RU2565131C1 - Ramjet engine running on solid propellant and method of its operation - Google Patents

Ramjet engine running on solid propellant and method of its operation Download PDF

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RU2565131C1
RU2565131C1 RU2014128563/06A RU2014128563A RU2565131C1 RU 2565131 C1 RU2565131 C1 RU 2565131C1 RU 2014128563/06 A RU2014128563/06 A RU 2014128563/06A RU 2014128563 A RU2014128563 A RU 2014128563A RU 2565131 C1 RU2565131 C1 RU 2565131C1
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afterburner
solid fuel
characterized
cooling
solid
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RU2014128563/06A
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Russian (ru)
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Евгений Валентинович Суриков
Леонид Самойлович Яновский
Владимир Иванович Бабкин
Михаил Сергеевич Шаров
Алексей Павлович Ширин
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Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Центральный институт авиационного моторостроения имени П.И. Баранова"
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Abstract

FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: claimed engine comprises air intake, gas generator with solid propellant charge in a separate case, after afterburner and nozzle. Operation of this engine under conditions of supersonic combustion comprises the steps that follow. Airflow is subjected to incomplete braking in air intake. Solid propellant is gasified in gas generator. Gasification products are decomposed in the cooling duct. Air and decomposition products are mixed, the mix is ignited and combusted in the afterburner. Combustion products are expanded in the nozzle. Invention discloses also the operation of this engine on solid propellant under conditions of supersonic combustions.
EFFECT: decreased weight and overall dimensions, higher power capacity and fast and completer propellant combustion, reliable protection and cooling of afterburner walls.
18 cl, 4 dwg

Description

The invention relates to an aircraft engine, and in particular to ramjet engines.

For the use as propulsion systems (DU) of aircraft for various purposes, of great interest are direct-flow solid-fuel air-propelled engines (PVRDT), in which the supersonic marching mode of operation is carried out by burning solid non-self-combusting fuel gasification products in the air stream.

Solid fuels include polymers (polyethylene, polystyrene, polybutadiene with terminal hydroxyl groups, etc.), high-density heavy hydrocarbons (DAMST, binor-5, anthracene), rubber, rubbers, and their combination with ultrafine metal powders.

The operation of a ramjet engine in a supersonic combustion mode includes incomplete braking of the air flow in the air intake, gasification of solid fuel in the gas generator, ignition and combustion of gasification products in the air flow in the afterburner, and expansion of the combustion products in the nozzle.

The problems of the engine are to ensure quick and complete combustion of solid gasification products in supersonic air flow and reliable cooling of the engine structure. Known hypersonic engines are capable of using liquid hydrogen, kerosene, methane and other liquid and gaseous fuels as a fuel and cooler (application US 2005/0235629 A1).

A known ramjet engine with air bypass and an auxiliary starting charge and a ramjet engine without air bypass with a solid propellant solid propellant rocket engine (RDTT) are known (see L.S. Yanovsky, V.N. Aleksandrov and others. Integrated ramjet engines on solid fuels. M., ICC "Akademkniga", 2006, p. 25, Fig. B21). The main advantages of a simple scheme include the high energy potential of solid fuel, the insignificant sensitivity of the burning rate with respect to the initial temperature of the fuel, and a certain auto-regulation of the engine when the flight altitude changes. The key problems here are ensuring the stability of the working process, obtaining high combustion completeness with a low value of hydraulic losses, achieving the required rates of fuel combustion, the influence of regulation methods on the traction and economic characteristics of the ramjet engine.

Known ramjet combined cycle (patent US 4441312, 06/22/79), containing an air intake, a gas generator with a charge of solid fuel, a combustion chamber with a charge of solid fuel of the booster engine (RD) and a charge of a solid fuel sustainer engine and an output nozzle. Moreover, in the ramjet operation mode, the joint process of afterburning of the gas-generating fuel jets and the heat and mass supply in the boundary layer are distributed along the length of the solid fuel charge on its surface. The disadvantage of this technical solution is that the effective mixing and afterburning of combustible components accumulated in the boundary layer requires a large chamber length. This affects the overall dimensions of the engine.

