RU2601630C2 - Method of pile drive device - Google Patents

Method of pile drive device Download PDF

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RU2601630C2
RU2601630C2 RU2014141785/03A RU2014141785A RU2601630C2 RU 2601630 C2 RU2601630 C2 RU 2601630C2 RU 2014141785/03 A RU2014141785/03 A RU 2014141785/03A RU 2014141785 A RU2014141785 A RU 2014141785A RU 2601630 C2 RU2601630 C2 RU 2601630C2
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well
soil
pile
piles
compacted
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RU2014141785/03A
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RU2014141785A (en
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Владимир Иванович Крутов
Александр Семёнович Ковалёв
Владимир Александрович Ковалёв
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Александр Семёнович Ковалёв
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/24Prefabricated piles
    • E02D5/30Prefabricated piles made of concrete or reinforced concrete or made of steel and concrete

Abstract

FIELD: construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used for building pile foundations mainly in subsiding ground conditions with I type, bulk, highly porous clay, sand and other weak soils with low bearing capacity in their natural or anthropogenic addition. Method of piling of drive device, according to which well is created, is filled with soil material without compaction and a piled. Well is made by punching with making a compacted zone of soil on both side surface and bottom of the well. After piercing the well one creates a widened base by filling it with hard ground material in its lower part to the height of not less than two diameters of the well with subsequent compaction of ground material and creation of a widened base. Then well is filled with soil material without compaction. Piling is done with deepening of pile in a widened base to form additional zone of compacted soil material around piles.
EFFECT: technical result is improvement of carrying capacity of pile in weak soils, reduce of labour intensity.
4 cl, 12 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used in the construction of pile foundations mainly in subsidence type I soil conditions, bulk, highly porous clay, sand and other weak soils with reduced bearing capacity in their natural or man-made composition.
Known and widely used in various soil conditions, pile foundations from driven prismatic, rarely round pyramidal, diamond-shaped and other piles (SP 50-102-2003. Design and installation of pile foundations. Gosstroy of Russia. M. 2004; SP 24.13330.2011. Pile foundations. M. 2011).
Their main disadvantages are:
- low bearing capacity of piles in weak and other soils and especially when resting them on soils with high compressibility;
- the impossibility of immersing piles in strong and dense - weakly compacting soils without leader wells.
There is also known a method of arranging foundations from driven piles in drilled leader wells to a depth of not less than 1 m less than the depth of immersion of the pile (SP 50-102-2003. Design and construction of pile foundations. Gosstroy of Russia. M. 2004). Leader wells are usually carried out in sufficiently dense and strong soils, in which it is not possible to load piles to a given depth.
A significant drawback of the arrangement of piles in pre-drilled (with drilling of soils) leader wells is a very significant (up to 2 times) decrease in the bearing capacity of such piles along their lateral surface.
Close to the proposed method are the following known methods of device piled piles:
a) The device of stuffed piles in punched wells obtained using a pneumatic punch followed by filling the well with a rigid concrete mixture and re-immersion of a pneumatic punch into it with the formation of piles with a diameter of up to 14-26 cm (Kazakov Yu.N., Bulankin N.F., Stoyan Yu .F. Technology of device for stuffed piles with pneumatic punch // Foundations, foundations and soil mechanics. - 1995, No. 1).
b) The device of stuffed piles in punched wells obtained by immersing in the soil with a piling installation of a conical inventory pipe - a piercing core with a diameter of 0.4-0.6 m on top, 0.05-0.15 m in diameter down using piling equipment (Krutov V. I., Sorochan E.A., Kovalev V.A. Foundations of shallow laying (DIA. - 2009). In loose clay soils, wells are filled with a rigid concrete mixture, followed by immersion of an inventory core pipe into it.
