RU2627393C1 - Charge of explosive substance for projectiles, method of preparation of this charge and projectile with explosive substance (options) - Google Patents

Charge of explosive substance for projectiles, method of preparation of this charge and projectile with explosive substance (options) Download PDF

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RU2627393C1
RU2627393C1 RU2016133338A RU2016133338A RU2627393C1 RU 2627393 C1 RU2627393 C1 RU 2627393C1 RU 2016133338 A RU2016133338 A RU 2016133338A RU 2016133338 A RU2016133338 A RU 2016133338A RU 2627393 C1 RU2627393 C1 RU 2627393C1
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mixture
explosive
hydrogen peroxide
microspheres
projectile
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Павел Александрович Брагин
Илья Юрьевич Маслов
Александр Владимирович Наумов
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Глобал Майнинг Эксплозив - Раша"
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B23/00Compositions characterised by non-explosive or non-thermic constituents

Abstract

FIELD: blasting.
SUBSTANCE: charge of the explosive substance for the projectile is used for forced triggering of avalanches. The projectile includes a blended composition of two components in which an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide is used as the first component to perform the oxidising agent function, and ethanol or methanol or propane-1,2,3 triol, or dimethyl ketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture is used as the second component performing the function of liquid fuel. The projectile is made in the form of a polymer canister or a polymer container with a handle or in the form of a cylindrical polymer container.
EFFECT: increased safety of storage, transportation and use of explosive compositions used to blast avalanche-prone areas.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

Description

The invention relates to hydrometeorology, and in particular to technical means and methods of influencing slope processes for the purpose of preventive descent of avalanches by shelling snow slopes with explosive charges (explosives).

Snow avalanches - a spontaneous natural phenomenon, often observed in the mountains, capable of causing deaths and causing significant damage to its distribution. Snow avalanche - moving and falling snow masses that have set in motion on the side of the mountains. It is possible to reduce the destructive effect of an avalanche by organizing a forced descent of small amounts of snow mass accumulating in the avalanche-hazardous directions of the mountain slopes in advance.

Forced descent of snow avalanches is carried out (as one of the methods) due to the impact of an air shock wave (generated during the explosion of liquid, solid or gaseous explosives (or explosive mixtures) on an unstable snow mass located on mountain slopes (similar to that described in RU 2542676).

Today, the main methods of preventive descent of snow avalanches: shelling avalanche-hazardous slopes with mortars and artillery pieces; manual insertion of explosives in the avalanche zone; active exposure systems Gazex, Daisybell and O'bellx, French company T.A.S. (Alpine Safety Technologies); compulsory descent system of snow masses CATEX MONTAZ, the French company MONTAZ Equipement (Lavinozashchita station, posted on the Internet at the Rosengineering website at http://www.roing.ru/engineeringProtection.php?page=avalanche).

For example, there are devices for forced descent of snow avalanches from avalanche-hazardous sections of mountain slopes: stationary GAZEX systems (similar to those described in RU 2539051) and mobile (transported by helicopter suspension) Daisy Bell systems (similar to those described in RU 2552269).

These systems have significant disadvantages that limit the effectiveness of their use as anti-avalanche agents. Thus, the GAZEX system consists of a permanently installed Shelter facility (autonomous control station, with a reserve of compressed gaseous fuels (propane-butane mixture) and an oxidizing agent (oxygen) and one or more Exploder detonation pipes. Avalanches are usually formed , in hard-to-reach places - which requires preliminary capital installation of GAZEX systems in avalanche hazardous areas, as well as delivery (usually by helicopter) of cartridges with compressed gas cylinders.The system has a limited radius of action, therefore, in an avalanche hazardous area ONET required simultaneously install several dozens of such systems, which is extremely costly.

The Daisy Bell system requires its transportation by air (delivery is carried out by helicopter on a suspension), with the delivery vehicle (helicopter) hanging over an avalanche-hazardous area and carrying out explosions of the gas-air mixture formed in a bell-type device. As a result, the operation of the system is extremely expensive (flight time) and limited in use by weather conditions (only in flight weather).