A solid-fuel direct-flow rocket engine (RPDT) is known (see Anti-aircraft missile systems Air Defense SV. - Technique and Armament, 1999, No. 5-6), which has a cylindrical gas generator with a charge burning at the end. Re-enriched with combustible substances fuel jets through nozzles flow from the gas generator into the air chamber, where they are mixed and burned out in a satellite air stream coming from the air intake. A feature of the working process in the engine is a concentrated (localized) at the beginning of the air chamber air supply from the air intake and fuel from the gas generator. In the engine, due to the long chamber length and the low value of the fuel stoichiometry coefficient L O , depending on the excess air coefficient, a high completeness of burning η = 0.87-0.95 of low calorific value fuel H u <5000 kcal / kg in a satellite air flow is achieved. The low values of the braking temperature of the air flow T B ≤500 K entering the air chamber also contributed to a good mixing of the propellant fuel jets with the air flow and their afterburning. The disadvantages of this RPDT are a narrow range of speeds of use corresponding to the Mach number M = 2, low calorific value of fuel and low specific engine parameters.

In addition, one of the main problems in creating engines with high heat flux densities is the provision of reliable cooling of the walls of the combustion chamber. When a certain pressure value is reached, the most common external method of cooling the chamber walls by supplying a cooler to the cooling path is not effective enough.

One way to solve this problem can be to use the internal walls (inserts) of transpiration-cooled combustion chambers made of porous permeable material, in which the cooler is fed into the combustion chamber through the pores in the wall material (see, for example, RF patent No. 2171388, 20.08 .1999). This creates a protective curtain, and the density of the heat flux from the chamber to the wall decreases. In critical flow mode, the wall is protected by a continuous curtain of cooler. The supply of part of the cooler through the pores into the combustion chamber leads to some loss of engine efficiency, but allows you to provide the required performance. This type of cooling was also used in the combustion chamber according to the patent US 7,000,398 B2, 02.21.2006. Here, the inner wall of the chamber is made of a thermally structured composite material, which is made porous for fuel passing through it. The porosity of the inner wall is controlled so that the ratio of fuel passing through the wall is from 5 to 15% of the total fuel consumption entering the engine.

The closest analogue to the device and method of operation, selected for the prototype, is a ramjet on solid fuel, patent US 5,537,815, 07.23.1996. The engine contains an air intake, a gas generator with a charge of solid fuel, a afterburner and a nozzle. The air intake and gas generator are hydraulically connected to the nozzle through the afterburner.

The method of engine operation is that the solid propellant that is in the gas generator is ignited by the ignition device, and then the air intake plugs are thrown out. The gasification products of solid fuel enter the afterburner, mix with the air stream supplied through the air intake, the resulting mixture ignites and burns. Combustion products flow out through the jet nozzle, creating traction.

The main disadvantage of this technical solution is that this design does not provide long-term operation at high flight speeds. When using new solid fuel components in the ramjet engine that increase energy characteristics, the combustion temperature of the solid fuel in the afterburner increases significantly. In addition, with an increase in the flight Mach number, the heating of the walls of the afterburning chamber increases so much that a system is needed to cool them even when using promising high-temperature heat-shielding and erosion-resistant materials. At a surface temperature of the structure above 3000K, the evaporation of carbon contained in modern heat-shielding and erosion-resistant materials made of carbon fiber, carbon-carbon and carbon-ceramic materials or formed during thermal degradation in the form of coke on the surface of parts made of materials based on rubber and rubber begins . The use of such materials is possible only with small resources or with a decrease in the level of heat fluxes, as well as erosive and chemical influences on the engine structure using active thermal protection in the form of a curtain formed by a low-temperature gas stream.

