RU2579061C1 - Method for mine production-wells of hard (bituminous) oil and system of equipment therefor - Google Patents

Method for mine production-wells of hard (bituminous) oil and system of equipment therefor Download PDF

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RU2579061C1
RU2579061C1 RU2015106657/03A RU2015106657A RU2579061C1 RU 2579061 C1 RU2579061 C1 RU 2579061C1 RU 2015106657/03 A RU2015106657/03 A RU 2015106657/03A RU 2015106657 A RU2015106657 A RU 2015106657A RU 2579061 C1 RU2579061 C1 RU 2579061C1
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oil
gas
wells
injection
reservoir
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RU2015106657/03A
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Анатолий Васильевич Ильюша
Валентин Яковлевич Афанасьев
Владимир Викторович Годин
Валерий Николаевич Захаров
Владимир Юрьевич Линник
Гарник Левонович Амбарцумян
Никита Валерьевич Воронцов
Виктор Васильевич Шерсткин
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Государственный университет управления" (ГУУ)
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Abstract

FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to fuel-power complex and can be used for extraction of difficult high-viscosity (bitumen) oil. Method is used for capital mining operations on opening of bitumen oil deposit with the help of shafts and underground mining and development drifts. It is necessary to create from the main and local underground mine-preparatory drifts the channels for access to the productive formation in the form of injection-heating wells for thermal and gas-liquid effect on productive formation. Injection-heating wells are drilled in the upper part and inclined within the thickness of the productive formation; they are equipped with tubular heat exchange devices connected to a device for heating and circulation of the heat-bearing fluid medium. Oil extracted through production wells, drilled in the lower part of the productive formation. Actual mining for well production of bitumen oil is carried out with supply of liquefied propane-butane mixture into circular gaps between perforated casings of injection-heating wells and tubular heat exchange elements of systems for circulation of heat-bearing fluid medium. Dry stripped gas containing mainly methane gas, is supplied, via a shaft gas line to the surface and used as fuel gas at a gas-turbine power plant for generation of electric and heat energy. Besides, dry stripped gas is also used as fuel gas for heating of heat-bearing fluid in circulation systems of injection-heating wells.
EFFECT: technical result: reduced power consumption during exercising thermal effect on productive formation and increased oil recovery.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 5 ex

Description

The proposed invention relates to a fuel and energy complex and can be used for the production of hard-to-recover high-viscosity (bitumen) oil.
The proposed method of mine-borehole production of hard-to-recover (bitumen) oil and the technological complex of equipment for its implementation are depicted and illustrated by the illustrations presented in FIG. 1-6.
In FIG. 1 shows: 1 - productive layer of highly viscous (hard to recover) bitumen oil; 2 1 - the main shaft of the shaft; 3 - mine roundabout yard; 4 1 , 4 2 - capital and district mining and preparatory workings, respectively; 5 - underground installation of bitumen oil separation; 6 - installation of separation (separation) of associated petroleum gas (APG) of bitumen oil into dry stripped gas (SOG) and a wide fraction of light hydrocarbons (BFLH or APG condensate); 7- pipeline; 8 - a device for liquefying propanobutane mixture - a component of associated petroleum gas; 9 - a device for injection (supply) of liquefied petroleum gases; 10 - stem cryogenic pipeline; 11 - stem methane gas pipeline; 12 - trunk oil pipeline; 13 - installation of the final oil treatment; 14 - device (source) of heating and circulation of a heat-carrying fluid in the reservoir of high-viscosity bitumen oil; 15 1 -15 n-1 - injection and heating wells of the circulation system (circulation circuit) of a heat-carrying fluid; 15 n - well return flow of a heat-carrying fluid of the circulation circuit; 16 1 - supply (distribution) pipeline heat transfer fluid of the circulation circuit; 16 2 - feeding (injection) pipeline of liquefied propane-butane mixture; 17 - prefabricated pipe manifold of the return flow of heat-carrying fluid of the circulation circuit; 18 is a return pipe of the heat-carrying fluid of the circulation circuit; 19 is a horizontal section of the wellbore; 20 is a vertical section of the wellbore; 21 - fountain fittings and wellhead equipment of a producing well with a crude oil flow line; 22 - gas turbine; 23 - air compressor; 24 - an electric generator; 25 - production installation (source) of low-boiling liquefied gas of nitrogen and (or) methane.
In FIG. 2 depicts all the same objects and are denoted respectively by the same positions as in FIG. 1, and also additionally presented: 4 3 and 4 4 - local mining and development workings, which, together with mining and development workings 4 1 and 4 2, completely (from all sides) outline the excavation (mining) column of the mine field of the technological complex; 19 1 -19 m - production wells of the extraction column, passed in the lower part of the productive layer of bitumen oil in the transverse direction to the injection and heating wells 15 1 -l5 n-1 between the mining and preparatory workings 4 3 and 4 4 ; 26 1 and 26 2 - connecting pipelines of the mouths of production wells 19 1 -19 m at the mining and development workings 4 3 and 4 4, respectively.