Also known is the Snow Boom avalanche system, designed for forced descent of snow avalanches and the elimination of dangerous snow overhangs (shelves, peaks), the charges of which (manual and throwable) consist of a liquid explosive that holds its shell and means of initiation. In this case, the propellant charge is delivered to the avalanche-hazardous section of the hillside by means of a shot from an air gun (Avalancher, www.avalanchemitigationservices.com) or the manual charge is delivered to the avalanche-hazardous section of the hillside by an explosive operator who manually throws it onto a snowy surface. The applied liquid explosive is a mixed one obtained by mechanical mixing of two liquid components: nitromethane and ethyleneimine (see "RD 52.37.790-2013" Organization and implementation of avalanche works ", date of introduction 2013-12-31, p. 8.3" Pneumatic system of active exposure - "Snow Arrow", Fig. 5). Adopted as a prototype for all declared facilities.

Avalancheur mobile devices (Snow Arrow) were developed by the French company Etienne Lacroix Tous Artifices SA and are considered one of the most advanced technological developments in the field of avalanche safety in the world. Avalancheur is essentially a huge airgun that throws a missile in the form of a large arrow into the air under the action of nitrogen compressed to 50 atmospheres. The charge of the boom flying out of the installation is torn above the surface of the hillside. An explosion allows you to move the most dangerous - the upper - layer of snow, while the deeper layers of snow and earth cover, stones do not scatter and, accordingly, ugly funnels do not form on the mountain slopes.

The developers of Etienne Lacroix Tous Artifices SA believe that the environmental safety of the process is an important advantage of the technology they offer, since after blasting the charge only soot is safe for nature, and if the boom doesn’t burst, the charge becomes completely harmless after 48 hours.

However, the analysis and practice of using this system in reality do not confirm the forecast of environmental safety of its application. The disadvantages of the mentioned system "Snow Arrow" should include the fact that:

- nitromethane is an independent explosive: mixing it with ethylene diamine is carried out to increase the sensitivity of nitromethane to the initiating effect of the detonator capsule;

- nitromethane and ethylenediamine are toxic to animal and plant organisms (nitromethane is toxic by inhalation of vapors or if swallowed, it damages the liver and kidneys, central nervous system, a drug that also has a convulsive effect and aftereffect, the maximum permissible concentration in the air is 0.01%, ethylene diamine is toxic, ethylenediamine irritates the skin and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, causes liver damage);

- the melting points of the components of the explosives (for nitromethane - minus 28 ° C, for ethylene diamine - plus 11 ° C) impose significant restrictions on the use of these components at negative ambient temperatures (the system should be used only in winter, and one of the components - ethylene diamine - freezes at temperatures below plus 11 ° C);

- nitromethane is classified as a precursor substance, which limits its free circulation and requires special measures of accounting and storage (nitromethane is flammable and explosive, subject to storage conditions that can be stored at room temperature for an unlimited time, unmetered nitromethane remains on the rock surface during an explosion);

- the manual charge detonator capsule and the missile charge detonator capsule in the Snow Arrow system are not unified, which requires the simultaneous storage of two types of capsules in a warehouse;

- special measures are required for the disposal of unexploded (for some reason) charges, since both components are toxic to humans and the environment;

- failed charges are dangerous for a long time, since the mixture does not lose explosive properties for a long time (does not decompose);

- the explosion products of a mixture of nitromethane and ethylenediamine contain toxic products: highly toxic carbon monoxide and soot. We give the equation of the chemical reaction of the explosive conversion of such a mixture (the gross formula C 17.57 H 54.98 N 17.54 O 30 should be understood as a mixture of 92.9% by weight of nitromethane (CH 3 NO 2 ) and 7.1% by weight ethylene diamine (C 2 H 8 N 2 ):

C 17.57 H 54.98 N 17.54 O 30 = 13.38H 2 O + 0.64C + 8.77N 2 + 9.94CO + 3.34CO 2 + 3.65CH 4 + 6.81H 2 .