The invention is based on the following tasks:

- improvement of weight and size characteristics of ramjet engine;

- increase the energy intensity of solid fuel;

- ensuring fast and complete combustion of solid fuel in a supersonic air flow;

- ensuring long-term operation of ramjet engine at high flight speeds;

- organization of reliable protection and cooling of the ramjet engine walls loaded with heat fluxes from the afterburner.

The tasks for the design are solved by the fact that the ramjet engine contains an air intake, a gas generator with a charge of solid fuel, a afterburner and a jet nozzle. The air intake and gas generator are hydraulically coupled to the nozzle through the afterburner.

New in the invention is that the air intake is made in the form of a front part of the lower surface of the aircraft glider and has the shape of a spatial wedge. The afterburning chamber is made in the form of channels of the flow path, which are rectangular in cross section. In this case, the flow path of the afterburning chamber is formed by the upper and lower horizontal walls and a set of pairwise opposite vertical walls. Each channel is provided with at least one fuel pylon with nozzles at the inlet. The nozzle is made in the form of aft of the lower surface of the airframe. The gas generator is made in a separate housing and mounted on the engine in the airframe. The upper wall of the afterburning chamber on the side of the glider is created combined, has a cooling path with outer and inner walls, inlet and outlet ducts. The outlet from the gas generator is connected by the inlet duct to the beginning of the cooling path of the afterburner in the zone of the nozzle start. The end of the cooling path is connected to the beginning of the flow path of the afterburner of the exhaust gas duct. Solid fuels are selected with an endothermic decomposition effect.

With this design, the ramjet engine:

- the implementation of the air intake in the form of a front part of the lower surface of the glider of the aircraft in the form of a spatial wedge provides improved weight and size characteristics of the engine and the aircraft as a whole by integrating the components of the propulsion system with the glider of the aircraft;

- the implementation of the afterburner in the form of channels of the flow path, which in the cross section are rectangular in shape, where the path is formed by the upper and lower walls and a set of pairwise opposed vertical walls provides improved overall dimensions by increasing the rigidity of the structure;

- the presence at the entrance to each channel of at least one fuel pylon with nozzles ensures uniform distribution of decomposition products of solid fuel over the cross section of the flow path of the afterburner, which leads to an increase in the completeness of fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow;

- the implementation of the nozzle in the form of aft part of the lower surface of the airframe provides an improvement in the weight and size characteristics of the engine and the aircraft as a whole due to their integration;

- the implementation of the gas generator in a separate housing mounted on the engine in the airframe, ensures the autonomy of the gasification of solid fuel components from processes occurring in the afterburner;

- the implementation of the upper wall of the afterburning chamber from the side of the airframe with a cooling path with external and internal walls provides reliable protection and cooling of the walls of the afterburning chamber of the ramjet engine due to convection and endothermic decomposition of solid fuel components at high flight speeds;

- supplying the cooling duct with inlet and outlet ducts, where the outlet of the gas generator is connected by the inlet duct with the beginning of the cooling path of the afterburner in the nozzle start area, and the end of the cooling duct is connected with the beginning of the flow path of the afterburner with the outlet duct, provides the necessary and sufficient thermal effect on the gasification products during decomposition during their passage through the cooling path;

- the connection of the beginning of the flow path of the afterburning chamber with the exhaust gas duct by means of guiding devices with peaks installed after the pylons at the inlet of each channel ensures the creation of a wall layer from the decomposition products of gasification products with a low content of oxidizing elements in order to provide reliable protection and the walls of the ramjet combustion chamber;

- the choice of solid fuel with an endothermic decomposition effect provides cooling of the ramjet engine walls loaded with heat fluxes from the combustion chamber.