In FIG. 3 depicts all the same objects and are denoted respectively by the same positions as in FIG. 1, 2, and also additionally presented: 27 1 -27 n-1 - outer tubular elements with a closed end of the tube-in-pipe heat exchangers of the injection-heating wells 15 1 -15 n-1 ; 28 1 -28 n-1 - internal (outlet) tubular elements with the open end of the pipe-in-pipe heat exchangers of the injection-heating wells 15 1 -15 n-1 .
In FIG. Figure 4 shows the conditional images and their digital designations for the inlet and outlet mouths on the mining preparatory workouts 4 1 -4 4 injection and heating wells, grouped into three separate circulation systems of a heat-carrying fluid: 15 1-I input and 15 1 - G o ... 15 n-1- G in and 15 n-1- G out for a horizontal circulation system, arranged in the upper part of the reservoir 1, i.e. between mining preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 2 ; 15 1- L in and 15 1- L out ... 15 i-1- L in and 15 i-1- L out for the left circulation system of the heat-carrying fluid, arranged with an inclination from left to right along the thickness of the productive formation 1 between the mining and development workings 4 1 and 4 4 ; 15 Rin 1 -P 1 -P 15 and O ... 15 j-1 -P Rin and 15 j-1 -P Rin circulation system for the right heat-carrying fluid, equipped with a tilt from right to left on the power producing formation 1 between the mountain-preparatory workings 4 2 and 4 3 ; 19 l - a horizontal section of the trunk of the left producing well, passed in the lower part of the reservoir from left to right from the end of mining preparation 4 3 to the beginning of mining preparation 4 4 ; 20 l - a vertical section with the mouth of the left producing well, passed from the end of the mining preparation 4 1 down to the mining preparation 4 3 ; 19 p - a horizontal section of the trunk of the right producing well, passed in the lower part of the reservoir from right to left from the end of mining preparation 4 4 to the beginning of mining preparation 4 3 ; 20 p - a vertical section with the mouth of the right producing well, passed from the end of the mining preparation 4 2 down to the mining preparation 4 4 .
In FIG. 5 also depicts and designates the same objects as in FIG. 4, as well as an additional mining contouring 4 5 contouring the excavation column, connecting the mining preparatory workings 4 3 and 4 4 and designed to simplify drilling from it in the lower part of the reservoir 1 of production wells having only horizontal sections of shafts 19 1 ... 19 m .
In FIG. 6, the same objects as in FIG. 5, as well as another additional contouring excavation column at its end, mining and preparatory excavation 4 6 with arrangement on it (as well as at development 4 5 ) of the mouths of production wells 19 1 ... 19 m .
There is a method of developing coal deposits and a set of equipment for its implementation [1] by burning coal at the place of occurrence in the excavation columns prepared by the mine workings and constructing heat and gas generators in them by drilling through the formation between the preparatory workings and installing pipelines in their heat exchanger, on which coolant is pumped. The disadvantage of these solutions is that they do not provide (do not suggest) the possibility of supplying thermal energy to the treatment zone of the reservoir. On the contrary, the circulation system of the heat-carrying fluid (heat carrier) serves here for the selection (removal) of thermal energy from the formation treatment zone (coal burning zone in the formation) and does not solve the problem of reducing the viscosity of bitumen oil by heat.
Known technical solutions for heating underground hydrocarbon formations of a circulating heat transfer (heat transferring) fluid [2], comprising at least one heating device and circulation of a heat transfer fluid made with the possibility of supplying a hot fluid to a plurality of heaters in the formation, connected by their outputs to the input heating and circulating heat-transfer fluid devices. However, these technical solutions for heating hydrocarbon reservoirs are not integrated into the technological complex for the production of highly viscous (hard-to-recover) bitumen oil and by themselves do not solve the problem of developing and efficiently operating highly viscous heavy oil fields.
There is a method of developing an oil deposit by heat and water-gas exposure [3], including drilling at an oil deposit site using an in-line development system, injecting water-gas mixture and coolant through injection wells, taking products through production wells, and also drilling horizontal rows of production and injection wells between the rows of production and injection wells wells equipped with downhole heaters, into which hot water is injected with a temperature of at least 95 ° C at the mouth, and into each vertical injection well are well injection water-gas mixture, consisting of water and associated gas. However, the known method of thermal and water-gas impact on the reservoir with highly viscous hard-to-recover bitumen oil, as the results of pilot works show, does not provide any serious increase in the coefficient of extraction of highly viscous oil, and due to the low coefficient of coverage of each individual well, a large amount of drilling work is required, that with significant depth of productive strata leads to unacceptable costs for the development and operation of deposits is difficult recoverable bitumen oil.
