RU2549298C1 - Musical-acoustic complex for control over super augmented aircraft in test flight - Google Patents

Musical-acoustic complex for control over super augmented aircraft in test flight Download PDF

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RU2549298C1
RU2549298C1 RU2014106761/11A RU2014106761A RU2549298C1 RU 2549298 C1 RU2549298 C1 RU 2549298C1 RU 2014106761/11 A RU2014106761/11 A RU 2014106761/11A RU 2014106761 A RU2014106761 A RU 2014106761A RU 2549298 C1 RU2549298 C1 RU 2549298C1
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sound
parameters
unit
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musical
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Мария Бенедиктовна Меликова
Юрий Александрович Пронин
Екатерина Александровна Кудряшова
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Открытое акционерное общество "Лётно-исследовательский институт имени М.М. Громова"
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Abstract

FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: this complex comprises onboard system of flight parameters measurement, computer, input signal normalizing unit, tunable generator of audio codes, unit for selection and adjustment of input signal parameters and unit for harmonizing and auding of parameters. Said computer comprises ADC, sound code generator, load speaker or headphones. ADC, input signal normalizing unit and sound code generator are connected in series. Input signal normalizing unit is connected with for selection and adjustment of input signal parameters and unit for harmonizing and auding of parameters. Switch P1 is connected with sound code generator sound digital characteristics generator. Selection and adjustment unit is connected with adjustment unit panel. Harmonizing unit is connected via switch P2 with memory units with settings connected via switch P3 with the sound digital characteristics generator unit.
EFFECT: pilot info support with the help of musical interpretation of flight parameters.
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Description

The invention relates to aeronautical engineering, in particular, to a musical and acoustic monitoring complex for a highly automated aircraft in a test flight that gives the pilot sound signals, and is intended for evaluating by a test pilot the features of a highly automated aircraft based on sonification (sound conversion) of the “pilot-plane” interaction parameters with using the capabilities of auditory analysis of multidimensional data organized in the form of musical text.
The level of technology.
One of the results of flight automation is the transformation of the “pilot-plane” information interaction, which makes it difficult for the pilot to maintain an adequate “flight image”, including the depletion of the flow of non-instrumental signals — the absence of noise from operating systems, the smoothness of aircraft reactions due to automation, which impairs the pilot’s awareness of the maneuvers LA In addition, there is a problem of excessive congestion of the visual channel of the pilot with instrument information.
The prospects for improving the information support of the pilot in flight are associated with the sonification (scoring) of data. This scientific and technical direction, which methodologically took shape in the 1990s, is based on the psychophysiological and psychological laws of human auditory perception. Early examples of the practical implementation of non-speech sound indicators are Morse code, a Geiger counter, sonars (audio radars), and an audiothermometer.
The methodology of sonification (scoring) of data is used in the tasks of monitoring and analyzing the results of physical experiments, in the analysis of meteorological information and seismological processes, in monitoring physiological parameters, in improving the spatial orientation of people with low vision, in the financial sphere. Experiments with audio displays are carried out on board aircraft, including acoustic warning systems, dashboard elements sonification, primarily spatial audio displays (Spatial auditory display), the sounding of “events” of mechanical feedback when the pilot acts on the controls (turning on the system, moving the steering wheels and etc.).
The scientific reasons for introducing audio displays into the pilot’s information support system, along with the visual information display formats, are the following:
- the redistribution of part of the information flow to the auditory canal of a human operator can relieve the visual channel,
- duplication of information in the auditory and visual canals increases the likelihood of correct perception of information,
- sound attracts attention faster,
- the hearing is characterized by susceptibility to small changes in parameters; so, for example, a 0.2% fluctuation in the frequency of sound is detected by ear, the ear also distinguishes deviations in the time domain well (rhythm deformation, transient parameters when the pitch changes, determining the sound timbre);
- the hearing works constantly, that is, there are no breaks characteristic of visual perception (blinking, closed eyes, turning the head, etc.),
- auditory perception “brings” sounds of various nature from sources from all sides into a single sound stream;
- Musical hearing easily captures cycles, rhythms, structures (patterns), a complex correlation of parameters in the sound stream.