c) Arrangement of rammed piles in punched wells with a widened base from rammed hard soil material made using special attachments for hoisting mechanisms or piling installations (STO 36554501-018-2009. Organization Standard. Design and construction of pile foundations and compacted bases from rammed piles in punched wells. Research Center "Construction". - 2010; Krutov V.I., Kagay V.K., Glukhov BC Foundations of rammed piles in punched wells // Foundations, Foundations and Soil Mechanics. - 2011, No. 2) .
g) The device of drilling and launching reinforced concrete piles with camouflage broadening performed by: drilling a well to a predetermined depth and, as a rule, at least 1 m deep into the underlying layer with increased strength and bearing capacity, camouflage broadening device under a layer of cast concrete mixture, lowering into the well through the broadening of the precast concrete pile from the concrete mixture with its indentation into the underlying bearing layer, filling the gaps between the pile and the walls of the well with soil, cast concrete, or other setting solution (SP 50-102-2003. Design and installation of pile foundations. Gosstroy of Russia. M. 2004).
The main disadvantages of the above technical solutions are, respectively:
- for rammed piles in punched wells with a pneumatic punch - a limited area of their application due to the relatively small diameters up to 0.14 and in some cases up to 0.26 m and the depth of their device up to 2-6 m, as well as the impossibility of such piles in soils with interlayers or even lenses with increased density and strength, and even more so in the thickness of dense soils;
- for rammed piles in punched wells obtained by immersing a conical inventory pipe — a piercing core — in the soil: incomplete use of the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile end due to its small area not exceeding 0.002-0.018 m 2 ; the need to use two types of concrete mix, namely, rigid concrete on a large aggregate to press it into the side surface of the well with the possible re-immersion of the punch core and cast on a small aggregate when concreting the pile shaft; the difficulty and often the impossibility of re-immersing the punch core in a well filled with a rigid concrete mixture in the presence of layers and lenses sufficiently strong and dense, including low-moisture clay soils; low bearing capacity of such piles in clay soils with high humidity, as well as in dense and low-moisture soils due to the lack of the ability to push hard concrete into the well walls;
- for printed piles in punched wells with a broadened base of compacted hard ground material due to the lack of special attachments for lifting and transport mechanisms and the need for artisanal manufacturing;
- for drilling and running reinforced concrete piles - an almost complete exception in transferring the load on the foundation soil along the side surface of the pile and along its entire length to vertical and horizontal loads, as a result of which it is advisable to use these piles only when cutting peat and other soils with peat layers in them as well as subsidence (type II) self-compacting from their own weight and non-caking unpacked bulk soils.
In addition, a common drawback of all the above methods is a significant (up to 0.2-0.5 months) interruption in the work of the zero cycle, which is necessary to increase the strength of concrete of printed piles to the required values, as a result of which the construction time significantly increases.
There is also known a method of installing piles according to SU 1170044 from 07.30.85, comprising the implementation of a multilayer of concrete layers located coaxially spaced from each other and interlayers of bulk material (for example, soil, sand or other similar material). According to this technical solution, the pile is constructed as follows. On a planned construction site with the help of a round or square hollow punch, immersed in the soil by vibrocompression, static indentation or driving to a given depth, form a well with the simultaneous creation of a compacted zone. After dipping the stamp, it is removed, and the formed zone is filled with concrete mixture to the full depth. In the case of the device of such piles in flooded soils, a hollow die is used as a casing through which the well is filled from the bottom up. After filling the well to the mouth, the stamp is immersed back into the well to the initial depth. For one or more passes of the stamp in the soil mass form a closed shell of a concrete layer and form a compacted zone. To create a soil or sand compacted layer, the cavity formed in concrete with dimensions equal to the dimensions of the stamp is filled with soil, sand or other similar material according to the principle described above, and a layer of bulk material is also formed in one or more passes of the stamp, under the influence of which the concrete layer displaced into the soil mass with its simultaneous compaction, a slight decrease in wall thickness and an increase in the volume of compacted soil. Thus, in the soil massif a shell is formed, made of a multilayer of concrete layers located coaxially at a distance from each other and interlayers of granular material placed between them. The final stage of the pile installation consists in filling loose material at 1/2/2/3 of its depth, filling the rest of the concrete mixture into which the reinforced concrete trunk is immersed to a predetermined level, and after concrete has set, a pile with increased bearing capacity is formed. Moreover, the reinforced concrete barrel is installed in the upper part of the inner concrete layer of the shell and is separated from its lower part by a transverse concrete diaphragm and a layer of bulk material.