The development and refinement of the set of essential features of the invention for particular cases of its implementation is shown below:

- the introduction of solid hydrocarbon fuel additives (boron and its compounds, aluminum, etc.) in the form of a fine powder provides a significant increase in energy consumption of the fuel. Experimental studies of the combustion of samples of metallized fuels based on NTRV (polybutadiene with terminal hydroxyl groups) with the addition of boron, boron carbide, Mg, Al and other metals showed that for metallized fuels, the fraction of radiation heat flux in the total heat flux to the fuel surface increases;

- the execution of the inner wall of the cooling path continuous from heat-resistant material, for example, type VZh171 ensures the engine is operational for a given resource;

- the implementation of the inner wall of the cooling path porous permeable provides transpirational cooling of the inner wall of the cooling path of the afterburner;

- the implementation of the inner wall of the cooling path of composite materials with a carbon and ceramic matrix allows to reduce the mass of the propulsion system;

- the implementation of the inner wall of the cooling path is porous permeable based on a deformed and diffusion sintered package of metal grids of heat-resistant material provides an even distribution of gasification products and decomposition of solid fuel over the entire area of the cooled surface of the wall of the afterburner. In this case, the fundamental properties of porous mesh materials are used - high values of the heat transfer coefficient between the cooler and the porous material having a developed heat transfer surface are achieved;

- the implementation of the inner wall of the cooling path is porous permeable from a catalytically active material based on copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) provides additional cooling of the wall due to the endothermic reaction of catalytic conversion inside the wall itself;

- the implementation of the inner wall of the cooling path combined from a continuous heat-resistant material, for example, type VZh171, and two transverse porous permeable belts of material with a carbon or ceramic matrix, located in the areas of the front and rear parts of the afterburner, where the outlet from the gas generator is connected by an inlet duct to the beginning of the cooling path and transverse permeable belts through a three-way valve, provides cooling of the wall sections of the afterburner, located in areas of high thermal currents.

To solve the tasks, the method of operation of a ramjet engine on solid fuel is that an air stream is supplied to the afterburner through the air intake. Then, products of gasification and decomposition of solid fuel in the form of combustible gas are fed into the air stream at the inlet of the afterburner from the gas generator. A mixture of combustible gas and air is formed in the afterburner, the mixture is ignited due to the high temperature of the components of the mixture, and burned in the chamber. The products of combustion of the mixture from the afterburner are sent to the nozzle and create reactive thrust.

According to the invention, solid fuel gasification products are supplied from the gas generator to the afterburner inlet through the inlet duct, the cooling path of the upper wall of the afterburner, and the outlet duct. In the cooling tract of the upper wall, the gasification products under the action of high temperature, pressure and catalysts that are part of the solid fuel are endothermally decomposed into lower hydrocarbons, including unsaturated ones, and hydrogen, which form a combustible gas. Moreover, due to the endothermic effect of the decomposition of solid gasification products, the heat flux from the afterburning chamber to its upper wall is compensated. Moreover, the entry of combustible gas from the cooling path into the afterburner through the exhaust duct in the direction of air flow in the chamber from the air intake.

With this method of engine operation, the supply of solid gasification gas products from the gas generator to the afterburner inlet through the inlet duct, the cooling path of the upper wall of the afterburner and the outlet duct provides cooling of the walls of the afterburner due to the endothermic decomposition of the solidified gasification products.

The development and refinement of the set of essential features of the invention for particular cases of its implementation by the method of functioning is shown below:

- the supply of combustible gas to the afterburner through guiding devices with peaks provides the formation of a wall layer on the cooled upper wall of the afterburner;

- the supply of combustible gas to the afterburner through fuel pylons with nozzles ensures uniform distribution of decomposition products over the cross section of the flow path of the afterburner, which leads to an increase in the completeness of fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow;

- heat exchange between the gasification products in the cooling path and the combustion products in the afterburner through the solid inner wall of the cooling path provides reliable cooling of the walls of the afterburner;

- the supply of part of the decomposition products into the afterburner through the porous permeable inner wall of the cooling path provides a reduction in heat flow from the combustion products to the afterburner wall;

- feeding part of the decomposition products into the afterburning chamber through the transverse porous permeable belts of the inner wall of the cooling tract provides a reduction in the heat flux from the combustion products in the regions of increased heat fluxes in the afterburning chamber.