The negative impact of soot on the ecology has been known for a long time and is a task on which the climate and the conservation of flora and fauna depend (see the term paper on the subject “Geoecology” on the topic: “Military destruction of the biosphere. Possible environmental consequences of nuclear war”, chapter “Impact” emission of soot onto the environment ", author Fedotova N.V., Moscow City University of Management of the Government of Moscow, 2011, posted on the website" Educational Materials "on the Internet at: http://works.doklad.ru/view/ O_Fpqbagiug.html). This material, in terms of the negative impact of soot on the environment, is also confirmed in the article “Airplanes pollute the environment”, published on 02.26.2012 and posted on the Internet in free access at (http://meteopathy.ru/meteofaktory/camolety -vyxlopnymi-gazami-zagryaznyayut-okruzhayushhuyu-sredu /), which also made an objective conclusion about the negative impact on the ecology of carbon monoxide "as a substance that is very stable and evenly distributed around the globe" - according to Professor Ulrich Schumann, director of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics ery German Aerospace Center.

The technical task of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages of the prototype through the use of non-explosive components, mixed immediately before use.

The present invention is aimed at achieving a technical result, which consists in increasing the safety of storage, transportation and use of explosive compositions used to undermine avalanche hazardous areas.

The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in the explosive charge for a projectile used for forced descent of avalanches, which includes a mixed composition of two components, an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide is used as the first component that acts as an oxidizing agent, and as the second a component that performs the function of liquid fuel, ethanol or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol (synonym: glycerin), or dimethyl ketone (synonym: acetone) in the ratio of formation is used stoichiometric mixture.

For this charge in the liquid fuel can be introduced in an amount of from 0.1 to 1% wt. water-soluble salts of lead, or copper, or chromium, or sodium or potassium hydroxides or mixtures thereof to accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. For this charge, in order to change the density of the explosive mixture, inert additives with isolated pores can be added (for example, expanded polystyrene granules and / or glass microspheres and / or polymer microspheres).

The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that the method of preparing an explosive charge having a short shelf life of explosive properties is that a container containing inert additives with isolated pores (in the form of granules or microspheres or a mixture thereof) and liquid fuel with an additive for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, add hydrogen peroxide in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, and then shake the containers to mix the components and install the detonator capsule.

The specified technical result is achieved in that in a projectile with an explosive used to detonate avalanche hazardous areas, containing a body with a detonator capsule filled with explosive mixture, this body is made in the form of a polymer canister or polymer container with a handle filled with a mixture consisting of water a solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel, which is used as ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethyl ketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as e additives to change the density of the mixture and accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

The specified technical result is achieved in that in a projectile with an explosive used to detonate avalanche hazardous areas, containing a body with a detonator capsule filled with explosive mixture, this body is made in the form of a cylindrical polymer container filled with a mixture consisting of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel, which is used as ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethyl ketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as additives for and Menenius mixture density and accelerate the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

These features are significant and are interconnected with the formation of a stable set of essential features sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.

The present invention is illustrated by specific examples of execution, which, however, are not the only possible, but clearly demonstrate the ability to achieve the desired technical result.

In FIG. 1 - charge in the form of a canister with a "handle" for the convenience of "manual" throwing;

FIG. 2 - charge in the form of a cylindrical vessel for throwing through a barrel pneumatic system.

According to the present invention, new explosive compositions are considered that can be used for forced descent of snow avalanches by undermining avalanche hazardous areas. In this regard, it is proposed to use a system consisting of non-explosive components mixed immediately before use (before blasting). This significantly increases the safety during transportation and storage of charge components.

In the General case, within the framework of the present invention, it is proposed to use an explosive charge for a projectile for forced descent of avalanches, which includes a mixed composition of two components in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture. In this case, an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide is used as the first component performing the function of an oxidizing agent, and ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethyl ketone is used as the second component performing the function of liquid fuel.