There are three main approaches to scoring multidimensional data in real time: 1) changing individual characteristics of the sound (playback) of the selected musical work (composition); 2) designing a complex sound object whose parameters (pitch, timbre, tempo, volume, etc.) correspond to the parameters of the data array; 3) a polyphonic representation of the relationship of parameters in dynamics, where each parameter is assigned a special timbre, and the range of parameter values is assigned to a certain pitch range.
The least developed in the methodology of sonification of multidimensional data is the aesthetic aspect (aspect of the musical interpretation of the sound stream). Currently, music sonification of data refers to several approaches to voicing information flows:
1) the use of musical (instrumental and synthesized) tones instead of pure tones (without timbre coloring);
2) the choice of a musical work and a change in its sound in accordance with the changed situation;
3) harmonization of the sound stream - in accordance with the rules of chord or polyphonic harmonization of melodies.
The urgency of the problem of musical sonification of data for auditory monitoring of processes in real time lies not only in the emotional response of a person to the lack of harmony in the acoustic environment, in rapid fatigue, but also in blocking the significant mechanisms of musical perception proper, which are responsible for identifying complex patterns and correlations of parameters.
A known method and system of acoustic feedback of the operation of an aircraft (Patent US7181020 B1 - Audio feedback regarding aircraft operation. Riley V.A. Honeywell International, Inc. Published date Feb. 20, 2007. Application date Aug 23, 2000). The system is designed to maintain situational awareness of pilots in highly automated cockpits, in which there is no sound information about the operation of on-board systems and about the actions of the automatic control system (ACS). As an example requiring feedback, an automatic traction device on an A-320 airplane is shown, in which the engine control lever remains stationary and the only indication that the automation sends signals to the engines is the engine speed indicator. The essence of the method consists in amplifying the sounds of deviating control wheels and mechanization means with the help of microphones installed on their surfaces, in turn, “events” that have no sound expression (for example, fuel movement) are represented by synthesized sounds. Acoustic signals are analyzed on the basis of the “psychoacoustic model” for tuning - choosing the pitch, stereo effect (right-left earphone), amplitude (volume) and spectral characteristics (low-pass and high-pass filter) of sound. The mixed sound is fed to the headphones or to the speaker input. The psychoacoustic model, which is the basis of the algorithms for analyzing acoustic parameters, describes the sensitivity of the ear to sounds of different frequencies, shows how close simultaneously the audible sounds can be located in frequency, allows you to determine whether a strong sound will mask a weaker sound at a specific difference in volume.
The main disadvantages of the aforementioned system of acoustic feedback of aircraft functioning is, firstly, the lack of sound equivalent to the operation of the control levers necessary for evaluating pilot-plane interaction schemes, and secondly, the problem of organizing sound flow in forms that are convenient for perception has not been solved, in particular, compounds amplified through microphones of natural sounds and synthesized sounds.
There is a well-known “audio horizon” system designed to facilitate the spatial orientation of the pilot and built on modulation of recording musical composition during playback (Douglas S. Brungart, Brian D. Simpson (2008). Design, validation, and in-flight evaluation of an auditory attitude indicator based on pilot-selected music / In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Auditory Display, Paris, France June 24-27, 2008), which was developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The musical composition from the disc was converted into a WAV file, which was supplemented with information about the pitch and roll of the aircraft during processing. The resulting file was played in stereo in test flight. The roll was indicated by the attenuation of the sound signal on one of the headphones - on the side from which the wing of the aircraft is understood. The amount of roll was associated with volume. The pitch value was displayed by amplification of the low-frequency component of the sound signal if the nose of the aircraft went down, and, conversely, the high-frequency component prevailed in the signal if the pitch was positive. The harmonic filter was tuned to 350 Hz and 2500 Hz, respectively.
The disadvantages of the proposed system are the limited acoustic display of the flight situation with the parameters of the angular position of the aircraft, as well as the conventionality (artificiality) of the dynamics of the voiced parameter, which requires memorization. The main limitation on the principles of the sonization of flight parameters in this system was the choice of a ready-made music fragment as the information carrier, the secondary playback parameters of which changed in accordance with the change in the value of a specific flight parameter.