Thus, the objectives of the invention are solved:

- improved weight and size characteristics of ramjet engine;

- increased energy intensity of solid fuel;

- ensured rapid and complete combustion of solid fuel in a supersonic air flow;

- Ensured long-term operation of the ramjet engine at high flight speeds;

- organized reliable protection and cooling of the ramjet walls, loaded with heat fluxes from the afterburner.

The present invention is illustrated by a detailed description of the design and operation of the ramjet engine with reference to FIG. 1-4, where:

in FIG. 1 schematically shows a longitudinal section of a ramjet with a solid inner wall of the cooling path of the afterburner made of heat-resistant material and regenerative cooling;

in FIG. 2 is a cross section AA in FIG. one;

in FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section of a ramjet with a porous permeable inner wall of the cooling path of the afterburner and transpiration cooling;

in FIG. 4 is a longitudinal section through the ramjet engine with the inner wall of the cooling path of the afterburner made of continuous heat-resistant material and two transverse porous permeable belts and combined regenerative-transpiration cooling.

The ramjet engine on solid fuel contains (see Fig. 1) an air intake 1, a gas generator 2 with a charge of 3 solid fuel, an afterburner 4 and a jet nozzle 5. The air intake 1 and the gas generator 2 are hydraulically coupled to the nozzle 5 through the afterburner 4 The air intake 1 is made in the form of the front part of the lower surface of the airframe 6 of the aircraft and has the shape of a spatial wedge 7. The afterburning chamber 4 is made in the form of channels 8 of the flow path 9. The channels 8 in a cross section are rectangular in shape. The flow path 9 of the afterburning chamber 4 is formed by the upper and lower walls 10, 11 and a set of pairwise opposite vertical walls 12. Each channel 8 is provided with at least one fuel pylon 13 with nozzles at the inlet. The nozzle 5 is made in the form of aft part of the lower surface of the glider 6 and has a one-sided expansion. The gas generator 2 is made in a separate housing and mounted on the engine in the glider 6. The upper wall 10 of the afterburner 4 from the side of the glider 6 has a cooling path 14 with the outer and inner walls 15, 16 and the inlet and outlet ducts 17, 18. The outlet of the gas generator 2 is connected the inlet duct 17 with the beginning of the cooling path 14 of the afterburning chamber 4 in the zone of the beginning of the nozzle 5. The end of the cooling path 14 is connected to the beginning of the flow path 9 of the afterburning chamber 4 by the outlet duct 18 by means of guiding devices 19 with visors 20 installed and after pylons 13 at the entrance to each channel 8. Solid fuel of charge 3 is selected with an endothermic decomposition effect. The inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 of the afterburner 4 can be made continuous of heat-resistant material, for example, type VZh171. In another embodiment, the inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 may be made porous permeable, for example, of composite materials with a carbon (CCCM) or ceramic (CCM) matrix. In another embodiment, the inner wall of the cooling path can be made porous permeable based on a deformed and diffusion sintered package of metal nets of heat-resistant material with a given angle of orientation of the axes of the holes. The inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 can also be made porous permeable from a catalytically active material based on copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd). In addition, the inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 can be made of a combination of continuous heat-resistant material, for example, type VZh171 and two transverse porous permeable belts 21, for example, of composite materials with a carbon (CCCM) or ceramic (CCM) matrix located in zones front and rear parts of the afterburner 4. In this case, the inlet duct 17 is equipped with a three-way valve 22.