The described method of pile construction is characterized by the following main disadvantages:
- the pile is performed both in the process of forming compacted zones, and in the process of immersion of a reinforced concrete shaft using cast concrete, for which, as noted above with the installation of rammed piles, a sufficiently long period of time is required for concrete to gain the necessary strength before its load;
- the formation of the densified zones is carried out with a flat bottom template, which, as you know, is mainly associated with the forcing of the material filled into the well and is sufficiently effective only for the formation of the densified zone under the bottom of the template, and practically does not affect their increase along the side surface of the pile (SU 1652431 from 05/30/91), i.e. thereby leading to a decrease in the total bearing capacity of piles and, in addition, to a possible rupture of the continuity of concrete layers along the side surface due to uneven set of strength in concrete in them;
- the device of the pile is associated with a combination of two types of piles: rammed (lowered) using cast concrete and precast concrete, which leads to a significant increase in not only the timing of its construction, but also the complexity, and also leads to a sharp restriction of the scope of application on the soil base;
- in the proposed method of pile installation, geometric parameters are not indicated both in depth and in diameter of the well being drilled, which also affects its bearing capacity;
- the design, creation (installation) time and the role of the transverse concrete diaphragm are not indicated;
- since the reinforced concrete trunk is immersed (and not driven into) at the final stage of pile formation in the cast concrete mixture, this construction of the pile is a special case of a lowered pile, but not driven.
The closest analogue of the claimed technical solution is a method of erecting a pile foundation from a driven pile on subsiding soils, through which wells extend to the entire depth of subsiding soil with deepening in the underlying non-subsiding soil, filling the wells with drainage material (sand), then bunding the area around the perimeter of the structure, cover the bunded area with a layer of draining material (sand) and soak by pouring water into the bunded area and soak anija for 15-30 days, after which the pile was immersed in a well (SU 885446, 30.11.1981).
According to the method of construction of the pile foundation according to SU 885446, the following should be noted:
a) The considered method of foundation construction applies only to subsidence soils with type II soil conditions in which subsidence of its own weight is possible, and the proposed method applies only to subsidence soils with type I by subsidence, i.e. in the absence of drawdown from its own weight.
b) For the known method, it is not indicated how exactly the wells pass. In accordance with the previous ones (Guidelines for the production and acceptance of work when arranging foundations and foundations. NIIOSP named after N.M. Gersevanov. M. Stroyizdat. 1977; Krutov V.I., Galitsky V.G. et al. Consolidation of subsidence pounds . M. Stroyizdat, 1974) and the requirements that have been preserved up to now (Manual on the design of foundations and foundations of buildings and structures (to SNiP 2.02.01-83). NIIOSP named after NM Gersevanov. M. Stroyizdat, 1986) drainage wells must be carried out by drilling with soil sampling without creating compacted joints around and under them it. In cases where wells are made by punching them and creating densified zones around them, the filtration ability of drainage wells is very significantly reduced, they will act as reinforcing elements and restrain the intensity of soil compaction, so the method is ineffective.
c) In order to ensure the creation of compacted zones around and especially under the pile, in which an increase in the load-bearing capacity of the pile is achieved, it is necessary to reduce the soil moisture from full water saturation ω s to a value close to the optimum humidity ω o , usually equal to ω o = ω p ( ω p - humidity at the boundary of plasticity). Such a decrease in humidity, as a rule, occurs within 10-20 days after the termination of soaking. Only after this time, the driven pile should be immersed in the drainage well. If the pile is immersed immediately after the soaking is stopped, when the soil is in a state of almost complete water saturation (degree of humidity S r ≥0.8-0.9), then the pile will be immersed almost without compaction of the near-pile soil and mainly due to soil outburst on the side with a very significant rise of its surface around the well and partial softening of the soil around and under the pile.