Thus, according to the invention, as liquid non-explosive components of a mixed explosive, it is necessary to use hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing component, and ethanol or methanol or propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol) or dimethyl ketone as a fuel component (acetone).

Explosive mixtures based on hydrogen peroxide have long been widely known:

1. E.S. Shanley, F.P. Greenspan "Higly Concentrateg Hydrogen Peroxide. Physical and Chemical Properties" Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, No. 12, 1536-1543, 1947.

2. W. Shamb, C. Setterfield, R. Wentworth, “Hydrogen Peroxide,” translated from English by G. D. Vigdorovich, M., Publishing House of Foreign Literature, 1958

3. I. Onederra, M. Araos "Detonation and Breakage Performance of a Hydrogen Peroxide-based Explosive Formulation" / 11 th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting / Sydney, NSW, August 24-26, 2015 (Australia).

According to their chemical nature, the substances indicated by the authors as a fuel component are natural metabolites of living organisms, and therefore are less toxic in comparison with the known components (nitromethane and ethylenediamine) of the prototype. The explosion of the considered (stoichiometric) hydrogen peroxide-based mixtures does not produce toxic substances - only carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water.

So, 60% wt. an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide has a freezing point of minus 60 ° C, ethanol - minus 114 ° C, methanol - minus 97 ° C, glycerin - minus 89 ° C (becomes a glassy mass, before that its viscosity increases many times, but fluidity remains), acetone - minus 95 ° C, which allows you to store, transport and mix many of these components at low ambient temperatures in winter, which is very important for use in avalanche fighting.

The chemical equations of explosive decomposition of stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen peroxide with ethanol (1), methanol (2), glycerin (3), acetone (4) and toluene (5) with the heat of explosive transformation calculated according to Hess's law are given below: Q explosion = Q explosion products - Q explosive (table 1 and 2).

Figure 00000001

Figure 00000002

From the above equations of chemical reactions and the calculations of the heat of explosion carried out on them, it follows that all the compositions considered detonate with a heat of explosion of more than 1000 kcal / kg. This is enough to make the movement of local sections of snow cover (if not all, but only its surface layer, as the most consolidated).

For such a charge, from 0.1 to 1% wt. May be introduced into the liquid fuel. water-soluble salts of lead, or copper, or chromium, or sodium or potassium hydroxides or mixtures thereof to accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. For this charge, inert additives with isolated pores in the form of granules of expanded polystyrene and / or glass microspheres and / or polymer microspheres can be introduced to change the density of the explosive mixture.

In this regard, the novelty of the proposed method for the manufacture and use of explosive mixtures based on hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuels also lies in the fact that the composition of the liquid fuel (fuel component: alcohols, acetone, toluene) is additionally introduced in an amount of from 0.1 to 1% wt. water-soluble salts of lead (Pb +2 - for example, lead acetate or nitrate), or copper (Cu +2 - for example, copper chloride), or chromium (Cr +6 - for example, potassium or sodium dichromates), as well as sodium or potassium hydroxides , which, individually and in their combinations, are promoters (accelerators) of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water.

These additives (individual or in combination of these substances) are introduced into the fuel component (for example, alcohol) and, prior to use, as part of the mixture, are isolated from contact with the oxidizing component (hydrogen peroxide), the decomposition promoter of which they are.

Moreover, the rate of this decomposition is proportional to the concentration of the promoter substance in the final mixture of oxidizer and fuel. Thus, a system is created that retains its explosive properties for some estimated time, after which the mixture becomes non-explosive (due to a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes into oxygen and water over time). A mixture that has lost its explosive properties over time can be finally disposed of using it, for example, as a car windshield washer (which does not freeze at freezing temperatures).

At the same time, it is possible to control the detonation velocity of the mixtures under consideration by varying their density (the physical phenomenon known for explosives is described in the article "Industrial Explosives (BB)" posted on the Internet at: http://geologinfo.ru/ burovzryvnye-rabory / 124-promyshlennye-vzryvchatye-veshchestva-vv). In the proposed embodiment, the density of the explosive mixture is varied by introducing inert porous additives with closed pores of the outer surface into the mixture under consideration: for example, granules of expanded polystyrene (expanded polystyrene), or glass microspheres, or polymer microspheres.