The method of functioning of the ramjet engine is as follows. After accelerating the aircraft through the launch stage to the specified parameters of speed and flight altitude (M and H), the gas generator 2 starts (see Fig. 1). In the gas generator 2, solid fuel undergoes low-temperature gasification. The primary products of gasification of the charge of solid fuel, having a temperature of 600-800K, enter the cooling path 14 through the inlet duct 17, where, under the influence of high temperature, pressure, and the catalysts that make up the solid fuel, they are endothermally decomposed into lower hydrocarbons, including unsaturated ones, and hydrogen, which form a combustible gas. Due to the endothermic effect of the decomposition of the solid fuel, the heat flux from the chamber 4 to the wall 16 is compensated for when the combustible gas is afterburned - they absorb heat due to convection and endothermic decomposition reactions. Due to the endothermic effect, solid fuel gasification products absorb more heat than standard liquid fuels (TC-1, RT, JetA-1, JP-7, NORPAR), which provides an increase in the cooling efficiency of the afterburner 4. The intensity of heat removal from heated surfaces for the account of endothermic reactions depends on the magnitude of the thermal effect of the reaction, its speed and the temperature range of the process of afterburning of the products of thermal decomposition of the charge 3 of solid fuel. Next, part of the hydrogen-containing decomposition products having a temperature of more than 1000 K is supplied from the cooling duct 14 through the exhaust duct 18 through a guide device 19 with visors 20 in the direction of air flow from the air intake 1 into the afterburner 4 and partially along the wall 16, forming a wall layer. A near-wall layer with a low content of oxidizing elements provides a reduction in heat fluxes from the afterburner 4 and a decrease in the concentration of compounds causing chemical entrainment from the walls of the chamber 4. A guide device 19 with a visor 20 ensures a stable flow of some decomposition products of solid fuel components in the near-wall layer, which increases the length protected walls of the camera. Another part of the decomposition products enters the afterburner 4 through the fuel pylons 13 with nozzles, mixes with a high-speed, including supersonic, air flow. The resulting mixture ignites and burns in the afterburner 4 at high temperature, causing the walls of the chamber 16 to heat. The ignition of the hydrogen-containing mixture in the afterburner 4 is achieved by heating the air flow and decomposition products above the ignition temperature of the mixture. The combustion products, expanding, expire through the nozzle 5 with a one-way expansion into the atmosphere, creating a jet thrust.

This design does not lead to a significant increase in the total loss of the engine, but leads to good mixture preparation and stabilization of the flame front. The completeness of combustion also increases due to the influx of unsaturated hydrocarbons and high-temperature hydrogen into the air stream. In this case, the combustion time of the decomposition products of solid gasification products of solid fuel will be much shorter than in the case of direct supply of the primary gasification products to the afterburner, since the gasification products are heated to high temperature, the stages of evaporation and decomposition of the components of the fuel to the lower, including unsaturated hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The decomposition products have a high pressure, which gives a quick mixing of the hydrogen-containing components of the fuel with air and, therefore, increasing the completeness of combustion. In the proposed design, part of the kinetic energy of the air stream is converted into the chemical energy of the decomposition products of solid fuel, increasing the overall energy resource of the aircraft.

When the inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 is porous permeable, the decomposition products of the solid fuel components from the cooling path 14 pass through the permeable wall 16 into the afterburner 4 and the boundary layer is pushed from the wall 16 into the hot gas stream of the afterburner 4. Even supply of the decomposition products along the length of the chamber afterburning reduces heat fluxes into the chamber walls.

An option is possible to create a wall 16 with regenerative transpiration cooling. To do this, in the proposed ramjet engine (see Fig. 4), the inner wall 16 of the cooling path 14 is made of continuous heat-resistant material and two transverse porous permeable belts 21 located in the areas of the front and rear parts of the afterburner 4. Moreover, the outlet from the gas generator is connected by an inlet duct 17 with the beginning of the cooling path 14 and / or transverse permeable belts 21 through a three-way valve 22. When the engine is functioning, the decomposition products of solid fuel are supplied from the cooling path 14 to the afterburner 4 through The measuring device 19 and / or permeable belts 21. The necessary distribution of gas flows between the cooling path 14 and the permeable belts 21 is carried out by a three-way valve 22.