A known system and method for musical sonification of financial data in real time (United States Patent 7135635. System and method for musical sonification of data parameters in a data stream. Childs, EP, Tomic, S. (Accentus, LLC). Publication date 11/14 / 2006. Date of application 04.07.2005). Under musical interpretation (musical rendering) of a sound stream here is meant, first of all, the use of a uniformly tempered scale of tones and midtones to convey significant changes in the controlled parameters. As one of the methods of harmonization, it is proposed to attach two notes to form a consonance with the pitch profile of the first parameter; their consonant sound in the form of a trill is the second parameter, the value of which is proportional to the frequency of variation of the second and third sound. The proposed method does not provide ways to ensure the harmonic sound of a multidimensional data array, is focused on the presentation of financial indicators that differ in dynamics from flight parameters, and uses “indirect” analogies between a parameter change and its sound equivalent, which requires special memorization.
As the closest analogue, method No. 2154596 C2 dated 08/20/2000 “Method for sound indication of pre-landing parameters of a seaplane or aircraft to ensure landing in conditions of poor visibility” was selected (Kalyuzhny GG Taganrog ANTK named after GM Beriev. 06/30/1998 ), which consists in issuing to the pilot a warning sound signal about a decrease in aircraft over the surface. When the aircraft drops below a predetermined threshold, the pilot is given sound signals reflecting the height value, and each altitude value is assigned its own combined sound code corresponding to the direction and magnitude of the vertical speed. The ability to receive in the conditions of poor visibility in the parameters of the movement of the aircraft, without interrupting the observation of the outside space. When the aircraft is reduced to a height of 15 m and below, a continuous indication of the heights is performed - a decrease in height leads to a reduction in the time intervals between time pulses and an increase in the frequency of the sound signal. When flying at a constant altitude in the altitude range from 0 to 15 m, sound signals are issued with the same time interval and at the same altitude.
The main disadvantages of the proposed method of sound indication of flight parameters, which is a kind of "spatial audio display", are, firstly, that only the parameters for reducing the aircraft are voiced, and secondly, there are no ways to provide musical sounding for the parameters. There is also a need to learn the “signal language” embedded in sound coding.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the safety and efficiency of control of a highly automated aircraft in a test flight by providing the pilot with the current values of the flight parameters in flight and determining the features of the operation of a highly automated aircraft based on the sounding of parameters determined by the rules for converting the magnitude of the input signal to its corresponding sound pitch, taking into account selected timbre of sound, providing musical sounding of the acoustic stream at the outputs ode of the complex, and additional sound information (which)
firstly, defining the rules for converting the magnitude of the input signal to its corresponding pitch, taking into account the selected timbre of sound, providing musical sounding of the acoustic stream at the output of the complex;
secondly, it does not use a set of conditional sound signals (such as Morse code), which requires memorization;
thirdly, it has a musical sound that allows one to identify complex patterns in voiced multidimensional data by ear.
The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in the musical-acoustic monitoring complex of a highly automated aircraft in a test flight that gives the pilot sound signals converted from the current values of the flight parameters, including an on-board measurement system having an input from the on-board measurement system, a computer containing an analog-to-digital converter unit (ADC), a sound code generator, a speaker or headphones, an input signal normalization unit, a custom sound generator Dov performing musical sonification (sound conversion) of the “pilot-plane” interaction parameters, for example, the pilot’s impact on the controls, the reaction of the aircraft in the form of deviation of the steering surfaces and other reaction of the aircraft in the form of changing the parameters of the aircraft’s movement, based on the principles of high-altitude coding of the input signal, made in the form of a customizable unit for the formation of digital characteristics of sounds connected to the sound card, as well as a unit for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of input signal parameters Catch, harmonization block scoring parameters. In this case, the ADC block, the normalization block of the input signals, the block of the generator of sound codes are connected in series. The second output of the normalization block of the input signals of the on-board measurements through a series-connected block for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of parameters, a unit for harmonizing the scoring of parameters, made with the ability to determine the rules for converting the magnitude of the input signal to its corresponding sound pitch, taking into account the selected timbre of sound, providing musical sound of the acoustic stream at the output of the complex, the switch P1 is connected to the second input of the block for the formation of digital sound characteristics of the sound generator postglacial codes. The input - the output of the selection and tuning block is connected to the panel of the tuner, the second output of the harmonization block through the P2 switch is connected to the settings memory block, connected through the P3 switch to the third input of the block for generating digital characteristics of sounds.