Thus, from the time the drainage well is completed to the immersion of the driven pile according to SU 885446, it takes about 2-3 months. According to the proposed method, this time can be reduced to several (0.5-2-x) hours.
d) The implementation of drainage wells with their deepening into a non-subsiding underlying bearing layer in accordance with SU 885446 inevitably leads to a decrease in the strength and deformation characteristics of these soils (especially with their clay composition) and thereby to a decrease in the bearing capacity of a pile to be driven in a subsequent one, and also an increase in its length .
e) SU 885446 does not indicate the limits of the change in the diameter of drainage wells, which can, to a greater extent than their depth, determine the effectiveness of increasing the bearing capacity of a driven pile.
Thus, the above shows that the method according to SU 885446 can be taken as a prototype of the proposed method, if it is assumed that the drainage wells are performed by drilling with sampling soil from them.
The technical task of the proposed utility model is to eliminate the above disadvantages of the closest method.
The technical result achieved by the implementation of the proposed method is to increase the bearing capacity of piles in subsidence type I soil conditions, bulk, highly porous clay, sand and other weak soils with reduced bearing capacity in their natural or man-made composition due to the creation of increased compacted zones soil around the pile, as well as reducing the time for the installation of piles by eliminating the need for soaking soil material.
The specified technical result in the method of driving a driven pile, according to which a well is drilled, it is filled with soil material without compaction and the pile is driven into it, the well is achieved by punching to form a compacted soil zone along the side surface and along the bottom of the well, and the pile is driven off the formation of an additional zone of compacted soil material around the pile.
In addition, to increase the bearing capacity of piles around and below the end of the pile after punching a well, a broadened base is created by filling soil material into the well along the entire depth of the well or only in its lower part at a height of at least two diameters of the well, followed by ramming and creating a broadened base then fill the well with soil material without compaction.
In addition, to ensure the immersion of the pile to the required depth, to increase the thickness of the compacted zone around the pile, a pile is used with the sharpening of its lower end at an angle of 30-60 °.
In unstable water-saturated sandy and clay soils, hole punching is performed with a casing pipe with an internal piercing core or with concrete plug made of hard concrete; sandy soil or loose ground material is used as filling material for filling the well after creating a widened foundation, which is backfilled simultaneously with extraction casing from the well with the application to it, if necessary, vibration.
In addition, in soft soils, to increase the bearing capacity, including moment and horizontal loads, after driving piles in the upper part of the well, they are broadened from compacted hard ground material.
The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by drawings, where in FIG. 1 shows punching piles; in FIG. 2 - creation of a broadened base by ramming into the bottom of the well in separate portions of hard ground material; in FIG. 3 - filling the well with local clay, sandy soil or hard ground material; in FIG. 4 - filling a well with a broadened base with local soil or hard pound material; in FIG. 5 - immersion of a driven pile in a filled well; in FIG. 6 - immersion in a filled well with a broadened base of a driven pile; in FIG. 7 is a section AA in FIG. one; on Fig - section BB in Fig. 2; in Fig.9 - section bb in Fig. 3; in FIG. 10 is a section GG of FIG. four; in FIG. 11 is a section DD according to FIG. 5; in FIG. 12 is a section EE of FIG. 6.
Accepted designations:
1 - punched well;
2 - compacted zone of soil along the lateral surface and along the bottom of the well;
3 - broadened base of hard ground material under the well;
4 - compacted area under and around the broadened base;
5 - soil material poured into the well;
6 - driven pile;
7 - additional zones of compacted soil or hard soil material around the pile;
8 - increase in the compacted zone after immersion of a driven pile.
The method of driving a driven pile is as follows.