Such a system provides reliable cooling of the walls of the afterburner 4 and a high completeness of the afterburning of gasified solid fuel.

The gasdynamic and thermal calculations showed the efficiency of cooling the design of a ramjet engine with gasification products of solid fuel charge during decomposition. The calculations confirmed a decrease in the temperature of the upper wall of the afterburner by 300 degrees to a temperature of 2000K, which ensures a given engine life.

Claims (18)

1. A ramjet engine with a solid fuel containing an air intake, a gas generator with a charge of solid fuel, an afterburner and a supersonic jet nozzle, where the air intake and gas generator are hydraulically coupled to the nozzle through the afterburner, characterized in that the air intake is made in the form of a front part of the bottom the surface of the glider of the aircraft and has the shape of a spatial wedge, the afterburner is made in the form of channels of the flow path, which in cross section are directly angular shape, while the afterburner duct is formed by the upper and lower walls and a set of pairwise opposite vertical walls, where each channel is provided with at least one fuel pylon with nozzles at the inlet, the nozzle is made in the form of a stern of the lower surface of the airframe, the gas generator is made in a separate housing and mounted on an engine in a glider, the upper wall of the afterburning chamber on the side of the glider is created combined, has a cooling path with outer and inner walls, inlet and outlet flue ducts, where the outlet of the gas generator is connected by the inlet duct to the beginning of the cooling path of the afterburner in the nozzle start area, and the end of the cooling duct is connected to the beginning of the flow path of the afterburner by the outlet duct, and solid fuel is selected with an endothermic decomposition effect.
2. In-line solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the end of the cooling path is connected to the beginning of the flow path of the afterburning chamber by the exhaust gas duct by means of fuel pylons with nozzles and guiding devices with visors installed after the pylons at the entrance to each channel .
3. The ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal is introduced into the solid fuel in the form of a fine powder.
4. In-line solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of continuous heat-resistant material.
5. In-line solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling duct is made of solid heat-resistant material and two transverse porous permeable belts located in the areas of the front and rear parts of the afterburner, and the outlet from the gas generator connected by the inlet duct to the beginning of the cooling tract and transverse permeable belts through a three-way valve.
6. In-line solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling duct is made porous permeable.
7. The ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of composite materials with a carbon matrix.
8. The ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of a composite material with a ceramic matrix.
9. The direct-flow solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made on the basis of a deformed and diffusion sintered package of metal grids of heat-resistant material.
10. The ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of a catalytically active material based on copper (Cu).
11. The direct-flow solid-fuel jet engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of a catalytically active material based on nickel (Ni).
12. The ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of a catalytically active material based on platinum (Pt).
13. A ramjet engine for solid fuel according to claim 6, characterized in that the inner wall of the cooling path is made of a catalytically active material based on palladium (Pd).
14. The method of operation of a ramjet engine on solid fuel, which consists in the fact that an air stream is fed to the inlet of the afterburner through the air intake, then the products of gasification of solid fuel in the form of combustible gas are fed into the air stream to the afterburner from the gas generator in the chamber afterburning form a mixture of combustible gas and air, ignite the mixture due to the high temperature of the components of the mixture and burn it in the chamber, the combustion products of the mixture from the afterburning chamber are sent to the nozzle and create active draft, characterized in that the gasification products of solid fuel are supplied from the gas generator to the inlet of the afterburner through the inlet duct, the cooling path of the upper wall of the afterburner and the outlet duct, in the upper wall duct gasification products under the influence of high temperature, pressure and catalysts in the composition of the solid fuel decompose endothermally into lower hydrocarbons, including unsaturated ones, and hydrogen, which form a combustible gas, while due to the endothermic effect of the decomposition of gasification products solid fuels compensate for the heat flux from the afterburner to its upper wall, and the combustible gas enters from the cooling duct into the afterburner through the exhaust duct in the direction of the air flow in the chamber from the air intake.
15. The method of operation of a ramjet engine on a solid fuel according to claim 14, characterized in that the input of combustible gas into the afterburning chamber through an exhaust gas duct is carried out through guiding devices with visors and fuel pylons with nozzles, and a mixture of combustible gas and air is formed in fuel pylons.
16. The method of operation of a ramjet engine on solid fuel according to claim 14, characterized in that the heat exchange between the gasification products in the cooling path and the combustion products in the afterburner is carried out through a continuous inner wall of the cooling path.
17. The method of operation of a ramjet engine on solid fuel according to claim 14, characterized in that part of the gasification products of solid fuel is fed into the afterburner through the porous permeable inner wall of the cooling tract and the boundary layer of hot combustion products is pushed away from the afterburner chamber wall.
18. The method of operation of a ramjet engine on solid fuel according to claim 14, characterized in that part of the gasification products of solid fuel is fed into the afterburning chamber through the transverse porous permeable belts of the inner wall of the cooling tract and pushing the boundary layer of hot combustion products from the wall of the afterburning chamber in the zone of the belts.
RU2014128563/06A 2014-07-14 2014-07-14 Ramjet engine running on solid propellant and method of its operation RU2565131C1 (en)