A well-known thermal mine method for developing a fractured reservoir of highly viscous oil [4], including opening and preparing a productive formation by mine shafts and mining workings, as well as drilling a gallery in the lower part or below the oil formation, pumping coolant and oil selection through underground half-inclined, steep and inclined and vertical wells, injection of displacing agent after heating the formation to the optimum temperature. The main disadvantage of this thermoshaft method of producing highly viscous oil is that the thermal effect on the reservoir is carried out by pumping the coolant in the form of water vapor directly into the reservoir itself. This leads to large energy losses during steam generation and a large consumption of water as a working coolant agent, as well as increased dilution (water cut) of the produced oil, which also significantly reduces ultimately the completeness of recovery (ORF) of oil from the reservoir.
There is a method of developing deposits of high viscosity and heavy oil with thermal effects [5], including drilling vertical production and observation wells, the rows of which are sequentially parallel to the fracture fracture trajectories in production wells fixed by geophones in observation wells, and pumping equipment for oil extraction into production wells , descent into observation wells of electric heaters on a cable for heating the formation, as well as sequential transfer of producing wells jin to the observational in the process of developing the deposit (deposit). The main disadvantages of this method are as follows: multi-operation and technological complexity directly in the process of oil production, a large amount of drilling and the absence of other methods of impact on the reservoir, compatible in time and space, significantly increasing the oil recovery coefficient. Closest to the proposed inventions is a method of mine-well development of shale oil and gas deposits and a technological complex of equipment for its implementation, including opening and preparing a productive formation with mine shafts and major underground mining and development workings, creating access channels to the productive formation, well production of shale oil and gas using multistage hydraulic fracturing by excavation blocks of underground production wells with hydraulic fracturing and (or) those the impact on the formation, which is drilled from the underground chambers of the main mining workings, preliminary treatment and separation of shale oil in underground conditions, the use of shale gas for energy supply and increase the efficiency of the underground energy technological complex, as well as the supply of shale oil after final treatment and preparation at daily surface to consumers [6] (prototype).
However, the main drawbacks of the existing method and technological complex (prototype) include the use of a water-based fluid (hydraulic fracturing fluid) during hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir, which must be subjected to decomposition (decomposition) after hydraulic fracturing, pumping it out of the hydraulic fracturing zone and accumulating this liquid (backflow liquid) in special pools before putting a production well into operation (stage) of oil production. Moreover, directly in the process of production (extraction) of shale oil and gas through an artificially created drainage system, the reservoir does not use any methods to intensify (stimulate) the flow of hydrocarbons to the production well, which ultimately reduces the oil and gas recovery of the reservoir (oil recovery coefficient - CIN), and productivity (flow rate) of the producing well. In addition, all associated petroleum gas of separated shale oil, containing, in addition to methane, and other even more valuable light hydrocarbons, such as, in particular, propane and butane, are burned in a boiler to produce steam from a steam power plant having a relatively low efficiency actions. Moreover, the main obstacle to the production of hard-to-recover highly viscous bitumen oil, as is known, is its high viscosity, and not the low permeability of the reservoir, as is the case with shale oil, which necessitates the search for and adequate technical and technological solutions for mining bitumen deposits oil.
The aim of the proposed invention is to increase economic efficiency, environmental friendliness of production and completeness of extraction of hydrocarbons in the development of deposits of high-viscosity bitumen oil.
The technical result of the proposed inventions is to reduce the energy consumption of thermal effects on the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of bitumen oil and increase its oil recovery due to the artificial formation and maintenance in the extraction column of the gas pressure mode and (or) the dissolved gas mode by forcing the liquefied propane-butane mixture obtained in the reservoir from separated bitumen oil.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the method of mine-and-borehole extraction of hard-to-recover (bitumen) oil, including capital mining operations for opening the oil and gas bearing deposits with mine shafts and capital mining workings, mining operations for the preparation and contouring of production sites - mining pits by local mining and preparatory mine workings, creation of access channels to the reservoir in the form of mining and injection-heater from contouring underground mining and development workings wells with extended in different directions along the array of the productive formation sections of the wellbore, production work on borehole production of bitumen oil using heat treatment of the formation to reduce viscosity and methods to increase the recovery rate of oil, separation of production of production wells in the near-barrel yard into oil and oil gas, from which methane gas and a wide fraction of hydrocarbons are released, containing mainly the propane-butane component - a mixture liquefied under underground conditions, and Also, the creation of circulating systems of the heat transfer medium in injection heating wells, methane gas is used as fuel gas in the circulation systems of the heat transfer medium of injection heating wells, the casing of which is perforated along their entire length in the reservoir, the liquefied propane-butane mixture is fed into the annular gaps between the casing pipes of heating and injection wells and tubular elements of heat-transfer medium circulation