Glass hollow microsphere - hollow glass microspheres are a white loose powder consisting of thin-walled hollow microspheres of regular spherical shape with a diameter of 2-120 microns and a wall thickness of less than 2 microns. The composition of the glass and the correct spherical shape of this product provide very high compressive strength, low water absorption, low heat conductivity, high chemical resistance and radio transparency. Good adhesion of microspheres to polymer binders allows the creation of composites (syntactics) based on them with a unique set of properties. All these factors determined a wide variety of applications for glass microspheres (the article "Glass hollow microsphere", posted on the website of INOTEK Group of Companies on the Internet at: http://inoteck.net/steklyannaya-polaya-mikrosfera). Technical characteristics of hollow glass microspheres, manufactured in Russia, are shown in table 3:

Figure 00000003

Expancel® polymer microspheres manufactured by AkzoNobel are small, spherical thermoplastic particles. Microspheres consist of a polymer shell with gas enclosed in it. When heated, the gas pressure inside increases and the thermoplastic shell softens, which entails a significant increase in the volume of microspheres. Gas remains inside the spheres (station "Polymer Microsphere Expancel AkzoNobel", posted on the DeltaHim website on the Internet at: http://deltachem.ru/mikrosfera-polimernaya). Expancel® polymer microspheres have the following advantages: low density, insulated cells, resilience, compressibility, internal pressure and surface properties.

The EXPANCEL® polymer microsphere product range includes grades with an expansion temperature in the range of 80-190 ° C. The various thermomechanical behavior of EXPANCEL® microspheres makes it possible to select the optimal grade for each specific process or application. EXPANCEL® polymer microspheres can be stored for a long time and retain their properties. All brands of EXPANCEL® microspheres are highly elastic. Expanded polymer microspheres compress easily. With a decrease in pressure, the microspheres restore their original volume. Thanks to their fast recovery, EXPANCEL® microspheres can withstand several thousand compression-expansion cycles without breaking. This is very important when using microspheres in shock-absorbing materials, as well as when pumping microspheres with a pump, separately or in various mixtures. The size of the expanded microspheres ranges from 20 to 150 microns.

The unexpanded EXPANCEL® WU and DU microspheres are used as a blowing agent. When heated, the volume of microspheres increases by 30-50 times. In thermoplastics, EXPANCEL® microspheres provide a controlled and predictable foaming process during extrusion or injection molding. The foam structure is 100% closed cells and the cell size is approximately 100 microns. The density of the expanded EXPANCEL® WE and DE microspheres does not exceed 30 kg / m 3 . Such ultra-low density combined with elasticity makes EXPANCEL® microspheres an outstanding material compared to other lightweight fillers where it is necessary not only to reduce density, but also to improve material properties. In artificial marble, a small amount of EXPANCEL® microspheres (1.5% by weight) reduces the weight of the product, while reducing the likelihood of cracking and operating costs. Addition of 1% weight. microspheres in polyester putty reduces the density of the putty from 1800 kg / m 3 to 1100 kg / m 3 .

In addition to EXPANCEL® polymer microspheres, polymer microspheres from other manufacturers can be used. For example, microspheres of the company CJSC "Aquasint" named after academician V.A. Telegin (see the article "Hollow polymer microspheres" posted on the Aquasint website on the Internet at: http://aquasint.ru/micro.html). The company’s specialists have developed unique hollow polymer microspheres, which are an excellent filler in the production of heat-insulating materials “spheroplastics”, high-strength spheroplastics for structural purposes, numerous and various brands of compounds, fillings. In terms of the range of technical and operational characteristics, the microspheres produced by the company are several times superior to the best of imported ones, in particular, Union Carbide, USA. Microspheres are a fine granular powder consisting of hollow spherical particles with a size of 10 to 2000 μm, a density of 190-650 kg / m 3 , microspheres are non-toxic, non-explosive, combustible product. Microspheres are used as a light filler in high humidity or under water at temperatures from -40 ° C to + 120 ° C. These microspheres are used as a component of a cartridge of industrial explosives of safety class VI for operations in mines hazardous to gas and dust. Polymeric microspheres are also an excellent filler for obtaining lightweight spheroplastics (with a density of 850-950 kg / m 3 ), as well as composite materials of spheroplastics (400-850 kg / m 3 ) for various purposes.