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RU2627310C1 (en) * 2016-06-10 2017-08-07 Государственный научный центр Российской Федерации - федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Исследовательский Центр имени М.В. Келдыша" Ramjet engine with open-type gas generator and adjustable solid fuel flow
RU2660057C1 (en) * 2016-10-19 2018-07-04 Федеральное Государственное Унитарное Предприятие "Центральный научно-исследовательский институт черной металлургии им. И.П. Бардина" (ФГУП "ЦНИИчермет им. И.П. Бардина") Solid metallic fuel and method for ignition thereof
RU2682418C1 (en) * 2017-12-13 2019-03-19 Акционерное общество "Научно-производственное объединение "СПЛАВ" Missile with air-jet engine
CN109595076A (en) * 2019-01-14 2019-04-09 北京空天技术研究所 A kind of air intake duct protective cover
RU192758U1 (en) * 2019-03-04 2019-09-30 Открытое акционерное общество "Научно-исследовательское предприятие гиперзвуковых систем" (ОАО "НИПГС") Device for ignition and stabilization of supersonic combustion
RU2706870C1 (en) * 2019-02-25 2019-11-21 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Новые физические принципы" Air-jet detonation engine on solid fuel and method of its operation

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RU2627310C1 (en) * 2016-06-10 2017-08-07 Государственный научный центр Российской Федерации - федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Исследовательский Центр имени М.В. Келдыша" Ramjet engine with open-type gas generator and adjustable solid fuel flow
RU2660057C1 (en) * 2016-10-19 2018-07-04 Федеральное Государственное Унитарное Предприятие "Центральный научно-исследовательский институт черной металлургии им. И.П. Бардина" (ФГУП "ЦНИИчермет им. И.П. Бардина") Solid metallic fuel and method for ignition thereof
RU2682418C1 (en) * 2017-12-13 2019-03-19 Акционерное общество "Научно-производственное объединение "СПЛАВ" Missile with air-jet engine
CN109595076A (en) * 2019-01-14 2019-04-09 北京空天技术研究所 A kind of air intake duct protective cover
CN109595076B (en) * 2019-01-14 2020-03-17 北京空天技术研究所 Air inlet channel protective cover
RU2706870C1 (en) * 2019-02-25 2019-11-21 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Новые физические принципы" Air-jet detonation engine on solid fuel and method of its operation
RU192758U1 (en) * 2019-03-04 2019-09-30 Открытое акционерное общество "Научно-исследовательское предприятие гиперзвуковых систем" (ОАО "НИПГС") Device for ignition and stabilization of supersonic combustion

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