Description of the drawings.
Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a musical acoustic complex for test flights.
Figure 2 shows the composition of the front and side control panels of the unit for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of scoring parameters.
Figure 3 shows the composition of the upper control panel of the unit for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of scoring parameters.
The system contains:
A calculator 1 having an input from the on-board measurement system 2 and an output to headphones or a speaker 7, an ADC block 3, a normalization block for input parameters 4, which has an output to a block for generating digital sound characteristics 5 and a block for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of sounding parameters 8 with a control panel 10 ; customizable generator of sound codes 37, including a series-connected unit for generating digital sound characteristics 5 and a digital board 6, a unit for selecting and setting characteristics for sounding parameters 8, connected through a unit for harmonizing the sound parameters 9, switch P1 (11), with the second input of the unit for generating digital characteristics 5, switch P2 (13) and the button for returning to the settings 14 stored in the memory unit 12 are connected through switch P3 to the harmonization unit and to the third input of the forming unit i digital sound characteristics 5.
The left side panel of the housing 29 (see figure 2) contains connectors 30 for data input from the on-board measurement system (SBI).
The right panel of the housing 16 (figure 2) has an output to the speaker (headphones) 15, as well as a restore button 14.
The front panel of the body (figure 2) includes a means of indication and regulation, used in the tuning mode of the musical-acoustic complex both before flight and in flight. If there is no need to set up the complex in flight, the front control panel, with the exception of the power button 28, is covered by a hinged cover 23. On the front panel 24 there are: the power button 28 of the complex, the indicator number of adjustable parameter 26, the indicator of the current frequency of the voiced parameter 27, the voice button 22 adjusting the frequency of the sounding tone (pitch) 25, the button for simultaneous scoring of the ensemble of parameters 21; buttons 19 for selecting the position of "reference points" T1 and T2 for analysis, indicators for finding the setting mode at the "reference point" 20; means of adjusting the initial settings in flight - a lever for adjusting the sound altitude range (HVA) 18 of the parameter sonication and a lever for adjusting the register of the altitude range 17.
The upper control panel of the tuner (figure 3) is used in the pre-flight setup of the complex; in flight conditions, the upper panel closes according to the principle of a laptop - the display 31 lowers, closing the typing field of the control panel. The type-setting field of the upper control panel of the tuner includes: lamp buttons 32 for selecting input parameters (“on”, “off”, “tuning” modes with flashing indication), a keyboard 36 for selecting a tone number with a data input key to the system 35, a button listening to the selected sound tone 33, button for storing settings 3.
There are three main modes of operation of the complex.
1. The pre-flight tuning mode, performed by an expert (musician) together with the pilot according to the recording of test modes. 2. The mode of musical-acoustic control of the aircraft in flight, using the specified settings. 3. The mode of correction of the initial settings in flight, performed by the pilot.
In the setup mode of the complex, the following approach was used to musical sonification of the dynamics of the interaction parameters “pilot-plane”.
The principle of sonic coding is chosen as the main principle of sonification - the correspondence of a change in pitch (tone frequency) to a change in the value of the input signal.
The musical quality of the sounding of the parameters is given by the presence of a timbre in the sound (instead of a pure tone of a certain height), by the harmonization of the voiced parameters.
The result of harmonization is the establishment of harmonious harmonies at the “reference points”.
In contrast to melody harmonization tasks encountered in musical practice, when sonicizing multidimensional data dynamics, it is necessary to harmonize “melody matrices” - they specify the proportions of the change in parameter values, as well as the temporal characteristics of these changes (rhythmic pattern).
Means of harmonization of the "matrix of melodies."
Means of harmonization are limited by the selection of the following characteristics of sonification:
- control of the sound altitude range (HVR) of the sound of the parameter, measured in the number of half tones (compression-tension),
- control of the HVR register - the positions of this range on a full-scale audio scale (frequency of the lower and upper bounds of the HVR). For example, the full scale of sonification is 5 octaves, ZVD = 1 octave (12 semitones), on the full scale of frequencies, the ZVD can be located from the note я of a small octave to Л from the first octave, or from the note To the second octave to Till the third octave.
In addition, to improve the sound quality, including the intelligibility of individual “voices” (voiced parameters) in the sound stream, a timbre is selected from standard libraries of digital sound samples or a set of designed sound objects (sound design).
