sequence of frames in time is carried out and a comparison is made with the threshold response coefficient of the system to determine random noise (Fig. 4).

N is the threshold response factor of the system, cutting off random noise from the signal. It has been experimentally shown that continuous scattered light does not produce multiphoton statistics peaks, and even a weak regular signal is clearly visible against the background of noise. Therefore, already a signal with N = 10 will be clearly distinguishable.

If the threshold coefficient is exceeded, a frame with random noise is discarded, then Ethernet frames are unpacked, the Reed-Solomon code is decoded and decrypted, then the information is transmitted to the computer.

To build an encoder and decoder, as well as a signal processor, FPGAs or specialized ICs can be used.

Thus, the proposed system has the following advantages:

- Critical of angular accuracy of pointing relative to existing FSO systems, effective over long distances compared to VLC systems. It also has a low weight and power consumption.

- Regarding the existing radio and WiFi systems for transmitting video from a UAV, it has more noise immunity.

Claims (9)

1. A system for transmitting media information from aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles, to a data collection point via a low-directional optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream, containing a transmitter mounted on an aircraft, in which an input signal containing video streaming information is fed to the encoder input the output of which is connected to the input of the Reed-Solomon encoder, is then transmitted to the input of the Ethernet frame packer, the output of which is connected to the input of the pulse shaper, the output of which is optical Pulses using a laser configured to produce a diverging beam are transmitted to a receiver installed at a data collection point, configured to receive a signal in the low-photon mode, in which they enter a highly sensitive SiPM-based matrix detector, the output of which is connected to the input of the processing processor a signal consisting of a series-connected frame analyzer and a frame selection unit; from the output of the signal processing processor, the signal goes to the decoder, namely, sequentially to the input of the Ethernet frame unpacker, the Reed-Solomon decoder, the decoder, and then to the computer.
2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the receiver is mounted on a fixed object.
3. The system according to p. 1, characterized in that the receiver is mounted on a moving object.
4. The system according to p. 1, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of guidance on a conventional navigation system GPS / GOLONASS / Galileo / BeiDou.
5. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the system transmitter installed on the aircraft has a low weight of not more than 100 g, dimensions of not more than 10 × 5 × 2 cm and power consumption of not more than 5 W and is configured to be installed on any aircraft with a carrying capacity of more than 100 g.
6. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the transmitter is configured to reduce the accuracy of pointing to the receiver depending on the distance, which averages 12 degrees, and the accuracy of pointing the receiving module to the transmitting module is ~ 10 degrees.
7. The system under item 1, characterized in that one receiver is configured to serve at least two aircraft, sequentially switching from one aircraft to another.
8. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that one receiver is configured to serve at least two aircraft at the same time using at least two photosensitive arrays.
9. A method of transmitting media information from aircraft to a data collection point via a weakly directed optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream, which consists in the fact that upon receipt of an input signal containing streaming video information to a transmitter installed on the aircraft, the signal is encrypted and encoded using a code Reed-Solomon performing error correction, packing Ethernet frames, forming pulses, transmitting pulses using a laser to a receiver installed at the failure point The data frame where the received pulses, falling on the photosensitive surface of the multi-section matrix, form a spot of several millimeters, after which the sequence of frames is analyzed in time and compared with the threshold response coefficient of the system to determine random noise, if the threshold coefficient is exceeded, the frame is discarded with random noise, then the Ethernet frames are unpacked, the Reed-Solomon code is decoded and decrypted, then the information is transmitted tsya to a computer or other processing device or accumulating.
RU2019103181A 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 Method and system for transmitting media information from unmanned aerial vehicles to a data collection point on a low-directivity optical channel with quantum reception of a media stream RU2703797C1 (en)

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RU2126174C1 (en) * 1997-10-22 1999-02-10 Саломатин Андрей Аркадьевич Method determining coordinates of mobile object, method of identification of subscribers and fixing their positions, radio communication system of subscribers with central station with identification of subscribers and fixing their positions
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RU2126174C1 (en) * 1997-10-22 1999-02-10 Саломатин Андрей Аркадьевич Method determining coordinates of mobile object, method of identification of subscribers and fixing their positions, radio communication system of subscribers with central station with identification of subscribers and fixing their positions
RU2176852C2 (en) * 2000-01-06 2001-12-10 Прушковский Олег Владимирович Information transmission system (versions)
US20120141138A1 (en) * 2010-12-03 2012-06-07 Wuhan Research Institute Of Posts And Telecommunications System, Devices and Methods for Subcarrier Recovery at Local Oscillator Frequency in Optical OFDM System
US9203544B2 (en) * 2010-12-03 2015-12-01 Wuhan Research Institute Of Posts And Telecommunications Optical communication system, device and method employing advanced coding and high modulation order
US8989579B2 (en) * 2011-12-20 2015-03-24 Ruag Schweiz Ag Optical downlink system

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