systems installed in them, quantity and space The proper orientation of the systems of circulation of the heat-carrying medium of the injection-heating wells is established depending on the thickness of the reservoir and the degree of contouring of the extraction column, the intensity and pressure of the discharge of the liquefied propane-butane mixture, as well as the temperature of the circulating heat-transfer medium, are selected and provided at levels necessary and sufficient for the formation and maintenance of work in the extraction column of the reservoir gas pressure mode and (or) the mode of dissolved gas but. This goal is also achieved by the fact that the technological complex of equipment that implements the proposed method and includes mine shafts, main and precinct underground mining and preparatory workings for contouring production pillars, equipment for drilling and operating injection and heating wells drilled in the upper part of the reservoir and (or) by its power, inclined from the roof to its sole, underground production wells with sections of the wellbore extended in the lower part of the reservoir, techn other means of purification and separation of bitumen oil, equipment for the separation of associated petroleum gas into dry stripped gas and a wide fraction of light hydrocarbons installed in a near-barrel yard and connected to an underground bitumen oil separation unit, devices for liquefying and injecting a wide fraction of associated petroleum hydrocarbons into a reservoir gas, as well as heat and power equipment for the use of associated petroleum gas, is equipped with a pop-up separation equipment connected to the outlet oil gas device - a source of heating and circulation of the heat-carrying fluid in the reservoir through the injection-heating wells, annular gaps of the injection-heating wells between the casing pipes perforated in the reservoir and the pipes of the heat exchanger circulating units of the circulating systems of the heat-transfer fluid installed in them through the supply - distribution pipe to the outlet of the liquefaction and injection device into the reservoir of a wide fraction hydrocarbons of associated petroleum gas, and the circulation systems of injection and heating wells in the upper part of the reservoir and deviated wells in its capacity are connected by separate supply and collection pipelines and are connected independently - autonomously - to the heating and circulating heat-transfer fluid device. The main options for the implementation and application of the proposed method and technological complex for mine-borehole production of high-viscosity (hard-to-recover) bitumen oil are given below in examples 1-5.
Example 1. Let there be a field of highly viscous hard-to-recover bitumen oil 1 (Fig. 1) of small (for example, 5-7 m) thickness of a productive formation to be developed and lying at a depth of 1000-1500 m. For the development and operation of such a deposit in accordance with The proposed method for producing heavy, highly viscous bituminous oil on a day surface above a reservoir distinguishes a surface area of approximately a rectangular shape with dimensions close to the dimensions of mine fields, which are usually installed with underground - mine - technology development of reservoir mineral deposits. During underground mining of coal seams, mine fields have, as you know, the following dimensions: 5-10 km in the fall and 10-20 km in the strike of the seams. The opening of the mine field deposits of high-viscosity bitumen oil 1 is carried out using two predominantly vertical shaft shafts, one of which is the barrel 2 1 (Fig. 1) is equipped as the main trunk of the technological complex for the production of hard-to-recover bitumen oil. The auxiliary ventilation shaft shaft 2 2 is not conditionally shown. Vertical mine shafts are built to a depth that is close, but slightly less (for example, less than 50-100 m) than the depth of the productive formation 1. Preparation for development of the productive formation 1 begins with the construction of a near-trunk yard 3 at the opening horizon and several capital mining - preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 2 . A bitumen oil separation unit 5, a unit 6 for separating associated petroleum gas (APG) of bitumen oil into dry stripped gas (LOG, containing mainly methane CH 4 gas) and a wide fraction of light hydrocarbons (APG condensate) consisting of mainly from gaseous propane (C 3 H 8 ), butane (C 4 H 10 ) and heavier hydrocarbon compounds of the methane series. A propane-butane mixture liquefaction device 8 is connected to one of the outputs of the APG separation unit 6 through a pipe 7, the output of which, in turn, is fed to the input of a pumping device (supply) of liquefied hydrocarbon gases 9. A cryogenic trunk pipe is placed in the main shaft 2 of the technological complex 2 10 for supplying cryogenic liquefied gases (for example, liquid nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.) from the surface to the mine, used for various purposes in the process of development and operation of the complex during bitumen production ti (Firefighting, enhanced oil productive reservoir 1, etc.). In the mine shaft 2 1 , a methane gas pipeline 11 is installed, connected to the output of the associated petroleum gas separation unit 6, and a oil pipeline 12, connected in the mine with the oil outlet of the underground bitumen oil separation unit 5 and on the surface with the final oil treatment unit 13. A device (source) 14 for heating and circulating a heat-carrying fluid in a reservoir of highly viscous bituminous oil 1 is also placed in the near-barrel yard of the mine 3. In the simplest case, the gene heat energy source and ensure the circulation of the heat-carrying fluid 14 can be used (act) the usual hot-water boiler plant, the furnace of which is connected to the methane output of the unit for the separation (separation) of associated gas of bitumen oil 6. Products of combustion of gaseous fuel (methane) from the boiler plant 14 through a separate trunk gas pipeline (not shown conventionally in FIG. 1) are routinely routed to the day surface for cleaning and dispersion in the atmosphere. For the production of high-viscosity bitumen oil, a production (excavation) column of the productive formation 1 is prepared (cut), contoured on both sides, for example, from above and from below, by two mining-preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 2, respectively.