Selection of “reference points” for harmonization. In music, harmonization (harmonization of simultaneously sounding notes in height) occurs, as a rule, in strong metric proportions. Strong (percussion) parts in the melody of one “voice” (voiced parameter) are usually distinguished by the duration of the note, the strength of the sound, as well as a jump in the melody - a large interval between two adjacent notes.
In flight records, sections are selected where a coordinated change of all parameters selected for sonification takes place. We assume that the pilot’s actions determine the “main melody”, then the equivalents of the “reference points” are the maximum deviations of the main controls - for example, the deviation of the airplane control lever (RUS) in pitch to and from itself when entering and leaving the climb mode .
Musical-acoustic complex works as follows.
In pre-flight tuning mode:
A list of test maneuvers is being formed with a coordinated change in the given groups of “pilot-plane” interaction parameters. For example, a maneuver that requires work with the aircraft control lever ((RUS) in roll and pitch, pedals and engine control lever (ORE).
The flight is carried out according to the program. Flight data is downloaded from the on-board measurement system to stand-alone media.
The musical-acoustic complex is connected to the SBI on board the flying laboratory, or an external medium with SBI records is inserted into the connector 15 on the left side panel 16 (Fig. 2) of the complex.
Using the elements of the upper control panel (Fig. 3) of tuner 8, the expert selects the voiced parameters and assigns a tone to them.
Data is fed through the ADC 3 (Fig. 1) to the normalization block 4 (Fig. 1), where each signal is converted to a value corresponding to the percentage value of the range of this parameter.
The “melody matrix” obtained from the normalization block consists of the dynamics of the coordinated change of parameters; it is first voiced based on the coefficient of direct (“non-musical”) conversion (PPC) of the value of the input signal to the sound frequency. The gearbox is obtained from the correspondence of 100% of the parameter range to the full frequency scale of sonification, for example, from 440 Hz to 15000 Hz.
For the parameter - p n the direct conversion coefficient (PPC) and the current value of the sound frequency f n are calculated:
Figure 00000001
where U n is the normalized (as a percentage of the range of values) current value of the parameter p n , ΔU nset is the minimum significant change in the parameter p n , F max and F min are the maximum and minimum frequency values at full frequency on the sonification scale.
Figure 00000002
.
To carry out the first cycle of sonification of the information flow with the PPC coefficient, the harmonization unit 9 sends the first PPC coefficient and the timbre number for all selected parameters to the digital sound characteristics generation unit 5. Based on the digital sound characteristics generation unit 5 “deploys” a “melody matrix” for each parameter p n by the formula (2).
The obtained digital characteristic of the ensemble of sounds corresponding to the selected parameters is processed by the sound card 6, and the result in the form of an acoustic stream is output to the headphones 7.
The expert listens to the recorded recording by pressing the on-off buttons 19 (Fig. 2) on the front control panel to scroll through the recording, then, on the display 31 on the upper control panel (Fig. 3) of the tuner, stops the mark at the first “reference point” T1 with the upper button 19 on the front control panel 24.
Using the sound frequency control 25 (Fig. 2) on the front control panel, the expert, one by one, agrees the chord sound in T1, switching the corresponding parameters to the setting mode with the lamp buttons 32 on the upper control panel (Fig. 3). Upon reaching the result, the memory button 34 on the upper control panel is pressed (Fig. 3). The tuning result (harmonious ratio of the frequencies of the sounds) is sent to the harmonization block of the sound stream 9, where, according to a similar formula (2), the coefficient of direct conversion of the signal magnitude is converted (CAT 1 ). Based on the recalculated coefficient KPP1, a second cycle of sonification is performed. To do this, the coefficient of KPP1 comes in the block for the formation of digital characteristics of sound 5 (Fig. 1) and through the sound card 6 comes in headphones 7.
The expert harmonizes the voiced parameters in the second “reference point” T2 in the same order described above.
The ratio of the frequencies of the voiced parameters at points T1 and T2 is analyzed in the harmonization unit 9. The weight coefficient of the semitone ΔU Nn is calculated - the amount of change in the input parameter, which should cause an increase in sound by a semitone. The lower f nmin and the upper f nmax frequency limits are determined for scoring each parameter p n .