To change the density of the explosive mixture, inert additives with isolated pores can be used only in the form of granules of expanded polystyrene, or only in the form of glass microspheres, or only in the form of polymer microspheres. Mixtures of two or three kinds of additives can also be used: for example, a mixture of granules of foamed polystyrene and glass microspheres, or a mixture of granules of foamed polystyrene and polymer microspheres, or a mixture of granules of glass microspheres and polymer microspheres, or a mixture of granules of foamed polystyrene, glass microspheres and polymer microspheres. The point is not in the composition of the filler mixture or the pure use of the filler from one species, but in the fact that this filler is inert to the components of the explosive and is part of the explosive. A change in density controls the speed of the shock wave on the target.

It is known that explosives with a low (from 1500 to 3000 m / s) detonation velocity produce a more extended (shallow) temporal shock air wave (air-blast), which is clearly visible on the oscillograms of observation of such air-blasts) than explosives with a high (3000 m / s and more) detonation velocity. As a result, the longer (time-stretched) air-blast effect on the snow cover allows the avalanche to initiate when a smaller explosive charge is detonated, which increases the safety of blasting operations (with less mass - decreases the radius of the danger zone for people from the blast site; one with the mass of delivered explosives, several explosions can be carried out and a large number of snow avalanche centers gathering).

In various combinations of components and additives (both to liquid fuel, and in explosives in general), the charges were tested in the field - Sochi (Krasnaya Polyana) - and showed the achievement of the expected result. In tests under different conditions, two types of projectiles with explosives were developed, used to undermine avalanche hazardous areas.

Consider examples of the technical implementation of the proposed liquid explosive charge to initiate avalanches (avalanche charges).

The first embodiment of the projectile (Fig. 1) contains a housing 1 with a detonator capsule 2. The housing is made in the form of a polymer canister or polymer container with a handle 3, which is filled with a mixture consisting of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel, which is used ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethylketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as additives to change the density of the mixture and accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

In the General case, the explosive mixture is prepared immediately before the explosion and in the field, since this mixture in a mixed state has a short shelf life of explosive properties. To prepare in a container containing inert additives with isolated pores in the form of granules or microspheres or a mixture thereof and liquid fuel with an additive for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, add an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, and then shake the container and install the detonator capsule .

For such shells, a mixture of explosives in the field is prepared as follows. In a larger canister there are components: inert granules with isolated pores (polystyrene granules or microspheres - glass or polymer, or a mixture thereof), a liquid component-fuel (e.g. methyl alcohol) with an addition promoter of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (chromium, lead and / or copper salts).

Hydrogen peroxide from another container or canister is added to the indicated larger volume canister, from a smaller volume canister. Hydrogen peroxide in the specified canister is in its pure form, without impurities, ensuring its long-term storage without decomposition (to maintain a given concentration of hydrogen peroxide at 60%).

The components are mixed by mechanical shaking of a larger canister. Get explosive mixture.

A detonator capsule 2 is installed in the neck of the canister with the explosive mixture (on the waveguide or electric wires 4, depending on the method of initiation of the detonator capsule), a stopper is closed. Execution is possible when the detonator capsule 2 is fixed in the cover 5, which is screwed onto the neck of the canister, as shown in FIG. 1. The charge is ready for use as directed. This shell in the form of a canister with a "handle" is used for the convenience of "manual" throwing.