Several (at least one) injection and heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 are drilled from the capital mining-preparatory mine work 4 1 to the mine work 4 2 in the upper part of the productive formation 1 , which are fixed with casing pipes perforated along their entire length in the upper portion of the producing formation and in which the tube units mounted teplobmenniki-circulation system (circulation path) passing the input through the sealed mouth of injection-heater wells to advance working on April 1 and the subkey nnye here to the supply (dispense) the pipe 16 1 heat-carrying fluid circulation circuit and connected after exiting the wells January 15 ... l5 n-1, through conventional sealing pipeline to a collection manifold 17, laid on the mountain-advance working April 2. In this case, the distance between the injection and heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 along the productive formation 1 is selected within a few tens of meters, the distance between the mining-preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 2 (width of the extraction column) is set within a few hundred meters, and the length of the excavation column is selected within 1-3 km depending on the required production capacity of the mining site. The supply pipe 16 1 is connected to the output of the device 14 for generating (source) thermal energy and circulating the heat-carrying fluid, and the pre-assembled pipe collector 17 through the tubular link of the circulating system in the borehole 15 n of the return flow of the heat-carrying fluid passed and arranged similarly to the injection-heating wells , and further through the return flow line 18 to develop April 1 is connected to an input device 14 generate (source) and providing heat circulation eplonesuschey fluid. Further, at the end of the extraction column, a production well is drilled having a “vertical” section of the bore 20 and a horizontal section 19 fixed to the perforated casing along its entire length along the entire length of the extraction column along the entire length of the extraction column. At the mouth of the producing well in mining preparation 4 1 , fountain valves with a flow line of crude oil connected to the oil separation unit 5 and one or another pumping equipment for extracting (lifting) oil from the formation are installed.
In addition, a gas turbine power station is placed on the day surface of the technological complex, including a gas turbine 22 operating on methane gas and having an air compressor 23 and an electric generator 24 on its shaft, to which a liquid nitrogen and / or liquefied methane production unit 25 is connected equipped with cumulative output tanks (sources) of liquefied gases. At the same time, the capacity of the gas turbine power station of the complex is set based on the given (design) production capacity of the oil production technological complex, the corresponding volumes of associated petroleum gas, in particular the volumes of separated methane gas, own electricity consumption and other technical and economic considerations. For the initial start-up and for safety reasons, underground mining enterprises, as you know, must have backup power, which remains true for the proposed technological complex. The production of high-viscosity bitumen oil according to the proposed method is as follows.
After installation, commissioning and commissioning of all equipment of the technological complex by generating thermal energy through the use of one or another starting fuel or starting energy, for example, in the form of liquid boiler fuel or electricity, the productive formation is preheated with highly viscous bitumen oil to reduce its viscosity by continuously pumping (circulating) for some time a heat-carrying fluid, for example ordinary water, heated to about 200 ° C, as described above the circulation system of pipelines and heat exchange links in injection and heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 . Then, the production (extraction) of heated and gravitationally collected (separated) bitumen oil begins in the horizontal section of the well bore 19 through the vertical section of the producing well 20 and its wellhead equipment 21. In the crude oil separation unit 5, oil is degassed, i.e. associated petroleum gas (APG) is extracted, which in unit 6 is separated (separated) into dry stripped gas (SOG) - methane gas (mainly) and a propane-butane mixture, which, after liquefaction in unit 9, is pumped (supplied) through a distribution pipeline 16 2 in the annular gaps between the casing and tubular links-heat exchangers of the circulation system in the injection-heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 . As a result, as if forced (under the influence of the high temperature of the circulating heat-carrying current medium) regasification of the liquefied propane-butane mixture in the reservoir (more precisely, in injection and heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 ), it transforms into a gaseous state, the gas pressure increases and, as injection of propane-butane mixture into injection-heating wells in the upper part of the reservoir, a gas cap is formed, which stimulates the promotion and gravitational separation e bitumen oil to the horizontal section 19 of the producing well. Equally important is the fact that the injection of hydrocarbon gases into oil, as is known, in itself leads to a decrease in its viscosity and, therefore, serves as a powerful tool to increase oil recovery of the reservoir due to the physicochemical interaction of hydrocarbon compounds at the intermolecular level. In other words, by thermal exposure to the reservoir, transmitted using such a working agent (working fluid) as a propane-butane mixture, which is easily removed from the reservoir without any negative destruction during the production (extraction) of oil and again after liquefaction and accumulation inside while external energy is introduced and then transferred into the formation after regasification to maintain reservoir pressure, the formation and maintenance of the well-known and ubiquitous in the reservoir is ensured but used in the practice of oil production from traditional permeable reservoirs, the operating mode of the oil reservoir, called the gas cap mode. Moreover, since this working agent (propane-butane mixture) is theoretically not consumed and not lost in the process of oil production, with the exception of, of course, some “leaks” in the elements of the pressure-heating and circulation system in the reservoir, there is a theoretical possibility of achieving completeness oil recovery from the extraction column (CIN), which is close to a hypothetically possible value (CIN = 1 with the complete extraction of hydrocarbons from the reservoir).