The calculation results come from the harmonization unit 9 to the unit for generating the digital characteristics of sound 5. There, the values ΔU Nn , f nmin are used in the formula for converting the "matrix of melodies" coming from the normalization block of input signals 4:
Figure 00000003
where
Figure 00000004
, a Un (ti) and Un min is the current and minimum value of the parameter p n .
Formula (3) is derived from the empirical fact that when the tone is increased by an octave (12 semitones), the frequency of sound doubles (Porvenkov VG Acoustics and tuning musical instruments. M., 1990.)
In a test flight, the pilot can take advantage of the obtained settings for auditory control of the aircraft (detecting changes in the reaction of the aircraft, especially the operation of automation in various modes, etc.). Control panels are closed by the pilot.
Before the flight, the musical-acoustic complex is connected to the on-board measurement system. In flight, the pilot turns on the complex with the button 28 (Fig. 2) and then works with the control panels of the tuner closed.
In the correction mode of the specified settings, the sonification of interaction parameters before the flight, the pilot opens the upper control panel selects the parameter for correction using the upper control panel of the tuner (Fig. 3), closes the upper panel, opens the cover 23 of the front control panel 24 of the tuner.
During the flight, the pilot adjusts the sound range (VVD) of the sound of the selected parameter (narrows, expands), shifts the VVD to another register (higher, lower), using buttons 18 and 17 on the front control panel 24, respectively. To return to the preset settings, the pilot presses the button 14 on the right side control panel of the tuner.
Musical-acoustic complex is an element of information support for test flights; it can be used as a means of post-flight analysis, allowing you to compare various control objects. The general purpose of the complex is to maintain a “flight image” when controlling a highly automated aircraft, attracting the attention of the pilot to the features of the aircraft’s functioning, including the contribution of automation to the pilot’s perceived response to the control action and the relationship of flight parameters.
The proposed musical and acoustic complex can also serve as a research stand for the formation of principles for the sonization of flight parameters and the creation of the musical interface of the information and control system of promising aircraft that solves the problem of automatic musical interpretation (harmonization) of the acoustic information stream based on the knowledge model of the composer (arranger), including the possibility of accounting individual musical preferences of the pilots.

Claims (1)

  1. Musical-acoustic control complex of a highly automated aircraft in a test flight, giving the pilot sound signals converted from the current values of the flight parameters, including an on-board measurement system, an input from the on-board measurement system, a computer containing an ADC unit, a sound code generator, a speaker or headphones, which differs by the fact that an input signal normalization unit, a customizable sound code generator that performs musical sonification (sound transformation) of the “pilot-plane” interaction parameters based on the principles of high-altitude coding of the input signal, made in the form of a custom block for generating digital characteristics of sounds connected to the sound card, as well as a block for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of the parameters of the input signals, a unit for harmonizing the sound of parameters, wherein the ADC block, the input signal normalization block, the sound code generator block are connected in series, the second output of the input signal normalization block on-board measurements through a series-connected unit for selecting and adjusting the characteristics of parameters, a unit for harmonizing the sounding of parameters, made with the ability to determine the rules for converting the magnitude of the input signal to its corresponding sound pitch, taking into account the selected timbre of sound, providing musical sound of the acoustic stream at the output of the complex, switch P1 is connected to the second input of the block for generating digital characteristics of sound of the sound code generator, and the input-output of the selection and tuning block connected to the panel of the tuner, the second output of the harmonization block through the P2 switch is connected to the settings memory block, connected through the P3 switch to the third input of the block for generating digital characteristics of sounds.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106741989A (en) * 2016-12-27 2017-05-31 哈尔滨飞机工业集团有限责任公司 A kind of Wing Newsletter encodes injection device

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RU2007110764A (en) * 2007-03-13 2008-09-27 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов (RU) Acoustic system (options)

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2007110764A (en) * 2007-03-13 2008-09-27 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов (RU) Acoustic system (options)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106741989A (en) * 2016-12-27 2017-05-31 哈尔滨飞机工业集团有限责任公司 A kind of Wing Newsletter encodes injection device
CN106741989B (en) * 2016-12-27 2019-11-15 哈尔滨飞机工业集团有限责任公司 A kind of Wing Newsletter coding injection device

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