For throwing using an air gun, a projectile is used (Fig. 2), the casing 6 of which is made in the form of a cylindrical or cylindrical shape of a polymer container (outwardly similar in shape to a water bottle) filled with a mixture consisting of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel using ethanol or methanol or propane-1,2,3-triol or dimethylketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as additives to change the density of the mixture and accelerate the decomposition of peroxide in odorod. An explosive mixture is prepared and filled in the container in the same way as for the example of FIG. 1. The detonator capsule 2 is fixed in the cap 5, which is screwed onto the neck of the container, as shown in FIG. 2. The charge is ready for use as directed. This bottle-shaped projectile is used for mechanical throwing by the firing method.

For both performance examples, commercial canisters or bottles with a handle are used, for example, for household chemicals and polymer bottles, for example, used for storing drinking water (PET containers) or for household chemicals.

The present invention is industrially applicable, allows to ensure the safety of the use of explosives not only during storage and transportation, but also immediately at the time of blasting. The use of separately non-explosive substances belonging to the category of natural metabolites of living organisms, allows to ensure high environmental friendliness of the explosive process. Field tests have confirmed this.

Claims (6)

1. The explosive charge for a projectile used for forced descent of avalanches, including a mixed composition of two components, characterized in that as the first component that acts as an oxidizing agent, an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide is used, and as the second component, performing the function of liquid fuel, ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethylketone was used in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, while additional substances were added to the mixed composition wk to change the density of the mixture and accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
2. The explosive charge according to claim 1, characterized in that from 0.1 to 1% wt. Are added to accelerate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water into liquid fuel. water-soluble salts of lead, or copper, or chromium, or sodium or potassium hydroxides, or mixtures thereof.
3. The explosive charge according to claim 1, characterized in that for changing the density of the explosive mixture, it further comprises inert additives with isolated pores in the form of granules of foamed polystyrene, and / or glass microspheres, and / or polymer microspheres.
4. A method of preparing an explosive charge having a short shelf life of explosive properties, which consists in adding an aqueous solution to a container containing inert additives with isolated pores in the form of granules or microspheres or their mixtures and liquid fuel with an additive for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide hydrogen peroxide in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, and then shake the containers to mix the components and install the detonator capsule.
5. A projectile with an explosive substance used to detonate avalanche hazardous areas, comprising a housing with a detonator capsule filled with explosive mixture, characterized in that the housing is made in the form of a polymer canister or polymer container with a handle filled with a mixture consisting of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel, which is used as ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethyl ketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as additives to change the density of the mixture and acceleration and the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.
6. A projectile with an explosive used to detonate avalanche hazardous areas, comprising a body with a detonator capsule filled with an explosive mixture, characterized in that the body is made in the form of a cylindrical polymer container filled with a mixture consisting of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and liquid fuel, which is used as ethanol, or methanol, or propane-1,2,3-triol, or dimethyl ketone in the ratio of the formation of a stoichiometric mixture, as well as additives to change the density of the mixture and accelerate p decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2284389C2 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-09-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью Научно-технический центр "Системы пожарной безопасности" Avalanching initiation method and device
FR2897931A1 (en) * 2006-02-24 2007-08-31 Technologie Alpine De Securite Avalanche triggering device for protecting e.g. road, has cylinder holding balloons and mounted on frame to successively bring inflation sleeves of balloons to injection nozzle and to explosive mixture ignition unit
RU2552269C2 (en) * 2010-04-09 2015-06-10 Текноложи Альпин Де Секюрите-Тас Forced avalanching initiating device

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2284389C2 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-09-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью Научно-технический центр "Системы пожарной безопасности" Avalanching initiation method and device
FR2897931A1 (en) * 2006-02-24 2007-08-31 Technologie Alpine De Securite Avalanche triggering device for protecting e.g. road, has cylinder holding balloons and mounted on frame to successively bring inflation sleeves of balloons to injection nozzle and to explosive mixture ignition unit
RU2552269C2 (en) * 2010-04-09 2015-06-10 Текноложи Альпин Де Секюрите-Тас Forced avalanching initiating device

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