Example 2. For the conditions described above in example 1, the proposed method and technological complex for the production of high-viscosity bitumen oil can be implemented in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, by contouring the excavation (mining) column from all sides by mining and preparatory workings 4 1 ... 4 4 . In this case, the required number of production wells 19 1 ... 19 m is drilled in the lower part of the reservoir along the length of the extraction column between the side workings 4 3 and 4 4 and the production wells themselves have only horizontal sections of the trunk, and their mouths are brought to these side mining production, which greatly simplifies the technology and the complexity of drilling production wells, provides the possibility of their effective maintenance and, in general, significantly increases the controllability and efficiency of mining operations. In this case, the outlet pipelines of the mouths of production wells are combined at the workings 4 3 and 4 4 by connecting pipelines 26 1 and 26 2, respectively, one of which (Fig. 2) is connected to the wellhead production equipment 21, as in example 1. Otherwise, the production work high viscosity oil is carried out in the same manner as in the previous example.
Example 3. Let it be required to produce high-viscosity bitumen oil from a productive formation with a thickness of 20-30 m and occurring at a depth of about 2000 or more meters. In this case, due to the large depth of the reservoir, the preparation of the production column by the contouring mining workings becomes economically unjustified and technically quite complicated. Therefore, the proposed method and technological complex are implemented in this case as follows (Fig. 3). The opening of a bitumen oil field 1, as in the previous versions (examples), is carried out by the mine method, the depth of laying (sinking) of vertical shaft trunks is taken on the basis of the feasibility of "getting" as close as possible to the reservoir and at the same time remaining at an acceptable level of depth both for purely technical conditions, and for economic reasons. Suppose that a magnitude of 1000-1200 m can be taken at such a depth of the opening horizon (depth of shaft shafts and, in particular, the main trunk 2 1 ). It is at this depth that a near-barrel yard 3 is built and mining preparation 4 1 is underway. Then, vertical injection-heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 (Fig. 3), passing through (intersecting) the entire thickness of the rocks from production 4 1 to the productive layer of bitumen oil 1, are constructed (drilled and equipped) from this mine, and almost the entire power (thickness) of the latter. In this case, the injection-heating wells, as in the previous examples, are fixed by casing strings (pipes) having perforation systems in the area of the productive formation 1 to ensure hydraulic communication of these wells with the productive formation, and in general are equipped similarly to traditional oil and gas wells (cementing casing string, mouth sealing, etc.). The depth of these wells as a whole can reach several thousand meters, which ultimately provides the opportunity for the effective development and operation of high-viscosity bitumen oil fields even at large depths. In this embodiment (example) of the method and technological complex, precisely because of the large depth of the reservoir, the injection-heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 are equipped with the so-called one-way pipe-in-pipe heat exchangers, including “external” tubular elements with a closed end 27 1 ... 27 n-1 and internal (outlet) tubular elements with an open end 28 1 ... 28 n-1 . In this case, the thermal effect, i.e. heating the reservoir to reduce the viscosity and gas-gravity separation of bitumen oil is carried out over the entire capacity (throughout the volume) of the reservoir within the coverage of the drainage system of the extraction column due to the continuous circulation of the high-temperature heat-carrying fluid along the following circulation circuit (Fig. 3): device output ( source) heating and circulating 14 - injection-distribution (supply) line 16 1 in the mountain-preparatory formulation 4 1 - annular gap between the "outer" tubular members with a closed end 27 1 ... 27 n-1 and internal (diverting) the tubular element having an open end 28 1 ... 28 n-1 in the conveyor-heater wells of 15 January ... l5 n-1 - line 18 backward ( “Cold”) flow of a heat-carrying fluid of a circulation circuit. As in previous versions (examples) of the implementation of the method and technological complex for the production (extraction) of bitumen oil, in this case, at least one production well with a horizontal section of the wellbore in the lower part of the reservoir (near its sole), fixed perforated casing pipe, as well as with a vertical section 20 that goes to the production 4 1 and connected to the wellhead equipment 21. The vertical section of the wellbore 20 of the producing well is equipped in this way in the usual way. The commissioning, development and operation of the extraction column in the considered variant (example) of the implementation of the method and technological complex are carried out similarly to the previous cases. Nevertheless, there is the following fundamental difference. The liquefied propane-butane mixture injected by the device 9 through the supply pipe 16 2 into the annular gaps between the casing pipes of the injection-heating wells 15 1 ... l5 n-1 and the "outer" tubular elements installed in them with the closed end 27 1 ... 27 n-1 of the borehole heat exchangers type “pipe in pipe”, affects the reservoir in all its power (in the entire volume within the coverage of the extraction column). Because of this, at certain intensities and volumes of injection of the propane-butane mixture into the formation, another operating mode of the reservoir known in the practice of traditional oil production is called in it, which is called the dissolved gas regime, which, as is known, is also favorable for the efficient operation of oil reservoirs. Otherwise, the proposed method and technological complex for the production of hard-to-recover bitumen oil are carried out and work in this case similarly to the examples discussed above.