Well 1 is performed by punching it with a freely falling tamper or by immersion in the soil of an inventory pipe - a breakdown core to a predetermined depth. At the same time, a zone 2 of compacted soil is formed on the lateral surface and on the bottom of the pile 6. After that, if it is necessary to increase the bearing capacity of the pile along its sole by creating a broadened base 3, hard soil material is poured into the well 1 in separate portions with a layer thickness of up to 2d (d is the diameter of the well in the lower part), followed by ramming - pressing it into the bottom of the well 1. Around the broadened base is formed zone 4 compacted soil. Then, both with the broadened base formed and without it, the well 1 is filled with local soil or to increase the bearing capacity along the side surface of the pile, the well is filled with hard ground material without compaction and then the finished pile 6 is driven into (buried) with it deepened into the broadened base 3 (or in its absence in the underlying bearing layer) at (0.5-1) d in accordance with regulatory requirements. In this case, additional zones 7 of compacted soil material are formed around the pile 6, and also there is an increase of 8 compacted zone 2 of soil around the well 1. The formation of additional and increased zones of compacted soil can increase the bearing capacity of the pile.
In addition to the above, in order to increase the bearing capacity of piles in special cases, the following is carried out.
Pile 6 in the case of a device without a widened base, it is immersed in a filled hole 1 to a depth of not more than h- (0.8-1.2) d and not less than h- (1,2-l, 5) d from the tip of pile 6 ( h is the depth of the well 1), or to failure, according to regulatory requirements, in which the maximum possible thickness of the compacted zone 2 of the foundation soil poured into the well 1 is reached at its base.
In order to provide increased load-bearing capacity of the pile 6 along its lateral surface, vertical and, especially, horizontal loads are used on pile 6 with a sharpening of its lower end at an angle of 30-60 °, in which, when driving pile 6, to the greatest extent the soil is pushed to the sides with the formation of the maximum thickness of the compacted zone 2 around the pile 6.
In unstable water-saturated sandy and clay soils, hole 1 is punched with a casing with concrete plug made of hard concrete on a large aggregate or with an inner core, and well 1 is filled with sandy soil or loose hard ground material at the same time as the broadened base 3 is removed while the casing is removed from the well with application to it in necessary cases of vibration.
To increase the bearing capacity of a driven pile, including momentary and horizontal loads in soft soils, after driving a pile in the upper part of the well, broadening is performed (not shown in the drawings) by ramming hard soil material with a ramming tool with a longitudinal hole, for example, piling equipment on depth set or possible in the given ground conditions (VI Krutov. Effective methods of foundation construction on compacted soft soils // OFMG. - 1990, No. 5).
The proposed method has the following most significant advantages and distinctive features:
- the wells under the piles are performed not by drilling, but by punching, so that compacted zones of soils with a thickness of up to (1.2-2) d with increased strength and deformation characteristics of soils are formed around and under the well;
- punching of the well is carried out as a freely resettable tamper with the help of specially manufactured attachments for lifting and transporting machines, and mainly using widely used piling equipment, with the help of which the piles are subsequently immersed;
- device piles, along with traditional, without and with a widened base, performed by ramming hard bottom material into the bottom of a punched well, due to which the bearing capacity of the pile increases to 1.5-2 times;
- in order to increase the load-bearing capacity of piles, in necessary cases, it is necessary to fill in the drilled wells not only with local, well-compacted sandy, clay soil, but also with hard soil material (crushed stone, gravel, etc.);
- to increase the bearing capacity of piles, including momentary and horizontal loads, after driving piles in its upper part, broadening is made from compacted hard ground material.
It should also be noted that the most significant features and advantages of the proposed technical solution noted above make it possible not only to significantly (generally up to 1.5-2 times) reduce material costs and time for installing pile foundations in comparison with the application of the known technical solutions discussed above , but also, which is very important, they provide a wide range of applications both for soil conditions and for loads on foundations, and in addition, there is the possibility of arranging various types of piles for loads on them, zmenyayuschiesya to 5-10 times one and the same equipment within a building with almost complete utilization of the bearing capacity of foundation soils and strength values foundation materials.