Example 4. Of particular interest, the proposed method and technological complex of equipment may be of practical use in the case of occurrence of a productive deposit of high-capacity bituminous oil (of the order of 50-60 m) on a relatively small, from the point of view of using the mine method for opening and preparing excavation (production ) columns, the depth that can be fully accepted on the basis of modern technical and technological capabilities at the level of 1000-1500 m. In this case, the preparation and development of the mining column in accordance with paragraph with the proposed method, it is advisable to carry out in a direct course - from the center of the mine field to its boundaries, after having previously contoured the extraction column (Fig. 4) with two mining preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 2 , passed in the roof of the productive formation, and two mining preparatory workings 4 3 4 4 , traversed in the sole (in the soil) of the formation. In addition, for the most economical and at the same time effective thermal effect on the reservoir 1, three seemingly autonomous (independent) injection-heating well systems are created (drilled and equiped in the manner described in examples 1-3) that provide artificial formation and maintaining the above-described gas cap and dissolved gas modes in the extraction column of a producing formation while extracting bitumen oil. The first is called a horizontal system of injection-heating wells with inlet mouths 15 1 -G I ... 15 n-1- G I in mining preparation 4 1 and output mouths 15 1 -G out ... 15 n-1- G out on mining -podgotovitelnoy formulation 4 2 (FIG. 4). This horizontal pressure-heating system, as in examples 1, 2, is constructed, therefore, in the upper part of the reservoir and ensures the formation of a gas cap mode in the extraction column. Another autonomous system of injection-heating wells, called conditionally left, is built in an inclined plane from left to right between mining preparatory workings 4 1 and 4 4 and has input mouths 15 1 -L in ... 15 i-1 -L in and outlet mouths 15 1 -L o … 15 i-1 -L o out on the indicated mining and development workings, respectively. Finally, the third autonomous system of an injection-heater wells conventionally called the right, is constructed in an inclined plane, right between the mountain-preparatory workings April 2 and 4, 3 and has inlet mouth 15 1 -P Rin ... 15 j-1 -P Rin and output mouth 15 1 -P output ... 15 j-1 -P output on the indicated mining workings, respectively. Otherwise, all three autonomous systems of injection and heating wells are performed in exactly the same way as in the above examples (options) 1, 2. Moreover, as can be seen from FIG. 4, the left and right injection-heating autonomous systems intersect (permeate) the entire thickness of the reservoir in the extraction column and provide for the formation and maintenance of the dissolved gas operation mode in it. In addition, the oil extraction in this example is carried out by two production wells, also conditionally named left and right, with vertical sections and mouths of 20 l and 20 p passed at mining and development workings 4 1 and 4 2, respectively, as well as horizontal sections of the barrel 19 l and 19 p , passed in the lower part of the reservoir 1 from production 4 3 to the beginning of production 4 4 and from production 4 4 to the beginning of production 4 3, respectively. In the rest, the mining of the extraction column and the production of bitumen oil is carried out in exactly the same way as in the previous options (examples) described above. A further development and increase in the manufacturability and efficiency of mining the mining column for the conditions under consideration may be to increase the contour of the mining column by conducting another additional mining and preparatory excavation 4 5 (the so-called generation fault) conducted between the excavations 4 3 and 4 4 (Fig. 5 ) In this case, the need for complex and expensive drilling of horizontal sections (Fig. 4) in production wells is eliminated, and production wells themselves 19 1 ... l9 m can be constructed using the simplest drilling technologies. Finally, when contouring the excavation column with another additional mining-and-mining workout 4 6 (Fig. 6), it becomes possible to drill and equip the mouths of production wells 19 1 ... l9 m at workings 4 5 and 4 6 , which will ensure fully controlled and managed production operations oil production in the process of mining the extraction column.
Example 5. Let a field with a relatively low viscosity of oil be subject to development, but still not amenable to development and cost-effective operation using conventional conventional well technologies. In this case, the proposed method and technological complex of equipment can be implemented with some simplification of the pressure-heating systems of the productive formation due to the fact that for heating the productive formation in the pressure-heating wells 15 1 ... 15 n-1 electric heating elements are installed that are structurally made similarly, compared with the tubular heat exchange units discussed above in examples 1-4. The supply of such borehole electric heating elements can be carried out in the usual way (via cable electric connecting lines) from a gas turbine power station of the technological complex itself and (or) from centralized power supply systems. Otherwise, the proposed method and technological complex for the production of viscous oil are carried out in the same manner as described above.
Used sources
1. Ilyusha A.V. etc. A method of developing coal deposits and a set of equipment for its implementation. - RF patent No. 2027854 (1995). - Posted on 1/27/1995.
2. CAO Renfeng Richard (US), NYUYEN Scott Wing (US). Heating underground hydrocarbon formations with a circulating heat transfer fluid. - RF patent No. 2537712. - Patent holder (s): SHELL INTERNATIONAL RISER MAATSHAPPIY B.V. (NL) - Posted: 01/10/2015.
3. Khisamov Rais Salikhovich (RU) and others. A method of developing an oil deposit by heat and water and gas. - RF patent No. 2534306. - Patent holder: Tatneft Open Joint-Stock Company V.D. Shashina (RU). - Posted: 11/27/2014.
4. Ruzin Leonid Mikhailovich (RU) and others. Thermal mine method for developing a fractured reservoir of high-viscosity oil. - RF patent No. 2535326. - Patent holder: Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Ukhta State Technical University" (RU) - Published: December 10, 2014.
5. Fayzullin Ilfat Nagimovich (RU) and others. A method of developing deposits of high viscosity and heavy oil with thermal exposure. - RF patent No. 2537456. Patentee: Open Joint-Stock Company Tatneft named after V.D. Shashina (RU). - Posted: 01/10/2015.
6. Ilyusha A.V. and others. A method of developing shale oil and gas deposits and a technological complex of equipment for its implementation. - Decision on the grant of a patent of the Russian Federation dated December 3, 2014 by application No. 2014106152/03. - Patent holder: Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “State University of Management” (GUU) (RU) - prototype.

Claims (2)

1. The method of mine-and-borehole extraction of hard-to-recover (bitumen) oil, including capital mining work on opening the oil and gas deposit with mine shafts and capital mining workings, mining work on the preparation - contouring of production sites - excavation columns by precast mining workings, creating from contouring underground mining and preparatory workings of access channels to the reservoir in the form of production and injection-heating wells with long directions along the array of productive strata by the sections of the wellbore, exploratory work on downhole production of bitumen oil using heat treatment of the reservoir to reduce viscosity and methods for increasing the oil recovery coefficient, dividing the production of production wells in a near-barrel yard into oil and gas from which methane gas and a wide fraction of hydrocarbons containing mainly propane-butane component - a mixture liquefied in underground conditions, as well as the creation of circulation systems carrier medium in injection-heating wells, characterized in that methane gas is used as fuel gas in the circulation systems of the heating medium of injection-heating wells, the casing of which is perforated throughout their length in the reservoir, the liquefied propane-butane mixture is fed into the annular gaps between the casing pipes of heating and injection wells and tubular elements of heat-transfer medium circulation systems installed in them, the number and spatial orientation of The circulating heat transfer medium of the injection-heating wells is set depending on the thickness of the reservoir and the degree of contouring of the extraction column taken, the intensity and pressure of the discharge of the liquefied propane-butane mixture, as well as the temperature of the circulating heat transfer medium, are selected and provided at levels necessary and sufficient for the formation and maintaining the work in the extraction column of the reservoir gas pressure mode and (or) the mode of dissolved gas.
2. The technological complex of mine-borehole production of hard-to-recover (bitumen) oil, including mine shafts, main and precinct underground mining and preparatory workings for contouring production pillars, equipment for drilling and operating injection-heating wells drilled in the upper part of the reservoir and (or ) by its power, inclined from the roof to its sole, underground production wells with sections of the wellbore extended in the lower part of the reservoir, technical means of cleaning and separation cations of bituminous oil, equipment for the separation of associated petroleum gas into dry stripped gas and a wide fraction of light hydrocarbons installed in a near-barrel yard and connected to an underground installation for bitumen oil separation, a device for liquefying and injecting a wide fraction of associated petroleum gas hydrocarbons into a reservoir, as well as thermal power equipment for the use of associated petroleum gas, characterized in that the complex is equipped with connected to the output of equipment for the separation of associated oil gas device - a source of heating and circulation of the heat-carrying fluid in the reservoir through the injection-heating wells, annular gaps of the injection-heating wells between the casing pipes perforated in the reservoir and the pipes of the heat exchanger circulating units of the circulating systems of the heat-transfer fluid installed in them through the supply - distribution pipe to the outlet of the liquefaction and injection device into the reservoir of a wide fraction at levodorodov associated gas circulation system wherein an injection-heater wells at the top of the producing formation and deviated wells in its output connected to separate feed pipes and modular and are connected independently - autonomously to the device heating and circulation of the thermal carrier fluid.
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RU2713547C1 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-02-05 Адольф Апполонович Ковалев Method for development of oil deposits with large depths of productive horizons and low well yields
RU2713547C9 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-06-23 Адольф Апполонович Ковалев Method for development of oil deposits with large depths of productive horizons and low well yields

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RU2713547C1 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-02-05 Адольф Апполонович Ковалев Method for development of oil deposits with large depths of productive horizons and low well yields
RU2713547C9 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-06-23 Адольф Апполонович Ковалев Method for development of oil deposits with large depths of productive horizons and low well yields

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