Claims (4)

1. The method of driving a driven pile along which a well is drilled, filled with soil material without compaction and a pile driven into it, characterized in that the well is punched to form a compacted zone of soil along the side surface and bottom of the well, after punching the well, an expanded base is created by filling hard bore material in the lower part of the borehole to a height of at least two borehole diameters, followed by tamping the soil material and creating a widened base, after which stvlyayut soil material filling the well without compaction and pile hammer recessed broadened in its base zone to form additional compacted soil material around the pile.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that they use a pile with the sharpening of its lower end at an angle of 30-60 °.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in unstable water-saturated sand and clay soils, the wells are punched with a casing pipe with an internal punch core or with a concrete plug made of hard concrete, sand is used as a ground material to fill the well after creating an expanded base soil or loose ground material, the filling of which is carried out simultaneously with the extraction of the casing from the well with the addition of vibration, if necessary.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in soft soils after driving piles in the upper part of the well, broadening is made from rammed hard ground material.
RU2014141785/03A 2014-10-16 2014-10-16 Method of pile drive device RU2601630C2 (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2640059C1 (en) * 2016-12-28 2017-12-26 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт прикладной механики Российской академии наук (ИПРИМ РАН) Method of manufacturing drill-driven pile
RU2640467C1 (en) * 2017-04-10 2018-01-09 Александр Семёнович Ковалёв Method of arranging driven pile
RU2663420C1 (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-08-06 Александр Семёнович Ковалёв Pile in the punched well arrangement method (embodiments)

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SU1201403A1 (en) * 1984-03-01 1985-12-30 Всесоюзный проектно-технологический институт транспортного строительства Method of erecting a pile in sagging or swelling soil
SU1677180A1 (en) * 1989-03-31 1991-09-15 Институт Горного Дела Со Ан Ссср Method of manufacturing reinforced cast-in-place pile
RU62619U1 (en) * 2006-09-18 2007-04-27 ГОУ ВПО "Дальневосточный государственный университет путей сообщения" (ДВГУПС) Pile
RU2408765C2 (en) * 2005-09-29 2011-01-10 Геопиэр Фаундейшн Компани Pyramid or cone ramming tip and method of its use to erect rammed crushed stone supports
RU118649U1 (en) * 2011-12-26 2012-07-27 Иосиф Генрихович Ладыженский Pile

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SU857349A1 (en) * 1979-11-05 1981-08-23 Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени Научно-Исследовательский Институт Оснований И Подземных Сооружений Им. Н.М.Герсеванова Method of erecting piles in subsided or swelling grounds
SU1170044A1 (en) * 1983-08-01 1985-07-30 Всесоюзный центральный научно-исследовательский и проектный институт "Гипронисельпром" Pile
SU1201403A1 (en) * 1984-03-01 1985-12-30 Всесоюзный проектно-технологический институт транспортного строительства Method of erecting a pile in sagging or swelling soil
SU1677180A1 (en) * 1989-03-31 1991-09-15 Институт Горного Дела Со Ан Ссср Method of manufacturing reinforced cast-in-place pile
RU2408765C2 (en) * 2005-09-29 2011-01-10 Геопиэр Фаундейшн Компани Pyramid or cone ramming tip and method of its use to erect rammed crushed stone supports
RU62619U1 (en) * 2006-09-18 2007-04-27 ГОУ ВПО "Дальневосточный государственный университет путей сообщения" (ДВГУПС) Pile
RU118649U1 (en) * 2011-12-26 2012-07-27 Иосиф Генрихович Ладыженский Pile

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2640059C1 (en) * 2016-12-28 2017-12-26 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт прикладной механики Российской академии наук (ИПРИМ РАН) Method of manufacturing drill-driven pile
RU2640467C1 (en) * 2017-04-10 2018-01-09 Александр Семёнович Ковалёв Method of arranging driven pile
RU2663420C1 (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-08-06 Александр Семёнович Ковалёв Pile in the punched well arrangement method (embodiments)

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